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Brandi R Newsome, Karen McDonnell, Jennifer Hucks, Robin Dawson Estrada
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common smoking-related illness. COPD often is underemphasized as a comorbidity except when considering issues surrounding surgical treatment options. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to provide nurses with an overview of the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment implications of COPD. METHODS: Definitions, differentials, and treatment considerations are provided, and clinical implications and resources are described...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Kim A Brogden, Deepak Parashar, Andrea R Hallier, Terry Braun, Fang Qian, Naiyer A Rizvi, Aaron D Bossler, Mohammed M Milhem, Timothy A Chan, Taher Abbasi, Shireen Vali
BACKGROUND: Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a co-stimulatory and immune checkpoint protein. PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) is a hallmark of adaptive resistance and its expression is often used to predict the outcome of Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) and PD-L1 immunotherapy treatments. However, clinical benefits do not occur in all patients and new approaches are needed to assist in selecting patients for PD-1 or PD-L1 immunotherapies. Here, we hypothesized that patient tumor cell genomics influenced cell signaling and expression of PD-L1, chemokines, and immunosuppressive molecules and these profiles could be used to predict patient clinical responses...
February 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
Qi Jiang, Mixue Xie, Mengye He, Feifei Yan, Xiaochen Zhang, Sufen Yu
Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies have been proved one of the most promising treatments against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, whether anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies can provide added benefits for pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC and which patients are most likely to benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy remain controversial. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety between anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and docetaxel in previously treated, advanced NSCLC. PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched for eligible studies...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Yuya Umebayashi, Hiroyuki Fukunari, Yosuke Kawai, Makoto Aoki, Akemi Watanabe, Toshifumi Saito, Kenji Shitara, Tetsuji Hayashi, Ken Nishikura, Gen Watanabe, Yoichi Ajioka
The patient was a 78-year-old man with resection of distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer with simultaneous multiple lung metastasis. They were papillary and tubular adenocarcinoma, Pt, TS3, infiltrative type, ly0, v0, pT3, CH0, DU0, S1, RP1, PV0, A1(Asp), PL0, OO0 and pN0, M1(PUL), pStage IV. He was received gemcitabine after the surgery. S-1 was added because of lung metastasis progression. Chemotherapy was continued for about 10 years from resection, and intra-abdominal recurrence was not observed and good performance status was maintained...
February 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Fatih Başçiftçi, Emre Avuçlu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A Medical Expert System (MES) was developed which uses Reduced Rule Base to diagnose cancer risk according to the symptoms in an individual. A total of 13 symptoms were used. With the new MES, the reduced rules are controlled instead of all possibilities (213 = 8192 different possibilities occur). By controlling reduced rules, results are found more quickly. The method of two-level simplification of Boolean functions was used to obtain Reduced Rule Base. Thanks to the developed application with the number of dynamic inputs and outputs on different platforms, anyone can easily test their own cancer easily...
April 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Chaturbhuj R Agrawal, Pankaj Goyal, Dinesh Chandra Doval, Kumardeep Dutta, Kshitij Domadia, Silky Kothiwal
Evolution of targeted therapy has changed the spectrum of treatment in oncology since the past two decades as lots of newer agents are being added to the pharmacologic armamentarium of cancer therapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors form one such advancing field with many newer agents being investigated and they are used in wide variety of malignancies such as head and neck cancer, lung cancer, and even gastrointestinal malignancies such as pancreatic cancer. Various troublesome side effects of these agents include diarrhea, severe fatigability, severe skin rashes, and deranged liver function tests which may require treatment interruption or dose reduction resulting in decreased response to treatment...
January 2018: International Journal of Trichology
Shi-Lung Lin
Pluripotent stem cells are a resourceful treasure box for regenerative medicine. They contain a large variety of novel materials useful for designing and developing new medicines and therapies directed against many aging-associated degenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, diabetes, osteoporosis, and cancers. Currently, identification of these novel stem cell-specific materials is one of major breakthroughs in the field of stem cell research. Particularly, since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in year 2006, the methods of iPSC derivation further provide an unlimited resource for screening, isolating, and even producing theses novel stem cell-specific materials in vitro...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rens van de Goor, Michel van Hooren, Anne-Marie Dingemans, Bernd Kremer, Kenneth Kross
INTRODUCTION: Profiling volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath enables the diagnosis of several types of cancer. In this study we investigated if a portable point-of-care version of an electronic nose (Aeonose™) is able to discriminate between lung-cancer patients and healthy controls, based on their volatile organic compound pattern. METHODS: In this study, we used five e-nose devices to collect breath samples from lung-cancer patients and healthy controls...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Jessica D Lang, William P D Hendricks
Cancer is a complex genetic disease that can arise through the stepwise accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a variety of different tissues. While the varied landscapes of mutations driving common cancer types such as lung, breast, and colorectal cancer have been comprehensively charted, the genetic underpinnings of many rare cancers remain poorly defined. Study of rare cancers faces unique methodological challenges, but collaborative enterprises that incorporate next generation sequencing, reach across disciplines (i...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiaoting Jin, Ruijun Su, Ruijin Li, Long Cheng, Zhuoyu Li
Fine particulate matter exposure may cause health risk, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC), a typical model for evaluating pollutant toxicity, has been closely linked to these diseases, due to its characteristics of differentiation. We therefore studied the BMSCs differentiation and its roles in inflammatory activation in the respiratory tract upon PM2.5 exposure using both in vitro and in vivo models. BMSCs differentiation into endothelial-like cells (ELCs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts cells (CAFs) was enhanced in response to conditioned medium from PM2...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Jia Li, Changli Zhou, Wanqi Liu, Xun Sun, Xiangwei Meng
RATIONALE: The synchronous occurrence of lung cancer in patients with gastric neoplasms is relatively uncommon, especially the cases of synchronous coexistence of small cell lung carcinoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the stomach. PATIENT CONCERNS: We encountered a case of synchronous primary small cell lung carcinoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the stomach. A 63-year-old patient with a 7.5 × 5.09 cm mass in the superior lobe of the right lung diagnosed with small cell lung cancer and synchronous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the stomach...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ying-Chieh Su, Han Chang, Shih-Jung Sun, ChengYi Liao, Ling-Yi Wang, Jiunn-Lang Ko, Jinghua Tsai Chang
CX3CL1 is a unique chemokine, expressed in both soluble and membrane bound forms, which mediates different biological activities. Recent studies have revealed the potential of CX3CL1 signaling pathway as a target for the treatment of inflammation and cancer. The correlation between expression of CX3CL1 and prognosis of patients varies among cancers. In this study, based on CX3CL1 immunohistochemistry in non-small cell lung cancer, CX3CL1 levels were positively associated with cancer stage (Pearson chi-square, p = 0...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Young Jae Kim, Seung Hyun Lee, Kun Young Lim, Kwang Gi Kim
The set of criteria called Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) is used to evaluate the remedial effects of lung cancer, whereby the size of a lesion can be measured in one dimension (diameter). Volumetric evaluation is desirable for estimating the size of a lesion accurately, but there are several constraints and limitations to calculating the volume in clinical trials. In this study, we developed a method to detect lesions automatically, with minimal intervention by the user, and calculate their volume...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Ahruem Baek, Yu Mi Baek, Hyung-Mo Kim, Bong-Hyun Jun, Dong-Eun Kim
Graphene oxide (GO) is known to strongly bind single-stranded nucleic acids with fluorescence quenching near the GO surface. However, GO exhibits weak biocompatibility characteristics, such as low solubility in cell culture media and significant cytotoxicity. To improve solubility in cell culture media and cell viability of GO, we prepared nano-sized GO (nGO) constructs and modified the nGO surface using polyethylene glycol (PEG-nGO). Single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (PNA) was adsorbed onto the PEG-nGO and was readily desorbed by adding complementary RNA or under low pH conditions...
January 27, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Peter J Mazzone, Gerard A Silvestri, Sheena Patel, Jeffrey P Kanne, Linda S Kinsinger, Renda Soylemez Wiener, Guy Soo Hoo, Frank C Detterbeck
BACKGROUND: Low-dose chest CT screening for lung cancer has become a standard of care in the United States in the past few years, in large part due to the results of the National Lung Screening Trial. The benefit and harms of low-dose chest CT screening differ in both frequency and magnitude. The translation of a favorable balance of benefit and harms into practice can be difficult. Here, we update the evidence base for the benefit, harms, and implementation of low radiation dose chest CT screening...
January 24, 2018: Chest
Peter J Mazzone, Xiao-Feng Wang, Xiaozhen Han, Humberto Choi, Meredith Seeley, Richard Scherer, Victoria Doseeva
Background: A panel of 3 serum proteins and 1 autoantibody has been developed to assist with the detection of lung cancer. We aimed to validate the accuracy of the biomarker panel in an independent test set and explore the impact of adding a fourth serum protein to the panel, as well as the impact of combining molecular and clinical variables. Methods: The training set of serum samples was purchased from commercially available biorepositories. The testing set was from a biorepository at the Cleveland Clinic...
2018: Biomarker Insights
May N Tsao, Wei Xu, Rebecca Ks Wong, Nancy Lloyd, Normand Laperriere, Arjun Sahgal, Eileen Rakovitch, Edward Chow
BACKGROUND: This is an update to the review published in the Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 4).It is estimated that 20% to 40% of people with cancer will develop brain metastases during the course of their illness. The burden of brain metastases impacts quality and length of survival. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) given alone or in combination with other therapies to adults with newly diagnosed multiple brain metastases...
January 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anisha Dubey, Laura Izakelian, Ehab A Ayaub, Lilian Ho, Kyle Stephenson, Steven Wong, Karen Kwofie, Richard C Austin, Fernando Botelho, Kjetil Ask, Carl D Richards
Arginase-1 (Arg-1)-expressing M2-like macrophages are associated with Th2-skewed immune responses, allergic airway pathology, ectopic B16 melanoma cancer growth in murine models, and can be induced by Oncostatin M (OSM) transient overexpression in vivo. Here, we compare OSM to the gp130-cytokine IL-6 in mediating macrophage polarization, and find that IL-6 overexpression alone (Ad vector, AdIL-6) did not induce Arg-1 protein in mouse lungs at day 7, nor ectopic melanoma tumor growth at day 14, in contrast to overexpression of OSM (AdOSM)...
November 27, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
Ayman Elbadawi, Islam Y Elgendy, Le Dung Ha, Basarat Baig, Marwan Saad, Hussain Adly, Gbolahan O Ogunbayo, Odunayo Olorunfemi, Matthew S Mckillop, Scott A Maffett
Limited data are available regarding the impact of cancer on cerebrovascular accidents in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Survey Database to identify patients who have diagnostic code for AF. We performed a 1:1 propensity matching based on the CHA2DS2VASc score and other risk factors between patients with AF who had lung, breast, colon, and esophageal cancer, and those who did not (control). The final cohort included a total of 31,604 patients. The primary outcome of in-hospital cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) was lower in the cancer group than in the control group (4% vs 7%, p < 0...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
Christopher R Bodle, Josephine H Schamp, Joseph B O'Brien, Michael P Hayes, Meng Wu, Jonathan A Doorn, David L Roman
Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins temporally regulate heterotrimeric G protein signaling cascades elicited by G protein-coupled receptor activation and thus are essential for cell homeostasis. The dysregulation of RGS protein expression has been linked to several pathologies, spurring discovery efforts to identify small-molecule inhibitors of these proteins. Presented here are the results of a high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign targeting RGS17, an RGS protein reported to be inappropriately upregulated in several cancers...
January 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
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