keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

hindgut

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678817/collagen-18-and-agrin-are-secreted-by-enteric-neural-crest-cells-to-remodel-their-microenvironment-and-regulate-their-migration-during-ens-development
#1
Nandor Nagy, Csilla Barad, Ryo Hotta, Sukhada Bhave, Emily Arciero, David Dora, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system arises from neural crest cells that migrate, proliferate, and differentiate into enteric neurons and glia within the intestinal wall. Many extracellular matrix (ECM) components are present in the embryonic gut, but their role in regulating ENS development is largely unknown. Here, we identify heparan sulfate proteoglycan proteins, including collagen 18 (Col18) and agrin, as important regulators of enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCDC) development. In developing avian hindgut, Col18 is expressed at the ENCDC wavefront, while agrin expression occurs later...
April 20, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671906/the-particulate-passage-rate-nutrient-composition-and-fermentation-characteristics-across-gastrointestinal-tracts-in-lactating-dairy-cows-fed-three-different-forage-source-diets
#2
B Wang, F F Gu, X B Huang, J X Liu
This study was conducted to investigate the particulate passage rate, nutrient characteristics and fermentation parameters across the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in lactating dairy cows fed cereal straws in comparison with alfalfa hay. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets consisting of 55% concentrate, 15% corn silage and 30% different forage sources as follows (% of dry matter [DM]): (i) 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH); (ii) 30% corn stover (CS); and (iii) 30% rice straw (RS)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662480/comparative-analysis-of-the-microbiota-between-sheep-rumen-and-rabbit-cecum-provides-new-insight-into-their-differential-methane-production
#3
Lan Mi, Bin Yang, Xialu Hu, Yang Luo, Jianxin Liu, Zhongtang Yu, Jiakun Wang
The rumen and the hindgut represent two different fermentation organs in herbivorous mammals, with the former producing much more methane than the latter. The objective of this study was to elucidate the microbial underpinning of such differential methane outputs between these two digestive organs. Methane production was measured from 5 adult sheep and 15 adult rabbits, both of which were placed in open-circuit respiratory chambers and fed the same diet (alfalfa hay). The sheep produced more methane than the rabbits per unit of metabolic body weight, digestible neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661132/transcriptional-development-of-phospholipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-different-intestinal-regions-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-fry
#4
Yang Jin, Rolf Erik Olsen, Mari-Ann Østensen, Gareth Benjamin Gillard, Sven Arild Korsvoll, Nina Santi, Arne Bjørke Gjuvsland, Jon Olav Vik, Jacob Seilø Torgersen, Simen Rød Sandve, Yngvar Olsen
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the high phospholipid (PL) requirement in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry is due to insufficient intestinal de-novo synthesis causing low lipoprotein (LP) production and reduced transport capacity of dietary lipids. However, in-depth ontogenetic analysis of intestinal PL and LP synthesis with the development of salmon has yet to be performed. Therefore, in this paper we used RNA-Seq technology to investigate the expression of genes involved in PL synthesis and LP formation throughout early developmental stages and associate insufficient expression of synthesis pathways in salmon fry with its higher dietary PL requirement...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659942/evolutionary-associations-of-endosymbiotic-ciliates-shed-light-on-the-timing-of-the-marsupial-placental-split
#5
Peter Vdacný
Trichostome ciliates are among the most conspicuous protists in the gastrointestinal tract of a large variety of vertebrates. However, little is still known about phylogeny of the trichostome/vertebrate symbiotic systems, evolutionary correlations between trichostome extrinsic traits, and character-dependent diversification of trichostomes. These issues were investigated here, using the relaxed molecular clock technique along with stochastic mapping of character evolution, and binary-state speciation and extinction models...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655854/the-expression-and-distribution-of-a-leptin-receptor-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#6
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anuracpreeda, Prasert Sobhon, Yotsawan Tinikul
In the present study, the presence and distribution of leptin receptor (LEP-R) in central nervous system, digestive organs, gonads of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were investigated with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. By Western blot a LEP-R with a molecular weight (MW) of 100 kDa was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, hepatopancreas, all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ovaries, and testes. In hepatopancreas and foregut, another intense positive band was detected at molecular weight of 30 kDa, which could be an isotype of LEP-R...
April 11, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623688/dietary-approaches-reducing-boar-taint-importance-of-lawsonia-intracellularis-colonisation-for-interpreting-results
#7
C Visscher, A Kruse, S Sander, C Keller, J Mischok, R Tabeling, H Henne, R Deitmer, J Kamphues
In the fattening of male pigs, boar odour is a major problem with regard to the acceptance of the meat by consumers. Skatole can be one cause. Tryptophan from non-digested feed ingredients and intestinal cell debris can be the precursor in skatole formation. Lawsonia intracellularis, one of the most widespread pathogens in swine, promotes the epithelial cell turnover and might favour the tryptophan influx into the hindgut. Therefore, the question arises how far the severity of a Lawsonia intracellularis infection has an effect on results of dietary experiments with specific issues...
April 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622612/complete-genome-sequence-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-subsp-plantarum-strain-lb1-2-isolated-from-the-hindgut-of-european-honeybees-apis-mellifera-l-from-the-philippines
#8
M Fatima C Ilagan-Cruzada, Albert Remus R Rosana, Andrew D Montecillo, Noel G Sabino, Ida F Dalmacio
Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum strain LB1-2, isolated from the hindgut of European honeybees in the Philippines, is active against Paenibacillus larvae and has broad activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The complete genome sequence reported herein contains gene clusters for multiple bacteriocins and extensive gene inventories for carbohydrate metabolism.
April 5, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617812/postruminal-digestion-of-starch-infused-into-the-abomasum-of-heifers-with-or-without-exogenous-amylase-administration
#9
Edwin Westreicher-Kristen, Kristina Robbers, Ralf Blank, Arnulf Tröscher, Uta Dickhoefer, Siegfried Wolffram, Andreas Susenbeth
The effect of an exogenous amylase on postruminal digestion of starch infused into the abomasum of cattle was studied. Four rumen-cannulated heifers were fed 5.5 kg DM/d of a diet without starch, and assigned randomly to a cross-over design. The experiment consisted of two periods lasting 23 d each with 10 d for adaptation to the diet followed by 13 d of abomasal infusion and sample collection. During the first 3 d of each infusion phase, isotonic saline solution was infused (1 L/h) for measurement of baseline values in feces, followed by daily infusions of 880 g DM corn starch (1 kg/10 L water) without or with the addition of 2% of amylase...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615567/the-roles-of-the-wnt-antagonists-axin-and-lrp4-during-embryogenesis-of-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#10
Romy Prühs, Anke Beermann, Reinhard Schröder
In both vertebrates and invertebrates, the Wnt-signaling pathway is essential for numerous processes in embryogenesis and during adult life. Wnt activity is fine-tuned at various levels by the interplay of a number of Wnt-agonists (Wnt ligands, Frizzled-receptors, Lrp5/6 coreceptors) and Wnt-antagonists (among them Axin, Secreted frizzled and Lrp4) to define anterior-posterior polarity of the early embryo and specify cell fate in organogenesis. So far, the functional analysis of Wnt-pathway components in insects has concentrated on the roles of Wnt-agonists and on the Wnt-antagonist Axin...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615438/generation-of-intestinal-organoids-suitable-for-pharmacokinetic-studies-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Daichi Onozato, Misaki Yamashita, Anna Nakanishi, Takumi Akagawa, Yuriko Kida, Isamu Ogawa, Tadahiro Hashita, Takahiro Iwao, Tamihide Matsunaga
Intestinal organoids morphologically resemble intestinal tissues, and are expected to be used in both regenerative medicine and drug development studies, including pharmacokinetic studies. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of these organoids remain poorly characterized. In this study, we aimed to generate pharmacokinetically functional intestinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Human iPS cells were induced to differentiate into the hindgut and then seeded on EZSPHERE plates to generate uniform spheroids, and the floating spheroids were subsequently differentiated into intestinal organoids by using small-molecule compounds...
April 3, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597354/protein-fermentation-in-the-gut-implications-for-intestinal-dysfunction-in-humans-pigs-and-poultry
#12
Myrthe Suzanne Gilbert, Noortje Ijssennagger, Arie K Kies, Saskia W C van Mil
The amount of dietary protein is associated with intestinal disease in different vertebrate species. In humans, this is exemplified by the association between high protein intake and fermentation metabolite concentrations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In production animals, dietary protein intake is associated with post-weaning diarrhea in piglets and with the occurrence of wet litter in poultry. The underlying mechanisms by which dietary protein contributes to intestinal problems remain largely unknown...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594071/ecological-restoration-of-antibiotic-disturbed-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-foregut-and-hindgut-of-cows
#13
Shoukun Ji, Tao Jiang, Hui Yan, Chunyan Guo, Jingjing Liu, Huawei Su, Gibson M Alugongo, Haitao Shi, Yajing Wang, Zhijun Cao, Shengli Li
Antibiotically disturbed gastrointestinal microbiota needs a long period time to be restored to normal, which may cause a series of problems to the host. The understanding of restoration of the biased microbiota by antibiotics remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the microbiota shift in foregut (rumen) and hindgut (rectum) of lactating cows after antibiotics exposure as well as after antibiotics withdrawal with (Microbiota transplantation, MT group) or without (Control, CON group) microbiota transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593306/effect-of-live-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-actisaf-sc-47-supplementation-on-the-performance-and-hindgut-microbiota-composition-of-weanling-pigs
#14
T G Kiros, H Derakhshani, E Pinloche, R D'Inca, Jason Marshall, E Auclair, E Khafipour, A Van Kessel
As an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters, live yeast supplementation has proven useful in reducing weaning stress and improving performance parameters of piglets. Here, we compared the performance and hindgut microbiota of weanling piglets subjected to different pre- and post-weaning yeast supplementation regimens using a live strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Actisaf Sc 47). Average feed intake and average daily weight gain of piglets within Yeast-Control and Yeast-Yeast groups were higher than those in the Control-Control group...
March 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587142/developmental-history-provides-a-roadmap-for-the-emergence-of-tumor-plasticity
#15
Purushothama Rao Tata, Ryan D Chow, Srinivas Vinod Saladi, Aleksandra Tata, Arvind Konkimalla, Anne Bara, Daniel Montoro, Lida P Hariri, Angela R Shih, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Hongmei Mou, Shioko Kimura, Leif W Ellisen, Jayaraj Rajagopal
We show that the loss or gain of transcription factor programs that govern embryonic cell-fate specification is associated with a form of tumor plasticity characterized by the acquisition of alternative cell fates normally characteristic of adjacent organs. In human non-small cell lung cancers, downregulation of the lung lineage-specifying TF NKX2-1 is associated with tumors bearing features of various gut tissues. Loss of Nkx2-1 from murine alveolar, but not airway, epithelium results in conversion of lung cells to gastric-like cells...
March 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558912/influence-of-dietary-protein-and-fructooligosaccharides-on-fecal-fermentative-end-products-fecal-bacterial-populations-and-apparent-total-tract-digestibility-in-dogs
#16
Carlo Pinna, Carla Giuditta Vecchiato, Carmen Bolduan, Monica Grandi, Claudio Stefanelli, Wilhelm Windisch, Giuliano Zaghini, Giacomo Biagi
BACKGROUND: Feeding dogs with diets rich in protein may favor putrefactive fermentations in the hindgut, negatively affecting the animal's intestinal environment. Conversely, prebiotics may improve the activity of health-promoting bacteria and prevent bacterial proteolysis in the colon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on fecal microbiota and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs fed kibbles differing in protein content...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534187/impact-of-prrsv-infection-and-dietary-soybean-meal-on-ileal-amino-acid-digestibility-and-endogenous-amino-acid-losses-in-growing-pigs
#17
Wesley P Schweer, John F Patience, Eric R Burrough, Brian J Kerr, Nicholas K Gabler
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a significant disease in the swine industry and increasing soybean meal (SBM) consumption during this disease challenge may improve performance. Our objectives were to determine the impact of SBM level on apparent total tract (ATTD) and ileal (AID) digestibility during PRRSV infection, and to determine ileal basal endogenous losses (BEL) during PRRSV infection. Forty PRRSV negative gilts were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with high and low SBM (HSBM, 29% vs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534181/the-contribution-of-digestible-and-metabolizable-energy-from-high-fiber-dietary-ingredients-is-not-affected-by-inclusion-rate-in-mixed-diets-fed-to-growing-pigs
#18
D M D L Navarro, E M A M Bruininx, L de Jong, H H Stein
Effects of inclusion rate of fiber rich ingredients on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and on the concentration of DE and ME in mixed diets fed to growing pigs were determined. The hypothesis was that increasing the inclusion rate of fiber decreases digestibility of GE, and thus, the contribution of DE and ME from hindgut fermentation because greater concentrations may reduce the ability of microbes to ferment fiber. Twenty ileal-cannulated pigs (BW: 30...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528140/axial-complex-and-associated-structures-of-the-sea-urchin-strongylocentrotus-pallidus-sars-g-o-1871-echinodermata-echinoidea
#19
Olga Vladimirovna Ezhova, Vladimir Vasil'yevich Malakhov, Ekaterina Alekseevna Egorova
Studies of echinoid microscopic anatomy over the last two centuries have created a number of inaccuracies and mistakes that have accumulated in the descriptions of the intricate organization of the coelomic system of Echinoidea. To clarify the situation, we reconstructed the axial complex and radial complex of the echinoid Strongylocentrotus pallidus. The water ring is located between the perivisceral coelom and the perioral coelom. The oral haemal ring lies between the coelothelia of the water-vascular, perivisceral, and perioral rings...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516174/symbiotic-cornucopia-of-the-monophagous-planthopper-ommatidiotus-dissimilis-fall%C3%A3-n-1806-hemiptera-fulgoromorpha-caliscelidae
#20
Anna Michalik, Jacek Szwedo, Adam Stroiński, Dariusz Świerczewski, Teresa Szklarzewicz
In contrast to Cicadomorpha, in which numerous symbiotic bacteria have been identified and characterized, the symbionts of fulgoromorphans are poorly known. Here, we present the results of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular analyses of the symbiotic system of the planthopper Ommatidiotus dissimilis. Amplification, cloning, and sequencing of bacterial 16S RNA genes have revealed that O. dissimilis is host to five types of bacteria. Apart from bacteria Sulcia and Vidania, which are regarded as ancestral symbionts of Fulgoromorpha, three additional types of bacteria belonging to the genera Sodalis, Wolbachia, and Rickettsia have been detected...
March 7, 2018: Protoplasma
keyword
keyword
117376
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"