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Uropathogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735999/results-of-real-time-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-renal-transplant-recipients-with-sterile-pyuria
#1
M Sarier, M Demir, S Goktas, I Duman, M Buyukkinaci, Y Yuksel, S Tekin, A H Yavuz, A Sengul
Urinary tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization after renal transplantation. Patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs suffer not only from common uropathogens but also from opportunistic infections caused by unusual uropathogens. Sterile pyuria is associated with numerous infectious agents including viruses, fungi, and atypical or fastidious organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathogens using real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (rtMPCR) assay in sterile pyuria of renal transplant recipients...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723468/trends-in-antibiotic-resistance-in-urologic-practice
#2
REVIEW
Hala Kandil, Emma Cramp, Tejal Vaghela
CONTEXT: The significant global upsurge in antimicrobial resistance, particularly among Enterobacteriaceae, represents a serious threat to health care systems. The implications for urologic practice are of particular concern. OBJECTIVE: To review trends in antibiotic resistance in urologic practice. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We report current European trends of resistance in Gram-negative uropathogens. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In addition to β-lactam resistance, Gram-negative pathogens are often resistant to multiple drug classes, including aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems, commonly used to treat urologic infections...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722010/a-shape-shifting-redox-foldase-contributes-to-proteus-mirabilis-copper-resistance
#3
Emily J Furlong, Alvin W Lo, Fabian Kurth, Lakshmanane Premkumar, Makrina Totsika, Maud E S Achard, Maria A Halili, Begoña Heras, Andrew E Whitten, Hassanul G Choudhury, Mark A Schembri, Jennifer L Martin
Copper resistance is a key virulence trait of the uropathogen Proteus mirabilis. Here we show that P. mirabilis ScsC (PmScsC) contributes to this defence mechanism by enabling swarming in the presence of copper. We also demonstrate that PmScsC is a thioredoxin-like disulfide isomerase but, unlike other characterized proteins in this family, it is trimeric. PmScsC trimerization and its active site cysteine are required for wild-type swarming activity in the presence of copper. Moreover, PmScsC exhibits unprecedented motion as a consequence of a shape-shifting motif linking the catalytic and trimerization domains...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710743/prevalence-of-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-genes-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections-in-adults
#4
Jayanti Jena, Rajesh Kumar Sahoo, Nagen Kumar Debata, Enketeswara Subudhi
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the major sources of widespread infectious diseases in the community as well as in the hospitals which increase the cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing uropathogenic E. coli isolates has been found to be increased rapidly across the world. The present study was undertaken to find out the frequency of bla TEM, bla CTX-M, and bla SHV genes among E. coli isolates from UTI and detect their sensitivity pattern...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709389/characterization-of-uropathogenic-e-coli-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections-phylogenetic-typing-and-distribution-of-virulence-associated-traits
#5
A Salehzadeh, H Zamani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707808/cytotoxic-necrotizing-factor-1-promotes-prostate-cancer-progression-through-activating-the-cdc42-pak1-axis
#6
Yaxiu Guo, Zhisong Zhang, Huiting Wei, Jingyu Wang, Junqiang Lv, Kai Zhang, Evan T Keller, Zhi Yao, Quan Wang
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of urinary tract infections and plays a role in prostatic carcinogenesis and prostate cancer (PCa) progression. However, the mechanisms through which UPEC promotes PCa development and progression are unclear. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) is one of the most important UPEC toxins and its role in PCa progression has never been studied. We found that UPEC-secreted CNF1 promoted the migration and invasion of PCa cells and PCa metastasis. In vitro studies showed that CNF1 promotes pro-migratory and pro-invasive activity through entering PCa cells and activating Cdc42, which subsequently induced PAK1 phosphorylation and upregulation of MMP-9 expression...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689873/chitosans-inhibit-the-growth-and-the-adhesion-of-klebsiella-pneumonia-and-escherichia-coli-clinical-isolates-on-urinary-catheters
#7
Raffaella Campana, Luca Casettari, Eleonora Ciandrini, Lisbeth Illum, Wally Baffone
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of different chitosans (CS) against typical colonizing pathogens of the urinary tract and to assess their efficacy against bacterial adhesion and the subsequent biofilm formation on urinary catheters. METHODS: The antimicrobial activity of high and low molecular weight CS (50 and 150 kDa) at pH 5.0 and 6.0 was tested against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli clinical isolates by time-killing studies...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683345/interaction-of-acylated-and-unacylated-forms-of-e-coli-alpha-hemolysin-with-lipid-monolayers-a-pm-irras-study
#8
Romina F Vázquez, María A Daza Millone, Felippe J Pavinatto, Vanesa S Herlax, Laura S Bakás, Osvaldo N Oliveira, María E Vela, Sabina M Maté
Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli produce virulence factors, such as the protein toxin alpha-hemolysin (HlyA), that enable the bacteria to colonize the host and establish an infection. HlyA is synthetized as a protoxin (ProHlyA) that is transformed into the active form in the bacterial cytosol by the covalent linkage of two fatty-acyl moieties to the polypeptide chain before the secretion of HlyA into the extracellular medium. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the fatty acylation of HlyA on protein conformation and protein-membrane interactions...
June 24, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683322/stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-mediates-immune-cell-attraction-upon-urinary-tract-infection
#9
Batya Isaacson, Tehila Hadad, Ariella Glasner, Chamutal Gur, Zvi Granot, Gilad Bachrach, Ofer Mandelboim
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common type of bacterial infection in humans. Fifty percent of all women will experience at least one UTI in their lifetime, with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) accounting for 80% of reported cases. UTI evokes a complex, well-timed immune response that is crucial for bacterial clearance. The majority of immune cells participating in the immune response are absent from the healthy bladder, and the mechanisms used to recruit them upon UTI are not fully understood...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681829/molecular-characterisation-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolates-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-south-india
#10
Arindam Chakraborty, Prabha Adhikari, Shalini Shenoy, Vishwas Saralaya
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) express a multitude of virulence factors (VFs) to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier of the urinary tract. The aim of the present study was undertaken to characterised the UPEC strains and to correlate carriage of specific virulence markers with different phylogroups and also to correlate these findings with clinical outcome of patients. A total of 156 non-repeated, clinically significant UPEC isolates were studied. Virulent genes were determined by two set of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681038/mounting-resistance-of-uropathogens-to-antimicrobial-agents-a-retrospective-study-in-patients-with-chronic-bacterial-prostatitis-relapse
#11
Konstantinos Stamatiou, Nikolaos Pierris
PURPOSE: Despite recent progress in the management of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), many cases relapse. Increased drug resistance patterns of responsible bacteria have been proposed as the most probable causative factor. Driven by the limited number of previous studies addressing this topic, we aimed to study whether antibiotic resistance increases in patients with CBP when relapse occurs. A secondary aim of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of responsible bacteria from patients with CBP...
July 2017: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671990/evaluation-of-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-healthy-chickens-to-determine-their-potential-risk-to-poultry-and-human-health
#12
Zachary R Stromberg, James R Johnson, John M Fairbrother, Jacquelyn Kilbourne, Angelica Van Goor, Roy Curtiss, Melha Mellata
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains are important pathogens that cause diverse diseases in humans and poultry. Some E. coli isolates from chicken feces contain ExPEC-associated virulence genes, so appear potentially pathogenic; they conceivably could be transmitted to humans through handling and/or consumption of contaminated meat. However, the actual extraintestinal virulence potential of chicken-source fecal E. coli is poorly understood. Here, we assessed whether fecal E. coli isolates from healthy production chickens could cause diseases in a chicken model of avian colibacillosis and three rodent models of ExPEC-associated human infections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668171/emerging-nanotechnology-based-strategies-for-diagnosis-and-therapeutics-of-urinary-tract-infections-a-review
#13
REVIEW
M S Kumar, A P Das
At present, various diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are available for urinary tract infections. But, still the quest for development of more rapid, accurate and reliable approach is an unending process. The pathogens, especially uropathogens are adapting to new environments and antibiotics day by day rapidly. Therefore, urinary tract infections are evolving as hectic and difficult to eradicate, increasing the economic burden to the society. The technological advances should be able to compete the adaptability characteristics of microorganisms to combat their growth in new environments and thereby preventing their infections...
June 26, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665978/testosterone-suppresses-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-invasion-and-colonization-within-prostate-cells-and-inhibits-inflammatory-responses-through-jak-stat-1-signaling-pathway
#14
Chen-Hsun Ho, Chia-Kwung Fan, Hong-Jeng Yu, Chia-Chang Wu, Kuan-Chou Chen, Shih-Ping Liu, Po-Ching Cheng
Prostatitis is a common condition in adult men of all ages. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are most frequent pathogen involved in bacterial prostatitis by refluxing the infected urine into prostatic ducts and resulting in an ascending urethral infection. However, the study about the mechanisms of UPEC to invade, replicate and persist in normal prostate epithelial cell is only few. Given the fact that UPEC is pathogen most frequently involved in prostatitis and that testosterone has been demonstrated to attenuate prostate inflammation caused by other etiologies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665281/experimental-model-for-acute-kidney-injury-caused-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
Beata Skowron, Agnieszka Baranowska, Jolanta Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Grażyna Więcek, Anna Malska-Woźniak, Piotr Heczko, Magdalena Strus
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the rapid deterioration of renal function, diagnosed on the basis of an increase in serum creatinine and abnormal urinary parameters. AKI is associated with increased risk of mortality or chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to develop an experimental model for AKI resulting from Escherichia coli-induced pyelonephritis. E. coli was isolated from a patient with clinical symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). MATERIAL/METHODS: The study included three groups of female Wistar rats (groups 1, 2 and 3), in which pyelonephritis was induced by transurethral inoculation with highly virulent E...
June 19, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659883/transcriptional-alterations-of-virulence-associated-genes-in-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-esbl-producing-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-during-morphologic-transitions-induced-by-ineffective-antibiotics
#16
Isak Demirel, Ignacio Rangel, Ulrika Petersson, Katarina Persson, Robert Kruse
It is known that an ineffective antibiotic treatment can induce morphological shifts in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) but the virulence properties during these shifts remain to be studied. The present study examines changes in global gene expression patterns and in virulence factor-associated genes in an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing UPEC (ESBL019) during the morphologic transitions induced by an ineffective antibiotic and in the presence of human primary bladder epithelial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655424/risk-factors-for-early-return-visits-to-the-emergency-department-in-patients-with-urinary-tract-infection
#17
Sarah Jorgensen, Mira Zurayk, Samantha Yeung, Jill Terry, Maureen Dunn, Paul Nieberg, Annie Wong-Beringer
BACKGROUND: Optimal management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the emergency department (ED) is challenging due to high patient turnover, decreased continuity of care, and treatment decisions made in the absence of microbiologic data. We sought to identify risk factors for return visits in ED patients treated for UTI. METHODS: A random sample of 350 adult ED patients with UTI by ICD 9/10 codes was selected for review. Relevant data was extracted from medical charts and compared between patients with and without ED return visits within 30days (ERVs)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654733/target-directed-dynamic-combinatorial-chemistry-a-study-on-potentials-and-pitfalls-as-exemplified-on-a-bacterial-target
#18
Beat Ernst, Priska Frei, Lijuan Pang, Marleen Silbermann, Deniz Eris, Tobias Mühlethaler, Oliver Schwardt
Target-directed dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) is an emerging technique for the efficient identification of inhibitors of pharmacologically relevant targets. In this contribution, we present an application for a bacterial target, the lectin FimH, a crucial virulence factor of uropathogenic E. coli being the main cause of urinary tract infections. A small dynamic library of acylhydrazones was formed from aldehydes and hydrazides and equilibrated at neutral pH in presence of aniline as nucleophilic catalyst...
June 27, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649705/naoh-hcl-neutralized-urine-preparation-for-direct-testing-of-uropathogens-by-bruker-ms
#19
Ji Seon Choi, Jayoung Kim, Han-Soo Kim, Chang-Wan Kwon, Min-Sung Kim, Seong-Hyeok Choi
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the analytical performance of a NaOH-HCl neutralization protocol for identifying uropathogens directly from urine samples by a Bruker MS system (Bruker Daltonics, German) and sought to establish a protocol for integrating the method with conventional screening. METHODS: Among all urine samples requested for Gram staining, UF-1000i, and urine cultures by physicians, we selected samples that were positive by both Gram staining and UF-1000i testing...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642992/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-pmqr-genes-and-class-1-integrons-in-quinolone-resistant-marine-bacteria-and-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-from-an-aquacultural-area
#20
Alexandra Tomova, Larisa Ivanova, Alejandro H Buschmann, Henry P Godfrey, Felipe C Cabello
Antimicrobial usage in aquaculture selects for antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in the marine environment. The relevance of this selection to terrestrial animal and human health is unclear. Quinolone-resistance genes qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS were chromosomally located in four randomly chosen quinolone-resistant marine bacteria isolated from an aquacultural area with heavy quinolone usage. In quinolone-resistant uropathogenic clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from a coastal area bordering the same aquacultural region, qnrA was chromosomally located in two E...
June 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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