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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331794/melatonin-suppresses-eosinophils-and-th17-cells-in-hamsters-treated-with-a-combination-of-human-liver-fluke-infection-and-a-chemical-carcinogen
#1
Wachanan Wongsena, Lakhanawan Charoensuk, Rungtiwa Dangtakot, Porntip Pinlaor, Kitti Intuyod, Somchai Pinlaor
BACKGROUND: The combination of Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection and chemical carcinogen induces cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in hamsters via inflammation-mediated mechanisms. Thus, suppression of inflammatory cells at the initial stages of CCA development would be of benefit. We aimed to investigate whether IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells (Th17) and CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells (Treg) are involved in the early stages of CCA genesis and can be targeted for suppression by melatonin. METHODS: Inflammation, an initial stage of CCA development, was induced in hamsters by a combination of O...
July 26, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331279/dynamics-of-spatiotemporal-distribution-of-schistosomiasis-in-hubei-province-china
#2
Yan-Yan Chen, Jian-Bing Liu, Yong Jiang, Guo Li, Xiao-Wei Shan, Juan Zhang, Shun-Xiang Cai, Xi-Bao Huang
Schistosomiasis caused by parasitic flatworms of blood flukes, remains a major public health concern in China. The significant progress in controlling schistosomiasis in China over the past decades has resulted in the remarkable reduction in the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma japonicum infection to an extremely low level. Therefore, the elimination of schistosomiasis has been promoted by the Chinese national government. Hubei Province is the major endemic area, that is, along the middle and low reaches of the Yangtze River in the lake and marshland regions of southern China...
January 10, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329618/vaccination-against-fasciola-hepatica-using-cathepsin-l3-and-b3-proteases-delivered-alone-or-in-combination
#3
Agnieszka Wesołowska, Katarzyna Basałaj, Luke J Norbury, Alicja Sielicka, Halina Wędrychowicz, Anna Zawistowska-Deniziak
No licensed vaccine is currently available for prevention of Fasciola hepatica infections. However, considering the alarming increase in drug resistance, there is an urgent need for a safe and fully effective vaccine against fasciolosis. Here, we tested if cathepsins L (FhCL3-1, FhCL3-2) and B (FhCB3) secreted by juvenile liver flukes are viable vaccine targets when delivered alone or in combination in a rat model. Since control over the early immune response is crucial for parasite's establishment in its host, it was hypothesised that targeting fluke juvenile stages may prove beneficial...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320818/zoonotic-trematode-metacercariae-in-fish-from-yangon-myanmar-and-their-adults-recovered-from-experimental-animals
#4
Jong-Yil Chai, Woon-Mok Sohn, Byoung-Kuk Na, Jong-Bok Park, Hoo-Gn Jeoung, Eui-Hyug Hoang, Thi Thi Htoon, Htay Htay Tin
A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic trematode (ZT) metacercariae in fish from a local market in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 264 fish (12 species) were collected through 4 times from December 2013 to June 2015. All collected fish were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. More than 7 species of ZT metacercariae, i.e., Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318988/morphometric-and-molecular-study-of-fasciola-isolates-from-ruminants-in-iran
#5
Elham Akhlaghi, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Naser Ziaali, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Saeid Nasibi, Hossein Kamyabi, Sima Rostami, Majid Fasihi Harandi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was morphometric and molecular characterization of Fasciola isolates from ruminants in Iran. METHODS: Flukes were collected from the livers of 54 naturally infected sheep and cattle. The proportion of body length to width (L/W) of each fresh fluke was measured using a digital caliper. We employed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to explore the reliability of L/W for differentiating the two species...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284483/bovine-tuberculosis-visible-lesions-in-cattle-culled-during-herd-breakdowns-the-effects-of-individual-characteristics-trade-movement-and-co-infection
#6
Andrew W Byrne, Jordon Graham, Craig Brown, Aoibheann Donaghy, Maria Guelbenzu-Gonzalo, Jim McNair, Robin Skuce, Adrian Allen, Stanley McDowell
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, remains a significant problem for livestock industries in many countries worldwide including Northern Ireland, where a test and slaughter regime has utilised the Single Intradermal Comparative Cervical Tuberculin (SICCT) test since 1959. We investigated the variation in post-mortem confirmation based on bTB visible lesion (VL) presence during herd breakdowns using two model suites. We investigated animal-level characteristics, while controlling for herd-level factors and clustering...
December 29, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277472/a-complex-of-the-blood-fluke-genus-psettarium-digenea-aporocotylidae-infecting-tetraodontiform-fishes-of-east-queensland-waters
#7
R Q-Y Yong, S C Cutmore, M K Jones, A R G Gauthier, T H Cribb
Seven species of Psettarium (Digenea: Aporocotylidae), including four new species, are reported from tetraodontiform fishes from off coastal east Queensland. Psettarium pandora n. sp. infects the yellow boxfish, Ostracion cubicus (Ostraciidae), the first known aporocotylid to infect this family of fishes. Three new species are reported from pufferfishes of the genus Arothron (Tetraodontidae): Psettarium yoshidai n. sp. infects the map puffer (Arothron mappa), Psettarium hustoni n. sp. infects the black-spotted puffer (A...
December 19, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273443/some-facts-on-south-asian-schistosomiasis-and-need-for-international-collaboration
#8
REVIEW
M C Agrawal, V G Rao
In this review, we are discussing South Asian schistosomiasis; more specifically species which are responsible for schistosomiasis in India or South Asia -Schistosoma indicum, S. spindale, S. nasale, S. incognitum, S. gimvicum (S.haematobium), Bivitellobilharzia nairi, Orientobilharzia bomfordi, O. dattai, O. turkestanicum and O.harinasutai, their survival strategies such as mild pathology to the host, producing low egg number and utilizing fresh water snails (Indoplanorbis exustus and Lymnaea luteola) in stagnant water bodies like ponds, lakes, ditches, low laying areas, marshy lands and rice fields...
December 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245725/revision-of-the-i-hybobathus-i-i-arx-i-and-i-pelecinobaccha-i-i-summa-i-species-groups-diptera-syrphidae
#9
Gil Felipe Gonçalves Miranda
The morphologically similar Hybobathus arx and Pelecinobaccha summa species groups are revised and distinguished from each other. Four new species are described (H. avittatus sp. nov., H. luciane sp. nov., P. alia sp. nov. and P. impostor sp. nov.), and three new combinations (H. obsoletus comb. nov., H. persimilis comb. nov., and P. cubensis comb. nov.) and several synonimies are proposed: Baccha bivittata Curran = H. arx (Fluke), B. myrtella Hull and B. nectarina Hull = H. obsoletus (Curran), B. druida Hull = H...
October 24, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239298/optimized-conditions-for-the-in-vitro-excystment-of-calicophoron-daubneyi-metacercariae
#10
Kathryn M Huson, Charlotte Wild, Caroline Fenn, Mark W Robinson
Paramphistomosis, caused by Calicophoron daubneyi, is an emerging infection of ruminants throughout Western Europe. Despite its prevalence, many questions remain regarding the basic biology of this parasite and how it interacts with its host. Consequently, there is a need to develop methods to study C. daubneyi in vitro to improve our understanding of rumen fluke biology. Towards this, we aimed to identify a suitable protocol for in vitro excystment of C. daubneyi metacercariae. Six methods that have been used to excyst metacercariae from a number of trematode species were tested with C...
December 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232690/rna-interference-in-fasciola-gigantica-establishing-and-optimization-of-experimental-rnai-in-the-newly-excysted-juveniles-of-the-fluke
#11
Arun Anandanarayanan, Opinder Krishen Raina, Hniang Lalrinkima, Ajayta Rialch, Muthu Sankar, Anju Varghese
Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica is a neglected tropical disease but a constraint on the growth and productivity of cattle, buffaloes and sheep in the tropical countries of Asia and Africa. Resistance to commonly used anthelmintics in Fasciola has increased the need to search for alternative therapeutic targets. RNA interference is the current tool of choice in the search for such targets in Fasciola. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (ds) RNA induced RNAi has been established but in F...
December 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225048/de-novo-assembly-and-functional-annotations-of-the-transcriptome-of-metorchis-orientalis-trematoda-opisthorchiidae
#12
Jun-Feng Gao, Yuan Gao, Jian-Hua Qiu, Qiao-Cheng Chang, Yan Zhang, Ming Fang, Chun-Ren Wang
Metorchis orientalis is a neglected zoonotic parasite, living in the gallbladder and bile duct of poultry and some mammals as well as humans. In spite of its economic and medical importance, the information known about the transcriptome and genome of M. orientalis is limited. In this study, we performed de novo sequencing, transcriptome assembly and functional annotations of the adult M. orientalis, obtained about 77.4 million high-quality clean reads, among which the length of the transcript contigs ranged from 100 to 11,249 nt with mean length of 373 nt and N50 length of 919 nt...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216911/dynamic-expression-of-cytokine-and-transcription-factor-genes-during-experimental-fasciola-gigantica-infection-in-buffaloes
#13
Wei Shi, Zhi-Yong Wei, Hany M Elsheikha, Fu-Kai Zhang, Zhao-An Sheng, Ke-Jing Lu, Dong-Ying Wang, Wei-Yi Huang, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Determining the mechanisms involved in the immune-pathogenesis of the tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, is crucial to the development of any effective therapeutic intervention. Here, we examined the differential gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors in the liver of F. gigantica-infected buffaloes, over the course of infection. METHODS: Water buffaloes (swamp type) were infected orally with 500 F. gigantica encysted metacercariae...
December 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209530/teleconsultation-ultrasonography-a-new-weapon-to-combat-cholangiocarcinoma
#14
Nittaya Chamadol, Vallop Laopaiboon, Jiraporn Srinakarin, Watcharin Loilome, Puangrat Yongvanit, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Narong Khuntikeo
Although cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is usually a rare cancer, in northeast Thailand it kills 20 000 or more people every year. The prognosis is very poor owing to late stage diagnosis, with palliative treatment often representing the only option. In this area of predominantly rural Thailand, CCA is associated with infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, which is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Up to 6 million Thais are infected with this fluke. The Cholangiocarcinoma Screening and Care Program (CASCAP) was initiated in 2014 with the aim of detecting early stage CCA, allowing curative surgery, by using ultrasound (US) screening of prospectively 500 000 at risk individuals...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208933/the-anthelmintic-praziquantel-is-a-human-serotoninergic-g-protein-coupled-receptor-ligand
#15
John D Chan, Pauline M Cupit, Gihan S Gunaratne, John D McCorvy, Yang Yang, Kristen Stoltz, Thomas R Webb, Peter I Dosa, Bryan L Roth, Ruben Abagyan, Charles Cunningham, Jonathan S Marchant
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating tropical disease caused by infection with parasitic blood flukes. Approximately 260 million people are infected worldwide, underscoring the clinical and socioeconomic impact of this chronic infection. Schistosomiasis is treated with the drug praziquantel (PZQ), which has proved the therapeutic mainstay for over three decades of clinical use. However, the molecular target(s) of PZQ remain undefined. Here we identify a molecular target for the antischistosomal eutomer - (R)-PZQ - which functions as a partial agonist of the human serotoninergic 5HT2B receptor...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197514/mathematical-analysis-of-the-transmission-dynamics-of-the-liver-fluke-opisthorchis-viverrini
#16
Christine Bürli, Helmut Harbrecht, Peter Odermatt, Somphou Sayasone, Nakul Chitnis
We develop and analyse two population-based models of the transmission dynamics of the worm parasite Opisthorchis viverrini. The life cycle of O. viverrini includes humans, cats and dogs as definitive hosts; and snails and fish as intermediate hosts. The first model has only one definitive host (humans) while the second model has two additional hosts: the reservoir hosts, cats and dogs. We define reproduction numbers and endemic equilibrium points for the two models. We use prevalence data for the five hosts from two islands in Lao People's Democratic Republic to estimate distributions of parameter values...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191517/potential-risk-of-a-liver-fluke-opisthorchis-viverrini-infection-brought-by-immigrants-from-prevalent-areas-a-case-study-in-the-lower-northern-thailand
#17
Wilawan Pumidonming, Hirotaka Katahira, Makoto Igarashi, Doaa Salman, Abdelbaset E Abdelbaset, Khamphon Sangkaeo
Considering the long lifespan of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, human mobility from prevalent regions to other neighboring areas has the possibility to disperse carriers and complicate the opisthorchiasis problem. To evaluate this, mass screening of the fluke infection was conducted in nine communities of lower Northern Thailand, combined with a questionnaire survey to distinguish the participant's origin. The liver fluke infection was found in 70 individuals (7.2%) of the examined 971 stool samples from seven communities, with light intensity providing small numbers of eggs in the examined stool...
November 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187710/hybrid-origin-of-asian-aspermic-fasciola-flukes-is-confirmed-by-analyzing-two-single-copy-genes-pepck-and-pold
#18
Kei Hayashi, Madoka Ichikawa-Seki, Uday Kumar Mohanta, Takuya Shoriki, Pannigan Chaichanasak, Tadashi Itagaki
Nuclear gene markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold), have been developed for precise discrimination of Fasciola flukes instead of internal transcribed spacer 1. In this study, these two genes of 730 Fasciola flukes from eight Asian countries were analyzed. The results were compared with their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) lineages for obtaining a definitive evidence of the hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes. All the flukes categorized into the aspermic nad1 lineages possessed both the fragment patterns of F...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187618/control-surfaces-of-aquatic-vertebrates-active-and-passive-design-and-function
#19
REVIEW
Frank E Fish, George V Lauder
Aquatic vertebrates display a variety of control surfaces that are used for propulsion, stabilization, trim and maneuvering. Control surfaces include paired and median fins in fishes, and flippers and flukes in secondarily aquatic tetrapods. These structures initially evolved from embryonic fin folds in fishes and have been modified into complex control surfaces in derived aquatic tetrapods. Control surfaces function both actively and passively to produce torque about the center of mass by the generation of either lift or drag, or both, and thus produce vector forces to effect rectilinear locomotion, trim control and maneuvers...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185852/lethal-fascioliasis-in-capybaras-hydrochoerus-hydrochaeris-in-brazil
#20
Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Francisco Costa, Marcio Port-Carvalho, Alice Oliveira, Silvio Souza, Marcio Castro
The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Fasciolidae) causes fascioliasis, which affects mostly domestic ruminants and humans worldwide. This parasite has an Old World origin and was introduced into the New World by European colonizers. Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is the largest living rodent species, with adults weighing over 60 kg. We report a fascioliasis outbreak caused by F. hepatica, that reduced a capybara group from 21 to 2 animals within a 9-mo period. Animal infection and associated lesions were confirmed by post-mortem examinations, which revealed extensive liver damage associated with the presence of large number of adult and immature forms of F...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
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