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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668700/chronological-reassessment-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-and-early-upper-paleolithic-cultures-in-cantabrian-spain
#1
Ana B Marín-Arroyo, Joseba Rios-Garaizar, Lawrence G Straus, Jennifer R Jones, Marco de la Rasilla, Manuel R González Morales, Michael Richards, Jesús Altuna, Koro Mariezkurrena, David Ocio
Methodological advances in dating the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition provide a better understanding of the replacement of local Neanderthal populations by Anatomically Modern Humans. Today we know that this replacement was not a single, pan-European event, but rather it took place at different times in different regions. Thus, local conditions could have played a role. Iberia represents a significant macro-region to study this process. Northern Atlantic Spain contains evidence of both Mousterian and Early Upper Paleolithic occupations, although most of them are not properly dated, thus hindering the chances of an adequate interpretation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658973/searching-for-ancient-balanced-polymorphisms-shared-between-neanderthals-and-modern-humans
#2
Lucas Henriques Viscardi, Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes, David Comas, Francisco Mauro Salzano, Diego Rovaris, Claiton Dotto Bau, Carlos Eduardo G Amorim, Maria Cátira Bortolini
Hominin evolution is characterized by adaptive solutions often rooted in behavioral and cognitive changes. If balancing selection had an important and long-lasting impact on the evolution of these traits, it can be hypothesized that genes associated with them should carry an excess of shared polymorphisms (trans- SNPs) across recent Homo species. In this study, we investigate the role of balancing selection in human evolution using available exomes from modern (Homo sapiens) and archaic humans (H. neanderthalensis and Denisovan) for an excess of trans-SNP in two gene sets: one associated with the immune system (IMMS) and another one with behavioral system (BEHS)...
January 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618551/computer-simulations-show-that-neanderthal-facial-morphology-represents-adaptation-to-cold-and-high-energy-demands-but-not-heavy-biting
#3
Stephen Wroe, William C H Parr, Justin A Ledogar, Jason Bourke, Samuel P Evans, Luca Fiorenza, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Chris Stringer, Ottmar Kullmer, Michael Curry, Todd C Rae, Todd R Yokley
Three adaptive hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the distinctive Neanderthal face: (i) an improved ability to accommodate high anterior bite forces, (ii) more effective conditioning of cold and/or dry air and, (iii) adaptation to facilitate greater ventilatory demands. We test these hypotheses using three-dimensional models of Neanderthals, modern humans, and a close outgroup ( Homo heidelbergensis ), applying finite-element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is the most comprehensive application of either approach applied to date and the first to include both...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603507/model-based-detection-and-analysis-of-introgressed-neanderthal-ancestry-in-modern-humans
#4
Matthias Steinrücken, Jeffrey P Spence, John A Kamm, Emilia Wieczorek, Yun S Song
Genetic evidence has revealed that the ancestors of modern human populations outside Africa and their hominin sister groups, notably Neanderthals, exchanged genetic material in the past. The distribution of these introgressed sequence-tracts along modern-day human genomes provides insight into the selective forces acting on them and the role of introgression in the evolutionary history of hominins.Studying introgression patterns on the X-chromosome is of particular interest, as sex chromosomes are thought to play a special role in speciation...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590205/a-middle-palaeolithic-wooden-digging-stick-from-aranbaltza-iii-spain
#5
Joseba Rios-Garaizar, Oriol López-Bultó, Eneko Iriarte, Carlos Pérez-Garrido, Raquel Piqué, Arantza Aranburu, María José Iriarte-Chiapusso, Illuminada Ortega-Cordellat, Laurence Bourguignon, Diego Garate, Iñaki Libano
Aranbaltza is an archaeological complex formed by at least three open-air sites. Between 2014 and 2015 a test excavation carried out in Aranbaltza III revealed the presence of a sand and clay sedimentary sequence formed in floodplain environments, within which six sedimentary units have been identified. This sequence was formed between 137-50 ka, and includes several archaeological horizons, attesting to the long-term presence of Neanderthal communities in this area. One of these horizons, corresponding with Unit 4, yielded two wooden tools...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570998/the-predecessors-within
#6
Benjamin Vernot, Svante Pääbo
By examining the genomes of present-day people from Asia, researchers show that modern humans met and interbred with Denisovans, distant relatives to Neanderthals, on at least two occasions. As a result, people today carry DNA from two different Denisovan populations.
March 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562232/reconstructing-the-genetic-history-of-late-neanderthals
#7
Mateja Hajdinjak, Qiaomei Fu, Alexander Hübner, Martin Petr, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Steffi Grote, Pontus Skoglund, Vagheesh Narasimham, Hélène Rougier, Isabelle Crevecoeur, Patrick Semal, Marie Soressi, Sahra Talamo, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Ivan Gušić, Željko Kućan, Pavao Rudan, Liubov V Golovanova, Vladimir B Doronichev, Cosimo Posth, Johannes Krause, Petra Korlević, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Montgomery Slatkin, Nick Patterson, David Reich, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Svante Pääbo, Janet Kelso
Although it has previously been shown that Neanderthals contributed DNA to modern humans, not much is known about the genetic diversity of Neanderthals or the relationship between late Neanderthal populations at the time at which their last interactions with early modern humans occurred and before they eventually disappeared. Our ability to retrieve DNA from a larger number of Neanderthal individuals has been limited by poor preservation of endogenous DNA and contamination of Neanderthal skeletal remains by large amounts of microbial and present-day human DNA...
March 21, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554122/retrodeformation-of-fossil-specimens-based-on-3d-bilateral-semi-landmarks-implementation-in-the-r-package-morpho
#8
Stefan Schlager, Antonio Profico, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Giorgio Manzi
Many fossil specimens exhibit deformations caused by taphonomic processes. Due to these deformations, even important specimens have to be excluded from morphometric analyses, impoverishing an already poor paleontological record. Techniques to retrodeform and virtually restore damaged (i.e. deformed) specimens are available, but these methods genenerally imply the use of a sparse set of bilateral landmarks, ignoring the fact that the distribution and amount of control points directly affects the result of the retrodeformation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551270/analysis-of-human-sequence-data-reveals-two-pulses-of-archaic-denisovan-admixture
#9
Sharon R Browning, Brian L Browning, Ying Zhou, Serena Tucci, Joshua M Akey
Anatomically modern humans interbred with Neanderthals and with a related archaic population known as Denisovans. Genomes of several Neanderthals and one Denisovan have been sequenced, and these reference genomes have been used to detect introgressed genetic material in present-day human genomes. Segments of introgression also can be detected without use of reference genomes, and doing so can be advantageous for finding introgressed segments that are less closely related to the sequenced archaic genomes. We apply a new reference-free method for detecting archaic introgression to 5,639 whole-genome sequences from Eurasia and Oceania...
March 15, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531093/correction-for-hoffecker-the-complexity-of-neanderthal-technology
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477182/craniomandibular-form-and-body-size-variation-of-first-generation-mouse-hybrids-a-model-for-hominin-hybridization
#11
Kerryn A Warren, Terrence B Ritzman, Robyn A Humphreys, Christopher J Percival, Benedikt Hallgrímsson, Rebecca Rogers Ackermann
Hybridization occurs in a number of mammalian lineages, including among primate taxa. Analyses of ancient genomes have shown that hybridization between our lineage and other archaic hominins in Eurasia occurred numerous times in the past. However, we still have limited empirical data on what a hybrid skeleton looks like, or how to spot patterns of hybridization among fossils for which there are no genetic data. Here we use experimental mouse models to supplement previous studies of primates. We characterize size and shape variation in the cranium and mandible of three wild-derived inbred mouse strains and their first generation (F1 ) hybrids...
March 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447762/the-easternmost-middle-paleolithic-mousterian-from-jinsitai-cave-north-china
#12
Feng Li, Steven L Kuhn, Fuyou Chen, Yinghua Wang, John Southon, Fei Peng, Mingchao Shan, Chunxue Wang, Junyi Ge, Xiaomin Wang, Tala Yun, Xing Gao
The dispersal of Neanderthals and their genetic and cultural interactions with anatomically modern humans and other hominin populations in Eurasia are critical issues in human evolution research. Neither Neanderthal fossils nor typical Mousterian assemblages have been reported in East Asia to date. Here we report on artifact assemblages comparable to western Eurasian Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) at Jinsitai, a cave site in North China. The lithic industry at Jinsitai appeared at least 47-42 ka and persisted until around 40-37 ka...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440434/the-complexity-of-neanderthal-technology
#13
John F Hoffecker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432163/wooden-tools-and-fire-technology-in-the-early-neanderthal-site-of-poggetti-vecchi-italy
#14
Biancamaria Aranguren, Anna Revedin, Nicola Amico, Fabio Cavulli, Gianna Giachi, Stefano Grimaldi, Nicola Macchioni, Fabio Santaniello
Excavations for the construction of thermal pools at Poggetti Vecchi (Grosseto, Tuscany, central Italy) exposed a series of wooden tools in an open-air stratified site referable to late Middle Pleistocene. The wooden artifacts were uncovered, together with stone tools and fossil bones, largely belonging to the straight-tusked elephant Paleoloxodon antiquus The site is radiometrically dated to around 171,000 y B.P., and hence correlated with the early marine isotope stage 6 [Benvenuti M, et al. (2017) Quat Res 88:327-344]...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417989/dentine-morphology-of-atapuerca-sima-de-los-huesos-lower-molars-evolutionary-implications-through-three-dimensional-geometric-morphometric-analysis
#15
Hester Hanegraef, María Martinón-Torres, Marina Martínez de Pinillos, Laura Martín-Francés, Amélie Vialet, Juan Luis Arsuaga, José María Bermúdez de Castro
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the affinities of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) population in relation to Homo neanderthalensis, Arago, and early and contemporary Homo sapiens. By characterizing SH intra-population variation, we test current models to explain the Neanderthal origins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional reconstructions of dentine surfaces of lower first and second molars were produced by micro-computed tomography. Landmarks and sliding semilandmarks were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis and principal components analysis...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409727/ancestral-variations-of-the-pcdhg-gene-cluster-predispose-to-dyslexia-in-a-multiplex-family
#16
Teesta Naskar, Mohammed Faruq, Priyajit Banerjee, Massarat Khan, Rashi Midha, Renu Kumari, Subhashree Devasenapathy, Bharat Prajapati, Sanghamitra Sengupta, Deepti Jain, Mitali Mukerji, Nandini Chatterjee Singh, Subrata Sinha
Dyslexia is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in reading and writing. In this study, we describe the identification of a set of 17 polymorphisms located across 1.9Mb region on chromosome 5q31.3, encompassing genes of the PCDHG cluster, TAF7, PCDH1 and ARHGAP26, dominantly inherited with dyslexia in a multi-incident family. Strikingly, the non-risk form of seven variations of the PCDHG cluster, are preponderant in the human lineage, while risk alleles are ancestral and conserved across Neanderthals to non-human primates...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383489/genomic-structure-of-the-native-inhabitants-of-peninsular-malaysia-and-north-borneo-suggests-complex-human-population-history-in-southeast-asia
#17
Chee-Wei Yew, Dongsheng Lu, Lian Deng, Lai-Ping Wong, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, Yan Lu, Xiaoji Wang, Yushimah Yunus, Farhang Aghakhanian, Siti Shuhada Mokhtar, Mohammad Zahirul Hoque, Christopher Lok-Yung Voo, Thuhairah Abdul Rahman, Jong Bhak, Maude E Phipps, Shuhua Xu, Yik-Ying Teo, Subbiah Vijay Kumar, Boon-Peng Hoh
Southeast Asia (SEA) is enriched with a complex history of peopling. Malaysia, which is located at the crossroads of SEA, has been recognized as one of the hubs for early human migration. To unravel the genomic complexity of the native inhabitants of Malaysia, we sequenced 12 samples from 3 indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia and 4 native populations from North Borneo to a high coverage of 28-37×. We showed that the Negritos from Peninsular Malaysia shared a common ancestor with the East Asians, but exhibited some level of gene flow from South Asia, while the North Borneo populations exhibited closer genetic affinity towards East Asians than the Malays...
January 30, 2018: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372121/morphology-and-structure-of-homo-erectus-humeri-from-zhoukoudian-locality-1
#18
Song Xing, Kristian J Carlson, Pianpian Wei, Jianing He, Wu Liu
Background: Regional diversity in the morphology of the H. erectus postcranium is not broadly documented, in part, because of the paucity of Asian sites preserving postcranial fossils. Yet, such an understanding of the initial hominin taxon to spread throughout multiple regions of the world is fundamental to documenting the adaptive responses to selective forces operating during this period of human evolution. Methods: The current study reports the first humeral rigidity and strength properties of East Asian H...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351319/speech-stone-tool-making-and-the-evolution-of-language
#19
Dana Michelle Cataldo, Andrea Bamberg Migliano, Lucio Vinicius
The 'technological hypothesis' proposes that gestural language evolved in early hominins to enable the cultural transmission of stone tool-making skills, with speech appearing later in response to the complex lithic industries of more recent hominins. However, no flintknapping study has assessed the efficiency of speech alone (unassisted by gesture) as a tool-making transmission aid. Here we show that subjects instructed by speech alone underperform in stone tool-making experiments in comparison to subjects instructed through either gesture alone or 'full language' (gesture plus speech), and also report lower satisfaction with their received instruction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284020/health-status-by-gender-hair-color-and-eye-color-red-haired-women-are-the-most-divergent
#20
Peter Frost, Karel Kleisner, Jaroslav Flegr
Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer...
2017: PloS One
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