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Michael Brownbridge, Rose Buitenhuis
Historically, greenhouse floriculture has relied on synthetic insecticides to meet its pest control needs. But, growers are increasingly faced with the loss or failure of synthetic chemical pesticides, declining access to new chemistries, stricter environmental/health and safety regulations, and the need to produce plants in a manner that meets the 'sustainability' demands of a consumer driven market. In Canada, reports of thrips resistance to spinosad (Success™) within 6-12 months of its registration prompted a radical change in pest management philosophy and approach...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Somayyeh Ghasemzadeh, Ada Leman, Gerben J Messelink
The poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus Morgan, is an upcoming pest in greenhouse crops, causing serious damage in various vegetable and ornamental crops through extensive foliage feeding. We assessed which stages of E. americanus are attacked and killed by the phytoseiid predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot), Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman and McGregor), Euseius gallicus Kreiter and Tixier and Euseius ovalis (Evans). Both the predation and oviposition rates were assessed in the laboratory to evaluate which mite species is potentially the most effective predator of E...
October 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Peter C Krauter, Kevin M Heinz, Steven Arthurs
In North America, the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn., is an important pest of greenhouse poinsettia. Growers have limited options to control this pest during propagation of cuttings, which are rooted under mist for several weeks. Early establishment of this pest increases the difficulty of managing the whitefly and retaining high aesthetic standard during the remaining crop production phase. We evaluated two neonicotinoids with translaminar activity, thiamethoxam (Flagship 25WG), and acetamiprid (TriStar 70 WSP), for control of B...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
X L Fan, R W Barreto, J Z Groenewald, J D P Bezerra, O L Pereira, R Cheewangkoon, L Mostert, C M Tian, P W Crous
Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë-host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
Huipeng Pan, Evan L Preisser, Qi Su, Xiaoguo Jiao, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Youjun Zhang
Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore's natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities...
2016: PloS One
Bettina Wedi
The customs and traditions associated with Christmas may result in allergic reactions to allergens that are typical for this period. On the one hand the rise in prevalence of allergic diseases has continued in the industrialized world for the last decades and allergies are regarded as widespread diseases. On the other hand the 21th century is a time of "allergy delusion". This review summarizes the facts about allergic reactions to Christmas typical decoration, food and behavior. Taken together, allergic reactions to Christmas tree, poinsettia, Christmas cactus, perfumed candles, Christmas typical food, common gifts like mobile phones and laptops, frankincense, myrrh and pollens have been described but in very rare instances...
December 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Rosemarije Buitenhuis, Michael Brownbridge, Angela Brommit, Taro Saito, Graeme Murphy
(1) Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers' options to control this pest; (2) This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae) and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips) to control B...
September 26, 2016: Insects
Amy Y Rossman, W Cavan Allen, Lisa A Castlebury
In advancing to one scientific name for each fungus species, a number of name changes are required especially for plant-associated fungi. These include species names that are not in the correct genus. For example, the generic name Elsinoë is used for fungi causing scab diseases but a number of these species were described in the asexually typified genus Sphaceloma and must be placed in Elsinoë. In other cases species names were determined to be unrelated to the type species of the genus in which they are currently placed and are placed in a more appropriate genus...
June 2016: IMA Fungus
Anne K Hvoslef-Eide, Cristel M Munster, Cecilie A Mathiesen, Kwadwo O Ayeh, Tone I Melby, Paoly Rasolomanana, YeonKyeong Lee
Abscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in 1 week...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
David E Dussourd
In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins...
2015: PloS One
Stephanie Krueger, Sevgan Subramanian, Saliou Niassy, Gerald B Moritz
Sternal pores are important features for identification of male thrips, especially within the subfamily Thripinae. They vary in shape, size and distribution even between species of one genus. Their functional role is speculated to be that of sex- and/or aggregation pheromone production. Yet, sexual aggregations are not reported in Echinothrips americanus, known to have sternal pores, while we observed aggregations in Megalurothrips sjostedti, previously reported to lack them. We examined the sternal glands and pores of the thripine species E...
September 2015: Arthropod Structure & Development
M Ashraful Islam, Tage Thorstensen, Jihong Liu Clarke
Genetic engineering is an important tool for introducing desired genes into poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch). We describe in this chapter an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol for poinsettia. A detailed description of genetic transformation, antibiotic selection, subsequent regeneration via somatic embryogenesis, and rooting as well as molecular and morphological analyses is included. The methodology described here could facilitate the future engineering of poinsettia for research purpose as well as commercial production of poinsettia plants with improved resistance or novel traits...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ramon Zulueta-Rodriguez, Miguel Victor Cordoba-Matson, Luis Guillermo Hernandez-Montiel, Bernardo Murillo-Amador, Edgar Rueda-Puente, Liliana Lara
Pseudomonas putida is plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that have the capacity to improve growth in plants. The purpose of this study was to determine growth and anthocyanin pigmentation of the bracts in two poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivars (Prestige and Sonora Marble) using three strains of P. putida, as well as a mixture of the three (MIX). Comparison with the control group indicated for the most part that Prestige grew better than the Sonora Marble cultivars with the PGPR strains. Prestige with the MIX strain grew better compared to control for the number of cyathia (83 versus 70...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Andrew J Frewin, Cynthia Scott-Dupree, Graeme Murphy, Robert Hanner
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is an economically important pest of agricultural and ornamental plants worldwide and is now widely recognized as a cryptic species complex. In North America, B. tabaci is a particularly important pest of greenhouse poinsettia. In poinsettia production, two cryptic species from the B. tabaci complex, Mediterranean and Middle East Minor 1, often infest crops simultaneously. Differences in pesticide susceptibility between these two cryptic species have the potential to influence growers' management decisions, including the use of biological control or insecticides, and the choice of insecticide active ingredient...
June 2014: Journal of Economic Entomology
Hemant P Borase, Chandrashekhar D Patil, Rahul B Salunkhe, Rahul K Suryawanshi, Bipinchandra K Salunke, Satish V Patil
Safe and eco-friendly alternatives to currently used hazardous chemico-physical methods of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis are need of time. Rapid, low cost, selective detection of toxic metals in environmental sample is important to take safety action. Toxicity assessment of engineered AgNPs is essential to avoid its side effects on human and non-target organisms. In the present study, biologically active latex from Euphorbia heterophylla (Poinsettia) was utilized for synthesis of AgNPs. AgNPs was of spherical shape and narrow size range (20-50 nm)...
November 2014: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Reiko Takahashi, Shiro Fukuta, Satoru Kuroyanagi, Noriyuki Miyake, Hirofumi Nagai, Koji Kageyama, Yasushi Ishiguro
Root rot of poinsettia, caused by Pythium helicoides at high temperatures in hydroponic cultures, has become a serious problem in many parts of the world. We have developed a species-specific, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid diagnosis of this pathogen. The primers were designed using the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequence. Primer specificity was established using 40 Pythium species including P. helicoides, 11 Phytophthora species, and eight other soil-borne pathogens...
June 2014: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Sophie Cesbron, Joel Pothier, Sophie Gironde, Marie-Agnès Jacques, Charles Manceau
Xanthomonas arboricola is an important bacterial species, the pathovars of which are responsible for bacterial blight diseases on stone fruit, hazelnut, Persian walnut, poplar, strawberry, poinsettia and banana. In this study, we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) as a molecular typing tool for assessing the genetic diversity within pathovars of X. arboricola. Screening of the X. arboricola pv. pruni genome sequence (CFBP5530 strain) predicted 51 candidate VNTR loci. Primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of all 51 loci were designed, and their discriminatory power was initially evaluated with a core collection of 8 X...
May 2014: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Cindy L McKenzie, Vivek Kumar, Cristi L Palmer, Ronald D Oetting, Lance S Osborne
BACKGROUND: Bemisia tabaci, a polyphagous insect with over 900 host plants, is an effective vector of more than 100 plant viruses. Being highly fecund, B. tabaci has the potential to develop insecticide resistance rapidly, as demonstrated by reports of use failures with MEAM1 and MED cryptic species (commonly known as biotypes B and Q respectively). Insecticide resistance management is a key component of pest management practices. The research herein studied season-long rotational management programs on poinsettia and their impact on the ratio of MEAM1:MED cryptic species in the surviving treated populations...
October 2014: Pest Management Science
T Geier, A Beck, W Preil
Shoot tip explants, callus and embryogenic cell suspensions of Euphorbia pulcherrima have been examined for quantitative variation in nuclear DNA content by means of cytophotometry. Increasing instability was found in calli and cell suspensions from Erlenmeyer flask and bioreactor culture. Nuclear DNA content ranged from 2C up to 32 C. Plants regenerated from embryogenic cell suspensions, however, were highly uniform with regard to phenotype and ploidy level indicating strongly impaired embryogenic potential of polyploid, aneuploid or other genetically altered cells...
April 1992: Plant Cell Reports
Cristina Cortinovis, Francesca Caloni
This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp...
August 2013: Veterinary Journal
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