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Jill Waalen
Osteoporosis represents a weakening of bone tissue due to an imbalance in the dynamic processes of bone formation and bone resorption that are continually ongoing within bone tissue. Most currently available osteoporosis therapies are antiresorptive agents. Over the past decade, bisphosphonates, notably alendronate and risedronate, have become the dominant agents with newer bisphosphonates such as ibandronate and zoledronic acid following a trend of less frequent dosing regimens. Synthetic estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) continue to be developed as drugs that maintain the bone-protective effects of estrogen while avoiding its associated adverse side effects...
2010: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
Daniel Boivin, Julie Barrette
Soon, physicians across Canada will be permitted to assist patients in dying, provided certain conditions are met. Physicians in the province of Quebec can already provide this service since December 10, 2015. While Quebec has been studying the question of legislating medical aid in dying since 2009, the rest of the country must come up with legislation on this issue within the next few months. This article suggests that other Canadian jurisdictions, federally and provincially/territorially, may find inspiration in the extensive work done in Quebec leading to its end-of-life legislation, including on the issues of identifying proper safeguards to protect vulnerable people and eligibility criteria that could be put in place in these jurisdictions...
February 2016: Health Law in Canada
Andrea Poscia, Emanuela Maria Frisicale, Paolo Parente, Chiara de Waure, Daniele Ignazio La Milia, Maria Luisa Di Pietro
BACKGROUND: Students' ability of learning is influenced by study habits. Among these, the use of technologies has assumed a controversial role. The aim of this paper is to analyse studying approach, the use of technologies and how they affect study habits in a population of university students addressed by the "Sportello Salute Giovani" ("Youth Health Information Desk") questionnaire. METHODS: 16 questions referred to the approach to studying and the use of technologies (number 77-93) were analyzed...
2015: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Derek Magee, Yi Song, Stephen Gilbert, Nicholas Roberts, Nagitha Wijayathunga, Ruth Wilcox, Andrew Bulpitt, Darren Treanor
Light microscopy applied to the domain of histopathology has traditionally been a two-dimensional imaging modality. Several authors, including the authors of this work, have extended the use of digital microscopy to three dimensions by stacking digital images of serial sections using image-based registration. In this paper, we give an overview of our approach, and of extensions to the approach to register multi-modal data sets such as sets of interleaved histopathology sections with different stains, and sets of histopathology images to radiology volumes with very different appearance...
2015: Journal of Pathology Informatics
Marjorie C Johnston, Terry Porteous, Michael A Crilly, Christopher D Burton, Alison Elliott, Lisa Iversen, Karen McArdle, Alison Murray, Louise H Phillips, Corri Black
BACKGROUND: Findings from physical disease resilience research may be used to develop approaches to reduce the burden of disease. However, there is no consensus on the definition and measurement of resilience in the context of physical disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to summarize the range of definitions of physical disease resilience and the approaches taken to study it in studies examining physical disease and its relationship to resilient outcomes. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from inception to March 2013 for studies in which physical disease was assessed for its association with resilient outcomes...
March 2015: Psychosomatics
Kristin Van Heertum, Larry Barmat
In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the contributory role of uterine fibroids to infertility. The prevalence of these tumors increases with age, which becomes significant as more women are delaying childbearing. Therefore, fibroids and infertility frequently occur together. Treatment varies with fibroid location and size. The various methods of treatment include open myomectomy, laparoscopic or robot-assisted myomectomy, medical treatment, uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery...
November 2014: Women's Health
Smita Raghuvanshi, Kamla Pathak
Low solubility causing low dissolution in gastrointestinal tract is the major problem for drugs meant for systemic action after oral administration, like cinnarizine. Pharmaceutical products of cinnarizine are commercialized globally as immediate release preparations presenting low absorption with low and erratic bioavailability. Approaches to enhance bioavailability are widely cited in the literature. An attempt has been made to review the bioavailability complications and clinical therapeutics of poorly water soluble drug: cinnarizine...
2014: Journal of Drug Delivery
Vinit Sawhney, Adam Graham, Niall Campbell, Richard Schilling
BACKGROUND: It is critical that clinical trial researchers ensure efficient and successful patient recruitment. Recruitment is often slower than expected and required sample sizes not obtained within initial funding deadlines. There is little rigorous evidence supporting ways to improve recruitment. We hypothesized making telephone contact with subjects prior to hospital attendance would improve recruitment rates into clinical trials. METHODS: Retrospective post hoc analysis of recruitment rates in an on-going clinical trial was undertaken...
October 2014: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Dong Chen, Maria M Santore
Decades of study have probed phase transitions in model phospholipid bilayers and vesicles, especially in the context of the equilibrium phase diagram. Critical to the response of vesicles to environmental triggers, to the ultimate domain morphology, and to the approach to equilibrium (or not), we present here a study of domain formation in vesicles, focusing on a mechanism by which the cooling rate, tension, and composition affect the first appearance (nucleation) and subsequent growth of solid membrane domains...
August 12, 2014: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Giampaolo Papi, Salvatore Maria Corsello, Alfredo Pontecorvi
OBJECTIVE: Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland which are so severe that require admission to intensive care units (ICU) frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including therapeutic strategy flow-charts...
2014: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Julian Malicki, Wojciech Golusinski
The increasing worldwide burden of cancer makes it imperative that every country develop a comprehensive cancer control programme. In the past, cancer control in Central and Eastern Europe was inadequate, particularly when compared to many wealthier Western European countries. We analyse interregional differences in Europe to the approach to comprehensive cancer care, with a focus on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using the case of Poland as a representative example. Due to national plans major improvements have been achieved in the field of prevention and in radiotherapy delivery having a measurable and positive impact on treatment outcomes...
September 2014: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Wei Liu, Jianfa Zhang, Bing Lei, Haotong Ma, Wenke Xie, Haojun Hu
We study the angular scattering properties of individual core-shell nanoparticles that support simultaneously both electric and optically-induced magnetic resonances of different orders. In contrast to the approach to suppress the backward scattering and enhance the forward scattering relying on overlapping electric and magnetic dipoles, we reveal that the directionality of the forward scattering can be further improved through the interferences of higher order electric and magnetic modes. Since the major contributing electric and magnetic responses can be tuned to close magnitudes, ultra-directional forward scattering can be achieved by single nanoparticles without compromising the feature of backward scattering suppression, which may offer new opportunities for nanoantennas, photovoltaic devices, bio-sensing and many other interdisciplinary researches...
June 30, 2014: Optics Express
Laura J Esserman, Ian M Thompson, Brian Reid, Peter Nelson, David F Ransohoff, H Gilbert Welch, Shelley Hwang, Donald A Berry, Kenneth W Kinzler, William C Black, Mina Bissell, Howard Parnes, Sudhir Srivastava
A vast range of disorders--from indolent to fast-growing lesions--are labelled as cancer. Therefore, we believe that several changes should be made to the approach to cancer screening and care, such as use of new terminology for indolent and precancerous disorders. We propose the term indolent lesion of epithelial origin, or IDLE, for those lesions (currently labelled as cancers) and their precursors that are unlikely to cause harm if they are left untreated. Furthermore, precursors of cancer or high-risk disorders should not have the term cancer in them...
May 2014: Lancet Oncology
Heike Gnann, Annette Thierauf, Friedemann Hagenbuch, Bernhard Röhr, Wolfgang Weinmann
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a direct marker of alcohol consumption, which has been known for almost 30 years. Each PEth molecule carries 2 fatty acids, which differ in chain length and degree of unsaturation. It is formed by means of phospholipase D in the presence of ethanol. Usually, this marker was used by quantification of the PEth homologue 16:0/18:1. The intention of this work was to get more information about the distribution and the quantity of the different PEth homologues...
February 2014: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Adam L Sturlaugson, Aaron Y Arima, Heather E Bailey, Michael D Fayer
In a previous study of room temperature ionic liquid/water mixtures, the first clearly observed biexponential decays in optical heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) experiments on a liquid were reported, (Sturlaugson, A. L.; Fruchey, K. S.; Fayer, M. D. J. Phys. Chem. B 2012, 116, 1777), and it was suggested that the biexponential behavior is indicative of the approach to gelation. Here, new OHD-OKE experiments on mixtures of the room temperature ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride (OmimCl) with water are presented...
November 27, 2013: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Simon Shorvon
The evolution of the treatment of convulsive status epilepticus since the mid- nineteenth century is outlined. Therapy has been advanced not only by the use of new drugs, but also by advances in the approach to therapy. The major pharmacologic developments were the introductions of bromide, anesthetics, barbiturate, phenytoin, paraldehyde, chlormethiazole, and the benzodiazepines. Throughout this period, the emphasis of therapy was on "sedation" and anesthesia, and the development of technologies for safe anesthesia in the postwar years were an important step...
September 2013: Epilepsia
Adam Hassani, Clive Griffith, James Harvey
INTRODUCTION: Optimal margins for wide local excision (WLE) have not been clearly established. Larger margins lead to lower recurrence rates but at the expense of cosmetic appearance. NICE guidelines recommend a 2 mm margin for ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS), whilst the British Association of Surgical Oncology (BASO) recommend units develop local guidelines. There are presently no specific guidelines for invasive cancer. We surveyed members of the Association of Breast Surgeons (ABS) in order to establish current practice nationally...
October 2013: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and demand in Ontario for catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias guided by advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping systems. Particular attention was paid to ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). CLINICAL NEED: Tachycardia Tachycardia refers to a diverse group of arrhythmias characterized by heart rates that are greater than 100 beats per minute. It results from abnormal firing of electrical impulses from heart tissues or abnormal electrical pathways in the heart because of scars...
2006: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
Roukoz Chamoun, Masayoshi Takashima, Daniel Yoshor
OBJECTIVE: With the increasing use of the endoscope in neurosurgery, transsphenoidal surgery has undergone a considerable technical evolution. However, most recently reported advances relate to the approach to the sella turcica or to extended transsphenoidal approaches, whereas the dissection technique for pituitary tumor removal itself has received more limited attention. A notable exception is Oldfield's elegant description of an extracapsular dissection of functional pituitary microadenomas...
January 2014: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
T M Rice, Kai-Yu Yang, F C Zhang
The theoretical description of the anomalous properties of the pseudogap phase in the underdoped region of the cuprate phase diagram lags behind the progress in spectroscopic and other experiments. A phenomenological ansatz, based on analogies to the approach to Mott localization at weak coupling in lower dimensional systems, has been proposed by Yang et al (2006 Phys. Rev. B 73 174501). This ansatz has had success in describing a range of experiments. The motivation underlying this ansatz is described and the comparisons with experiment are reviewed...
January 2012: Reports on Progress in Physics
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