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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235166/the-south-african-universal-preschool-year-a-case-study-of-policy-development-and-implementation
#1
L Richter, M-L Samuels
BACKGROUND: South Africa is the first sub-Saharan African country to legislate, fund and implement free preschool education. Human rights and restitution were at the forefront of the political struggle for democracy in South Africa. Levelling the playing fields by improving the school readiness of children disadvantaged by the racist policies of Apartheid is essential to the transformation of South African society. METHODS: A review of published and unpublished documents on Grade R was undertaken, and access and enrolment data come from the National Department of Basic Education's Education Management Information System (EMIS)...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194710/links-between-the-discovery-of-primates-and-anatomical-comparisons-with-humans-the-chain-of-being-our-place-in-nature-and-racism
#2
REVIEW
Rui Diogo
I focus on the crucial links between the discovery of nonhuman primates by Westerners, discussions on our place in nature, the chain of being, racism, and the history of primate comparative anatomy and of so-called "anatomical human racial studies." Strikingly, for more than a millennium humans knew more about the internal anatomy of a single monkey species than about that of their own bodies. This is because Galen used monkeys to infer human anatomy, in line with the human-animal continuity implied by the Greek notion of scala naturae...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194589/pathological-integration-or-how-east-europeans-use-racism-to-become-british
#3
Jon E Fox, Magda Mogilnicka
East Europeans are integrating into life in the UK. This entails learning to get along with their new neighbours, but it also involves not getting along with certain neighbours. Integration is not confined to benevolent forms of everyday cosmopolitanism, multiculturalism and conviviality; it can also include more pathological forms, like racism. Whilst integration is generally seen as desirable, the learning that it entails necessarily includes less desirable practices and norms. The aim of this article is to show how East Europeans in the UK have been acquiring specifically British competencies of racism...
November 30, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114873/brexit-trump-and-methodological-whiteness-on-the-misrecognition-of-race-and-class
#4
Gurminder K Bhambra
The rhetoric of both the Brexit and Trump campaigns was grounded in conceptions of the past as the basis for political claims in the present. Both established the past as constituted by nations that were represented as 'white' into which racialized others had insinuated themselves and gained disproportionate advantage. Hence, the resonant claim that was broadcast primarily to white audiences in each place 'to take our country back'. The politics of both campaigns was also echoed in those social scientific analyses that sought to focus on the 'legitimate' claims of the 'left behind' or those who had come to see themselves as 'strangers in their own land'...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114865/the-politics-of-nationalism-and-white-racism-in-the-uk
#5
Magne Flemmen, Mike Savage
This paper considers the contemporary significance of white racism and its association with nationalist sentiment amongst a cohort late middle aged white Britons, using survey responses and qualitative interviews from the 1958 National Child Development Study. We have shown that although overt racism is very limited, a substantial minority of white Britons display ambivalent feelings which have the potential to be mobilised in racist directions. We argue against the view that disadvantaged white working class respondents are especially xenophobic, and show that racist views are not strongly associated with social position...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094641/-i-can-never-be-too-comfortable-race-gender-and-emotion-at-the-hospital-bedside
#6
Marci D Cottingham, Austin H Johnson, Rebecca J Erickson
In this article, we examine how race and gender shape nurses' emotion practice. Based on audio diaries collected from 48 nurses within two Midwestern hospital systems in the United States, we illustrate the disproportionate emotional labor that emerges among women nurses of color in the white institutional space of American health care. In this environment, women of color experience an emotional double shift as a result of negotiating patient, coworker, and supervisor interactions. In confronting racist encounters, nurses of color in our sample experience additional job-related stress, must perform disproportionate amounts of emotional labor, and experience depleted emotional resources that negatively influence patient care...
November 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069506/-irish-roman-catholic-which-upsets-all-the-people-here-michael-mcdonnell-and-british-colonial-justice-in-mandatory-palestine-1927-1936
#7
Simon Davis
In 1927 Michael McDonnell, a diasporic Irish Catholic, was appointed Mandatory Palestine's Chief Justice, being directed to institute firm British-style legal-judicial foundations for future self-governance. This entailed common, equal status for Arab and Jewish Palestinians, implicitly de-privileging the Jewish National Home. McDonnell was resisted in this by the British Mandate's Anglo-Jewish, pro-Zionist Attorney General, Norman Bentwich. McDonnell prevailed but only at the cost of being characterized lastingly as a pro-Arab, Catholic anti-Semite...
October 23, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049913/social-class-and-policy-preferences-implications-for-economic-inequality-and-interclass-relations
#8
REVIEW
Heather E Bullock
Record-setting levels of income and wealth inequality are deepening social class divisions. The adoption of strong progressive redistributive policies is crucial to reducing class inequities, yet many barriers to doing so exist. This review examines class-based policy preferences, focusing on the effects of economic self-interest, system justification, and classist, racist, and sexist stereotypes on policy support. The impact of broader economic conditions is also considered. Collectively, this body of research makes clear that building stronger cross-class support for redistributive policies and programs will prove difficult without addressing both class-based power differences and beliefs that justify inequality...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910809/ingeborg-syllm-rapoport-1912-2017-an-exemplary-life-for-children-and-paediatrics
#9
Hannes Sallmon, Roland R Wauer, Charles Christoph Roehr
Ingeborg Syllm-Rapoport, the first Chair in neonatology in Europe, passed away on March 23. Her biography illustrates how medical and scientific work has been influenced by social, ideological, and economic frames and boundaries in the 20th century. Regarded as a "Half-Jew" by the Nazi racist laws, she was denied her medical doctorate. She went to the USA, where she trained in paediatrics and met her husband, the biochemist Samuel Mitja Rapoport. During the "McCarthy Era" both were persecuted as communists...
September 15, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720042/exotic-dancing-and-relationship-violence-exploring-indigeneity-gender-and-agency
#10
Jade Le Grice
How should we begin to explore the complex considerations influencing young Indigenous New Zealand Māori women's sexuality? Centring a Māori woman's analysis through a Mana Wāhine methodology, and utilising an Indigenous form of storying, pūrākau, I explore this question by attending to my autobiographical memory of experiences of exotic dancing and moments of violence in heterosexual relationships. The analysis provides critical reflection on the interchanges between individual experience and the social and cultural conditions of a reality, informed by colonisation and historical trauma...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704590/the-influence-of-democratic-racism-in-nursing-inquiry
#11
Carla T Hilario, Annette J Browne, Alysha McFadden
Neoliberal ideology and exclusionary policies based on racialized identities characterize the current contexts in North America and Western Europe. Nursing knowledge cannot be abstracted from social, political and historical contexts; the task of examining the influence of race and racial ideologies on disciplinary knowledge and inquiry therefore remains an important task. Contemporary analyses of the role and responsibility of the discipline in addressing race-based health and social inequities as a focus of nursing inquiry remain underdeveloped...
July 13, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488839/nurses-need-not-be-guilty-bystanders-caring-for-vulnerable-immigrant-populations
#12
Elizabeth Moran Fitzgerald, Judith G Myers, Paul Clark
Nurses face many dilemmas when providing healthcare to immigrants, a vulnerable population. Racist, rancorous dialogue can create a hostile care environment that may place patients at risk for substandard care. This article presents a two part case study about a Hispanic patient to illustrate both examples of inappropriate dialogue (Part I) and potential nursing actions (Part 2). The authors review myths versus facts about Hispanic immigrants and introduce activist Thomas Merton’s concept of the guilty bystander, the nursing professional code of ethics, and Professor Joseph Badaracco’s concepts of quiet leadership as practical tools and approaches that nurses can use to advocate for safe, quality, ethical care of immigrant populations...
December 1, 2016: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479657/striking-back-against-racist-violence-in-the-east-end-of-london-1968-1970
#13
Stephen Ashe, Satnam Virdee, Laurence Brown
This article tells the hitherto untold story of how different Pakistani organisations mobilised in response to racist violence and harassment in the east London Borough of Tower Hamlets (1968-1970). In telling this story, the authors analyse the problematic nature of official and public understandings of, and responses to, racist violence, and how it distorted the lives of racialised minorities. Drawing on original archival research carried out in 2014, this piece identifies the emergence of two distinct political repertoires from within the Pakistani community: the integrationist approach and the autonomous approach...
July 2016: Race & Class
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414483/freedom-of-racist-speech-ego-and-expressive-threats
#14
Mark H White, Christian S Crandall
Do claims of "free speech" provide cover for prejudice? We investigate whether this defense of racist or hate speech serves as a justification for prejudice. In a series of 8 studies (N = 1,624), we found that explicit racial prejudice is a reliable predictor of the "free speech defense" of racist expression. Participants endorsed free speech values for singing racists songs or posting racist comments on social media; people high in prejudice endorsed free speech more than people low in prejudice (meta-analytic r = ...
September 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383967/racism-in-digital-era-development-and-initial-validation-of-the-perceived-online-racism-scale-pors-v1-0
#15
Brian TaeHyuk Keum, Matthew J Miller
The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality...
April 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368199/he-said-what-physiological-and-cognitive-responses-to-imagining-and-witnessing-outgroup-racism
#16
Francine Karmali, Kerry Kawakami, Elizabeth Page-Gould
Responses to outgroup racism can have serious implications for the perpetuation of bias, yet research examining this process is rare. The present research investigated self-reported, physiological, and cognitive responses among "experiencers" who witnessed and "forecasters" who imagined a racist comment targeting an outgroup member. Although previous research indicates that experiencers self-reported less distress and chose a racist partner more often than forecasters, the present results explored the possibility that experiencers may actually be distressed in such situation but regulate their initial affective reactions...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323470/police-brutality-and-black-health-setting-the-agenda-for-public-health-scholars
#17
Sirry Alang, Donna McAlpine, Ellen McCreedy, Rachel Hardeman
We investigated links between police brutality and poor health outcomes among Blacks and identified five intersecting pathways: (1) fatal injuries that increase population-specific mortality rates; (2) adverse physiological responses that increase morbidity; (3) racist public reactions that cause stress; (4) arrests, incarcerations, and legal, medical, and funeral bills that cause financial strain; and (5) integrated oppressive structures that cause systematic disempowerment. Public health scholars should champion efforts to implement surveillance of police brutality and press funders to support research to understand the experiences of people faced with police brutality...
May 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101618/-neurological-and-psychiatric-journals-during-the-third-reich-national-socialistic-and-racist-contents
#18
D Claus
The aim of this study was to investigate scientific articles in three German journals for national socialist and racist contents. The three journals evaluated for the period of the Third Reich were the Der Nervenarzt, Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde and the Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten. The specialist disciplines of neurology and psychiatry were united in the year 1935 and Ernst Rüdin, a neurological geneticist, was appointed as president (Reichsleiter) of the society. The universal idea of a degenerative development, which was believed to exert a negative influence on public health, was widely accepted in this time period; therefore, in some articles measures were called for, such as termination of pregnancy, sterilization and castration of diseased people and also of criminals...
February 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095143/-the-madness-of-the-carnival-representations-of-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-in-the-u-s-homophile-press
#19
Shlomo Gleibman
This essay examines representations of Latin America and the Caribbean in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. The 120 items in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder that referenced this region depicted Latin America and the Caribbean as different from the United States in a number of ways, in particular as more sexually repressive or more sexually liberal. These representations typically conformed to the general homophile movement tendency to challenge U.S. anti-homosexual campaigns during the "Lavender Scare," while arguing for acceptance based on rights claims...
2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078658/the-past-does-matter-a-nursing-perspective-on-post-traumatic-slave-syndrome-ptss
#20
Ejim Sule, Ryan M Sutton, Debbie Jones, Ramel Moore, Imaculata Igbo, Lovell A Jones
Few have reviewed the impact of post traumatic slave syndrome (PTSS) on the issues of inequities, especially as it pertains to mental and physical health. Furthermore, the impact of PTSS on the social determinants of health is an area that has been researched by few investigators. The possibilities that the impact of slavery and/or major stress events in the life of a population can become trans-generational are lost to history. Think about what is taking place in cities around the country and then think about racist socialization (internalized racism) and its impact on our society...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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