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Qiang Wang, Akram A Da'dara, Patrick J Skelly
BACKGROUND: Schistosomes are blood dwelling parasitic worms that cause the debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Here we examined the influence of the parasites on their external environment by monitoring the impact of adult Schistosoma mansoni worms on the murine plasma proteome in vitro and, in particular, on how the worms affect the blood coagulation protein high molecular weight kininogen (HK). METHODS: Following the incubation of adult schistosomes in murine plasma, two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was conducted to look for changes in the plasma proteome compared with control plasma...
March 14, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Palida Emmanoch, Nanthawat Kosa, Suksiri Vichasri-Grams, Smarn Tesana, Rudi Grams, Amornrat Geadkaew-Krenc
Four isoforms of calcium binding proteins containing 2 EF hand motifs and a dynein light chain-like domain in the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini , namely OvCaBP1, 2, 3, and 4, were characterized. They had molecular weights of 22.7, 21.6, 23.7, and 22.5 kDa, respectively and showed 37.2-42.1% sequence identity to CaBP22.8 of O. viverrini . All were detected in 2- and 4-week-old immature and mature parasites. Additionally, OvCaBP4 was found in newly excysted juveniles. Polyclonal antibodies against each isoform were generated to detect the native proteins in parasite extracts by Western blot analysis...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Jong-Yil Chai, Woon-Mok Sohn, Jaeeun Cho, Keeseon S Eom, Tai-Soon Yong, Duk-Young Min, Eui-Hyug Hoang, Bounlay Phommasack, Bounnaloth Insisiengmay, Han-Jong Rim
Adult specimens of Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) were recovered from 2 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, they revealed echinostome eggs together with eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini (and minute intestinal fluke eggs) and hookworms. To recover the adult flukes, they were treated with praziquantel 30-40 mg/kg in a single dose and purged with magnesium salts...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Ricardo A Orbegozo-Medina, Victoria Martínez-Sernández, Marta González-Warleta, José Antonio Castro-Hermida, Mercedes Mezo, Florencio M Ubeira
Fasciolosis continues to be a major cause of economic losses in the livestock industry and a growing threat to humans. The limited spectrum of effective anthelmintics and the appearance of resistances urge the need for developing an effective vaccine. Most studies have been focused on the use of TH1 -polarizing adjuvants and the use of recombinant Fasciola critical molecules and, despite the efforts, no reproducible protections have been achieved. The F. hepatica MF6p/FhHDM-1 protein is a heme-binding protein also reported to have immunomodulatory properties, constituting a promising target for vaccination and/or as target for the development of new flukicides...
March 8, 2018: Vaccine
William T Gough, Frank E Fish, Dylan K Wainwright, Hilary Bart-Smith
The cetacean tail fluke blades are not supported by any vertebral elements. Instead, the majority of the blades are composed of a densely packed collagenous fiber matrix known as the core layer. Fluke blades from six species of odontocete cetaceans were examined to compare the morphology and orientation of fibers at different locations along the spanwise and chordwise fluke blade axes. The general fiber morphology was consistent with a three-dimensional structure comprised of two-dimensional sheets of fibers aligned tightly in a laminated configuration along the spanwise axis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Gregory F Albery, Fiona Kenyon, Alison Morris, Sean Morris, Daniel H Nussey, Josephine M Pemberton
Parasitism in wild mammals can vary according to myriad intrinsic and extrinsic factors, many of which vary seasonally. However, seasonal variation in parasitism is rarely studied using repeated samples from known individuals. Here we used a wild population of individually recognized red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Isle of Rum to quantify seasonality and intrinsic factors affecting gastrointestinal helminth parasitism over the course of a year. We collected 1020 non-invasive faecal samples from 328 known individuals which we then analysed for propagules of three helminth taxa: strongyle nematodes, the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and the tissue nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi...
March 9, 2018: Parasitology
Stacey L Schepens Niemiec, Jeanine Blanchard, Cheryl L P Vigen, Jenny Martínez, Laura Guzmán, Michelle Fluke, Mike Carlson
Older, rural-dwelling Latinos face multiple health disparities. We describe the protocol of a pilot study of a community health worker-occupational therapist-led lifestyle program, ¡Vivir Mi Vida! ( ¡VMV!), designed for delivery in primary care and adapted for late-midlife, Latino rural-living patients. Using mixed methods, we collected feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy data on ¡VMV!. Forty 50- to 64-year-old Latinos participated in a 16-week lifestyle intervention led by a community health worker-occupational therapist team...
March 1, 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
Lu Zhao, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Hengchang Sun, Xiaona Zhang, Lei He, Zeli Tang, Caiqin Wang, Yinjuan Wu, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Xinyi Zhou, Zhipeng Lin, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu, Yan Huang
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is the most widespread human liver fluke in East Asia including China and Korea. Clonorchiasis as a neglected tropical zoonosis, leads to serious economic and public health burden in China. There are considerable evidences for an etiological relation between chronic clonorchiasis and liver fibrosis in human beings. Liver fibrosis is a highly conserved and over-protected response to hepatic tissue injury. Immune cells including CD4+ T cell as well as dendritic cell (DC), and pro-fibrogenic cytokines like interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13 have been identified as vital manipulators in liver fibrogenesis...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Brandon Haugen, Shannon E Karinshak, Victoria H Mann, Anastas Popratiloff, Alex Loukas, Paul J Brindley, Michael J Smout
The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne, zoonotic pathogen endemic to Thailand and adjacent countries in Southeast Asia. The adult developmental stage of the O. viverrini parasite excretes and secretes numerous proteins within the biliary tract including the gall bladder. Lesions caused by the feeding activities of the liver fluke represent wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing and re-injury during chronic infection, which can last for decades. Components of the excretory/secretory (ES) complement released by the worms capably drive proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells and are implicated in establishing the oncogenic milieu that leads to bile duct cancer, cholangiocarcinoma...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Jan Dvořák, Martin Horn
Trematodes, also known as flukes, are phylogenetically ancient parasitic organisms. Due to their importance as human and veterinary parasites, their proteins have been investigated extensively as drug and vaccine targets. Among those, proteases, as crucial enzymes for parasite survival, are considered candidate molecules for anti-parasitic interventions. Surprisingly however, trematode serine proteases, in comparison with other groups of proteases, are largely neglected. Genes encoding serine proteases have been identified in trematode genomes in significant abundance, but the biological roles and biochemical functions of these proteases are poorly understood...
February 22, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Krystyna Cwiklinski, John P Dalton
The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is an economically important pathogen of livestock worldwide, as well as being an important neglected zoonosis. Parasite control is reliant on the use of drugs, particularly triclabendazole, which is effective against multiple parasite stages. However, the spread of parasites resistant to triclabendazole has intensified the pursuit for novel control strategies. Emerging - omic technologies are helping advance our understanding of liver fluke biology, specifically the molecules that act at the host-parasite interface and are central to infection, virulence and long-term survival within the definitive host...
February 21, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Paul McVeigh, Erin McCammick, Paul McCusker, Duncan Wells, Jane Hodgkinson, Steve Paterson, Angela Mousley, Nikki J Marks, Aaron G Maule
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are established drug targets. Despite their considerable appeal as targets for next-generation anthelmintics, poor understanding of their diversity and function in parasitic helminths has thwarted progress towards GPCR-targeted anti-parasite drugs. This study facilitates GPCR research in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, by generating the first profile of GPCRs from the F. hepatica genome. Our dataset describes 147 high confidence GPCRs, representing the largest cohort of GPCRs, and the largest set of in silico ligand-receptor predictions, yet reported in any parasitic helminth...
February 5, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Daxi Wang, Pasi K Korhonen, Robin B Gasser, Neil D Young
Clonorchis sinensis (family Opisthorchiidae) is an important foodborne parasite that has a major socioeconomic impact on ~35 million people predominantly in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. In humans, infection with C. sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a complex hepatobiliary disease that can induce cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignant cancer of the bile ducts. Central to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite...
February 15, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Iman F Abou-El-Naga
Schistosomiasis is a snail-transmitted infectious disease caused by a long lasting infection with a blood fluke of the genus Schistosoma. S. haematobium and S. mansoni are the species endemic in Egypt. The country has been plagued and seriously suffered from schistosomiasis over the past 5000 years. Great strides had been done in controlling the disease since 1922. The history, epidemiology and the different control approaches were reviewed. Currently, Egypt is preparing towards schistosomiasis elimination by 2020...
February 14, 2018: Acta Tropica
Danuta Maria Wisniewska, Mark Johnson, Jonas Teilmann, Ursula Siebert, Anders Galatius, Rune Dietz, Peter Teglberg Madsen
Shipping is the dominant marine anthropogenic noise source in the world's oceans, yet we know little about vessel encounter rates, exposure levels and behavioural reactions for cetaceans in the wild, many of which rely on sound for foraging, communication and social interactions. Here, we used animal-borne acoustic tags to measure vessel noise exposure and foraging efforts in seven harbour porpoises in highly trafficked coastal waters. Tagged porpoises encountered vessel noise 17-89% of the time and occasional high-noise levels coincided with vigorous fluking, bottom diving, interrupted foraging and even cessation of echolocation, leading to significantly fewer prey capture attempts at received levels greater than 96 dB re 1 µPa (16 kHz third-octave)...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
William Cevallos, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Manuel Calvopiña, María Buendía-Sánchez, Julio López-Abán, Belén Vicente, Antonio Muro
Amphimeriasis, a fish-borne zoonotic disease caused by the liver fluke Amphimerus spp., has recently been reported as an emerging disease affecting an indigenous Ameridian group, the Chachi, living in Ecuador. The only method for diagnosing amphimeriasis was the microscopic detection of eggs from the parasite in patients' stool samples with very low sensitivity. Our group developed an ELISA technique for detection of anti-Amphimerus IgG in human sera and a molecular method based on LAMP technology (named LAMPhimerus) for specific and sensitive parasite DNA detection...
2018: PloS One
A Trujillo-González, J A Becker, D B Vaughan, K S Hutson
The ornamental fish trade provides a pathway for the global translocation of aquatic parasites. We examined a total of 1020 fish imported from Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, or Sri Lanka to Australia (including freshwater and marine fish species) for monogenean ectoparasites. Fish were received following veterinary certification that they showed no clinical signs of pests and diseases from the exporting country and visual inspection at Australian border control. Australian import conditions require mandatory treatment for goldfish with parasiticides (e...
February 9, 2018: Parasitology Research
Alison K Howell, Sue C Tongue, Carol Currie, Judith Evans, Diana J L Williams, Tom N McNeilly
Escherichia coli O157 is a zoonotic bacterium that can cause haemorrhagic diarrhoea in humans and is of worldwide public health concern. Cattle are considered to be the main reservoir for human infection. Fasciola hepatica is a globally important parasite of ruminant livestock that is known to modulate its host's immune response and affect susceptibility to bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella Dublin. Shedding of E. coli O157 is triggered by unknown events, but the immune system is thought to play a part...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Liang Zhang, Kristen Vanderhorst, Kurt Kyser, Linda Campbell
White grub flukes, Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi (Trematoda), and hookworms Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli (Acanthocephala) are common internal parasites for many North American freshwater fishes. P. minimum are found as cysts in internal organ tissues, while P. bulbocolli are found as sexually mature adults in gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) are commonly used to infer food web relationships in freshwater lakes. To see if δ13C and δ15N could be used to analyze parasite-host relationships, we analyzed the stable isotopes of the two species of parasites and various tissue types of their fish hosts (bluegill and pumpkinseed sunfish) from different host tissues...
February 2, 2018: Parasitology Research
Trista Cheng, Brandon Halper, Jennifer Siebert, Luis Cruz-Martinez, Aspinas Chapwanya, Patrick Kelly, Jennifer K Ketzis, Jeffrey Vessell, Liza Köster, Chaoqun Yao
Herpestes auropunctatus, the small Indian mongoose, is an invasive omnivore introduced to the Caribbean, including the island of St. Kitts over 150 years ago. It has played a role in changing native fauna and can carry zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of parasites harbored by mongooses. In total, 87 mongooses trapped from April to July 2015 were examined for parasites using (1) hair plucks (N = 79), ear swabs (N = 79), and general coat and skin examination (N = 87) for mites, ticks, lice, and fleas; (2) dissection of the trachea, bronchi, and lungs for lungworms and flukes (N = 76); (3) a double centrifugation fecal flotation method for parasites of the gastrointestinal tract (N = 75); and (4) PCR of heart homogenates for Toxoplasma gondii (N = 60)...
January 30, 2018: Parasitology Research
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