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Sarah Wills, Hugues Beaufrère, Gwyneth Watrous, Michelle L Oblak, Dale A Smith
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Gary Phillips, Ernest C Bernard, Robert J Pivar, John K Moulton, Rowland M Shelley
Twenty-four individuals of Narceus gordanus (Diplopoda: Spirobolidae) were collected in Ocala National Forest, FL, between November 2013 and July 2014. Each specimen was dissected to extract the intestine, which was removed and examined for parasitic nematodes. Coronostoma claireae n. sp. was collected from the hindgut and midgut of 10 specimens, and its morphology was examined with brightfield, differential interference contrast, phase contrast, and scanning electron microscopy. This species is separated from other Coronostoma spp...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Patrick Aghajanian, Shigeo Takashima, Manash Paul, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein, Volker Hartenstein
The visceral musculature of the Drosophila intestine plays important roles in digestion as well as development. Detailed studies investigating the embryonic development of the visceral muscle exist; comparatively little is known about postembryonic development and metamorphosis of this tissue. In this study we have combined the use of specific markers with electron microscopy to follow the formation of the adult visceral musculature and its involvement in gut development during metamorphosis. Unlike the adult somatic musculature, which is derived from a pool of undifferentiated myoblasts, the visceral musculature of the adult is a direct descendant of the larval fibers, as shown by activating a lineage tracing construct in the larval muscle and obtaining labeled visceral fibers in the adult...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Biology
J J Castro, A Gomez, B White, J R Loften, J K Drackley
The objective of this work was to assess the effects of age and gastrointestinal location (rumen vs. colon) on bacterial community diversity and composition, as well as short-chain fatty acid profiles of preruminant male Holstein calves on an intensive milk replacer feeding program. Thirty-two calves were fed at 2% of their body weight (dry matter basis) from d 10 until harvest. Sixteen calves were euthanized at 2 wk and another 16 at 4 wk of age to collect digesta samples from the rumen and colon. The rumen and colon bacterial communities of preruminant calves showed a similar degree of diversity (i...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Ping Sheng, Jiangli Huang, Zhihong Zhang, Dongsheng Wang, Xiaojuan Tian, Jiannan Ding
Degradation of rice straw by cooperative microbial activities is at present the most attractive alternative to fuels and provides a basis for biomass conversion. The use of microbial consortia in the biodegradation of lignocelluloses could reduce problems such as incomplete synergistic enzymes, end-product inhibition, and so on. In this study, a cellulolytic microbial consortium was enriched from the hindgut of Holotrichia parallela larvae via continuous subcultivation (20 subcultures in total) under static conditions...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria M Mikedis, Karen M Downs
BACKGROUND: PRDM1 is a transcriptional repressor that contributes to primordial germ cell (PGC) development. During early gastrulation, epiblast-derived PRDM1 is thought to be restricted to a lineage-segregated germ line in the allantois. However, given recent findings that PGCs overlap an allantoic progenitor pool that contributes widely to the fetal-umbilical interface, posterior PRDM1 may also contribute to soma. RESULTS: Within the posterior mouse gastrula (Early Streak - 12-s stages, ∼E6...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Peter Rubinelli, Stephanie Roto, Sun Ae Kim, Si Hong Park, Hilary O Pavlidis, Don McIntyre, Steven C Ricke
Fermentation metabolites of Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC), a biological product derived from yeast fermentation, were evaluated for their ability to reduce the Salmonella Typhimurium population using an in vitro mixed anaerobic culture system containing cecal microbiota to simulate chicken hindgut conditions. Four different samples were prepared: anaerobic mixed culture containing (1) feed only, (2) cecal only (ceca were harvested from 42 days old broiler chickens), (3) feed and cecal contents, and (4) feed, cecal contents, and 1% XPC...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Xiujuan Zhang, Ying Chen, Ying Ye, Jianfeng Wang, Hong Wang, Guohong Yuan, Zhe Lin, Yihui Wu, Yan Zhang, Xinhua Lin
Wnt signaling plays essential roles in both embryonic pattern formation and postembryonic tissue homoestasis. High levels of Wnt activity repress foregut identity and facilitate hindgut fate through forming a gradient of Wnt signaling activity along the anterior-posterior axis. Here, we examined the mechanisms of Wnt signaling in hindgut development by differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the hindgut progenitors. We observed severe morphological changes when Wnt signaling was blocked by using Wnt antagonist Dkk1...
September 29, 2016: Cellular Signalling
Kinsi Gondalia, Anam Qudrat, Brigida Bruno, Janet Fleites Medina, Jean-Paul V Paluzzi
Pyrokinin-related peptides are pleiotropic factors that are defined by their conserved C-terminal sequence FXPRL-NH2. The pyrokinin nomenclature derives from their originally identified myotropic actions and, as seen in some family members, a blocked amino terminus with pyroglutamate. The black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is well known as a vector of Lyme disease and various other illnesses; however, in comparison to blood-feeding insects, knowledge on its physiology (along with other Ixodid ticks) is rather limited...
September 22, 2016: Peptides
Naho Fujiwara, Katsumi Miyahara, Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, Chihiro Akazawa, Atsuyuki Yamataka
PURPOSE: Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is caused by a failure of enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCC) to colonize the bowel, resulting in an absence of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Previously, we developed a Sox10 transgenic version of the Endothelin receptor-B (Ednrb) mouse to visualize ENCC with the green fluorescent protein, Venus. The aim of this study was to isolate Sox10-Venus(+) cells, which are differentiated neurons and glial cells in the ENS, and analyze these cells using Sox10-Venus mice gut...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Yang Du, Xiaoqian Tang, Wenbin Zhan, Jing Xing, Xiuzhen Sheng
Immunoglobulin tau (IgT) is a new teleost immunoglobulin isotype, and its potential function in adaptive immunity is not very clear. In the present study, the membrane-bound and secreted IgT (mIgT and sIgT) heavy chain genes were cloned for the first time and characterized in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and found the nucleic acid sequence were exactly same in the Cτ1-Cτ4 constant domains of mIgT and sIgT, but different in variable regions and the C-terminus. The amino acid sequence of mIgT shared higher similarity with Bovichtus diacanthus (51...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rodolphe Soret, Nicolas Pilon
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), also named aganglionic megacolon, is a severe congenital malformation characterized by a lack of enteric nervous system (ENS) in the terminal regions of the bowel (Bergeron et al., 2013). As the ENS notably regulates motility in the whole gastrointestinal track, the segment without neurons remains tonically contracted, resulting in functional intestinal obstruction and accumulation of fecal material (megacolon). HSCR occurs when enteric neural progenitors of vagal neural crest origin fail to fully colonize the developing intestines...
September 5, 2016: Bio-protocol
Juan Pablo Pontigo, María José Agüero, Patricio Sánchez, Ricardo Oyarzún, Carolina Vargas-Lagos, Jorge Mancilla, Hans Kossmann, Francisco J Morera, Alejandro J Yáñez, Luis Vargas-Chacoff
The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) were recently identified as an intracellular pathogen recognition receptor family in vertebrates. While the immune system participation of NLRs has been characterized and analyzed in various mammalian models, few studies have considered NLRs in teleost species. Therefore, this study analyzed the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) NLRC5. Structurally, Atlantic salmon NLRC5 presented leucine-rich repeat subfamily genes. Phylogenetically, NLRC5 was moderately conserved between S. salar and other species...
September 15, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xiaoyu Ma, Xiaolong Liu, Di Zhou, Yajiao Bai, Beibei Gao, Zhifeng Zhang, Zhenkui Qin
The NF-κB pathway is known to be involved in regulating apoptosis, inflammation and immunity in organisms. In this study, we first identified full-length cDNA sequences of two key molecules in the NF-κB pathway, namely, NEMO and p65, and characterized their responses in the hindgut of Urechis unicinctus (Echiura, Urechidae) exposed to sulfide. The full-length of cDNA was 2491 bp for U. unicinctus NEMO (UuNEMO) and 1971 bp for U. unicinctus p65 (Uup65), and both polyclonal antibodies were prepared using UuNEMO or Uup65 expressed prokaryotically with the sequence of their whole open reading frame...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Caitlin D Hanlon, Deborah J Andrew
Determining how organs attain precise positioning within an organism is a crucial facet of developmental biology. The Fox family winged-helix transcription factors are known to play key roles in development of multiple organs. Drosophila FoxL1 (aka Fd64A) is dynamically expressed in embryos but its function is completely uncharacterized. FoxL1 is expressed in a single group of body wall - muscles in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) thoracic segments, in homologous abdominal muscles at earlier stages, and in the hindgut mesoderm from early through late embryogenesis...
September 9, 2016: Developmental Biology
James B Nardi, Charles M Bee, Steven J Taylor
The gut lumen of the arthropod detritivore provides hospitable and multifaceted environments for diverse assemblages of microbes. Many microbes, including trichomycetes fungi, bacteria, and archaea establish stable, adherent communities on the cuticular surface secreted by the hindgut epithelium. Regional differences in the surface topography within the hindgut of a given millipede are reflected in differing and diverse microbial assemblages. The spirostreptid millipede Cambala speobia is a detritivore found on the floors of Texas caves...
September 13, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Chinmay Vijay Tikhe, Thomas M Martin, Andréa Howells, Jennifer Delatte, Claudia Husseneder
BACKGROUND: The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus is an invasive urban pest in the Southeastern USA. Paratransgenesis using a microbe expressed lytic peptide that targets the termite gut protozoa is currently being developed for the control of Formosan subterranean termites. In this study, we evaluated Trabulsiella odontotermitis, a termite-specific bacterium, for its potential to serve as a 'Trojan Horse' for expression of gene products in termite colonies. RESULTS: We engineered two strains of T...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Kara A Tinker, Elizabeth A Ottesen
: The omnivorous cockroach Periplaneta americana hosts a diverse hindgut microbiota encompassing hundreds of microbial species. In this study, we use 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the effect of diet on the composition of the P. americana hindgut microbial community. Results show that the hindgut microbiota of P. americana exhibits a highly stable core microbial community with low variance in composition between individuals and minimal community change in response to dietary shifts...
September 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jessica L Forbester, Nicholas Hannan, Ludovic Vallier, Gordon Dougan
Intestinal human organoids (iHOs) provide an effective system for studying the intestinal epithelium and its interaction with various stimuli. By using combinations of different signaling factors, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) can be driven to differentiate down the intestinal lineage. Here, we describe the process for this differentiation, including the derivation of hindgut from hIPSCs, embedding hindgut into a pro-intestinal culture system and passaging the resulting iHOs. We then describe how to carry out microinjections to introduce bacteria to the apical side of the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)...
August 31, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kathy F J Tang, Jee Eun Han, Luis Fernando Aranguren, Brenda White-Noble, Margeaux M Schmidt, Patharapol Piamsomboon, Eris Risdiana, Bambang Hanggono
White feces syndrome (WFS) is an emerging problem for penaeid shrimp farming industries in SE Asia countries, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, China, and in India. This occurrence of this syndrome is usually first evidenced by the appearance of white fecal strings floating on surface of the shrimp ponds. The gross signs of affected shrimp include the appearance of a whitish hindgut and loose carapace, and it is associated with reduced feeding and growth retardation. To investigate the nature of the white feces syndrome, samples of white feces and shrimp hepatopancreas tissue were collected from Penaeus vannamei in affected farms in Indonesia, and these were examined histologically...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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