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Alei Geng, Yanbing Cheng, Yongli Wang, Daochen Zhu, Yilin Le, Jian Wu, Rongrong Xie, Joshua S Yuan, Jianzhong Sun
Background: Wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, represents a highly efficient system for biomass deconstruction and utilization. However, the detailed mechanisms of lignin modification and carbohydrate degradation in this system are still largely elusive. Results: In order to reveal the inherent mechanisms for efficient biomass degradation, four different organs (salivary glands, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) within a complete digestive system of a lower termite, C...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Lu Liu, Bao-Zhen Hua
The larvae of Bittacidae, a cosmopolitan family in Mecoptera, have an interesting habit of spraying the body surface with soil through the anus after hatching, and each molts. The fine structure of Malpighian tubules, however, remains largely unknown in the larvae of Bittacidae to date. Here, we studied the ultrastructure of the larval Malpighian tubules in the hangingfly Terrobittacus implicatus (Huang & Hua) using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The larvae of T. implicatus have six elongate Malpighian tubules at the junction of the midgut and hindgut...
February 10, 2018: Protoplasma
Lidia Castagneto Gissey, James Casella Mariolo, Geltrude Mingrone
Bariatric surgery is very effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss but it is also associated with improvement of obesity metabolic complications, primarily type 2 diabetes (T2D). Remission of T2D or at least a net improvement of glycemic control persists for at least 5 years. The bypass of duodenum and of the first portion of the jejunum up to the Treitz ligament as in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), or the bypass of the duodenum, the entire jejunum and the first tract of the ileum, such as in Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion (BPD), achieve different results on insulin sensitivity...
February 2018: Peptides
Shelby S Calkins, Nicole C Elledge, Katherine E Mueller, Stephen M Marek, M B Couger, Mostafa S Elshahed, Noha H Youssef
Members of the anaerobic gut fungi (AGF) reside in rumen, hindgut, and feces of ruminant and non-ruminant herbivorous mammals and reptilian herbivores. No protocols for gene insertion, deletion, silencing, or mutation are currently available for the AGF, rendering gene-targeted molecular biological manipulations unfeasible. Here, we developed and optimized an RNA interference (RNAi)-based protocol for targeted gene silencing in the anaerobic gut fungus Pecoramyces ruminantium strain C1A. Analysis of the C1A genome identified genes encoding enzymes required for RNA silencing in fungi (Dicer, Argonaute, Neurospora crassa QDE-3 homolog DNA helicase, Argonaute-interacting protein, and Neurospora crassa QIP homolog exonuclease); and the competency of C1A germinating spores for RNA uptake was confirmed using fluorescently labeled small interfering RNAs (siRNA)...
2018: PeerJ
Sandra C P De Castro, Caroline S Hirst, Dawn Savery, Ana Rolo, Heiko Lickert, Bogi Andersen, Andrew J Copp, Nicholas D E Greene
Failure of neural tube closure leads to neural tube defects (NTDs), common congenital abnormalities in humans. Among the genes whose loss of function causes NTDs in mice, Grainyhead-like3 (Grhl3) is essential for spinal neural tube closure, with null mutants exhibiting fully penetrant spina bifida. During spinal neurulation Grhl3 is initially expressed in the surface (non-neural) ectoderm, subsequently in the neuroepithelial component of the neural folds and at the node-streak border, and finally in the hindgut endoderm...
February 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
Lance W Noll, Jay N Worley, Xun Yang, Pragathi B Shridhar, Justin B Ludwig, Xiaorong Shi, Jianfa Bai, Doina Caragea, Jianghong Meng, T G Nagaraja
Escherichia coli O103, harbored in the hindgut and shed in the feces of cattle, can be enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), or putative non-pathotype. The genetic diversity particularly that of virulence gene profiles within O103 serogroup is likely to be broad, considering the wide range in severity of illness. However, virulence descriptions of the E. coli O103 strains isolated from cattle feces have been primarily limited to major genes, such as Shiga toxin and intimin genes. Less is known about the frequency at which other virulence genes exist or about genes associated with the mobile genetic elements of E...
2018: PloS One
Márcia Moreira de Ávila, Andreia Fernandes Brilhante, Cristian Ferreira de Souza, Paula Dias Bevilacqua, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to their involvement in the zoonotic transmission of Leishmania spp. to vertebrates. The aim of this work was to study the ecology of the sand fly fauna of two types of environments, a rural environment (the Transacreana Road) and an urban park (Horto Florestal Park), both located in the municipality of Rio Branco in the state of Acre, Brazil. Additionally, this study intended to investigate Leishmania infection and blood meal sources of these sand flies using molecular techniques...
January 26, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jiawei Wang, Chunfu Qin, Ting He, Kai Qiu, Wenjuan Sun, Xin Zhang, Ning Jiao, Weiyun Zhu, Jingdong Yin
Background: Pork produced by outdoor-reared pigs raised mostly on alfalfa pastures attracts increasing population of consumer from most of the world. In China, pigs were raised with alfalfa-containing diets to seek for good quality pork. However, the influence of dietary alfalfa involving high level of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) on pig intestinal luminal microbiota composition remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of alfalfa on luminal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production, and gene expressions involved in SCFA sensing, transporting and absorbing in pig caecal mucosa...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Rachael Hough, Debra Archer, Christopher Probert
Introduction: Disturbance to the hindgut microbiota can be detrimental to equine health. Metabolomics provides a robust approach to studying the functional aspect of hindgut microorganisms. Sample preparation is an important step towards achieving optimal results in the later stages of analysis. The preparation of samples is unique depending on the technique employed and the sample matrix to be analysed. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) is one of the most widely used platforms for the study of metabolomics and until now an optimised method has not been developed for equine faeces...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Satoko Noda, Daichi Shimizu, Masahiro Yuki, Osamu Kitade, Moriya Ohkuma
Cellulolytic flagellated protists inhabit the hindgut of termites. They are unique and essential to termites and related wood-feeding cockroaches, enabling host feeding on cellulosic matter. Protists of two genera in the family Teranymphidae (phylum Parabasalia), Eucomonympha and Teranympha, are phylogenetically closely related and harbor intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria from the genus Treponema. In order to obtain a clearer understanding of the evolutionary history of this triplex symbiotic relationship, the molecular phylogenies of the three symbiotic partners, the Teranymphidae protists, their Treponema endosymbionts, and their host termites, were inferred and compared...
January 24, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Heath A MacMillan, Andrew Donini
At low temperatures, Drosophila, like most insects, lose the ability to regulate ion and water balance across the gut epithelia, which can lead to a lethal increase of [K+] in the hemolymph (hyperkalemia). Cold-acclimation, the physiological response to a prior low temperature exposure, can mitigate or entirely prevent these ion imbalances, but the physiological mechanisms that facilitate this process are not well understood. Here, we test whether plasticity in the ionoregulatory physiology of the gut and Malpighian tubules of Drosophila may aid in preserving ion homeostasis in the cold...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Szymon Chowanski, Grzegorz Rosinski
In mammals, the cholinergic nervous system plays a crucial role in neuronal regulation of physiological processes. It acts on cells by two types of receptors - nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Both signal transmission pathways also operate in the central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system of insects. METHODS: In our pharmacological experiments, we studied the effects of two muscarinic agonists (carbachol, pilocarpine) and two muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) on the muscle contractile activity of visceral organs in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor...
January 24, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Sebastian Kampe, Ralf Kaegi, Karsten Schlich, Claus Wasmuth, Henner Hollert, Christian Schlechtriem
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are efficiently converted during the wastewater treatment process into sparingly soluble silver sulfides (Ag2 S). In several countries, sewage sludge is used as a fertilizer in agriculture. The bioavailability of sulfidized silver to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber was investigated. Sewage sludge containing transformed AgNP was obtained from a lab-scale sewage treatment plant operated according to guideline OECD 303a. The results of transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray of sludge samples suggest that AgNP were completely transformed to Ag2 S...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
A Kiani, F Hoseini, P Ghorbaninejad, A Azarfar, M Kreuzer, A Azizi
The interaction between the sequence of feeding of hay and concentrate and the hydrothermal processing of barley in alleviating concentrate effects on intake, and hindgut fermentation in horses was tested. Six Arabian mares (4-10 years of age, 410 ± 35 kg body weight) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding sequence (FS) and type of barley (TB) on intake, and faecal volatile fatty acids (VFA), activities of α-amylase (AA: EC, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase: EC, microcrystalline cellulase (MCCase: EC 3...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Lucie Gerber, Johannes Overgaard
There is growing evidence that maintenance of ion and water balance determine cold tolerance in many insects. The hindgut of terrestrial insects is critical for maintaining organismal homeostasis as it regulates solute- and water-balance of the hemolymph. Here we used ex vivo everted gut sacs of L. migratoria to examine the effects of temperature (0 - 30°C), thermal-acclimation, hypoxia, and ionic and osmotic forces on bulk water and ion (Na+, K+ and Cl-) movement across the rectal epithelium. These findings were related to simultaneous in vivo measurements of water and ion balance in locusts exposed to similar temperatures...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Dennis Kolosov, Peter M Piermarini, Michael J O'Donnell
The functional kidney in insects consists of the Malpighian tubules and hindgut. Malpighian tubules secrete ions and fluid aiding in hydromineral homeostasis, acid-base balance, and metabolic waste excretion. In many insects, including lepidopterans, the Malpighian tubule epithelium consists of principal cells (PCs) and secondary cells (SCs). The SCs in the Malpighian tubules of larvae of the lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni have been shown to reabsorb K+, transporting it in a direction opposite to that in the neighbouring PCs that secrete K+ One of the mechanisms that could enable such an arrangement is a gap junction (GJ)-based coupling of the two cell types...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Arkadiusz Urbański, Jan Lubawy, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński
Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioural ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuro-endocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated...
January 15, 2018: Insect Science
Stephen J Taerum, Francesca De Martini, Jürgen Liebig, Gillian H Gile
Coevolution is a major driver of speciation in many host-associated symbionts. In the termite-protist digestive symbiosis, the protists are vertically inherited by anal feeding among nest mates. Lower termites (all termite families except Termitidae) and their symbionts have broadly co-diversified over ~170 million yr. However, this inference is based mainly on the restricted distribution of certain protist genera to certain termite families. With the exception of one study, which demonstrated congruent phylogenies for the protist Pseudotrichonympha and its Rhinotermitidae hosts, coevolution in this symbiosis has not been investigated with molecular methods...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Changyou Song, Yanting Cui, Bo Liu, Jun Xie, Xianping Ge, Pao Xu, Mingchun Ren, Linghong Miao, Qunlan Zhou, Yan Lin
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play critical roles in the process of anti-stress and immunity and are implicated in autoimmune diseases. In order to understand the comparative stress responses of HSP60 and HSP90β under intermittent thermal stress and Aeromonas hydrophila infection, we cloned their full-length cDNAs from Megalobrama amblycephala liver, predicted their secondary and tertiary structure, and examined their tissue-specific expression patterns. The full length of HSP60 and HSP90β cDNAs indicated that they included all signature sequences of corresponding protein families...
January 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yunhan Hsu, Hirohiko Koizumi, Masato Otagiri, Shigeharu Moriya, Manabu Arioka
Symbiotic protists in the hindgut of termites provide a novel enzymatic resource for efficient lignocellulytic degradation of plant biomass. In this study, two β-mannanases, RsMan26A and RsMan26B, from a symbiotic protist community of the lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, were successfully expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Biochemical characterization experiments demonstrated that both RsMan26A and RsMan26B are endo-acting enzymes and have a very similar substrate specificity, displaying a higher catalytic efficiency to galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) and glucomannan than to β-1,4-mannan and highly substituted galactomannan from guar gum...
January 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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