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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078320/lgr4-and-lgr5-function-redundantly-during-human-endoderm-differentiation
#1
Yu-Hwai Tsai, David R Hill, Namit Kumar, Sha Huang, Alana M Chin, Briana R Dye, Melinda S Nagy, Michael P Verzi, Jason R Spence
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Lgr family of transmembrane proteins (Lgr4, 5, 6) act as functional receptors for R-spondin proteins (Rspo 1, 2, 3, 4), and potentiate Wnt signaling in different contexts. Lgr5 is arguably the best characterized of the Lgr family members in a number of adult and embryonic contexts in mice. However, the function of LGR family members in early embryonic development is unclear, and has not been explored during human development or tissue differentiation in detail. METHODS: We interrogated the function and expression of LGR family members using human pluripotent stem cell-derived tissues including definitive endoderm, mid/hindgut, and intestinal organoids...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065211/faecal-parameters-as-biomarkers-of-the-equine-hindgut-microbial-ecosystem-under-dietary-change
#2
P Grimm, C Philippeau, V Julliand
Faeces could be used for evaluating the balance of the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem, which would offer a practical method for assessing gut health and how this relates to disease. However, previous studies concluded that faeces microbial ecosystem was not representative of the proximal hindgut (caecum and ventral colon). This study aimed to evaluate if variations of the faecal microbial ecosystem were similar to those observed in the proximal hindgut. Six horses, fistulated in the caecum and right ventral (RV) colon, were subjected to a gradual change of diet, from a 100% hay (high fibre) diet (2...
January 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060794/postnatal-human-enteric-neuronal-progenitors-can-migrate-differentiate-and-proliferate-in-embryonic-and-postnatal-aganglionic-gut-environments
#3
Lily S Cheng, Ryo Hotta, Hannah K Graham, Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Enteric neural stem/progenitor cells (ENSCs) offer an innovative approach to treating Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) and other enteric neuropathies. However, postnatal-derived human ENSCs have not been thoroughly characterized and their behavior in the embryonic and postnatal intestinal environment is unknown. METHODS: ENSCs were isolated from the intestines of 25 patients undergoing bowel resection, including 7 children with HSCR. Neuronal differentiation and proliferation of ENSCs from submucosal and myenteric plexuses from patients with and without HSCR were characterized...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034679/the-diapause-program-impacts-renal-excretion-and-molecular-expression-of-aquaporins-in-the-northern-house-mosquito-culex-pipiens
#4
Liu Yang, David L Denlinger, Peter M Piermarini
Adult females of the mosquito Culex pipiens entering diapause increase sugar water ingestion and reduce evaporative water loss, but how these attributes of the diapause program impact activity of the renal excretory system remains unknown. Here we compared the renal excretory capacity of diapausing and non-diapausing females, as well as the molecular expression of aquaporin (AQP) genes that encode channels involved in transporting water and/or small metabolites. Baseline urine excretion rates in diapausing mosquitoes were higher than in those of their non-diapausing counterparts, possibly a consequence of the intense sugar feeding associated with diapause...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024903/cloning-localization-and-physiological-effects-of-sulfakinin-in-the-kissing-bug-rhodnius-prolixus
#5
Hussain Al-Alkawi, Angela B Lange, Ian Orchard
Sulfakinins (SKs) are a family of multifunctional neuropeptides that have been shown to have myotropic activity on muscles of the digestive system and to function as feeding satiety factors. Here, we confirm via cloning the presence of two sulfakinins (Rhopr-SK-1 and Rhopr-SK-2) in Rhodnius prolixus. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR demonstrates that the Rhopr-SK transcript is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of unfed fifth-instar R. prolixus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization shows transcript expression only in neurons in the brain...
December 23, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024525/gut-content-microbiota-of-introduced-bigheaded-carps-hypophthalmichthys-spp-inhabiting-the-largest-shallow-lake-in-central-europe
#6
Andrea K Borsodi, Attila Szabó, Gergely Krett, Tamás Felföldi, András Specziár, Gergely Boros
Studying the microbiota in the alimentary tract of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) gained special interest recently, as these types of investigations on non-native fish species may lead to a better understanding of their ecological role and feeding habits in an invaded habitat. For microbiological examinations, bigheaded carp gut contents and water column samples from Lake Balaton (Hungary) were collected from spring to autumn in 2013. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were performed to reveal the composition...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007035/sacral-agenesis-a-pilot-whole-exome-sequencing-and-copy-number-study
#7
Robert M Porsch, Elisa Merello, Patrizia De Marco, Guo Cheng, Laura Rodriguez, Manting So, Pak C Sham, Paul K Tam, Valeria Capra, Stacey S Cherny, Maria-Mercè Garcia-Barcelo, Desmond D Campbell
BACKGROUND: Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) or sacral agenesis is a rare congenital disorder characterized by a constellation of congenital caudal anomalies affecting the caudal spine and spinal cord, the hindgut, the urogenital system, and the lower limbs. CRS is a complex condition, attributed to an abnormal development of the caudal mesoderm, likely caused by the effect of interacting genetic and environmental factors. A well-known risk factor is maternal type 1 diabetes. METHOD: Whole exome sequencing and copy number variation (CNV) analyses were conducted on 4 Caucasian trios to identify de novo and inherited rare mutations...
December 22, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004617/hydrolysable-tannin-based-diet-rich-in-gallotannins-has-a-minimal-impact-on-pig-performance-but-significantly-reduces-salivary-and-bulbourethral-gland-size
#8
G Bee, P Silacci, S Ampuero-Kragten, M Čandek-Potokar, A L Wealleans, J Litten-Brown, J-P Salminen, I Mueller-Harvey
Tannins have long been considered 'anti-nutritional' factors in monogastric nutrition, shown to reduce feed intake and palatability. However, recent studies revealed that compared with condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins (HT) appear to have far less impact on growth performance, but may be inhibitory to the total activity of caecal bacteria. This in turn could reduce microbial synthesis of skatole and indole in the hindgut of entire male pigs (EM). Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of a group of dietary HT on growth performance, carcass traits and boar taint compounds of group housed EM...
December 22, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003537/ileal-digesta-nondietary-substrates-from-cannulated-pigs-are-major-contributors-to-in-vitro-human-hindgut-short-chain-fatty-acid-production
#9
Carlos A Montoya, Shane M Rutherfurd, Paul J Moughan
BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon originate mainly from dietary fiber fermentation. However, SCFAs in the colon are also produced from the fermentation of nondietary material. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to predict the relative contributions of dietary and nondietary substrates in the production of SCFAs with the use of a human fecal inoculum for diets containing kiwifruit as a model fiber. METHODS: Terminal ileal digesta were collected from ileal-cannulated male pigs [n = 7; mean ± SD: 41...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002060/embryonic-origin-of-primary-colon-cancer-predicts-pathologic-response-and-survival-in-patients-undergoing-resection-for-colon-cancer-liver-metastases
#10
Suguru Yamashita, Kristoffer Watten Brudvik, Scott E Kopetz, Dipen Maru, Callisia N Clarke, Guillaume Passot, Claudius Conrad, Yun Shin Chun, Thomas A Aloia, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of embryonic origin in patients undergoing resection after chemotherapy for colon cancer liver metastases (CCLM). METHODS: We identified 725 patients with primary colon cancer and known RAS mutation status who underwent hepatic resection after preoperative chemotherapy for CCLM (1990 to 2015). Survival after resection of CCLM from midgut origin (n = 238) and hindgut origin (n = 487) was analyzed...
December 19, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999945/a-rare-branching-pattern-of-hindgut-absence-of-inferior-mesenteric-artery
#11
Deog-Im Kim, Seung-Ho Han
The arterial system of the gastrointestinal tract has many variations. However, variation in the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) is less common than for the other abdominal arteries. The case in the present cadaver subject showed a variation in the anatomy of the IMA that differed from those seen in previous studies, because it did not originate from the abdominal aorta and had no branches. A single artery arising from branches of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal and middle colic arteries supplied the hindgut...
December 20, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991709/rna-interference-unveils-the-importance-of-pseudotrichonympha-grassii-cellobiohydrolase-a-protozoan-exoglucanase-in-termite-cellulose-degradation
#12
X-J Liu, L Xie, N Liu, S Zhan, X-G Zhou, Q Wang
Based on prior work, a cellulase from glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (GHF7) was identified and found to be expressed at a high level in Coptotermes formosanus. To determine the function of GHF7 family members in vivo, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to functionally analyse the exoglucanase gene Pseudotrichonympha grassii cellobiohydrolase gene (PgCBH), which was highly expressed in Pseudotrichonympha grassii, a flagellate found in the hindgut of C. formosanus. In this study, the expression level of PgCBH was down-regulated by RNAi, causing the death of P...
December 19, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988380/salinity-alters-snakeskin-and-mesh-transcript-abundance-and-permeability-in-midgut-and-malpighian-tubules-of-larval-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#13
Sima Jonusaite, Andrew Donini, Scott P Kelly
This study examined the distribution and localization of the septate junction (SJ) proteins snakeskin (Ssk) and mesh in osmoregulatory organs of larval mosquito (Aedes aegypti), as well as their response to altered environmental salt levels. Ssk and mesh transcripts and immunoreactivity were detected in tissues of endodermal origin such as the midgut and Malpighian tubules of A. aegypti larvae, but not in ectodermally derived hindgut and anal papillae. Immunolocalization of Ssk and mesh in the midgut and Malpighian tubules indicated that both proteins are concentrated at regions of cell-cell contact between epithelial cells...
December 15, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980002/the-role-of-nutrient-sensing-in-the-metabolic-changes-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#14
Sandra Steensels, Matthias Lannoo, Bert Avau, Jorien Laermans, Laurien Vancleef, Ricard Farré, Kristin Verbeke, Inge Depoortere
Taste receptors coupled to the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, on enteroendocrine cells sense nutrients to regulate gut hormone release. During Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, the altered nutrient flow to more distal regions can affect gustducin-mediated gut hormone release, and hence energy and glucose homeostasis. We studied the role of gustducin-mediated signaling in the metabolic improvements and intestinal adaptations along the gut after RYGB surgery in wild-type (WT) and α-gustducin(-/-) (α-gust(-/-)) mice...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957615/characterization-and-tissue-distribution-of-neuropeptide-f-in-the-eyestalk-and-brain-of-the-male-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#15
Sirorat Thongrod, Narin Changklungmoa, Piyachat Chansela, Tanapan Siangcham, Thanapong Kruangkum, Saowaros Suwansa-Ard, Jirawat Saetan, Morakot Sroyraya, Yotsawan Tinikul, Chaitip Wanichanon, Prasert Sobhon
We previously analyzed the central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome and found three isotypes of long neuropeptide F (MrNPF-I, -II, -III) and four isoforms of short NPF (sMrNPF) in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. We now validate the complete sequences of the MrNPF-I and -II precursor proteins, which show high similarity (91-95 %) to NPFs of the penaeus shrimp (PsNPF). MrNPF-I and -II precursors share 71 % amino acid identity, whereas the mature 32-amino-acid MrNPF-I and 69-amino-acid MrNPF-II are identical, except for a 37-amino-acid insert within the middle part of the latter...
December 12, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936165/enzymatically-modified-starch-favorably-modulated-intestinal-transit-time-and-hindgut-fermentation-in-growing-pigs
#16
M A Newman, Q Zebeli, K Velde, D Grüll, T Molnar, W Kandler, B U Metzler-Zebeli
Aside from being used as stabilizing agents in many processed foods, chemically modified starches may act as functional dietary ingredients. Therefore, development of chemically modified starches that are less digestible in the upper intestinal segments and promote fermentation in the hindgut receives considerable attention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on nutrient flow, passage rate, and bacterial activity at ileal and post-ileal level. Eight ileal-cannulated growing pigs were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy cornstarch as control) in a cross-over design for 10 d, followed by a 4-d collection of feces and 2-d collection of ileal digesta...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928792/-clinicopathological-characteristics-and-prognosis-analysis-of-colorectal-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-based-on-the-data-from-domestic-six-medical-centers
#17
Yu Zhang, Xiaojie Peng, Kaizhou Jin, Wei Wang, Xingyu Feng, Yujie Zeng, Minhu Chen, Xianjun Yu, Ye Chen, Jie Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and their relationship with prognosis of colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). METHODS: Medical records of 329 patients with colorectal NEN between June 2001 and July 2016 from 6 large scale centers in China were reviewed to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and their relationship with prognosis of colorectal NEN. RESULTS: (1) Colonic NEN: A total of 41 patients with colonic NEN were enrolled from The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University(n=11), Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (n=15), Guangdong General Hospital (n=10), Sun Yet-san Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (n=3) and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (n=2)...
November 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927263/effect-of-concentrate-feeding-sequence-on-equine-hindgut-fermentation-parameters
#18
S Sadet-Bourgeteau, C Philippeau, V Julliand
Feeding a diet with a small amount of hay and a high proportion of concentrate given in large meals entails a risk of colic to horses as this can impact the hindgut microbial ecosystem. To counteract this potential negative effect, one feeding strategy is to modify the distribution sequence of concentrate and hay. The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of feeding the concentrate meal before or with the hay meal on fermentative parameters postprandial variations in caecum and right ventral colon contents and faeces...
December 8, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924082/duodenal-endoluminal-barrier-sleeve-alters-gut-microbiota-of-zdf-rats
#19
T Kim, C L Holleman, T Ptacek, C D Morrow, K M Habegger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The combination of energy dense diets and reduced energy expenditure in modern society has escalated the prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Among these disease states, type-2 diabetics (T2D) are disproportionately associated with obesity, suggesting a shared etiology. In conjunction with defects in hormonal and inflammatory states, obesity and T2D are also characterized by dysbiosis. METHODS: We have recently described the beneficial effects of duodenal nutrient exclusion, as induced by the duodenal endoluminal sleeve (DES); including body weight loss, prevented fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in the ZDF rat, a rodent model of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D)...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923683/role-of-a-tachykinin-related-peptide-and-its-receptor-in-modulating-the-olfactory-sensitivity-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#20
Shun-Hua Gui, Hong-Bo Jiang, Li Xu, Yu-Xia Pei, Xiao-Qiang Liu, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Insect tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), an ortholog of tachykinin in vertebrates, has been linked with regulation of diverse physiological processes, such as olfactory perception, locomotion, aggression, lipid metabolism and myotropic activity. In this study, we investigated the function of TRP (BdTRP) and its receptor (BdTRPR) in an important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. BdTRPR is a typical G-protein coupled-receptor (GPCR), and it could be activated by the putative BdTRP mature peptides with the effective concentrations (EC50) at the nanomolar range when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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