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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917670/neuroendocrine-tumour-arising-inside-a-tailgut-cyst
#1
I Mora-Guzmán, A Alonso-Casado, A Rodríguez Sánchez, E Bermejo Marcos
Tailgut cysts are rare benign retrorectal cysts arising from persistent remnants of an embryonic hindgut. Malignant transformation inside this lesion is very uncommon and occurrence of neuroendocrine tumours in this context is extremely rare. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who underwent surgical excision of a presacral tailgut cyst, which was found incidentally to include a neuroendocrine tumour.
December 5, 2016: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914545/potential-mode-of-action-of-a-novel-plumbagin-as-a-mosquito-repellent-against-the-malarial-vector-anopheles-stephensi-culicidae-diptera
#2
Venkatraman Pradeepa, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Subbiah Sathish-Narayanan, Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Athirstam Ponsankar, Edward-Sam Edwin, Muthiah Sakthi-Bagavathy, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Kadarkarai Murugan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Plumbagin was isolated and characterized from the roots of Plumbago zeylanica using chromatography: TLC, Column chromatogram, HPLC, FTIR and (1)H NMR. The isolated pure compounds were assayed for potency as inhibitors of: acetylcholine esterase (AchE), glutathione S-transferases (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytochrome P450 and α, β-esterase, and for repellency with Anopheles stephensi at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100ppm). The enzyme assay against the pure compound reveals that the level of esterase and SOD was decreased significantly in contrast the level of GST and cytochrome P450 was increased significantly...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911928/%C3%AE-glucans-and-resistant-starch-alter-the-fermentation-of-recalcitrant-fibers-in-growing-pigs
#3
Sonja de Vries, Walter J J Gerrits, Mirjam A Kabel, Thava Vasanthan, Ruurd T Zijlstra
Interactions among dietary ingredients are often assumed non-existent when evaluating the nutritive value and health effects of dietary fiber. Specific fibers can distinctly affect digestive processes; therefore, digestibility and fermentability of the complete diet may depend on fiber types present. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of readily fermentable fibers (β-glucans and resistant starch) on the degradation of feed ingredients containing more persistent, recalcitrant, fibers. Six semi-synthetic diets with recalcitrant fibers from rapeseed meal (pectic polysaccharides, xyloglucans, and cellulose) or corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS; (glucurono)arabinoxylans and cellulose) with or without inclusion of β-glucans (6%) or retrograded tapioca (40%) substituted for corn starch were formulated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906129/the-evolutionary-origin-of-bilaterian-smooth-and-striated-myocytes
#4
Thibaut Brunet, Antje Hl Fischer, Patrick Rh Steinmetz, Antonella Lauri, Paola Bertucci, Detlev Arendt
The dichotomy between smooth and striated myocytes is fundamental for bilaterian musculature, but its evolutionary origin is unsolved. In particular, interrelationships of visceral smooth muscles remain unclear. Absent in fly and nematode, they have not yet been characterized molecularly outside vertebrates. Here, we characterize expression profile, ultrastructure, contractility and innervation of the musculature in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii and identify smooth muscles around the midgut, hindgut and heart that resemble their vertebrate counterparts in molecular fingerprint, contraction speed, and nervous control...
December 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898943/effects-of-feeding-fermented-wheat-with-on-gut-morphology-intestinal-fermentation-nutrient-digestibility-and-growth-performance-in-weaned-pigs
#5
M H A Le, S Galle, Y Yang, J L Landero, E Beltranena, M G Gänzle, R T Zijlstra
Feeding fermented feed to weaned pigs may improve nutrient digestibility and gut health and thereby reduce diarrhea incidence. Effects of feeding wheat grain fermented for 24 h with were evaluated with 36 weaned pigs (7.3 kg BW). Fermented wheat grain contained (DM basis) 14.2% CP, 0.45% chemically available Lys, and 7.8% NDF, whereas unfermented wheat grain contained 16.4% CP, 0.45% chemically available Lys, and 9.9% NDF. Pigs were fed 6 mash wheat-based diets balanced for water content during 2 phases: Phase 1 diets for 1 wk (d 0-7) with 20% unfermented or fermented wheat and, subsequently, Phase 2 diets for 2 wk (d 8-21) with 50% unfermented or fermented wheat...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898849/effects-of-feed-intake-and-dietary-nutrient-density-on-apparent-ileal-and-total-tract-digestibility-of-nutrients-and-gross-energy-for-growing-pigs
#6
J B Liu, Z Q Liu, L Chen, H F Zhang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of feed intake (FI) and dietary nutrient concentration on the determination of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and GE for growing pigs. A total of 48 growing pigs (40.7 ± 1.3 kg initial BW) were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and assigned to 6 treatment groups in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 diets (a low-nutrient-density [LND] diet or a normal-nutrient-density [NND] diet) and 3 FI levels (3, 4 or 5% of BW per day)...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877084/rna-interference-of-chitin-synthase-genes-inhibits-chitin-biosynthesis-and-affects-larval-performance-in-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-say
#7
Ji-Feng Shi, Li-Li Mu, Xu Chen, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
Dietary introduction of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has great potential for management of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Identification of the most attractive candidate genes for RNA interference (RNAi) is the first step. In the present paper, three complete chitin synthase cDNA sequences (LdChSAa, LdChSAb and LdChSB) were cloned. LdChSAa and LdChSAb, two splicing variants of LdChSA gene, were highly expressed in ectodermally-derived epidermal cells forming epidermis, trachea, foregut and hindgut, whereas LdChSB was mainly transcribed in midgut cells...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862531/gut-microbial-ecology-of-lizards-insights-into-diversity-in-the-wild-effects-of-captivity-variation-across-gut-regions-and-transmission
#8
Kevin D Kohl, Antonio Brun, Melisa Magallanes, Joshua Brinkerhoff, Alejandro Laspiur, Juan Carlos Acosta, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, Seth R Bordenstein
Animals maintain complex associations with a diverse microbiota living in their guts. Our understanding of the ecology of these associations is extremely limited in reptiles. Here, we report an in-depth study into the microbial ecology of gut communities in three syntopic and viviparous lizard species (two omnivores: Liolaemus parvus and L. ruibali, and an herbivore: Phymaturus williamsi). Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to inventory various bacterial communities, we elucidate four major findings: (i) closely-related lizard species harbor distinct gut bacterial microbiota that remain distinguishable in captivity; a considerable portion of gut bacterial diversity (39...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859898/structural-and-ultrastructural-features-of-the-malpighian-tubules-of-dolycoris-baccarum-linnaeus-1758-heteroptera-pentatomidae
#9
Nurcan Özyurt, Damla Amutkan, Irmak Polat, Tenay Kocamaz, Selami Candan, Zekiye Suludere
The morphology and ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubules of Dolycoris baccarum were analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy in order to determine their functional organization. The Malpighian tubules are compared with similar structures of other insects based on cell structure and functional organization. The Malpighian tubules of D. baccarum extend from the midgut-hindgut region of the digestive tract. The Malpighian tubules are divided into two regions: the proximal segment is short and flattened and the distal segment is long, stringy in shape and free in hemolymph...
November 11, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859814/black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-and-domestic-horse-equus-caballus-hindgut-microflora-demonstrate-similar-fermentation-responses-to-grape-seed-extract-supplementation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#10
N F Huntley, H D Naumann, A L Kenny, M S Kerley
The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849596/genome-wide-screen-identifies-host-colonization-determinants-in-a-bacterial-gut-symbiont
#11
J Elijah Powell, Sean P Leonard, Waldan K Kwong, Philipp Engel, Nancy A Moran
Animal guts are often colonized by host-specialized bacterial species to the exclusion of other transient microorganisms, but the genetic basis of colonization ability is largely unknown. The bacterium Snodgrassella alvi is a dominant gut symbiont in honey bees, specialized in colonizing the hindgut epithelium. We developed methods for transposon-based mutagenesis in S. alvi and, using high-throughput DNA sequencing, screened genome-wide transposon insertion (Tn-seq) and transcriptome (RNA-seq) libraries to characterize both the essential genome and the genes facilitating host colonization...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821179/the-clinicopathological-significance-of-angiogenesis-in-hindgut-neuroendocrine-tumors-obtained-via-an-endoscopic-procedure
#12
Yoichiro Okubo, Osamu Motohashi, Norisuke Nakayama, Ken Nishimura, Rika Kasajima, Yohei Miyagi, Manabu Shiozawa, Emi Yoshioka, Masaki Suzuki, Kota Washimi, Kae Kawachi, Madoka Nito, Yoichi Kameda, Tomoyuki Yokose
BACKGROUND: As the World Health Organization grading system for gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) may not always correlate with tumor progression, it is imperative that other independent predictors of tumor progression be established. To identify such predictors, we conducted a retrospective histopathological study of hindgut NETs, obtained from endoscopic procedures, and used statistical analyses to evaluate predictive factors. METHODS: We first obtained clinicopathological data of cases of hindgut NETs...
November 8, 2016: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803081/renal-neuroendocrine-tumour-and-synchronous-pancreas-metastasis-histopathological-diagnosis-using-prostatic-acid-phosphatase
#13
Keishi Kawasaki, Yoshikuni Kawaguchi, Yoshio Suzuki, Nobutaka Tanaka
A woman aged 56 years developed 2 synchronous tumours: one, 1.2 cm in diameter at the head of the pancreas; and the other, 4.0 cm in diameter, at the left side of her horseshoe kidney. Preoperative differential diagnosis of these hypovascular lesions included pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC) with renal metastasis, PDC with renal angiomyolipoma, renal cell carcinoma with pancreatic metastasis or PDC and renal cell carcinoma. Following pancreaticoduodenectomy and left nephrectomy, both specimens were diagnosed as grade 2 neuroendocrine tumours (NETs)...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800659/characterization-of-a-laccase-from-a-wood-feeding-termite-coptotermes-formosanus
#14
Alei Geng, Jian Wu, Rong-Rong Xie, Xia Li, Fu-Xiang Chang, Jian-Zhong Sun
Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki is a wood-feeding termite, which secretes a series of lignolytic and cellulolytic enzymes for woody biomass degradation. However, the lignin modification mechanism in termite is largely ellusive, and the characteristics of most lignolytic enzymes in termite remain unknown. In this study, a laccase gene lac1 from C. formosanus was heterogeneously expressed in insect Sf9 cells. The purified Lac1 showed strong activities toward hydroquinone (305 mU/mg) and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2...
November 1, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798343/whole-grain-fiber-composition-influences-site-of-nutrient-digestion-standardized-ileal-digestibility-of-amino-acids-and-whole-body-energy-utilization-in-grower-pigs
#15
Janelle M Fouhse, Jun Gao, Thava Vasanthan, Marta Izydorczyk, Aaron D Beattie, Ruurd T Zijlstra
BACKGROUND: Variant chemical composition and physical structure of whole grains may change the site of energy digestion from the small to the large intestine. OBJECTIVE: We determined the site of nutrient digestion, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AAs), and net energy (NE) value of barley cultivars that vary in nutrient composition compared with wheat. METHODS: Ileal-cannulated barrows (27.7 kg initial body weight) were fed diets containing 800 g whole grains/kg alongside a basal and nitrogen-free diet for calculations in a 6 (period) × 7 (diet) Youden square...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798065/microenvironmental-heterogeneity-of-gut-compartments-drives-bacterial-community-structure-in-wood-and-humus-feeding-higher-termites
#16
Aram Mikaelyan, Katja Meuser, Andreas Brune
Symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose in higher termites (family Termitidae) is accomplished by an exclusively prokaryotic gut microbiota. By deep sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes, we had identified diet as the primary determinant of bacterial community structure in a broad selection of termites specialized on lignocellulose in different stages of humification. Here, we increased the resolution of our approach to account for the pronounced heterogeneity in microenvironmental conditions and microbial activities in the major hindgut compartments...
January 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767426/proximal-duodenoileal-anastomosis-for-treatment-of-small-intestinal-obstruction-and-volvulus-in-a-green-iguana-iguana-iguana
#17
Sarah Wills, Hugues Beaufrère, Gwyneth Watrous, Michelle L Oblak, Dale A Smith
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765989/coronostoma-claireae-n-sp-nematoda-rhabditida-oxyuridomorpha-coronostomatidae-from-the-indigenous-milliped-narceus-gordanus-chamberlain-1943-diplopoda-spirobolida-in-ocala-national-forest-florida
#18
Gary Phillips, Ernest C Bernard, Robert J Pivar, John K Moulton, Rowland M Shelley
Twenty-four individuals of Narceus gordanus (Diplopoda: Spirobolidae) were collected in Ocala National Forest, FL, between November 2013 and July 2014. Each specimen was dissected to extract the intestine, which was removed and examined for parasitic nematodes. Coronostoma claireae n. sp. was collected from the hindgut and midgut of 10 specimens, and its morphology was examined with brightfield, differential interference contrast, phase contrast, and scanning electron microscopy. This species is separated from other Coronostoma spp...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765651/metamorphosis-of-the-drosophila-visceral-musculature-and-its-role-in-intestinal-morphogenesis-and-stem-cell-formation
#19
Patrick Aghajanian, Shigeo Takashima, Manash Paul, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein, Volker Hartenstein
The visceral musculature of the Drosophila intestine plays important roles in digestion as well as development. Detailed studies investigating the embryonic development of the visceral muscle exist; comparatively little is known about postembryonic development and metamorphosis of this tissue. In this study we have combined the use of specific markers with electron microscopy to follow the formation of the adult visceral musculature and its involvement in gut development during metamorphosis. Unlike the adult somatic musculature, which is derived from a pool of undifferentiated myoblasts, the visceral musculature of the adult is a direct descendant of the larval fibers, as shown by activating a lineage tracing construct in the larval muscle and obtaining labeled visceral fibers in the adult...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720148/changes-in-the-intestinal-bacterial-community-short-chain-fatty-acid-profile-and-intestinal-development-of-preweaned-holstein-calves-2-effects-of-gastrointestinal-site-and-age
#20
J J Castro, A Gomez, B White, J R Loften, J K Drackley
The objective of this work was to assess the effects of age and gastrointestinal location (rumen vs. colon) on bacterial community diversity and composition, as well as short-chain fatty acid profiles of preruminant male Holstein calves on an intensive milk replacer feeding program. Thirty-two calves were fed at 2% of their body weight (dry matter basis) from d 10 until harvest. Sixteen calves were euthanized at 2 wk and another 16 at 4 wk of age to collect digesta samples from the rumen and colon. The rumen and colon bacterial communities of preruminant calves showed a similar degree of diversity (i...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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