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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623776/some-comparative-psychiatric-studies-in-the-19th-century
#1
Birk Engmann, Holger Steinberg
This article analyses 19th-century publications which dealt with the social and cultural aspects of psychiatric disorders in different parts of the world. Systematic reviews were conducted of three German medical journals, one Russian medical journal, and a relevant monograph. All these archives were published in the 19th century. Our work highlights the fact that long before Kraepelin, several, mostly forgotten, publications had already discussed cultural aspects, social conditions, the influence of religion, the influence of climate, and also "race" as a trigger or amplifier of psychiatric diseases...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565911/are-we-all-racists
#2
Michael Shermer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2017: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557297/-why-even-bother-they-are-not-going-to-do-it-the-structural-roots-of-racism-and-discrimination-in-lactation-care
#3
Erin V Thomas
Through semi-structured interviews with 36 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) who assist mothers with breastfeeding, this study takes a systematic look at breastfeeding disparities. Specifically, this study documents race-based discrimination against patients in the course of lactation care and links the implicit bias literature to breastfeeding disparities. IBCLCs report instances of race-based discrimination against patients such as unequal care provided to patients of color and overt racist remarks said in front of or behind patient's backs...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548328/racial-and-cultural-minority-experiences-and-perceptions-of-health-care-provision-in-a-mid-western-region
#4
Stephane M Shepherd, Cynthia Willis-Esqueda, Yin Paradies, Diane Sivasubramaniam, Juanita Sherwood, Teresa Brockie
BACKGROUND: Disparities across a number of health indicators between the general population and particular racial and cultural minority groups including African Americans, Native Americans and Latino/a Americans have been well documented. Some evidence suggests that particular groups may receive poorer standards of care due to biased beliefs or attitudes held by health professionals. Less research has been conducted in specifically non-urban areas with smaller minority populations. METHODS: This study explored the self-reported health care experiences for 117 racial and cultural minority Americans residing in a Mid-Western jurisdiction...
March 16, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543474/discrimination-work-outcomes-and-mental-health-among-women-of-color-the-protective-role-of-womanist-attitudes
#5
Brandon L Velez, Robert Cox, Charles J Polihronakis, Bonnie Moradi
With a sample of employed women of color (N = 276), we tested the associations of sexist and racist discrimination with poor work outcomes (job-related burnout and turnover intentions) and mental health outcomes (i.e., psychological distress). Drawing from the Theory of Work Adjustment, Organizational Support Theory, and scholarship on discrimination, we tested perceived person-organization (P-O) fit, perceived organizational support, and self-esteem as mediators of the associations of workplace discrimination with the outcomes...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517323/black-asian-and-minority-ethnic-female-nurses-colonialism-power-and-racism
#6
Beverley Brathwaite
The history of black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) women who came to the UK to work as nurses is interwoven with the history of the NHS. The colonial construct of the BAME female nurse is embedded in British society. From the post-second-world-war years to the 1960s, to today, BAME women chose to become nurses and work in the 'motherland', a term regularly used by those immigrating to England from the former colonies. The experiences of the BAME female nurse in the 1970s and early 1980s were of overt racism and lack of advancement...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396816/overcoming-the-racial-hierarchy-the-history-and-medical-consequences-of-caucasian
#7
Aksharananda Rambachan
The term Caucasian is ubiquitous in the medical field. It is used without a significant consideration of its history or medical necessity. First, the term Caucasian has racist historical origins in a beauty-based hierarchy with implied superiority. It is derived from a 1700's historical scheme which places Caucasians above the other, degenerated racial groups. Second, the pseudo-scientific justification for this hierarchy has been co-opted to legally justify discrimination against minority groups in the USA...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294794/perceived-group-threat-perceived-injustice-and-self-reported-right-wing-violence-an-integrative-approach-to-the-explanation-right-wing-violence
#8
Lieven J R Pauwels, Ben Heylen
The present study aims at explaining individual differences in self-reported political violence. We integrate key concepts from the field of criminology that are conceptually related to social identity theory (Flemish identity, feelings of group superiority, and ethnocentrism) and the dual process model on prejudice (perceived injustice, perception of threat, and right-wing authoritarianism). In our model, social identity concepts are hypothesized to play a mediating role between mechanisms derived from the dual process model and political violence...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235166/the-south-african-universal-preschool-year-a-case-study-of-policy-development-and-implementation
#9
L Richter, M-L Samuels
BACKGROUND: South Africa is the first sub-Saharan African country to legislate, fund and implement free preschool education. Human rights and restitution were at the forefront of the political struggle for democracy in South Africa. Levelling the playing fields by improving the school readiness of children disadvantaged by the racist policies of Apartheid is essential to the transformation of South African society. METHODS: A review of published and unpublished documents on Grade R was undertaken, and access and enrolment data come from the National Department of Basic Education's Education Management Information System (EMIS)...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194710/links-between-the-discovery-of-primates-and-anatomical-comparisons-with-humans-the-chain-of-being-our-place-in-nature-and-racism
#10
REVIEW
Rui Diogo
I focus on the crucial links between the discovery of nonhuman primates by Westerners, discussions on our place in nature, the chain of being, racism, and the history of primate comparative anatomy and of so-called "anatomical human racial studies." Strikingly, for more than a millennium humans knew more about the internal anatomy of a single monkey species than about that of their own bodies. This is because Galen used monkeys to infer human anatomy, in line with the human-animal continuity implied by the Greek notion of scala naturae...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194589/pathological-integration-or-how-east-europeans-use-racism-to-become-british
#11
Jon E Fox, Magda Mogilnicka
East Europeans are integrating into life in the UK. This entails learning to get along with their new neighbours, but it also involves not getting along with certain neighbours. Integration is not confined to benevolent forms of everyday cosmopolitanism, multiculturalism and conviviality; it can also include more pathological forms, like racism. Whilst integration is generally seen as desirable, the learning that it entails necessarily includes less desirable practices and norms. The aim of this article is to show how East Europeans in the UK have been acquiring specifically British competencies of racism...
November 30, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114873/brexit-trump-and-methodological-whiteness-on-the-misrecognition-of-race-and-class
#12
Gurminder K Bhambra
The rhetoric of both the Brexit and Trump campaigns was grounded in conceptions of the past as the basis for political claims in the present. Both established the past as constituted by nations that were represented as 'white' into which racialized others had insinuated themselves and gained disproportionate advantage. Hence, the resonant claim that was broadcast primarily to white audiences in each place 'to take our country back'. The politics of both campaigns was also echoed in those social scientific analyses that sought to focus on the 'legitimate' claims of the 'left behind' or those who had come to see themselves as 'strangers in their own land'...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114865/the-politics-of-nationalism-and-white-racism-in-the-uk
#13
Magne Flemmen, Mike Savage
This paper considers the contemporary significance of white racism and its association with nationalist sentiment amongst a cohort late middle aged white Britons, using survey responses and qualitative interviews from the 1958 National Child Development Study. We have shown that although overt racism is very limited, a substantial minority of white Britons display ambivalent feelings which have the potential to be mobilised in racist directions. We argue against the view that disadvantaged white working class respondents are especially xenophobic, and show that racist views are not strongly associated with social position...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094641/-i-can-never-be-too-comfortable-race-gender-and-emotion-at-the-hospital-bedside
#14
Marci D Cottingham, Austin H Johnson, Rebecca J Erickson
In this article, we examine how race and gender shape nurses' emotion practice. Based on audio diaries collected from 48 nurses within two Midwestern hospital systems in the United States, we illustrate the disproportionate emotional labor that emerges among women nurses of color in the white institutional space of American health care. In this environment, women of color experience an emotional double shift as a result of negotiating patient, coworker, and supervisor interactions. In confronting racist encounters, nurses of color in our sample experience additional job-related stress, must perform disproportionate amounts of emotional labor, and experience depleted emotional resources that negatively influence patient care...
January 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069506/-irish-roman-catholic-which-upsets-all-the-people-here-michael-mcdonnell-and-british-colonial-justice-in-mandatory-palestine-1927-1936
#15
Simon Davis
In 1927 Michael McDonnell, a diasporic Irish Catholic, was appointed Mandatory Palestine's Chief Justice, being directed to institute firm British-style legal-judicial foundations for future self-governance. This entailed common, equal status for Arab and Jewish Palestinians, implicitly de-privileging the Jewish National Home. McDonnell was resisted in this by the British Mandate's Anglo-Jewish, pro-Zionist Attorney General, Norman Bentwich. McDonnell prevailed but only at the cost of being characterized lastingly as a pro-Arab, Catholic anti-Semite...
October 23, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049913/social-class-and-policy-preferences-implications-for-economic-inequality-and-interclass-relations
#16
REVIEW
Heather E Bullock
Record-setting levels of income and wealth inequality are deepening social class divisions. The adoption of strong progressive redistributive policies is crucial to reducing class inequities, yet many barriers to doing so exist. This review examines class-based policy preferences, focusing on the effects of economic self-interest, system justification, and classist, racist, and sexist stereotypes on policy support. The impact of broader economic conditions is also considered. Collectively, this body of research makes clear that building stronger cross-class support for redistributive policies and programs will prove difficult without addressing both class-based power differences and beliefs that justify inequality...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910809/ingeborg-syllm-rapoport-1912-2017-an-exemplary-life-for-children-and-paediatrics
#17
Hannes Sallmon, Roland R Wauer, Charles Christoph Roehr
Ingeborg Syllm-Rapoport, the first Chair in neonatology in Europe, passed away on March 23. Her biography illustrates how medical and scientific work has been influenced by social, ideological, and economic frames and boundaries in the 20th century. Regarded as a "Half-Jew" by the Nazi racist laws, she was denied her medical doctorate. She went to the USA, where she trained in paediatrics and met her husband, the biochemist Samuel Mitja Rapoport. During the "McCarthy Era" both were persecuted as communists...
September 15, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720042/exotic-dancing-and-relationship-violence-exploring-indigeneity-gender-and-agency
#18
Jade Le Grice
How should we begin to explore the complex considerations influencing young Indigenous New Zealand Māori women's sexuality? Centring a Māori woman's analysis through a Mana Wāhine methodology, and utilising an Indigenous form of storying, pūrākau, I explore this question by attending to my autobiographical memory of experiences of exotic dancing and moments of violence in heterosexual relationships. The analysis provides critical reflection on the interchanges between individual experience and the social and cultural conditions of a reality, informed by colonisation and historical trauma...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704590/the-influence-of-democratic-racism-in-nursing-inquiry
#19
Carla T Hilario, Annette J Browne, Alysha McFadden
Neoliberal ideology and exclusionary policies based on racialized identities characterize the current contexts in North America and Western Europe. Nursing knowledge cannot be abstracted from social, political and historical contexts; the task of examining the influence of race and racial ideologies on disciplinary knowledge and inquiry therefore remains an important task. Contemporary analyses of the role and responsibility of the discipline in addressing race-based health and social inequities as a focus of nursing inquiry remain underdeveloped...
July 13, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488839/nurses-need-not-be-guilty-bystanders-caring-for-vulnerable-immigrant-populations
#20
Elizabeth Moran Fitzgerald, Judith G Myers, Paul Clark
Nurses face many dilemmas when providing healthcare to immigrants, a vulnerable population. Racist, rancorous dialogue can create a hostile care environment that may place patients at risk for substandard care. This article presents a two part case study about a Hispanic patient to illustrate both examples of inappropriate dialogue (Part I) and potential nursing actions (Part 2). The authors review myths versus facts about Hispanic immigrants and introduce activist Thomas Merton’s concept of the guilty bystander, the nursing professional code of ethics, and Professor Joseph Badaracco’s concepts of quiet leadership as practical tools and approaches that nurses can use to advocate for safe, quality, ethical care of immigrant populations...
December 1, 2016: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing
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