keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

hindgut

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212351/black-box%C3%A2-gastrointestinal%C3%A2-tract-needs%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-prospects%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-gaining%C3%A2-insights%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fate%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fat-%C3%A2-protein-%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-starch%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-exocrine%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-insufficiency%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-using%C3%A2-fistulated%C3%A2-pigs
#1
REVIEW
Anne Mößeler, Josef Kamphues
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) results in the maldigestion and malabsorption of nutrients. The digestive processes in humans and other monogastric species like rat and pig are characterized by a predominantly enzymatic digestion within the small intestine and microbial fermentation located in the hindgut. For protein, it is doctrine that only prececally absorbed amino acids can be transferred to the amino acid pool of the host, while postileal absorption of nitrogen-containing compounds occurs mainly in the form of ammonia, being a burden rather than a benefit for the organism...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210795/observational-comparisons-of-intestinal-microbiota-characterizations-immune-enzyme-activities-and-muscle-amino-acid-compositions-of-loach-in-paddy-fields-and-ponds-in-sichuan-province
#2
Song Yang, Yuanliang Duan, Jie Zhang, Jian Zhou, Ya Liu, Jun Du, Liulan Zhao, Zongjun Du, Shuaishuai Han
A balanced intestinal microbial ecosystem is crucial for the growth and health of animals because it can influence the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Different culture conditions may change the ecology of microbial in intestine and thus affect the overall growth performance of an animal. In this study, we compared intestinal morphologies, microbiota characterizations, immune enzyme activities, and muscle amino acid compositions of loach cultured in paddy fields and ponds. The fish were fed with the same diets from May 5 to November 5 (2015) in three paddy or ponds...
February 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191911/mutations-of-myh14-are-associated-to-anorectal-malformations-with-recto-perineal-fistulas-in-a-small-subset-of-chinese-population
#3
Zhongxian Zhu, Lei Peng, Guanglin Chen, Weiwei Jiang, Ziyang Shen, Chunxia Du, Rujin Zang, Yang Su, Hua Xie, Hongxing Li, Yankai Xia, Weibing Tang
Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are among the most commonly congenital abnormalities of distal hindgut development, ranging from anal stenosis to anal atresia with or without fistulas and persistent cloaca. The etiology remains elusive for most ARM cases and the majority of genetic studies on ARMs were based on a candidate gene approach. Here, we first performed whole-exome sequencing in a non-consanguineous Chinese family and the result revealed a homozygous mutation (GenBank: NM_001077186; c.5393C>A[p.Ala1806Asp]) in MYH14, which encodes one of the NM II heavy chain (NMHC II) proteins playing vital roles in cell adhesion and migration...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187878/embryonic-origin-of-primary-colon-cancer-predicts-survival-in-patients-undergoing-ablation-for-colorectal-liver-metastases
#4
S Yamashita, B C Odisio, S Y Huang, S E Kopetz, K Ahrar, Y S Chun, C Conrad, T A Aloia, S Gupta, S Harmoush, M E Hicks, J-N Vauthey
BACKGROUND: In patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC) or unresectable metastatic CRC, midgut embryonic origin is associated with worse prognosis. The impact of embryonic origin on survival after ablation of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) is unclear. METHODS: We identified 74 patients with CLM who underwent percutaneous ablation during 2004-2015. Survival and recurrence after ablation of CLM from midgut origin (n = 18) and hindgut origin (n = 56) were analyzed...
January 29, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187624/new-species-of-i-hammerschmidtiella-i-chitwood-1932-and-i-blattophila-i-cobb-1920-and-new-geographical-records-for-i-severianoia-i-i-annamensis-i-van-luc-amp-spiridonov-1993-nematoda-oxyurida-thelastomatoidea-from-cockroaches-insecta-blattaria-in-ohio-and-florida
#5
Ramon A Carreno
Two new species of thelastomatid nematodes parasitic in the hindgut of cockroaches are described. Hammerschmidtiella keeneyi n. sp. is described from a laboratory colony of Diploptera punctata (Eschscholtz, 1822) from a facility in Ohio, U. S. A. This species is characterized by having females with a short tail and males smaller than those described from other species. The new species also differs from others in the genus by a number of differing measurements that indicate a distinct identity, including esophageal, tail, and egg lengths as well as the relative position of the excretory pore...
January 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177347/interactive-effect-of-dietary-protein-and-dried-citrus-pulp-levels-on-growth-performance-small-intestinal-morphology-and-hindgut-fermentation-of-weanling-pigs
#6
V V Almeida, A J C Nuñez, A P Schinckel, P V A Alvarenga, F R Castelini, Y V Silva-Guillen, M C Thomaz
Weanling pigs ( = 108, 21 d of age, 5.82 ± 0.16 kg initial BW) were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary levels of CP (high- and low-CP diets) and dried citrus pulp (DCP; 0% and 7.5%) on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and hindgut fermentation. Pigs were blocked by initial BW and allotted to 1 of 9 pens, each containing 3 pigs. The high-CP diets consisted of feeding 20% and 21% CP levels throughout phase 1 (0 to 14 d) and phase 2 (14 to 28 d), respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175972/changes-in-microbiota-in-rumen-digesta-and-feces-due-to-a-grain-based-subacute-ruminal-acidosis-sara-challenge
#7
Jan C Plaizier, Shucong Li, Anne Mette Danscher, Hooman Derakshani, Pia H Andersen, Ehsan Khafipour
The effects of a grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge on bacteria in the rumen and feces of lactating dairy cows were determined. Six lactating, rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows were used in a cross-over study with two periods. Periods included two cows on a control diet and two cows on a SARA challenge. The control diet was a total mixed ration containing 45.5% dry matter (DM), 43.8% DM neutral detergent fiber, and 19.6% DM starch. The SARA challenge was conducted by gradually substituting the control diet with pellets containing 50% wheat and 50% barley over 3 days to reach a diet containing 55...
February 8, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174251/a-process-engineering-approach-to-increase-organoid-yield
#8
Natasha Arora, Jasmin Imran Alsous, Jacob W Guggenheim, Michael Mak, Jorge Munera, James M Wells, Roger D Kamm, H Harry Asada, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Linda G Griffith
Temporal manipulation of the in vitro environment and growth factors can direct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into organoids, aggregates with multiple tissue-specific cell types and three-dimensional structure mimicking native organs. A mechanistic understanding of early organoid formation is essential for improving the robustness of these methods, which is necessary prior to use in drug development and regenerative medicine. We investigated intestinal organoid emergence, focusing on measurable parameters of hindgut spheroids, the intermediate step between definitive endoderm and mature organoids...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125032/malpighian-tubules-as-novel-targets-for-mosquito-control
#9
REVIEW
Peter M Piermarini, Carlos J Esquivel, Jerod S Denton
The Malpighian tubules and hindgut are the renal excretory tissues of mosquitoes; they are essential to maintaining hemolymph water and solute homeostasis. Moreover, they make important contributions to detoxifying metabolic wastes and xenobiotics in the hemolymph. We have focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of Malpighian tubule function in adult female mosquitoes and developing chemical tools as prototypes for next-generation mosquitocides that would act via a novel mechanism of action (i.e., renal failure)...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119147/cellular-and-transcriptomic-response-to-treatment-with-the-probiotic-candidate-vibrio-lentus-in-gnotobiotic-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-larvae
#10
Marlien Schaeck, Felipe E Reyes-López, Eva Vallejos-Vidal, Jolien Van Cleemput, Luc Duchateau, Wim Van den Broeck, Lluis Tort, Annemie Decostere
The present study aimed at evaluating the cellular and transcriptomic responses induced by the probiotic candidate Vibrio lentus with gnotobiotic European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1785) larvae. For this, a histomorphological analysis was performed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) assay. In addition, a global transcriptomic approach was adopted to study the whole body mRNA changes upon administration of V...
January 21, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119144/identification-ontogeny-and-expression-analysis-of-a-novel-laboratory-of-genetics-and-physiology-2-lgp2-transcript-in-asian-seabass-lates-calcarifer
#11
Anutosh Paria, A Deepika, K Sreedharan, M Makesh, Aparna Chaudhari, C S Purushothaman, K V Rajendran
LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2) is an important member of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), which plays a significant role in antiviral innate immunity. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of LGP2 from Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (AsLGP2). The complete AsLGP2 cDNA sequence consisted of 2586 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 681 amino acids with a molecular mass of 77.6 kDa. From the AsLGP2 protein, four different conserved domains were predicted: a DExDc (DEAD/DEAH box helicase domain), a bacterial type III restriction enzyme domain (RES III), a HELICc (Helicase superfamily c-terminal domain and a RIG-I_C-RD (RIG-I C-terminal regulatory domain)...
January 21, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116763/intestinal-smooth-muscle-is-required-for-patterning-the-enteric-nervous-system
#12
Hannah K Graham, Ivy Maina, Allan M Goldstein, Nandor Nagy
The development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and intestinal smooth muscle occurs in a spatially and temporally correlated manner, but how they influence each other is unknown. In the developing mid-gut of the chick embryo, we find that α-smooth muscle actin expression, indicating early muscle differentiation, occurs after the arrival of migrating enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs). In contrast, hindgut smooth muscle develops prior to ENCC arrival. Smooth muscle development is normal in experimentally aganglionic hindguts, suggesting that proper development and patterning of the muscle layers does not rely on the ENS...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095773/dietary-pea-fiber-increases-diversity-of-colonic-methanogens-of-pigs-with-a-shift-from-methanobrevibacter-to-methanomassiliicoccus-like-genus-and-change-in-numbers-of-three-hydrogenotrophs
#13
Yuheng Luo, Hong Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Gang Tian, Jie Yu, Zhiqing Huang, Junqiu Luo, Daiwen Chen
BACKGROUND: Pea fiber (PF) is a potential fibrous supplement in swine production. The influence of dietary PF on microbial community in the colon of pigs remains largely unexplored. Methanogens in the hindgut of monogastric animals play important roles in degradation of dietary fibers and efficient removal of microbial metabolic end product H2. Understanding the impact of dietary PF on the structure of colonic methanogens may help understand the mechanisms of microbe-mediated physiological functions of PF...
January 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093727/gene-expression-boundary-scaling-and-organ-size-regulation-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#14
REVIEW
Christopher Amourda, Timothy E Saunders
How the shape and size of tissues and organs is regulated during development is a major question in developmental biology. Such regulation relies upon both intrinsic cues (such as signaling networks) and extrinsic inputs (such as from neighboring tissues). Here, we focus on pattern formation and organ development during Drosophila embryogenesis. In particular, we outline the importance of both biochemical and mechanical tissue-tissue interactions in size regulation. We describe how the Drosophila embryo can potentially provide novel insights into how shape and size are regulated during development...
January 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078320/lgr4-and-lgr5-function-redundantly-during-human-endoderm-differentiation
#15
Yu-Hwai Tsai, David R Hill, Namit Kumar, Sha Huang, Alana M Chin, Briana R Dye, Melinda S Nagy, Michael P Verzi, Jason R Spence
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Lgr family of transmembrane proteins (Lgr4, 5, 6) act as functional receptors for R-spondin proteins (Rspo 1, 2, 3, 4), and potentiate Wnt signaling in different contexts. Lgr5 is arguably the best characterized of the Lgr family members in a number of adult and embryonic contexts in mice. However, the function of LGR family members in early embryonic development is unclear, and has not been explored during human development or tissue differentiation in detail. METHODS: We interrogated the function and expression of LGR family members using human pluripotent stem cell-derived tissues including definitive endoderm, mid/hindgut, and intestinal organoids...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065211/faecal-parameters-as-biomarkers-of-the-equine-hindgut-microbial-ecosystem-under-dietary-change
#16
P Grimm, C Philippeau, V Julliand
Faeces could be used for evaluating the balance of the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem, which would offer a practical method for assessing gut health and how this relates to disease. However, previous studies concluded that faeces microbial ecosystem was not representative of the proximal hindgut (caecum and ventral colon). This study aimed to evaluate if variations of the faecal microbial ecosystem were similar to those observed in the proximal hindgut. Six horses, fistulated in the caecum and right ventral (RV) colon, were subjected to a gradual change of diet, from a 100% hay (high fibre) diet (2...
January 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060794/postnatal-human-enteric-neuronal-progenitors-can-migrate-differentiate-and-proliferate-in-embryonic-and-postnatal-aganglionic-gut-environments
#17
Lily S Cheng, Ryo Hotta, Hannah K Graham, Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Enteric neural stem/progenitor cells (ENSCs) offer an innovative approach to treating Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) and other enteric neuropathies. However, postnatal-derived human ENSCs have not been thoroughly characterized and their behavior in the embryonic and postnatal intestinal environment is unknown. METHODS: ENSCs were isolated from the intestines of 25 patients undergoing bowel resection, including 7 children with HSCR. Neuronal differentiation and proliferation of ENSCs from submucosal and myenteric plexuses from patients with and without HSCR were characterized...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034679/the-diapause-program-impacts-renal-excretion-and-molecular-expression-of-aquaporins-in-the-northern-house-mosquito-culex-pipiens
#18
Liu Yang, David L Denlinger, Peter M Piermarini
Adult females of the mosquito Culex pipiens entering diapause increase sugar water ingestion and reduce evaporative water loss, but how these attributes of the diapause program impact activity of the renal excretory system remains unknown. Here we compared the renal excretory capacity of diapausing and non-diapausing females, as well as the molecular expression of aquaporin (AQP) genes that encode channels involved in transporting water and/or small metabolites. Baseline urine excretion rates in diapausing mosquitoes were higher than in those of their non-diapausing counterparts, possibly a consequence of the intense sugar feeding associated with diapause...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024903/cloning-localization-and-physiological-effects-of-sulfakinin-in-the-kissing-bug-rhodnius-prolixus
#19
Hussain Al-Alkawi, Angela B Lange, Ian Orchard
Sulfakinins (SKs) are a family of multifunctional neuropeptides that have been shown to have myotropic activity on muscles of the digestive system and to function as feeding satiety factors. Here, we confirm via cloning the presence of two sulfakinins (Rhopr-SK-1 and Rhopr-SK-2) in Rhodnius prolixus. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR demonstrates that the Rhopr-SK transcript is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of unfed fifth-instar R. prolixus. Fluorescent in situ hybridization shows transcript expression only in neurons in the brain...
December 23, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024525/gut-content-microbiota-of-introduced-bigheaded-carps-hypophthalmichthys-spp-inhabiting-the-largest-shallow-lake-in-central-europe
#20
Andrea K Borsodi, Attila Szabó, Gergely Krett, Tamás Felföldi, András Specziár, Gergely Boros
Studying the microbiota in the alimentary tract of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) gained special interest recently, as these types of investigations on non-native fish species may lead to a better understanding of their ecological role and feeding habits in an invaded habitat. For microbiological examinations, bigheaded carp gut contents and water column samples from Lake Balaton (Hungary) were collected from spring to autumn in 2013. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were performed to reveal the composition...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
keyword
keyword
117376
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"