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Uropathogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158143/urinary-concentration-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-tobramycin-in-healthy-volunteers-receiving-a-single-oral-dose-of-a-novel-formulation-for-improved-absorption
#1
Maria Loose, Kurt G Naber, Paul Shields, Harald Reinhart, Florian M E Wagenlehner
BACKGROUND: Oral antibiotics for the treatment of UTI are scarce. In this ex vivo phase 1 annex study, clinical safety, urinary concentrations and bactericidal activity of a new formulation for improved oral absorption of tobramycin (Tobrate(TM)) were evaluated. METHODS: The minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC/MBC) of five test strains, one reference strain and four clinical uropathogenic strains, were determined in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton Broth (CAMHB) and in pooled antimicrobial agent-free urine of the subjects at different pH (5...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149965/comparision-of-ureteral-stent-colonization-between-deceased-and-live-donor-renal-transplant-recipients
#2
M Sarier, D Seyman, S Tekin, I Duman, B Uygun, M Demir, E Kukul, A H Yavuz
BACKGROUND: The use of a ureteral stent can cause a urinary tract infection (UTI), although it reduces urologic complications. UTIs are associated with a higher rate of ureteral stent colonization (USC). The aim of this study was to compare USC in living and deceased donor renal transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 48 patients who underwent renal transplantation between January and December 2016. The stents were removed aseptically, the inner surface of proximal and distal ends of stents were irrigated with liquid culture medium, and then they were vortexed for bacteriological investigation...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149329/polymyxin-derivatives-nab739-and-nab815-are-more-effective-than-polymyxin-b-in-murine-escherichia-coli-pyelonephritis
#3
Martti Vaara, Timo Vaara, Carina Vingsbo Lundberg
Objectives: Extremely multiresistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae, such as those of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are emerging and spreading at a worrisome speed. Polymyxins (polymyxin B, colistin) are used as last-line therapy against such strains, in spite of their notable nephrotoxicity that may even require discontinuation of the therapy. We have previously developed polymyxin derivatives NAB739 and NAB815 that are better tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys than polymyxin B and are, in contrast to polymyxin B, excreted in the cynomolgus urine to a very significant degree...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147962/retrospective-review-of-ceftriaxone-versus-levofloxacin-for-treatment-of-e-coli-urinary-tract-infections
#4
Samantha S Wang, Patrick D Ratliff, William R Judd
Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections. Options for initial treatment of pyelonephritis or UTI requiring hospitalization include levofloxacin (LVF) or extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Globally, uropathogenic Escherichia coli resistance rates to fluoroquinolones have increased in recent years. Objective To compare clinical outcomes of patients receiving ceftriaxone (CTX) to those who received LVF empirically for the treatment of E. coli UTI. Setting 433-bed community hospital in Lexington, KY...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142104/constraints-on-lateral-gene-transfer-in-promoting-fimbrial-usher-protein-diversity-and-function
#5
Christopher J Stubenrauch, Gordon Dougan, Trevor Lithgow, Eva Heinz
Fimbriae are long, adhesive structures widespread throughout members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are multimeric extrusions, which are moved out of the bacterial cell through an integral outer membrane protein called usher. The complex folding mechanics of the usher protein were recently revealed to be catalysed by the membrane-embedded translocation and assembly module (TAM). Here, we examine the diversity of usher proteins across a wide range of extraintestinal (ExPEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli, and further focus on a so far undescribed chaperone-usher system, with this usher referred to as UshC...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139494/discovery-of-nicoyamycin-a-an-inhibitor-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-growth-in-low-iron-environments
#6
Laura A Mike, Ashootosh Tripathi, Connor M Blankenship, Alyssa Saluk, Pamela J Schultz, Giselle Tamayo-Castillo, David H Sherman, Harry L T Mobley
High-throughput screening and activity-guided purification identified nicoyamycin A, a natural product comprised of an uncommon 3-methyl-1,4-dioxane ring incorporated into a desferrioxamine-like backbone via a spiroaminal linkage. Nicoyamycin A potently inhibits uropathogenic Escherichia coli growth in low iron medium, a promising step toward developing novel antibiotics to treat recalcitrant bacterial infections.
November 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138665/-epidemiological-profile-of-uropathogenic-enterobacteria-producing-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases
#7
Mohammed Sbiti, Khalid Lahmadi, Lhoussaine Louzi
Urinary tract infections due to enterobacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL-E) constitute a infectious risk, a major therapeutic challenge and can even lead, in some cases, to a deadlock beacuse of their multi-resistance to antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological profile of uropathogenic ESBL-E and to describe their current level of resistance to antibiotics for a better patient management according to local data. We conducted a retrospective study of all ESBL-E strains isolated from all cytobacteriogical testing of urine (CBEU) treated in the Microbiology Laboratory at the Military Hospital of Moulay Ismail, Meknes over a period of three years (from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135902/should-the-absence-of-urinary-nitrite-influence-empiric-antibiotics-for-urinary-tract-infection-in-young-children
#8
Pradip P Chaudhari, Michael C Monuteaux, Richard G Bachur
OBJECTIVES: Screening for urinary tract infection (UTI) includes urinary nitrite testing by dipstick urinalysis. Gram-negative enteric organisms produce urinary nitrite and represent the most common uropathogens. Enterococcus, a less common uropathogen, does not produce nitrite and has a unique antibiotic resistance pattern. Whether to adjust empiric antibiotics in the absence of urinary nitrite has not been established. Our primary objective was to determine prevalence of enterococcal UTI among young children with a nitrite negative urinalysis...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129382/the-cryoelectron-microscopy-structure-of-the-type-1-chaperone-usher-pilus-rod
#9
Manuela K Hospenthal, Dawid Zyla, Tiago R D Costa, Adam Redzej, Christoph Giese, James Lillington, Rudi Glockshuber, Gabriel Waksman
Adhesive chaperone-usher pili are long, supramolecular protein fibers displayed on the surface of many bacterial pathogens. The type 1 and P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) play important roles during urinary tract colonization, mediating attachment to the bladder and kidney, respectively. The biomechanical properties of the helical pilus rods allow them to reversibly uncoil in response to flow-induced forces, allowing UPEC to retain a foothold in the unique and hostile environment of the urinary tract...
November 7, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124247/chlamydia-trachomatis-versus-common-uropathogens-as-a-cause-of-chronic-bacterial-prostatitis-is-there-any-difference-results-of-a-prospective-parallel-cohort-study
#10
Tommaso Cai, Francesca Pisano, Gabriella Nesi, Vittorio Magri, Paolo Verze, Gianpaolo Perletti, Paolo Gontero, Vincenzo Mirone, Riccardo Bartoletti
Purpose: The role of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is well known. What is unclear is whether there are any differences in the course or clinical outcome of the disease when the cause is CT or other uropathogens. Materials and Methods: A series of 311 patients affected by CBP due to CT (cohort A) was compared with a group of 524 patients affected by CBP caused by common uropathogen bacteria (cohort B). All participants completed the following questionnaires: National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index, International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function-15 erectile function domain (IIEF-15-EFD), Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey...
November 2017: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117462/striking-an-access-to-the-bacteria-via-reversible-control-of-lipophilicity
#11
Anzhela Galstyan, Johannes Putze, Ulrich Dobrindt
Development of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is highly dependent on the development of suitable photosensitizers (PS): ideally affinity of PS towards bacterial cells should be much higher than towards mammalian cells. Cationic charge of PS may lead to selective binding of PS to bacteria mediated by electrostatic interaction; however, the photodynamic outcome is highly dependent on the lipophilicity of PS. Herein we report the aPDT effect of silicon(IV)phthalocyanine derivatives bearing four positive charges and methyl, phenyl or naphthyl substituents on the periphery of the macrocycle...
November 8, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109580/fosfomycin-susceptibility-in-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-species-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-urinary-isolates
#12
Linda B Ou, Lynn Nadeau
Background: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to drug-resistant species of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus (e.g., organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL] or AmpC β-lactamase, as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]). However, this type of therapy can promote selection of resistant organisms and may necessitate venous access. Fosfomycin is an orally administered, single-dose antibiotic for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102123/convergence-of-plasmid-architectures-drives-emergence-of-multi-drug-resistance-in-a-clonally-diverse-escherichia-coli-population-from-a-veterinary-clinical-care-setting
#13
Sam Wagner, Nadejda Lupolova, David L Gally, Sally A Argyle
The purpose of this study was to determine the plasmid architecture and context of resistance genes in multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections in dogs. Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing were applied to assemble the complete genomes of E. coli strains associated with clinical urinary tract infections, which were either phenotypically MDR or drug susceptible. This revealed that multiple distinct families of plasmids were associated with building an MDR phenotype...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096062/disassembly-of-bacterial-biofilms-by-the-self-assembled-glycolipids-derived-from-renewable-resources
#14
Yadavali Siva Prasad, Sandeep Miryala, Krishnamoorthy Lalitha, K Ranjitha, Shehnaz Barbhaiwala, Vellaisamy Sridharan, C Uma Maheswari, C S Srinandan, Subbiah Nagarajan
More than 80% of chronic infections of bacteria are caused by biofilms. It is also a long-term survival strategy of the pathogens in a nonhost environment. Several amphiphilic molecules have been used in the past to potentially disrupt biofilms; however, the involvement of multistep synthesis, complicated purification and poor yield still remains a major problem. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of glycolipid based surfactant from renewable feedstocks in good yield. The nature of carbohydrate unit present in glycolipid influence the ring chain tautomerism, which resulted in the existence of either cyclic structure or both cyclic and acyclic structures...
November 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093320/international-comparison-of-causative-bacteria-and-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of-urinary-tract-infections-between-kobe-japan-and-surabaya-indonesia
#15
Koichi Kitagawa, Katsumi Shigemura, Fukashi Yamamichi, Lindawati Alimsardjono, Dadik Rahardjo, Kuntaman Kuntaman, Toshiro Shirakawa, Masato Fujisawa
The urinary tract infection (UTI)-causative bacteria have variation among countries partly owing to the difference of antibiotic uses. To compare their frequency and antibiotic susceptibilities between Kobe, Japan and Surabaya, Indonesia, we retrospectively analyzed 1,804 samples from UTI patients (1,251 from Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, and 544 from Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya) in 2014. Surabaya data were divided to adults and pediatrics because substantial number of pediatric-patients were collected...
October 31, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091192/modifications-in-the-pmrb-gene-are-the-primary-mechanism-for-the-development-of-chromosomally-encoded-resistance-to-polymyxins-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#16
Minh-Duy Phan, Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, Maud E S Achard, Brian M Forde, Kar Wai Hong, Teik Min Chong, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan, Nicholas P West, Mark J Walker, David L Paterson, Scott A Beatson, Mark A Schembri
Objectives: Polymyxins remain one of the last-resort drugs to treat infections caused by MDR Gram-negative pathogens. Here, we determined the mechanisms by which chromosomally encoded resistance to colistin and polymyxin B can arise in the MDR uropathogenic Escherichia coli ST131 reference strain EC958. Methods: Two complementary approaches, saturated transposon mutagenesis and spontaneous mutation induction with high concentrations of colistin and polymyxin B, were employed to select for mutations associated with resistance to polymyxins...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069656/cyclosporine-a-induces-micrornas-controlling-innate-immunity-during-renal-bacterial-infection
#17
Malick Sadio, Emilie Tourneur, Marcelle Bens, Jean-Michel Goujon, Alain Vandewalle, Cécilia Chassin
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) mainly due to uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are one of the most frequent complications in kidney-transplanted patients, causing significant morbidity. However, the mechanisms underlying UTI in renal grafts remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed the effects of the potent immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA) on the activation of collecting duct cells that represent a preferential site of adhesion and translocation for UPEC. CsA induced the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide- induced activation of collecting duct cells due to the downregulation of the expression of TLR4 via the microRNA Let-7i...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066548/genome-wide-discovery-of-genes-required-for-capsule-production-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#18
Kelvin G K Goh, Minh-Duy Phan, Brian M Forde, Teik Min Chong, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan, Glen C Ulett, Matthew J Sweet, Scott A Beatson, Mark A Schembri
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections and possesses an array of virulence factors for colonization, survival, and persistence. One such factor is the polysaccharide K capsule. Among the different K capsule types, the K1 serotype is strongly associated with UPEC infection. In this study, we completely sequenced the K1 UPEC urosepsis strain PA45B and employed a novel combination of a lytic K1 capsule-specific phage, saturated Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to identify the complement of genes required for capsule production...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066378/the-influence-of-tissue-antioxidant-enzymes-and-inflammatory-cascade-in-pathology-of-cystitis-an-experimental-rat-model
#19
A Vysakh, D Suma, Kuriakose Jayesh, Mathew Jyothis, M S Latha
We evaluate the role of antioxidant enzyme status and inflammatory cascade in disease progression of cystitis in a rat model. The animals were injected with clinically isolated Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and study the effect of various antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory markers in disease pathology on the 0(th) day, 12 h and 7(th) day of infection. The antioxidant status of bladder tissue was decreased during the 7(th) day of infection. Lipid peroxidation marker MDA was increased on the 7(th) day of infection in rats...
October 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038275/in-vivo-bioluminescent-monitoring-of-therapeutic-efficacy-and-pharmacodynamic-target-assessment-of-antofloxacin-against-escherichia-coli-in-a-neutropenic-murine-thigh-infection-model
#20
Yu-Feng Zhou, Meng-Ting Tao, Yu-Zhang He, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu, Xiao-Ping Liao
Antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens has increased infection-related morbidity and mortality. Antofloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against urinary Gram-negative bacilli such as Escherichia coli This study monitored the in vivo efficacy of antofloxacin using bioluminescence imaging and determined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets against E. coli isolates in a neutropenic murine thigh infection model. The PK properties were performed after subcutaneous antofloxacin administration of 2...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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