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Panat Anuracpreeda, Amaya Watthanadirek, Runglawan Chawengkirttikul, Prasert Sobhon
A number of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against the 16 kDa antigen of Paramphistomum gracile (16 kDaAgPg) were produced in vitro by hybridoma technique. Reactivity and specificity of these MoAbs were evaluated by ELISA and immunoblotting assays. Seven MoAb clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1D10, 2D7, 3B10, 3D9, 4F1, 4G4, and 5G12. It was found to be IgM and kappa light chain isotypes. By immunoblotting and ELISA, all MoAbs reacted with purified 16 kDaAgPg at molecular weight (MW) of 16 kDa and with the native 16 kDa antigen at MW of 16 kDa in the whole body (WB) and excretory-secretory (ES) fractions, but not with tegumental antigens (TA) of adult fluke...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
Arpa Surapaitoon, Sutas Suttiprapa, Narong Khuntikeo, Chawalit Pairojkul
The carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini causes chronic inflammation in the bile duct and resulting in unremitting tissue damage that lead to hepatobiliary diseases, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Despite inflammatory cytokine expression having been studied in the animal model, so far no studies have been carried out on cytokines in human CCA cases. Here we report the profile of cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from O. viverrini-associated human CCA and uninfected normal controls after stimulation with O...
October 18, 2016: Parasitology International
Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I Bukrinsky, Paul J Brindley
Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
M M O Abdelaal, G P Brennan, A Abdel-Aziz, I Fairweather
An in vivo study in the laboratory rat model has been carried out to monitor changes to the tegument and gut of adult Fasciola hepatica following treatment with myrrh ('Mirazid'). Rats infected with the triclabendazole-resistant Dutch isolate were dosed orally with Mirazid at a concentration of 250 mg/kg and flukes recovered 2, 3 and 7 days post-treatment (pt). The flukes were processed for examination by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A variety of changes to the external surface were observed, culminating in the sloughing of the tegumental syncytium...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Chinh Dang Van, Galayanee Doungchawee, Sutas Suttiprapa, Yuji Arimatsu, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Banchob Sripa
Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is an important foodborne trematodiasis in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Interestingly, the opisthorchiasis endemic region overlaps with an area of leptospirosis emergence. Here we report an association between opisthorchiasis and leptospirosis in Thailand. Of 280 sera collected from villagers living around the Lawa wetland complex in Khon Kaen province, 199 (71%) were seropositive for leptospirosis by immunochromatography. Individuals with O. viverrini infection had a significantly higher rate of leptospirosis than those without (P=0...
October 13, 2016: Parasitology International
Vladimir V Besprozvannykh, Konstantin V Rozhkovan, Alexey V Ermolenko
Echinostomatoidea is a large, globally distributed and heterogeneous group of hermaphroditic digeneans that parasite, as adults, vertebrate hosts of all classes. Species of this group have received attention from researchers as they can cause diseases in wildlife and humans. Here we describe the biological and molecular phylogenetic characteristics of Stephanoprora chasanensis n. sp. (Digenea: Echinochasmidae). The life cycle of this fluke was experimentally completed by the use of hosts, i.e. Stenothyra recondite Lindholm, 1929 snail (the 1st intermediate), Rhynchocypris percnurus mantschuricus (Berg, 1907) freshwater fish (the 2nd intermediate) and Gallus gallus chicken (the definitive host)...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology International
Russell Q-Y Yong, Scott C Cutmore, Terrence L Miller, Nicholas Q-X Wee, Thomas H Cribb
Two new species of Cardicola Short, 1953 are described from the milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskål (Gonorynchiformes: Chanidae), obtained from off Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and North Stradbroke Island in southeast Queensland. These are the first known blood flukes from this order of fishes. Cardicola suni n. sp. differs from all other Cardicola spp. by a combination of a large ovoid oral sucker surrounding a subterminal mouth, recurved tegumental spines up to 16 μm long, anterior caeca occupying 25...
November 2016: Systematic Parasitology
Chamraj Kaewraemruaen, Rasana W Sermswan, Surasakdi Wongratanacheewin
Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg)...
October 11, 2016: Acta Tropica
Ludmila Juhásová, Ivica Králová-Hromadová, Eva Bazsalovicsová, Gabriel Minárik, Jan Štefka, Peter Mikulíček, Lenka Pálková, Margo Pybus
BACKGROUND: Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae) is an important liver parasite of a wide range of free-living and domestic ruminants; it represents a remarkable species due to its large spatial distribution, invasive character, and potential to colonize new territories. The present study provides patterns of population genetic structure and admixture in F. magna across all enzootic regions in North America and natural foci in Europe, and infers migratory routes of the parasite on both continents...
October 13, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Bruce A Wilcox, Pierre Echaubard
This review examines the association of Asian liver flukes and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) from the standpoint of two contrasting research perspectives: that aligned with the biomedical model predominantly employed to date; and, that aligned with ecological (and evolutionary) thinking increasingly being used to frame research questions that address this association in Northeast Thailand. An examination of the assumptions that underlie most of this research, requisite of evidence-based health research, shows how a broadened research frame that incorporates 'ecologic' perspectives provides alternatives to the prevailing scientific interpretations and public narrative...
October 8, 2016: Parasitology International
Shuohan Zheng, Yuan Zhu, Zijun Zhao, Zhongdao Wu, Kamolnetr Okanurak, Zhiyue Lv
Parasites are significant groups for carcinogenesis among which liver flukes, including Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, are typical representatives causing cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the second most common primary hepatic malignancy with dismal prognosis. O. viverrini is prevalent in Southeast Asia, infecting 10 million people while C. sinensis has a wider distribution in East Asia and several Southeast Asian countries, affecting more than 35 million people's health. These two worms have some common characteristics and/or discrepancies in life cycle, genome, and transcriptome...
October 8, 2016: Parasitology Research
Priscilla Masamba, Abiola Fatimah Adenowo, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Abidemi Paul Kappo
In spite of various control measures and eradication methods that have been in progress, schistosomiasis still prevails as one of the most prevalent debilitating parasitic diseases, typically affecting the poor and the underprivileged that are predominantly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasitic schistosome blood fluke responsible for causing the disease completes its complex developmental cycle in two hosts: humans and freshwater snails, where they physically undergo gross modifications to endure the different conditions associated with each host...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ylenia Pennacchi, Sho Shirakashi, Barbara F Nowak, Andrew R Bridle
Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, due to its high average price on the market is an economically valuable fish species. Infections by blood flukes from the genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) represent a growing concern for the cage culture of bluefin tuna in Japan, Australia and Southern Europe. The accumulation of numerous Cardicola eggs in the fish gills causes severe pathology that has been linked to mortality in PBT juveniles up to one year old. The only effective treatment used to mitigate the infection is the oral administration of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to the affected fish...
October 1, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yukitaka Sugihara, Toshiyuki Yamada, Shunsuke Iwanaga, Kinya Kanai
Cardicola opisthorchis is a blood fluke pathogen significantly affecting cultured Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis in Japan. It is known that the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis is a terebellid polychaete Terebella sp. In order to study the intrapolychaete larval development of C. opisthorchis, we transplanted sporocysts, which contained a large number of cercariae, of C. opisthorchis obtained from Terebella sp. into sporocyst-free Terebella sp., which had been maintained at 20°C. The transplanted sporocysts switched from cercarial to sporocystal production by 17days after transplantation (d...
September 28, 2016: Parasitology International
Sarah Cheung, Charlotte M Thomas, David J Timson
FH22 has been previously identified as a calcium-binding protein from the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. It is part of a family of at least four proteins in this organism which combine an EF-hand containing N-terminal domain with a C-terminal dynein light chain-like domain. Here we report further biochemical properties of FH22, which we propose should be renamed FhCaBP1 for consistency with other family members. Molecular modelling predicted that the two domains are linked by a flexible region and that the second EF-hand in the N-terminal domain is most likely the calcium ion binding site...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
L A J Haydock, W E Pomroy, M A Stevenson, K E Lawrence
Infections of ruminants with Fasciola hepatica are considered to be of regional importance within New Zealand but there is very little recent information on its prevalence or severity other than anecdotal reports. Generally they are considered to be of secondary importance compared to gastrointestinal nematode infections. Utilizing data from Virtual Climate Stations (n=11491) distributed on a 5km grid around New Zealand a growing degree-day model was used to describe the risk of infection with liver fluke from 1972 to 2012 and then to apply the predictions to estimate the risk of fluke infections within New Zealand for the years 2040 and 2090...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Alexandra Juhász, Ádám Dán, Béla Dénes, István Kucsera, József Danka, Gábor Majoros
Several trematodes that parasitize vertebrate animals utilize swimming aquatic larvae to infect the host percutaneously. The most important ones among these parasites are the blood-flukes of birds and mammals comprising species that are also zoonotic. Within this latter group are species that cause the bilharziasis or schistosomiasis of inhabitants of the tropical countries, and other trematode species that are able to penetrate human skin, but do not develop to an adult form of the worm in the body. In temperate climates this latter type of infection occurs mainly in the form of an unpleasant inflammation of the skin and is often called "swimmer's itch"...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Divya Chaturvedi, Vinay Kumar Singh
Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals...
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Lan-Gui Song, Xiao-Ying Wu, Moussa Sacko, Zhong-Dao Wu
Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne disease caused by worms of the genus Schistosoma. Worldwide, human schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem, threatening ∼800 million people in 78 countries with a loss of 70 million disability-adjusted life years. Schistosoma japonicum is the only human blood fluke that occurs in China. As one of the countries suffering greatly from schistosomiasis, over the past 65 years, China has made great strides in controlling schistosomiasis, blocking the transmission of S...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
Mrinalini Das, Katerina Doleckova, Rahul Shenoy, Jagadish Mahanta, Kanwar Narain, K Rekha Devi, Tongmeth Konyak, Homa Mansoor, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: One of the infections that mimic tuberculosis (TB) is paragonimiasis (PRG), a foodborne parasitic disease caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In the northeastern states of India, TB and PRG are endemic; however, PRG is rarely included in the differential diagnosis of TB. OBJECTIVE: To address limited evidence on the dual burden of TB and PRG in northeastern India, we aimed to document the prevalence of PRG among TB patients using sputum smear, stool examination for children <15 years and ELISA...
2016: Global Health Action
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