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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054873/the-enigmatic-genome-of-an-obligate-ancient-spiroplasma-symbiont-in-a-hadal-holothurian
#1
Li-Sheng He, Pei-Wei Zhang, Jiao-Mei Huang, Fang-Chao Zhu, Antoine Danchin, Yong Wang
Protective symbiosis has been reported in many organisms, but the molecular mechanisms of the mutualistic interactions between the symbionts and their host are unclear. Here, we sequenced the 424-Kbp genome of "Candidatus Spiroplasma holothuricola" that dominated the hindgut microbiome of a sea cucumber, a major scavenger captured in the Mariana trench (6140m depth). Phylogenetic relationships indicated that the dominant bacterium in the hindgut was derived from a basal group of Spiroplasma sp. In this organism, the genes responsible for biosynthesis of amino acids, glycolysis and sugar transporters were lost, strongly suggesting endosymbiosis...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042192/an-immune-related-gene-expression-atlas-of-the-shrimp-digestive-system-in-response-to-two-major-pathogens-brings-insights-into-the-involvement-of-hemocytes-in-gut-immunity
#2
Amanda S Silveira, Gabriel M Matos, Marcelo Falchetti, Fabio S Ribeiro, Albert Bressan, Evelyne Bachère, Luciane M Perazzolo, Rafael D Rosa
Much of our current knowledge on shrimp immune system is restricted to the defense reactions mediated by the hemocytes and little is known about gut immunity. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional profile of immune-related genes in different organs of the digestive system of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. First, the tissue distribution of 52 well-known immune-related genes has been assessed by semiquantitative analysis in the gastrointestinal tract (foregut, midgut and hindgut) and in the hepatopancreas and circulating hemocytes of shrimp stimulated or not with heat-killed bacteria...
October 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038014/effects-of-lignins-as-diet-components-on-the-physiological-activities-of-a-lower-termite-coptotermes-formosanus-shiraki
#3
Didi Tarmadi, Tsuyoshi Yoshimura, Yuki Tobimatsu, Masaomi Yamamura, Toshiaki Umezawa
We investigated the effects of lignins as diet components on the physiological activities of a lower termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Artificial diets composed of polysaccharides with and without purified lignins (milled-wood lignins) from Japanese cedar (softwood), Japanese beech (hardwood), and rice (grass), were fed to C. formosanus workers. The survival and body mass of the workers as well as the presence of three symbiotic protists in the hindguts of the workers were then periodically examined...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018955/the-effect-of-laminin-1-on-enteric-neural-crest-derived-cell-migration-in-the-hirschsprung-s-disease-mouse-model
#4
Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, N Fujiwara, K Miyahara, S Nakada, E Arikawa-Hirasawa, C Akazawa, M Urao, A Yamataka
BACKGROUND/AIM: Laminin-1 regulates neurite outgrowth in various neuronal cells. We have previously demonstrated that laminin-1 promotes enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) migration by using Sox10-VENUS transgenic mice, in which ENCCs are labeled with a green fluorescent protein, Venus. Mice lacking the endothelin-B receptor gene, Ednrb (-/-) mice, are widely used as a model for Hirschsprung's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of laminin-1on ENCC migration in Sox10-VENUS(+)/Ednrb (-/-) mice, a newly created HD mice model...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982156/postprandial-pyy-increase-by-resistant-starch-supplementation-is-independent-of-net-portal-appearance-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-pigs
#5
Anne Krog Ingerslev, Shivaprakash Jagalur Mutt, Helle Nygaard Lærke, Mette Skou Hedemann, Peter Kappel Theil, Kirstine Lykke Nielsen, Henry Jørgensen, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen
Increased dietary fiber (DF) fermentation and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production may stimulate peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) secretion. In this study, the effects of hindgut SCFA production on postprandial PYY plasma levels were assessed using different experimental diets in a porto-arterial catheterized pig model. The pigs were fed experimental diets varying in source and levels of DF for one week in 3×3 Latin square designs. The DF sources were whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone, rye aleurone-rich flour, rye flakes, and resistant starch...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975535/spatiotemporal-expression-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-5-in-the-development-of-anorectal-malformations-in-fetal-rats
#6
Xiao Bing Tang, Li Chen, Wei Lin Wang, Zheng Wei Yuan, Yu Zuo Bai
This study examined the expression patterns of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (Pcsk5) during anorectal development in normal and anorectal malformations (ARM) rat embryos, determine the possible role of Pcsk5 in the pathogenesis of ARM. An ARM rat model was developed by the administration of ethylenethiourea gestational day 10 (GD10). Embryos were harvested by surgical excision from GD13 to GD16, and the spatiotemporal expression of Pcsk5 was evaluated, using immunohistochemistry staining, Western blotting and real time RT-PCR...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965237/morphometric-and-molecular-characterisation-of-tenuiproboscis-keralensis-n-sp-infecting-marine-and-brackish-water-fishes-from-the-south-west-coast-of-india-with-a-note-on-morphological-plasticity
#7
Pinky Kaur, P Shamal, Archana Chandran, C P Binesh, M Gishnu, P K Asokan, N K Sanil
A new species of acanthocephalan infecting marine and brackish water fishes from the south-west coast of India is described. The parasite belongs to the genus Tenuiproboscis, and the fish hosts include Lutjanus argentimaculatus, L. ehrenbergii, Siganus javus, Epinephelus malabaricus, E. coioides, Scatophagus argus, Parascolopsis aspinosa, Caranx ignobilis, Gerres filamentosus and Lates calcarifer. The parasite inhabits mid- and hindgut regions and is characterised by an elongated, cylindrical, bulbous and posteriorly tapering metasoma and a claviform proboscis having 14-15 rows of 14-15 hooks each...
September 30, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959247/microbiome-metabolome-responses-to-a-high-grain-diet-associated-with-the-hind-gut-health-of-goats
#8
Shiyu Tao, Ping Tian, Yanwen Luo, Jing Tian, Canfeng Hua, Yali Geng, Rihua Cong, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Studies on the effect of a high-concentrate (HC) diet on the hindgut microbiota and metabolome of ruminants are rarely reported. We used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA genes and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the effects of long-term feeding (HL) or short-term (HS) feeding of an HC diet on changes in bacterial microbiota and their metabolites in the hindgut, with Guanzhong goat as a ruminant model. Results indicated that an HC diet decreased bacterial diversity and induced metabolic disorder in the hindgut...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954838/whole-grain-starch-and-fiber-composition-modifies-ileal-flow-of-nutrients-and-nutrient-availability-in-the-hindgut-shifting-fecal-microbial-profiles-in-pigs
#9
Janelle M Fouhse, Michael G Gänzle, Aaron D Beattie, Thava Vasanthan, Ruurd T Zijlstra
Background: Changes in whole-grain chemical composition can affect the site of nutrient digestion, which may alter substrate availability and gut microbiota composition.Objectives: This study elucidated the function of whole-grain fermentable fiber composition on ileal substrate flow, hindgut substrate availability, and subsequent gut microbial profiles in pigs.Methods: Five whole grains-1) high-fermentability, high-β-glucan hull-less barley (HFB); 2) high-fermentability, high-amylose hull-less barley (HFA); 3) moderate-fermentability hull-less barley (MFB); 4) low-fermentability hulled barley (LFB); or 5) low-fermentability hard red spring wheat (LFW)-were included at 800 g/kg into diets fed to ileal-cannulated growing pigs for 9 d in a 6 (periods) × 5 (diets) Youden square...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947534/inter-organ-regulation-of-drosophila-intestinal-stem-cell-proliferation-by-a-hybrid-organ-boundary-zone
#10
Jessica K Sawyer, Erez Cohen, Donald T Fox
The molecular identities and regulation of cells at inter-organ boundaries are often unclear, despite the increasingly appreciated role of organ boundaries in disease. Using Drosophila as a model, here we show that a specific population of adult midgut organ boundary intestinal stem cells (OB-ISCs) is regulated by the neighboring hindgut, a developmentally distinct organ. This distinct OB-ISC control is due to proximity to a specialized transition zone between the endodermal midgut and ectodermal hindgut that shares molecular signatures of both organs, which we term the hybrid zone (HZ)...
September 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947500/cold-tolerance-of-drosophila-species-is-tightly-linked-to-epithelial-k-transport-capacity-of-the-malpighian-tubules-and-rectal-pads
#11
Mads Kuhlmann Andersen, Heath A MacMillan, Andrew Donini, Johannes Overgaard
Insect chill tolerance is strongly associated with the ability to maintain ion and water homeostasis during cold exposure. Maintenance of K(+) balance is particularly important due to its role in setting the cell membrane potential that is involved in many aspects of cellular function and viability. In most insects, K(+) balance is maintained through secretion at the Malpighian tubules balancing reabsorption from the hindgut and passive leak arising from the gut lumen. Here, we used a scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) system at benign (23°C) and low (6°C) temperature to examine K(+) flux across the Malpighian tubules and the rectal pads in the hindgut in five Drosophila species that differ in cold tolerance...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945829/right-left-or-midgut-hindgut
#12
V Valentí, J Ramos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942092/the-parabasalid-symbiont-community-of-heterotermes-aureus-molecular-and-morphological-characterization-of-four-new-species-and-reestablishment-of-the-genus-cononympha
#13
Daniel E Jasso-Selles, Francesca De Martini, Katalina D Freeman, Mikaela D Garcia, Trevor L Merrell, Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Gillian H Gile
The subterranean termite Heterotermes aureus is endemic to arid regions of southwestern USA and northern Mexico. Like other termites in the family Rhinotermitidae, it harbors a community of protists (Phylum Parabasalia) in its hindgut that aid in cellulose digestion. We investigated the hindgut community of H. aureus using light microscopy, single cell isolation, and high throughput amplicon sequencing. Here we describe four new parabasalid species from the classes Trichonymphea and Spirotrichonymphea. Three of the new species include Pseudotrichonympha aurea (Trichonymphea), Holomastigotoides aureus, and Holomastigotoides oxyrhynchus (Spirotrichonymphea)...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939335/post-embryonic-changes-in-the-hindgut-of-honeybee-apis-mellifera-workers-morphology-cuticle-deposition-apoptosis-and-cell-proliferation
#14
Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Kenner Morais Fernandes, Weyder Cristiano Santana, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
In insects, the hindgut is a homeostatic region of the digestive tract, divided into pylorus, ileum, and rectum, that reabsorbs water, ions, and small molecules produced during hemolymph filtration. The hindgut anatomy in bee larvae is different from that of adult workers. This study reports the morphological changes and cellular events that occur in the hindgut during the metamorphosis of the honeybee Apis mellifera. We describe the occurrence of autophagosomes and the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells and cuticle, suggesting that cuticular degradation begins in prepupae, with the cuticle being reabsorbed and recycled by autophagosomes in white- and pink-eyed pupae, followed by the deposition of new cuticle in light-brown-eyed pupae...
September 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924521/hindgut-duplication-a-unique-case-of-six-perineal-openings
#15
Shujaul Haq, Adeel Nasrullah, Iftikhar Ahmed, Haider Ghazanfar, Abu Baker Sheikh, Aisha Akhtar
Complete hindgut duplication is a rare and intriguing entity, often coupled with genitourinary abnormalities and neural tube defects. The diagnosis demands a thorough clinical exam and radiological workup. Timely recognition and expeditious treatment of these patients can lead to a better quality of life. We present a case of a 10-month-old female with complete hindgut duplication and associated genitourinary duplication treated with surgical intervention.
July 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920415/effects-of-pig-breed-on-nutrient-and-amino-acid-digestibility-in-diets-with-different-fiber-sources
#16
Jinbiao Zhao, Qiuyun Wang, Ling Liu, Yiqiang Chen, Aiming Jin, Guoliang Liu, Kaizhen Li, Defa Li, Changhua Lai
Objective: This experiment was conducted to determine the differences in the apparent ileal (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrient and indispensable amino acid (IAA) in high-fiber diets with wheat middlings, rice bran or alfalfa meal fed to Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) and Duroc x Berkshire x Jiaxing (DBJ) growing pigs. Methods: Eighteen DLY and 18 DBJ pigs were randomly allotted to a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement involving 2 pig breeds and 3 high-fiber diets...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910726/knockdown-of-nadph-cytochrome-p450-reductase-increases-the-susceptibility-to-carbaryl-in-the-migratory-locust-locusta-migratoria
#17
Xueyao Zhang, Junxiu Wang, Jiao Liu, Yahong Li, Xiaojian Liu, Haihua Wu, Enbo Ma, Jianzhen Zhang
BACKGROUND: NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) plays important roles in cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and participates in cytochrome P450-related detoxification of insecticides. However, the CPR from Locusta migratoria has not been well characterized and its function is still undescribed. RESULTS: The full-length of CPR gene from Locusta migratoria (LmCPR) was cloned by RT-PCR based on transcriptome information. The membrane anchor region, and 3 conserved domains (FMN binding domain, connecting domain, FAD/NADPH binding domain) were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis...
August 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888066/the-interactions-between-gut-microbiota-and-entomopathogenic-fungi-a-potential-approach-for-biological-control-of-blattella-germanica-l
#18
Fan Zhang, Xiao X Sun, Xian C Zhang, Shuo Zhang, Jie Lu, Yong M Xia, Yan H Huang, Xue J Wang
BACKGROUND: Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana mainly infect insects through the cuticle; gut infection occasionally occurs. Microorganisms existing in the gut may play a crucial role in the evolution and ecology of host defenses to fungal pathogens. To evaluate whether the gut bacteria participate in antifungal activity, and to determine their role in host protection, the interactions between gut bacteria and M. anisopliae and the diversity of gut microbiota in cockroaches were studied...
September 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882402/visceral-endoderm-and-the-primitive-streak-interact-to-build-the-fetal-placental-interface-of-the-mouse-gastrula
#19
Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs
Hypoblast/visceral endoderm assists in amniote nutrition, axial positioning and formation of the gut. Here, we provide evidence, currently limited to humans and non-human primates, that hypoblast is a purveyor of extraembryonic mesoderm in the mouse gastrula. Fate mapping a unique segment of axial extraembryonic visceral endoderm associated with the allantoic component of the primitive streak, and referred to as the "AX", revealed that visceral endoderm supplies the placentae with extraembryonic mesoderm. Exfoliation of the AX was dependent upon contact with the primitive streak, which modulated Hedgehog signaling...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875279/trauma-to-the-superior-mesenteric-artery-and-superior-mesenteric-vein-a-narrative-review-of-rare-but-lethal-injuries
#20
REVIEW
B Phillips, S Reiter, E P Murray, D McDonald, L Turco, D L Cornell, J A Asensio
Mesenteric vessels, including the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and vein (SMV), provide and drain the rich blood supply of the midgut and hindgut. SMA and SMV injuries are rare and often lethal. Clinical management of these injuries is not well established, but treatment options include operative, non-operative, and endovascular strategies. A narrative review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE Complete-EBSCO. Relevant studies, specifically those focusing on diagnosis and management of SMA and SMV injuries, were selected...
September 5, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
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