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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340252/urinary-tract-infection-recent-insight-into-the-evolutionary-arms-race-between-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-our-immune-system
#1
Sebastian Schwab, Katarzyna Jobin, Christian Kurts
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Humans evolved various immune-dependent and independent defense mechanisms, while pathogens evolved multiple virulence factors to fight back. This article summarizes recent findings regarding the arms race between hosts and pathogens in UTIs. It was recently reported that macrophage subsets regulate neutrophil-mediated defense in primary UTIs but seem to subvert adaptive immunity upon re-infection. Moreover, some bacterial strains can survive inside macrophages, leading to recurrent infections...
March 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333758/cutaneous-burn-injury-modulates-urinary-antimicrobial-peptide-responses-and-the-urinary-microbiome
#2
Jennifer K Plichta, Casey J Holmes, Vanessa Nienhouse, Michelle Puszynski, Xiang Gao, Qunfeng Dong, Huaiying Lin, James Sinacore, Michael Zilliox, Evelyn Toh, David E Nelson, Richard L Gamelli, Katherine A Radek
OBJECTIVES: Characterization of urinary bacterial microbiome and antimicrobial peptides after burn injury to identify potential mechanisms leading to urinary tract infections and associated morbidities in burn patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using human urine from control and burn subjects. SETTING: University research laboratory. PATIENTS: Burn patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Urine samples from catheterized burn patients were collected hourly for up to 40 hours...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330863/bacterial-virulence-phenotypes-of-escherichia-coli-and-host-susceptibility-determine-risk-for-urinary-tract-infections
#3
Henry L Schreiber, Matt S Conover, Wen-Chi Chou, Michael E Hibbing, Abigail L Manson, Karen W Dodson, Thomas J Hannan, Pacita L Roberts, Ann E Stapleton, Thomas M Hooton, Jonathan Livny, Ashlee M Earl, Scott J Hultgren
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains. In contrast to many enteric E. coli pathogroups, no genetic signature has been identified for UPEC strains. We conducted a high-resolution comparative genomic study using E. coli isolates collected from the urine of women suffering from frequent recurrent UTIs. These isolates were genetically diverse and varied in their urovirulence, that is, their ability to infect the bladder in a mouse model of cystitis. We found no set of genes, including previously defined putative urovirulence factors (PUFs), that were predictive of urovirulence...
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326812/evaluation-of-reticulated-gelatin-hibiscus-propolis-against-intestinal-commensal-species-commonly-associated-with-urinary-tract-infections
#4
Maïwenn Olier, Soraya Sekkal, Cherryl Harkat, Hélène Eutamene, Vassilia Theodorou
AIM: Reticulated gelatin (RG), hibiscus and propolis (RGHP) is a medical device that can reduce the bacterial adherence to epithelial cultured cells and invasion by enteropathogens, thus gathering relevant properties to decrease the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed at evaluating in Wistar rats the efficacy of RGHP, RG and vehicle against intestinal commensals commonly involved in UTIs. METHODS: Animals received orally (with supplemental Na2CO3): RGHP 1540 mg/day/rat; RG 500 mg/day/rat or vehicle...
March 3, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320713/antimicrobial-percutaneous-nephrostomy-catheters-for-the-prevention-of-renal-infections-in-vitro-studies
#5
Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Ruth A Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Mohamed Jamal, Ariel D Szvalb, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Issam Raad
Purpose - Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheters are the primary method for draining ureters obstructed by malignancy and preventing a decline of the renal function. However, PCN-related infections such as pyelonephritis and urosepsis remain a significant concern. Currently no antimicrobial PCNs are available for preventing infectious complications. Vascular catheters impregnated with Minocycline/Rifampin (M/R) and M/R with Chlorhexidine coating (M/R+CHD) have previously demonstrated antimicrobial activity...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302076/uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-pathogenicity-islands-and-other-expec-virulence-genes-may-contribute-to-the-genome-variability-of-enteroinvasive-e-coli
#6
Laís Cristina da Silva, Ana Carolina de Mello Santos, Rosa Maria Silva
BACKGROUND: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) may be the causative agent of part of those million cases of diarrhea illness reported worldwide every year and attributable to Shigella. That is because both enteropathogens have many common characteristics that difficult their identification either by traditional microbiological methods or by molecular tools used in the clinical laboratory settings. While Shigella has been extensively studied, EIEC remains barely characterized at the molecular level...
March 16, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284733/utility-of-a-routine-urinalysis-in-children-who-require-clean-intermittent-catheterization
#7
C S Forster, D B Haslam, E Jackson, S L Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Children who require clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) frequently have positive urine cultures. However, diagnosing a urinary tract infection (UTI) can be difficult, as there are no standardized criteria. Routine urinalysis (UA) has good predictive accuracy for UTI in the general pediatric population, but data are limited on the utility of routine UA in the population of children who require CIC. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of UA parameters (e...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280842/in-vitro-effect-of-vaginal-lactobacilli-on-the-growth-and-adhesion-abilities-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#8
María Cecilia Leccese Terraf, María Silvina Juarez Tomás, Lucie Rault, Yves Le Loir, Sergine Even, María Elena Fátima Nader-Macías
Escherichia coli is one of the main causes of uncomplicated urinary tract infections and responsible of vaginal infections. Lactobacilli can inhibit this pathogen by the production of antimicrobial substances as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and/or bacteriocins. The aim of this work was to study the effects of beneficial vaginal lactobacilli on E. coli through in vitro experiments. The inhibitory activity of three vaginal Lactobacillus strains against E. coli was assessed using the agar plate diffusion. Moreover, the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL (Centro de Referencia para Lactobacilos Culture Collection) 1324 on the adhesion and internalization capabilities of E...
March 9, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280491/comparative-analysis-of-phylogenetic-assignment-of-human-and-avian-expec-and-fecal-commensal-escherichia-coli-using-the-previous-and-revised-clermont-phylogenetic-typing-methods-and-its-impact-on-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-apec-classification
#9
Catherine M Logue, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Bryon A Nicholson, Curt Doetkott, Nicolle L Barbieri, Lisa K Nolan
The Clermont scheme has been used for subtyping of Escherichia coli since it was initially described in early 2000. Since then, researchers have used the scheme to type and sub-type commensal E. coli and pathogenic E. coli, such as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), and compare their phylogenetic assignment by pathogenicity, serogroup, distribution among ExPEC of different host species and complement of virulence and resistance traits. Here, we compare assignments of human and avian ExPEC and commensal E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270957/prevalence-of-uropathogen-and-their-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-among-diabetic-patients
#10
Demiss Nigussie, Anteneh Amsalu
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health problem in Ethiopia. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and occasionally life-threatening condition among diabetic patients. Despite, all these problems, antibiotics are prescribed empirically which may adversely affect antibiotic resistance so far. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify the etiologic agents of UTI and their antibiotic resistance pattern among diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital...
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270808/transcriptional-control-of-dual-transporters-involved-in-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-utilization-reveals-their-distinct-roles-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#11
Wentong Cai, Xuwang Cai, Yongwu Yang, Shigan Yan, Haibin Zhang
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the primary causative agents of urinary tract infections. Some UPEC isolates are able to infect renal proximal tubule cells, and can potentially cause pyelonephritis. We have previously shown that to fulfill their physiological roles renal proximal tubule cells accumulate high concentrations of α-ketoglutarate (KG) and that gene cluster c5032-c5039 contribute to anaerobic utilization of KG by UPEC str. CFT073, thereby promoting its in vivo fitness. Given the importance of utilizing KG for UPEC, this study is designed to investigate the roles of two transporters KgtP and C5038 in KG utilization, their transcriptional regulation, and their contributions to UPEC fitness in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266511/immunity-to-uropathogens-the-emerging-roles-of-inflammasomes
#12
REVIEW
Claire Hamilton, Lionel Tan, Thomas Miethke, Paras K Anand
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) cause a huge burden of morbidity worldwide with recurrent UTIs becoming increasingly frequent owing to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Interactions between the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogens colonizing the urinary tract have been the focus of much research. Inflammasomes are part of the innate immune defence and can respond rapidly to infectious insult. Assembly of the multiprotein inflammasome complex activates caspase-1, processes proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, and induces pyroptosis...
March 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262045/recurrent-urinary-tract-infections-in-women-risk-factors-etiology-pathogenesis-and-prophylaxis
#13
Antonio Guglietta
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections in women, often as a recurrent disease. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common pathotype of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) found among patients with UTI. The human intestinal can act as a reservoir of UPEC, with the female urethra being infected by fecal material containing UPEC. Adhesion of bacteria to the epithelial cells of urogenital mucosa is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of UTI. Alternative nonantibiotic based approaches, such as mechanical barrier protection of the intestinal mucosa have been proposed to reduce bacterial adherence to intestinal epithelium, bacteria proliferation and decrease of the load of UPEC in the intestinal lumen and in the fecal material...
March 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253831/an-update-on-emerging-therapies-for-urinary-tract-infections
#14
Aneela Majeed, Sumaiah Alarfaj, Rabih Darouiche, Mayar Mohajer
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common healthcare-acquired infections, and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Worldwide use of antibiotics has led to a significant rise in resistant uropathogens emanating from both hospitals and communities. The huge concern of multidrug resistance (MDR) has led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to encourage drug companies to invest in the development of new antibiotics. Area covered: In this review we summarized data on already approved antibiotics, and selected emerging therapies that are currently in phase II and III trials with emphasis on complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs)...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248946/new-and-developing-diagnostic-technologies-for-urinary-tract-infections
#15
REVIEW
Michael Davenport, Kathleen E Mach, Linda M Dairiki Shortliffe, Niaz Banaei, Tza-Huei Wang, Joseph C Liao
Timely and accurate identification and determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens is central to the management of UTIs. Urine dipsticks are fast and amenable to point-of-care testing, but do not have adequate diagnostic accuracy or provide microbiological diagnosis. Urine culture with antimicrobial susceptibility testing takes 2-3 days and requires a clinical laboratory. The common use of empirical antibiotics has contributed to the rise of multidrug-resistant organisms, reducing treatment options and increasing costs...
March 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228557/surfactant-protein-a-inhibits-growth-and-adherence-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-to-protect-the-bladder-from-infection
#16
Jiro Hashimoto, Motoko Takahashi, Atsushi Saito, Masaki Murata, Yuichiro Kurimura, Chiaki Nishitani, Rina Takamiya, Yasuaki Uehara, Yoshihiro Hasegawa, Yoshiki Hiyama, Norimasa Sawada, Satoshi Takahashi, Naoya Masumori, Yoshio Kuroki, Shigeru Ariki
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a multifunctional host defense collectin that was first identified as a component of pulmonary surfactant. Although SP-A is also expressed in various tissues, including the urinary tract, its innate immune functions in nonpulmonary tissues are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to the bladder was enhanced in SP-A-deficient mice, which suggests that SP-A plays an important role in innate immunity against UPEC...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217700/the-multiple-antibacterial-activities-of-the-bladder-epithelium
#17
REVIEW
Jianxuan Wu, Yuxuan Miao, Soman N Abraham
The urinary tract is subject to frequent challenges from the gut microflora. Indeed, up to 40% of women will experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) contribute to an overwhelming majority of these cases and they typically initiate UTIs by invading the superficial epithelium that lines the bladder lumen. In addition to serving as an effective barrier to noxious agents found in urine, bladder epithelial cells (BECs) play a key physiological role in regulating bladder volume to accommodate urine flow...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217123/virulence-markers-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-strains-with-hybrid-eaec-upec-genotypes-recovered-from-sporadic-cases-of-extraintestinal-infections
#18
Flaviane B M Lara, Danielly R Nery, Pâmela M de Oliveira, Mayana L Araujo, Fabiana R Q Carvalho, Lorena C F Messias-Silva, Leonardo B Ferreira, Celio Faria-Junior, Alex L Pereira
Virulence genes from different E. coli pathotypes are blended in hybrid strains. E. coli strains with hybrid enteroaggregative/uropathogenic (EAEC/UPEC) genotypes have sporadically emerged causing outbreaks of extraintestinal infections, however their association with routine infections is yet underappreciated. We assessed 258 isolates of E. coli recovered from 86 consecutive cases of extraintestinal infections seeking EAEC and hybrid genotype (EAEC/UPEC) strains. Extensive virulence genotyping was carried out to detect 21 virulence genes, including molecular predictors of EAEC and UPEC strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208853/genotypic-characterization-of-virulence-factors-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-patients-with-acute-cystitis-pyelonephritis-and-asymptomatic-bacteriuria
#19
Mohsen Tabasi, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Mehri Habibi, Ehsan Mostafavi, Saeid Bouzari
INTRODUCTION: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infections worldwide. It is well-documented that the pathogenesis of UPEC is mediated by the production of a wide variety of Virulence Factors (VFs). Thus, detection of these VFs and evaluation of their association with different clinical types of UTIs could help to understand the role of these factors in pathogenesis of UPEC isolates. AIM: To investigate the genotypic characteristics of UPEC isolates and to examine the relationship between VFs and different clinical symptoms of UTI...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208529/re-whole-genome-sequencing-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-reveals-long-evolutionary-history-of-diversity-and-virulence
#20
Edward M Schaeffer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Urology
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