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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166384/neanderthal-hunting-strategies-inferred-from-mortality-profiles-within-the-abric-roman%C3%A3-sequence
#1
Juan Marín, Palmira Saladié, Antonio Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Eudald Carbonell
Ungulate mortality profiles are commonly used to study Neanderthal subsistence strategies. To assess the hunting strategies used by Neanderthals, we studied the ages at death of the cervids and equids found in levels E, H, I, Ja, Jb, K, L and M of the Abric Romaní sequence. These levels date between 43.2 ± 1.1 ka BP (14C AMS) and 54.5 ± 1.7 ka BP (U-series). The degree of eruption and development of the teeth and their wear stages were used to determine the ages of these animals at death, and mortality profiles were constructed using these data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165618/human-specific-mutations-and-positively-selected-sites-in-marco-confer-functional-changes
#2
Kyle E Novakowski, Nicholas V L Yap, Charles Yin, Kaori Sakamoto, Bryan Heit, G Brian Golding, Dawn M E Bowdish
Macrophage Receptor with COllagenous structure (MARCO) is a class A scavenger receptor that binds, phagocytoses, and modifies inflammatory responses to bacterial pathogens. Multiple candidate gene approach studies have shown that polymorphisms in MARCO are associated with susceptibility or resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but how these variants alter function is not known. To complement candidate gene approach studies, we previously used phylogenetic analyses to identify a residue, glutamine 452 (Q452), within the ligand-binding Scavenger Receptor Cysteine Rich (SRCR) domain as undergoing positive selection in humans...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089499/a-parsimonious-neutral-model-suggests-neanderthal-replacement-was-determined-by-migration-and-random-species-drift
#3
Oren Kolodny, Marcus W Feldman
Most hypotheses in the heated debate about the Neanderthals' replacement by modern humans highlight the role of environmental pressures or attribute the Neanderthals' demise to competition with modern humans, who occupied the same ecological niche. The latter assume that modern humans benefited from some selective advantage over Neanderthals, which led to the their extinction. Here we show that a scenario of migration and selectively neutral species drift predicts the Neanderthals' replacement. Our model offers a parsimonious alternative to those that invoke external factors or selective advantage, and represents a null hypothesis for assessing such alternatives...
October 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040546/variation-and-functional-impact-of-neanderthal-ancestry-in-western-asia
#4
Recep Ozgur Taskent, Duha Alioglu, Evrim Fer, Handan Melike Donertas, Mehmet Somel, Omer Gokcumen
Neanderthals contributed genetic material to modern humans via multiple admixture events. Initial admixture events presumably occurred in Western Asia shortly after humans migrated out-of-Africa. Despite being a focal point of admixture, earlier studies indicate lower Neanderthal introgression rates in some Western Asian populations as compared to other Eurasian populations. To better understand the genome-wide and phenotypic impact of Neanderthal introgression in the region, we sequenced whole genomes of 10 present-day Europeans, Africans, and the Western Asian Druze at high depth, and analyzed available whole genome data from various other populations, including 16 genomes from present-day Turkey...
October 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032037/ecocultural-range-expansion-scenarios-for-the-replacement-or-assimilation-of-neanderthals-by-modern-humans
#5
Joe Yuichiro Wakano, William Gilpin, Seiji Kadowaki, Marcus W Feldman, Kenichi Aoki
Recent archaeological records no longer support a simple dichotomous characterization of the cultures/behaviors of Neanderthals and modern humans, but indicate much cultural/behavioral variability over time and space. Thus, in modeling the replacement or assimilation of Neanderthals by modern humans, it is of interest to consider cultural dynamics and its relation to demographic change. The ecocultural framework for the competition between hominid species allows their carrying capacities to depend on some measure of the levels of culture they possess...
October 12, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029809/reply-to-comment-on-ecological-niche-of-neanderthals-from-spy-cave-revealed-by-nitrogen-isotopes-of-individual-amino-acids-in-collagen-j-hum-evol-93-2016-82-90-j-hum-evol-in-press
#6
Yuichi I Naito, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Dorothée G Drucker, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Patrick Semal, Christoph Wißing, Hervé Bocherens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985494/the-contribution-of-neanderthals-to-phenotypic-variation-in-modern-humans
#7
Michael Dannemann, Janet Kelso
Assessing the genetic contribution of Neanderthals to non-disease phenotypes in modern humans has been difficult because of the absence of large cohorts for which common phenotype information is available. Using baseline phenotypes collected for 112,000 individuals by the UK Biobank, we can now elaborate on previous findings that identified associations between signatures of positive selection on Neanderthal DNA and various modern human traits but not any specific phenotypic consequences. Here, we show that Neanderthal DNA affects skin tone and hair color, height, sleeping patterns, mood, and smoking status in present-day Europeans...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973864/the-last-neanderthal
#8
Jean-Jacques Hublin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950836/vcftotree-a-user-friendly-tool-to-construct-locus-specific-alignments-and-phylogenies-from-thousands-of-anthropologically-relevant-genome-sequences
#9
Duo Xu, Yousef Jaber, Pavlos Pavlidis, Omer Gokcumen
BACKGROUND: Constructing alignments and phylogenies for a given locus from large genome sequencing studies with relevant outgroups allow novel evolutionary and anthropological insights. However, no user-friendly tool has been developed to integrate thousands of recently available and anthropologically relevant genome sequences to construct complete sequence alignments and phylogenies. RESULTS: Here, we provide VCFtoTree, a user friendly tool with a graphical user interface that directly accesses online databases to download, parse and analyze genome variation data for regions of interest...
September 26, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934125/optimized-mtdna-control-region-primer-extension-capture-analysis-for-forensically-relevant-samples-and-highly-compromised-mtdna-of-different-age-and-origin
#10
Mayra Eduardoff, Catarina Xavier, Christina Strobl, Andrea Casas-Vargas, Walther Parson
The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR) is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS) protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp). Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) of (multiplex) PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes...
September 21, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902892/neanderthal-and-denisova-tooth-protein-variants-in-present-day-humans
#11
Clément Zanolli, Mathilde Hourset, Rémi Esclassan, Catherine Mollereau
Environment parameters, diet and genetic factors interact to shape tooth morphostructure. In the human lineage, archaic and modern hominins show differences in dental traits, including enamel thickness, but variability also exists among living populations. Several polymorphisms, in particular in the non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins of the tooth hard tissues, like enamelin, are involved in dental structure variation and defects and may be associated with dental disorders or susceptibility to caries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874524/direct-dating-of-neanderthal-remains-from-the-site-of-vindija-cave-and-implications-for-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition
#12
Thibaut Devièse, Ivor Karavanić, Daniel Comeskey, Cara Kubiak, Petra Korlević, Mateja Hajdinjak, Siniša Radović, Noemi Procopio, Michael Buckley, Svante Pääbo, Tom Higham
Previous dating of the Vi-207 and Vi-208 Neanderthal remains from Vindija Cave (Croatia) led to the suggestion that Neanderthals survived there as recently as 28,000-29,000 B.P. Subsequent dating yielded older dates, interpreted as ages of at least ∼32,500 B.P. We have redated these same specimens using an approach based on the extraction of the amino acid hydroxyproline, using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC). This method is more efficient in eliminating modern contamination in the bone collagen...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874276/the-costal-remains-of-the-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-neanderthal-site-asturias-northern-spain-and-their-importance-for-understanding-neanderthal-thorax-morphology
#13
Daniel García-Martínez, Markus Bastir, Rosa Huguet, Almudena Estalrrich, Antonio García-Tabernero, Luis Ríos, Eugenia Cunha, Marco de la Rasilla, Antonio Rosas
The study of the Neanderthal thorax has attracted the attention of the scientific community for more than a century. It is agreed that Neanderthals have a more capacious thorax than modern humans, but whether this was caused by a medio-lateral or an antero-posterior expansion of the thorax is still debated, and is key to understanding breathing biomechanics and body shape in Neanderthals. The fragile nature of ribs, the metameric structure of the thorax and difficulties in quantifying thorax morphology all contribute to uncertainty regarding precise aspects of Neanderthal thoracic shape...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874274/evidence-of-neanderthals-in-the-balkans-the-infant-radius-from-kozarnika-cave-bulgaria
#14
Anne-Marie Tillier, Nikolay Sirakov, Aleta Guadelli, Philippe Fernandez, Svoboda Sirakova, Irena Dimitrova, Catherine Ferrier, Guillaume Guérin, Maryam Heidari, Ivailo Krumov, Jean-Claude Leblanc, Viviana Miteva, Vasil Popov, Stanimira Taneva, Jean-Luc Guadelli
Excavations conducted by a Bulgarian-French team at Kozarnika Cave (Balkans, Bulgaria) during several seasons yielded a long Paleolithic archaeological sequence and led to the discovery of important faunal, lithic, and human samples. This paper aims to describe the unpublished radius shaft of an infant who died approximately before the sixth month postnatal that was recovered from layer 10b, which contained East Balkan Levallois Mousterian with bifacial leaf points. The layer was dated between 130 and 200 ka (large mammals biochronology) and between 128 ± 13 ka and 183 ± 14 ka (OSL), i...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874271/in-pursuit-of-our-ancestors-hand-laterality
#15
Amèlia Bargalló, Marina Mosquera, Sergi Lozano
The aim of this paper is to apply a previously published method (Bargalló and Mosquera, 2014) to the archaeological record, allowing us to identify the hand laterality of our ancestors and determine when and how this feature, which is exhibited most strongly in humans, appeared in our evolutionary history. The method focuses on identifying handedness by looking at the technical features of the flakes produced by a single knapper, and discovering how many flakes are required to ascertain their hand preference...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874265/newly-discovered-neanderthal-remains-from-shanidar-cave-iraqi-kurdistan-and-their-attribution-to-shanidar-5
#16
Emma Pomeroy, Marta Mirazón Lahr, Federica Crivellaro, Lucy Farr, Tim Reynolds, Chris O Hunt, Graeme Barker
The Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, excavated between 1951 and 1960, have played a central role in debates concerning diverse aspects of Neanderthal morphology and behavior. In 2015 and 2016, renewed excavations at the site uncovered hominin remains from the immediate area where the partial skeleton of Shanidar 5 was found in 1960. Shanidar 5 was a robust adult male estimated to have been aged over 40 years at the time of death. Comparisons of photographs from the previous and recent excavations indicate that the old and new remains were directly adjacent to one another, while the disturbed arrangement and partial crushing of the new fossils is consistent with descriptions and photographs of the older discoveries...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860198/neanderthals-and-denisovans-as-biological-invaders
#17
John Hawks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859637/q-a-where-did-the-neanderthals-go
#18
Kelley Harris, Rasmus Nielsen
Genomic evidence has demonstrated that humans and Neanderthals interbred. Today, the genomes of most individuals outside Africa contain 2-3% Neanderthal DNA. However, it is still hotly debated why the Neanderthals went extinct and if humans contributed to the Neanderthal extinction. In this Q&A we explore what genomic data might have to say about this issue.
September 1, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855259/the-mobile-element-locator-tool-melt-population-scale-mobile-element-discovery-and-biology
#19
Eugene J Gardner, Vincent K Lam, Daniel N Harris, Nelson T Chuang, Emma C Scott, W Stephen Pittard, Ryan E Mills, Scott E Devine
Mobile element insertions (MEIs) represent ∼25% of all structural variants in human genomes. Moreover, when they disrupt genes, MEIs can influence human traits and diseases. Therefore, MEIs should be fully discovered along with other forms of genetic variation in whole genome sequencing (WGS) projects involving population genetics, human diseases, and clinical genomics. Here, we describe the Mobile Element Locator Tool (MELT), which was developed as part of the 1000 Genomes Project to perform MEI discovery on a population scale...
November 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854627/the-mitonuclear-dimension-of-neanderthal-and-denisovan-ancestry-in-modern-human-genomes
#20
Joel Sharbrough, Justin C Havird, Gregory R Noe, Jessica M Warren, Daniel B Sloan
Some human populations interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovans, resulting in substantial contributions to modern-human genomes. Therefore, it is now possible to use genomic data to investigate mechanisms that shaped historical gene flow between humans and our closest hominin relatives. More generally, in eukaryotes, mitonuclear interactions have been argued to play a disproportionate role in generating reproductive isolation. There is no evidence of mtDNA introgression into modern human populations, which means that all introgressed nuclear alleles from archaic hominins must function on a modern-human mitochondrial background...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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