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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627066/little-differences-in-digestive-efficiency-for-protein-and-fat-in-mammals-of-different-trophic-guilds-and-digestive-strategies-data-constraints-or-fundamental-functional-similarity
#1
O K Richard, D Codron, K B Hagen, K-H Südekum, M Clauss
Carnivores do not vary markedly in their digestive efficiency for protein and fat, but whether they resemble other trophic guilds (omnivores and herbivores) in this respect has not been evaluated. We collated data on apparent crude protein (CP) and crude fat (ether extracts, EE) digestibility in 157 mammal species, applying the Lucas principle of regressing digestible nutrient content against nutrient content, where the slope of the regression equation represents the true digestibility and the intercept the metabolic losses per unit dry matter intake...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#2
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613144/paenibacillus-apis-sp-nov-and-paenibacillus-intestini-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-intestine-of-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#3
Ji-Hyun Yun, June-Young Lee, Pil Soo Kim, Mi-Ja Jung, Jin-Woo Bae
Three strains, CBM1T, CBH23 and LAH16T, belonging to the genus Paenibacillus were isolated from the midgut and hindgut of Apis mellifera. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic characteristics, the three strains represent two novel species. Strains CBM1T and CBH23 formed a group with Paenibacillus puldeungensis CAU 9324T, and strain LAH16T belonged to the Paenibacillusamylolyticus NRRL NRS-290T subgroup of the genus Paenibacillus. The DNA G+C contents of strains CBM1T, CBH23 and LAH16T were 47...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610335/rhigonema-naylae-n-sp-rhigonematomorpha-rhigonematidae-a-new-parasitic-nematode-from-a-japanese-polydesmid-millipede-polydesmida-xystodesmidae
#4
Jans Morffe, Koichi Hasegawa
Rhigonema naylae n. sp. (Rhigonematomorpha: Rhigonematidae) is described from the hindgut of the polydesmid millipede Parafontaria laminata (Attems, 1909) (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae), from Aichi prefecture, Japan. The new species is characterized by having a medium sized body in both sexes, the cephalic collar partially fused to the body cuticle, but not overhanging the body contour; cervical region densely covered in short, fine microtrichs that extend from the posterior margin of the cephalic collar to ca...
May 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598818/the-impact-of-pathologic-differentiation-well-poorly-and-the-degree-of-ki-67-index-in-patients-with-metastatic-who-grade-3-gep-necs
#5
Hee Kyung Kim, Sang Yun Ha, Jeeyun Lee, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Ho Yeong Lim, Won Ki Kang, Young Suk Park, Seung Tae Kim
We investigated the impact of pathologic differentiation (well or poorly differentiated) in metastatic grade 3 GEP-NEC patients receiving etoposide and platinum (EP)-based therapy, and evaluated a more exact Ki67 index cut-off point to select patients with grade 3 GEP-NEC who might benefit from EP-based therapy. A total of 31 patients with metastatic grade 3 GEP-NECs receiving EP-based therapy were included in this study. Primary sites included 13 foregut-derived GEP-NECs [stomach (n = 4), duodenum (n = 4), and pancreas (n = 5)] and 2 hindgut-derived GEP-NECs of the rectum...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593838/attractiveness-of-black-and-white-modified-shannon-traps-to-phlebotomine-sandflies-diptera-psychodidae-in-the-brazilian-amazon-basin-an-area-of-intense-transmission-of-american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#6
Andreia Fernandes Brilhante, Márcia Moreira de Ávila, Jailson Ferreira de Souza, Antônio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Priscila Bassan Sábio, Marcia Bicudo de Paula, Rodrigo Espindola Godoy, Leonardo Augusto Kohara Melchior, Vânia Lúcia Brandão Nunes, Cristiane de Oliveira Cardoso, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati
In the Amazon region the phlebotomine fauna is considered one of the most diverse in the world. The use of Shannon traps may provide information on the anthropophily of the species and improve the traps' performance in terms of diversity and quantity of insects collected when white and black colored traps are used together. This study sought to verify the attractiveness of the traps to the phlebotomine species of the Brazilian Amazon basin using Shannon traps under these conditions. The insects were collected using two Shannon traps installed side by side, one white and the other black, in a primary forest area of the municipality of Xapuri, Acre, Brazil...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589838/a-novel-symbiotic-ciliate-ciliophora-peritrichia-in-the-hindgut-of-a-stag-beetle-coleoptera-lucanidae
#7
Masahiko Tanahashi, Xian Ying Meng, Takema Fukatsu
Bell-shaped ciliates of the subclass Peritrichia, such as Vorticella, Carchesium and Epistylis, are commonly found in freshwater and other aquatic environments, either solitary or colonial. Peritrichs attach to a substratum via a contractile or non-motile stalk, and collect food particles by water current using ciliary rows around the edge of the bell, called the peristome. Some peritrichs are epibiotic and ectocommensalistic associates of aquatic insects and other animals, settling on the surface of their specific hosts...
June 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587859/characterization-and-function-of-a-tachylectin-5-like-immune-molecule-in-penaeus-monodon
#8
Pacharaporn Angthong, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Padermsak Jarayabhand, Pikul Jiravanichpaisal
Tachylectin5A and its homolog, tachylectin5B both contain a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and have been studied in horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and shown to be involved in host defense. Here, we demonstrate the presence of tachylectin5-like genes in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, designated as Penlectin5-1 (PL5-1) and Penlectin5-2 (PL5-2), which both contain a signal peptide and a single FReD with an acetyl group and a calcium binding sites and they are both structurally similar to horseshoe crab tachylectin/carcinolectin5...
June 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553263/spatial-structure-of-the-mormon-cricket-gut-microbiome-and-its-predicted-contribution-to-nutrition-and-immune-function
#9
Chad C Smith, Robert B Srygley, Frank Healy, Karthikeyan Swaminath, Ulrich G Mueller
The gut microbiome of insects plays an important role in their ecology and evolution, participating in nutrient acquisition, immunity, and behavior. Microbial community structure within the gut is heavily influenced by differences among gut regions in morphology and physiology, which determine the niches available for microbes to colonize. We present a high-resolution analysis of the structure of the gut microbiome in the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex, an insect known for its periodic outbreaks in the western United States and nutrition-dependent mating system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#10
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536561/differences-in-microbiota-membership-along-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-piglets-and-their-differential-alterations-following-an-early-life-antibiotic-intervention
#11
Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Yong Su, Erwin G Zoetendal, Weiyun Zhu
Early-life antibiotic interventions can change the predisposition to disease by disturbing the gut microbiota. However, the impact of antibiotics on gut microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract is not completely understood, although antibiotic-induced alterations in the distal gut have been reported. Here, employing a piglet model, the microbial composition was analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function. The present study showed clear spatial variation of microbial communities in the stomach and intestine, and found that the administration of antibiotics (a mixture of olaquindox, oxytetracycline calcium, kitasamycin) in early life caused markedly differential alterations in the compartmentalized microbiota, with major alterations in their spatial variation in the lumen of the stomach and small intestine...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533966/microbiome-patterns-across-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-the-rabbitfish-siganus-fuscescens
#12
Shaun Nielsen, Jackson Wilkes Walburn, Adriana Vergés, Torsten Thomas, Suhelen Egan
Most of our knowledge regarding the biodiversity of gut microbes comes from terrestrial organisms or marine species of economic value, with less emphasis on ecologically important species. Here we investigate the bacterial composition associated with the gut of Siganus fuscescens, a rabbitfish that plays an important ecological role in coastal ecosystems by consuming seaweeds. Members of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and delta-Proteobacteria were among the dominant taxa across samples taken from the contents and the walls (sites) of the midgut and hindgut (location)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507766/effect-of-dietary-mannanoligosaccharide-supplementation-on-nutrient-digestibility-hindgut-fermentation-immune-response-and-antioxidant-indices-in-dogs
#13
Mahesh M Pawar, Ashok K Pattanaik, Dharmendra K Sinha, Tapas K Goswami, Kusumakar Sharma
BACKGROUND: Use of prebiotics in companion animal nutrition is often considered advantageous over probiotics because of the ease of handling, ability to withstand processing and storage etc. While most of the studies on prebiotic use in dogs have been done with processed food as basal diet, the response in relation to homemade diet feeding is not very well explored. METHODS: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, hindgut fermentation, immune response and antioxidant indices in dogs...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501979/endocrine-cells-producing-peptide-hormones-in-the-intestine-of-nile-tilapia-distribution-and-effects-of-feeding-and-fasting-on-the-cell-density
#14
Raquel Tatiane Pereira, Thaiza Rodrigues de Freitas, Izabela Regina Cardoso de Oliveira, Leandro Santos Costa, Fabricio Andrés Vigliano, Priscila Vieira Rosa
Endocrine cells (ECs) act as a luminal surveillance system responding to either the presence or absence of food in the gut through the secretion of peptide hormones. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of feeding and fasting on the EC peptide-specific distribution along the intestine of Nile tilapia. We assessed the density of ECs producing gastrin (GAS), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in nine segments of the intestine using immunohistochemistry...
May 13, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494211/pecoramyces-ruminantium-gen-nov-sp-nov-an-anaerobic-gut-fungus-from-the-feces-of-cattle-and-sheep
#15
Radwa A Hanafy, Mostafa S Elshahed, Audra S Liggenstoffer, Gareth W Griffith, Noha H Youssef
The anaerobic gut fungi (AGF) inhabit the rumen and alimentary tracts of multiple ruminant and nonruminant herbivores, belong to a distinct phylum-level lineage (Neocallimastigomycota), and play an important role in plant biomass degradation in many herbivores. As part of a wider effort to obtain AGF with high lignocellulolytic capacities, we isolated and characterized four different AGF strains from the feces of cattle and sheep. Microscopically, isolates produced monocentric thalli and monoflagellated zoospores...
April 18, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482796/effects-of-cold-acclimation-on-gene-expression-in-fall-field-cricket-gryllus-pennsylvanicus-ionoregulatory-tissues
#16
Lauren E Des Marteaux, Alexander H McKinnon, Hiroko Udaka, Jantina Toxopeus, Brent J Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Cold tolerance is a key determinant of temperate insect distribution and performance. Chill-susceptible insects lose ion and water homeostasis during cold exposure, but prior cold acclimation improves both cold tolerance and defense of homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying these processes are mostly unknown; cold acclimation is thought to enhance ion transport in the cold and/or prevent leak of water and ions. To identify candidate mechanisms of cold tolerance plasticity we generated transcriptomes of ionoregulatory tissues (hindgut and Malpighian tubules) from Gryllus pennsylvanicus crickets and compared gene expression in warm- and cold-acclimated individuals...
May 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476580/comparative-profiling-of-microbial-community-of-three-economically-important-fishes-reared-in-sea-cages-under-tropical-offshore-environment
#17
M K Rasheeda, Vijaya Raghavan Rangamaran, Senthilkumar Srinivasan, Sendhil Kumar Ramaiah, Rajaprabhu Gunasekaran, Santhanakumar Jaypal, Dharani Gopal, Kirubagaran Ramalingam
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial composition of farmed cobia pompano and milkfish, reared in sea-cages by culture-independent methods. This study would serve as a basis for assessing the general health of fish, identifying the dominant bacterial species present in the gut for future probiotic work and in early detection of potential pathogens. High-throughput sequencing of V3-V4 hyper variable regions of 16S rDNA on Illumina MiSeq platform facilitated unravelling of composite bacterial population...
May 2, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470558/phase-ii-study-of-lanreotide-autogel-in-japanese-patients-with-unresectable-or-metastatic-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors
#18
Tetsuhide Ito, Yoshitaka Honma, Susumu Hijioka, Atsushi Kudo, Akira Fukutomi, Akira Nozaki, Yasutoshi Kimura, Fuyuhiko Motoi, Hiroyuki Isayama, Izumi Komoto, Seiichi Hisamatsu, Akihiro Nakajima, Akira Shimatsu
Background Lanreotide is a long-acting somatostatin analog with demonstrated efficacy against enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) in the phase III (CLARINET) study. Materials and Methods In this single-arm study, Japanese patients with grade (G) 1/G2 NET received lanreotide (120 mg/4 weeks) for 48 weeks. Those who completed the study were enrolled in a long-term extension study. The primary endpoint was the clinical benefit rate (CBR) defined as a complete response, partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) over 24-weeks...
May 3, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468559/pediatric-mesenchymal-hamartomas-of-the-liver-can-show-both-foregut-and-hindgut-phenotype
#19
Hao Wu, William Ferguson, Eumenia Castro, Milton Finegold, Kalyani Patel
Cystic epithelium in mesenchymal hamartoma (MH) is typically biliary type. Mucinous differentiation of the epithelium and increased hepatocellular component may pose a diagnostic challenge. We studied MH in 7 children (6 M, 1 F; age 4 months to 8 years, median 1 year). Resected tumors varied from 3.0 to 17.0 cm. All tumors showed biliary epithelium in the cystic component with strong and diffuse reactivity for CK7 and CK19. Expression of CK20 and CDX2 was additionally seen in 2 tumors, rare/focal in 1, and diffuse with mucinous differentiation in the other...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455883/dietary-pea-fibre-alters-the-microbial-community-and-fermentation-with-increase-in-fibre-degradation-associated-bacterial-groups-in-the-colon-of-pigs
#20
Y Luo, H Chen, B Yu, J He, P Zheng, X Mao, J Yu, J Luo, Z Huang, D Chen
This study was attempted to investigate the influence of dietary pea fibre (PF) on the community and quantity of colonic bacteria of piglets and finisher pigs using pyrosequencing data and real-time PCR. The concentration of acetate in colonic digesta from PF-fed piglets was significantly higher than that from control (p < .05). Feeding PF diet to finisher pigs increased the ratio of acetate to total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) but decreased the ratio of butyrate, as compared with the control pigs (p < ...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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