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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721476/post-prandial-physiology-and-intestinal-morphology-of-the-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#1
Alyssa M Weinrauch, Alexander M Clifford, Greg G Goss
Hagfishes are unique to the vertebrate lineage in that they acquire dissolved nutrients across multiple epithelia including the intestine, gill, and skin. This feat has been attributed to their immersive feeding behavior that likely simultaneously provides benefits (nutrient rich) and potentially adverse (hypercapnia, hypoxia, high environmental ammonia) physiological effects. Examinations have been conducted of the ex vivo transport capabilities of specific nutrients as well as in vivo effects of the hypothesized feeding environments, yet the physiological effects of feeding itself have never been elucidated...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710832/new-species-of-spirotrichonympha-from-reticulitermes-and-the-relationships-among-genera-in-spirotrichonymphea-parabasalia
#2
Gillian H Gile, Erick R James, Vera Tai, James T Harper, Trevor L Merrell, Vittorio Boscaro, Filip Husník, Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Patrick J Keeling
Spirotrichonymphea is a class of hypermastigote parabasalids defined by their spiral rows of many flagella. They are obligate hindgut symbionts of lower termites. Despite more than 100 years of morphological and ultrastructural study, the group remains poorly characterised by molecular data and the phylogenetic positions and taxonomic validity of most genera remain in question. The genus Spirotrichonympha has been reported to inhabit several termite genera, including Reticulitermes, Coptotermes, and Hodotermopsis...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706214/transcriptome-analysis-of-three-sheep-intestinal-regions-reveals-key-pathways-and-hub-regulatory-genes-of-large-intestinal-lipid-metabolism
#3
Tianle Chao, Guizhi Wang, Zhibin Ji, Zhaohua Liu, Lei Hou, Jin Wang, Jianmin Wang
The large intestine, also known as the hindgut, is an important part of the animal digestive system. Recent studies on digestive system development in ruminants have focused on the rumen and the small intestine, but the molecular mechanisms underlying sheep large intestine metabolism remain poorly understood. To identify genes related to intestinal metabolism and to reveal molecular regulation mechanisms, we sequenced and compared the transcriptomes of mucosal epithelial tissues among the cecum, proximal colon and duodenum...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705578/cloacal-duplication-single-center-experience-in-the-management-of-a-rare-anomaly
#4
Ahmed Abdelhalim, Hesham Arab, Tamer E Helmy, Mohamed E Dawaba, Mohamed E Abou-El-Ghar, Ashraf T Hafez
Cloacal duplication is an exceedingly rare group of anomalies with a limited number of cases reported so far. The anomaly may be confined to partial bladder duplication or it may involve complete duplication of the urogenital tract, hindgut, spine, lower limbs and vascular structures. Every case is unique and ought to be approached individually. By means of imaging studies and endoscopy, anatomic details should be carefully defined before endorsing surgical correction. A satisfactory outcome can be achieved in the majority of cases...
July 10, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702019/functional-resilience-and-response-to-a-dietary-additive-kefir-in-models-of-foregut-and-hindgut-microbial-fermentation-in-vitro
#5
Gabriel de la Fuente, Eleanor Jones, Shann Jones, Charles J Newbold
Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized) was tested...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687981/characteristics-and-expression-of-genes-encoding-two-small-heat-shock-protein-genes-lacking-introns-from-chilo-suppressalis
#6
Dan-Dan Pan, Ming-Xing Lu, Qiu-Yu Li, Yu-Zhou Du
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) constitute a large, diverse, and functionally uncharacterized family of heat shock proteins. To gain insight regarding the function of sHSPs in insects, we identified genes encoding two sHSPs, Cshsp22.9b and Cshsp24.3, from the rice pest Chilo suppressalis. The cDNAs of Cshsp22.9b and Cshsp24.3 encoded proteins of 206 and 216 amino acids with isoelectric points of 5.79 and 9.28, respectively. Further characterization indicated that both Cshsp22.9b and Cshsp24.3 lacked introns...
July 7, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682523/exclusive-gut-flagellates-of-serritermitidae-suggest-a-major-transfaunation-event-in-lower-termites-description-of-heliconympha-glossotermitis-gen-nov-spec-nov
#7
Renate Radek, Katja Meuser, Jürgen F H Strassert, Oguzhan Arslan, Anika Teßmer, Jan Šobotník, David Sillam-Dussès, Ricardo A Nink, Andreas Brune
The guts of lower termites are inhabited by host-specific consortia of cellulose-digesting flagellate protists. In this first investigation of the symbionts of the family Serritermitidae, we found that Glossotermes oculatus and Serritermes serrifer each harbor similar parabasalid morphotypes: large Pseudotrichonympha-like cells, medium-sized Leptospironympha-like cells with spiraled bands of flagella, and small Hexamastix-like cells; oxymonadid flagellates were absent. Despite their morphological resemblance to Pseudotrichonympha and Leptospironympha, a SSU rRNA-based phylogenetic analysis identified the two larger, trichonymphid flagellates as deep-branching sister groups of Teranymphidae, with Leptospironympha sp...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664405/potential-association-between-itpkc-genetic-variations-and-hirschsprung-disease
#8
Jeong-Hyun Kim, Soo-Min Jung, Joong-Gon Shin, Hyun Sub Cheong, Jeong-Meen Seo, Dae-Yeon Kim, Jung-Tak Oh, Hyun-Young Kim, Kyuwhan Jung, Hyoung Doo Shin
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital and complex disorder characterized by intestinal obstruction due to the absence of enteric neurons along variable lengths of the hindgut. Our recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) has revealed regional associations with HSCR at several loci of inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC). For fine mapping, we additionally selected and genotyped a total of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ITPKC in 187 HSCR patients and 283 unaffected controls, and performed a further combined imputation analysis based on genotype data from this second stage of fine mapping and our previous GWAS stage, totaling 902 subjects (187 HSCR cases and 715 controls)...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659365/presacral-mass-in-the-setting-of-an-ovarian-cyst-and-abdominal-pain
#9
Omar Gutierrez, Huzifa Haj-Ibrahim, Elzbieta Griffiths, Jaisa Olasky
Tailgut cysts, also known as retrorectal hamartomas, are very rare neoplasms located in the presacral/retrorectal space that originate from the embryonic hindgut. Although a majority of lesions in this location are benign, 30% of the reported cases in the literature were found to be malignant. This report describes a case of a presacral mass found on CT of a 37-year-old woman who initially presented with worsening abdominal pain and a history of ovarian cyst rupture. This patient's clinical picture was complicated by an enlarging ovarian cyst...
June 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648364/differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-colonic-organoids-via-transient-activation-of-bmp-signaling
#10
Jorge O Múnera, Nambirajan Sundaram, Scott A Rankin, David Hill, Carey Watson, Maxime Mahe, Jefferson E Vallance, Noah F Shroyer, Katie L Sinagoga, Adrian Zarzoso-Lacoste, Jonathan R Hudson, Jonathan C Howell, Praneet Chatuvedi, Jason R Spence, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
Gastric and small intestinal organoids differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have revolutionized the study of gastrointestinal development and disease. Distal gut tissues such as cecum and colon, however, have proved considerably more challenging to derive in vitro. Here we report the differentiation of human colonic organoids (HCOs) from hPSCs. We found that BMP signaling is required to establish a posterior SATB2+ domain in developing and postnatal intestinal epithelium. Brief activation of BMP signaling is sufficient to activate a posterior HOX code and direct hPSC-derived gut tube cultures into HCOs...
July 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638626/effects-of-liposomal-curcumin-on-five-opportunistic-bacterial-strains-found-in-the-equine-hindgut-preliminary-study
#11
S D Bland, E B Venable, J L McPherson, R L Atkinson
BACKGROUND: The horse intestinal tract is sensitive and contains a highly complex microbial population. A shift in the microbial population can lead to various issues such as inflammation and colic. The use of nutraceuticals in the equine industry is on the rise and curcumin is thought to possess antimicrobial properties that may help to minimize the proliferation of opportunistic bacteria. METHODS: Four cecally-cannulated horses were utilized to determine the optimal dose of liposomal-curcumin (LIPC) on reducing Streptococcus bovis/equinus complex (SBEC), Escherichia coli K-12, Escherichia coli general, Clostridium difficile, and Clostridium perfringens in the equine hindgut without adversely affecting cecal characteristics...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627066/little-differences-in-digestive-efficiency-for-protein-and-fat-in-mammals-of-different-trophic-guilds-and-digestive-strategies-data-constraints-or-fundamental-functional-similarity
#12
O K Richard, D Codron, K B Hagen, K-H Südekum, M Clauss
Carnivores do not vary markedly in their digestive efficiency for protein and fat, but whether they resemble other trophic guilds (omnivores and herbivores) in this respect has not been evaluated. We collated data on apparent crude protein (CP) and crude fat (ether extracts, EE) digestibility in 157 mammal species, applying the Lucas principle of regressing digestible nutrient content against nutrient content, where the slope of the regression equation represents the true digestibility and the intercept the metabolic losses per unit dry matter intake...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#13
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613144/paenibacillus-apis-sp-nov-and-paenibacillus-intestini-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-intestine-of-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#14
Ji-Hyun Yun, June-Young Lee, Pil Soo Kim, Mi-Ja Jung, Jin-Woo Bae
Three strains, CBM1T, CBH23 and LAH16T, belonging to the genus Paenibacillus were isolated from the midgut and hindgut of Apis mellifera. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic characteristics, the three strains represent two novel species. Strains CBM1T and CBH23 formed a group with Paenibacillus puldeungensis CAU 9324T, and strain LAH16T belonged to the Paenibacillusamylolyticus NRRL NRS-290T subgroup of the genus Paenibacillus. The DNA G+C contents of strains CBM1T, CBH23 and LAH16T were 47...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610335/rhigonema-naylae-n-sp-rhigonematomorpha-rhigonematidae-a-new-parasitic-nematode-from-a-japanese-polydesmid-millipede-polydesmida-xystodesmidae
#15
Jans Morffe, Koichi Hasegawa
Rhigonema naylae n. sp. (Rhigonematomorpha: Rhigonematidae) is described from the hindgut of the polydesmid millipede Parafontaria laminata (Attems, 1909) (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae), from Aichi prefecture, Japan. The new species is characterized by having a medium sized body in both sexes, the cephalic collar partially fused to the body cuticle, but not overhanging the body contour; cervical region densely covered in short, fine microtrichs that extend from the posterior margin of the cephalic collar to ca...
May 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598818/the-impact-of-pathologic-differentiation-well-poorly-and-the-degree-of-ki-67-index-in-patients-with-metastatic-who-grade-3-gep-necs
#16
Hee Kyung Kim, Sang Yun Ha, Jeeyun Lee, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Ho Yeong Lim, Won Ki Kang, Young Suk Park, Seung Tae Kim
We investigated the impact of pathologic differentiation (well or poorly differentiated) in metastatic grade 3 GEP-NEC patients receiving etoposide and platinum (EP)-based therapy, and evaluated a more exact Ki67 index cut-off point to select patients with grade 3 GEP-NEC who might benefit from EP-based therapy. A total of 31 patients with metastatic grade 3 GEP-NECs receiving EP-based therapy were included in this study. Primary sites included 13 foregut-derived GEP-NECs [stomach (n = 4), duodenum (n = 4), and pancreas (n = 5)] and 2 hindgut-derived GEP-NECs of the rectum...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593838/attractiveness-of-black-and-white-modified-shannon-traps-to-phlebotomine-sandflies-diptera-psychodidae-in-the-brazilian-amazon-basin-an-area-of-intense-transmission-of-american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#17
Andreia Fernandes Brilhante, Márcia Moreira de Ávila, Jailson Ferreira de Souza, Antônio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Priscila Bassan Sábio, Marcia Bicudo de Paula, Rodrigo Espindola Godoy, Leonardo Augusto Kohara Melchior, Vânia Lúcia Brandão Nunes, Cristiane de Oliveira Cardoso, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati
In the Amazon region the phlebotomine fauna is considered one of the most diverse in the world. The use of Shannon traps may provide information on the anthropophily of the species and improve the traps' performance in terms of diversity and quantity of insects collected when white and black colored traps are used together. This study sought to verify the attractiveness of the traps to the phlebotomine species of the Brazilian Amazon basin using Shannon traps under these conditions. The insects were collected using two Shannon traps installed side by side, one white and the other black, in a primary forest area of the municipality of Xapuri, Acre, Brazil...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589838/a-novel-symbiotic-ciliate-ciliophora-peritrichia-in-the-hindgut-of-a-stag-beetle-coleoptera-lucanidae
#18
Masahiko Tanahashi, Xian Ying Meng, Takema Fukatsu
Bell-shaped ciliates of the subclass Peritrichia, such as Vorticella, Carchesium and Epistylis, are commonly found in freshwater and other aquatic environments, either solitary or colonial. Peritrichs attach to a substratum via a contractile or non-motile stalk, and collect food particles by water current using ciliary rows around the edge of the bell, called the peristome. Some peritrichs are epibiotic and ectocommensalistic associates of aquatic insects and other animals, settling on the surface of their specific hosts...
June 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587859/characterization-and-function-of-a-tachylectin-5-like-immune-molecule-in-penaeus-monodon
#19
Pacharaporn Angthong, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Padermsak Jarayabhand, Pikul Jiravanichpaisal
Tachylectin5A and its homolog, tachylectin5B both contain a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and have been studied in horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and shown to be involved in host defense. Here, we demonstrate the presence of tachylectin5-like genes in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, designated as Penlectin5-1 (PL5-1) and Penlectin5-2 (PL5-2), which both contain a signal peptide and a single FReD with an acetyl group and a calcium binding sites and they are both structurally similar to horseshoe crab tachylectin/carcinolectin5...
June 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553263/spatial-structure-of-the-mormon-cricket-gut-microbiome-and-its-predicted-contribution-to-nutrition-and-immune-function
#20
Chad C Smith, Robert B Srygley, Frank Healy, Karthikeyan Swaminath, Ulrich G Mueller
The gut microbiome of insects plays an important role in their ecology and evolution, participating in nutrient acquisition, immunity, and behavior. Microbial community structure within the gut is heavily influenced by differences among gut regions in morphology and physiology, which determine the niches available for microbes to colonize. We present a high-resolution analysis of the structure of the gut microbiome in the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex, an insect known for its periodic outbreaks in the western United States and nutrition-dependent mating system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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