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Riin Tamm, Reedik Mägi, Roman Tremmel, Stefan Winter, Evelin Mihailov, Alenka Smid, Anja Möricke, Kathrin Klein, Martin Schrappe, Martin Stanulla, Richard Houlston, Richard Weinshilboum, Irena Mlinarič Raščan, Andres Metspalu, Lili Milani, Matthias Schwab, Elke Schaeffeler
Thiopurine-related hematotoxicity in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and inflammatory bowel diseases has been linked to genetically defined variability in thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity. While gene testing of TPMT is being clinically implemented, it is unclear if additional genetic variation influences TPMT activity with consequences for thiopurine-related toxicity. To examine this possibility, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of red blood cell TPMT activity in 844 Estonian individuals and 245 paediatric ALL-cases...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Yüksel Olgun, Safiye Aktaş, Zekiye Altun, Günay Kırkım, Deniz Çakır Kızmazoğlu, Ayşe Pınar Erçetin, Banu Demir, Dilek İnce, Kamer Mutafoğlu, Bengü Demirağ, Hülya Ellidokuz, Nur Olgun, Enis Alpin Güneri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic and non genetic risk factors for cisplatin ototoxicity. METHODS: This study was conducted on 72 children who received cisplatin based chemotherapy. Brock and Muenster classifications were used to evaluate ototoxicity seen in these children. 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); ERCC1 rs 11615, GSTP1 rs1138272, GSTP1 rs1695, LRP2 rs 2075252, TPMT rs 12201199, COMT rs 9332377, were evaluated as genetic factors by real time PCR...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Tracy Coelho, Gaia Andreoletti, James J Ashton, Akshay Batra, Nadeem Ahmad Afzal, Yifang Gao, Anthony P Williams, Robert M Beattie, Sarah Ennis
The aim of our study was to assess the utility of next generation sequencing (NGS) for predicting toxicity and clinical response to thiopurine drugs in paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Exome data for 100 patients were assessed against biochemically measured TPMT enzyme activity, clinical response and adverse effects. The TPMT gene and a panel of 15 other genes implicated in thiopurine toxicity were analysed using a gene based statistical test (SKAT-O test). Nine patients out of 100 (Crohn's disease- 67, ulcerative colitis- 23 and IBDU-10) had known TPMT mutations associated with deficient enzyme activity...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Angela Di Salvo, Carmelo Fabiano, Vincenza Mannara, Mariangela Dimarco, Ambrogio Orlando, Marco Affronti, Fabio Salvatore Macaluso, Mario Cottone
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few studies exist on the frequency of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) mutation in patients from Southern Europe. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of TPMT mutation in a homogeneous Sicilian cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune and hematological disorders, the rate of thiopurine-related adverse events, and its association with the TPMT genotype. RESULTS: Among 105 patients with IBD, 45 with autoimmune disease, and 34 with hematologic diseases, the homozygous TPMT variant genotype was found in one patient only (0...
September 1, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Daphne Bertholee, Jan Gerard Maring, André B P van Kuilenburg
Cancer treatment is becoming more and more individually based as a result of the large inter-individual differences that exist in treatment outcome and toxicity when patients are treated using population-based drug doses. Polymorphisms in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters can significantly influence uptake, metabolism, and elimination of anticancer drugs. As a result, the altered pharmacokinetics can greatly influence drug efficacy and toxicity. Pharmacogenetic screening and/or drug-specific phenotyping of cancer patients eligible for treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs, prior to the start of anticancer treatment, can identify patients with tumors that are likely to be responsive or resistant to the proposed drugs...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Alison L T Ma, Gregory Bale, Helen Aitkenhead, Stephen D Marks
OBJECTIVE: To assess the profile of thiopurine transmethyltransferase (TPMT) enzyme activities in children and discuss the utility of measuring TPMT levels before commencing azathioprine therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study in a single pediatric center of all patients who had TPMT enzyme assay measured during a 3-year period before the start of azathioprine therapy. Patients' TPMT enzyme activities were classified as normal (26-50 pmol/h/mgHb), intermediate (10-25 pmol/h/mgHb), and deficient (<10 pmol/h/mgHb)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Clint Mizzi, Eleni Dalabira, Judit Kumuthini, Nduna Dzimiri, Istvan Balogh, Nazli Başak, Ruwen Böhm, Joseph Borg, Paola Borgiani, Nada Bozina, Henrike Bruckmueller, Beata Burzynska, Angel Carracedo, Ingolf Cascorbi, Constantinos Deltas, Vita Dolzan, Anthony Fenech, Godfrey Grech, Vytautas Kasiulevicius, Ľudevít Kádaši, Vaidutis Kučinskas, Elza Khusnutdinova, Yiannis L Loukas, Milan Macek, Halyna Makukh, Ron Mathijssen, Konstantinos Mitropoulos, Christina Mitropoulou, Giuseppe Novelli, Ioanna Papantoni, Sonja Pavlovic, Giuseppe Saglio, Jadranka Setric, Maja Stojiljkovic, Andrew P Stubbs, Alessio Squassina, Maria Torres, Marek Turnovec, Ron H van Schaik, Konstantinos Voskarides, Salma M Wakil, Anneke Werk, Maria Del Zompo, Branka Zukic, Theodora Katsila, Ming Ta Michael Lee, Alison Motsinger-Rief, Howard L Mc Leod, Peter J van der Spek, George P Patrinos
Pharmacogenomics aims to correlate inter-individual differences of drug efficacy and/or toxicity with the underlying genetic composition, particularly in genes encoding for protein factors and enzymes involved in drug metabolism and transport. In several European populations, particularly in countries with lower income, information related to the prevalence of pharmacogenomic biomarkers is incomplete or lacking. Here, we have implemented the microattribution approach to assess the pharmacogenomic biomarkers allelic spectrum in 18 European populations, mostly from developing European countries, by analyzing 1,931 pharmacogenomics biomarkers in 231 genes...
2016: PloS One
X Zhu, X-D Wang, K Chao, M Zhi, H Zheng, H-L Ruan, S Xin, N Ding, P-J Hu, M Huang, X Gao
BACKGROUND: Thiopurine-induced leukopenia is the most common dangerous adverse event in Asians. NUDT15 R139C was recently proposed to be a promising biomarker for leukopenia with thiopurine therapy in Asians, but this has not been replicated in the Chinese population. AIM: To investigate the influence of NUDT15 R139C, thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), 6-TGN and 6-MMPR on thiopurine-induced leukopenia in Chinese patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were reviewed from medical records...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ingolf Cascorbi, Anneke Nina Werk
INTRODUCTION: Cancer pharmacogenetics usually considers tumor-specific targets. However, hereditary genetic variants may interfere with the pharmacokinetics of antimetabolites and other anti-cancer drugs, which may lead to severe adverse events. AREAS COVERED: Here, the impact of hereditary genes considered in drug labels such as thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UTG1A1) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) are discussed with respect to guidelines of the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC)...
September 16, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Nathalie K Zgheib, Reem Akika, Rami Mahfouz, Carol Al Aridi, Khaled M Ghanem, Raya Saab, Miguel R Abboud, Nidale Tarek, Hassan El Solh, Samar A Muwakkit
BACKGROUND: Interindividual variability in thiopurine-related toxicity could not be completely explained by thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) polymorphisms, as a number of patients who are homozygous wild type or normal for TPMT still develop toxicity that necessitates 6-mercaptopurine (MP) dose reduction or protocol interruption. Recently, few studies reported on an inherited nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X motif 15 (NUDT15) c.415C>T low-function variant that is associated with decreased thiopurine metabolism and leukopenia in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and other diseases...
August 31, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Chengcheng Liu, Wenjian Yang, Deqing Pei, Cheng Cheng, Colton Smith, Wendy Landier, Lindsey Hageman, Yanjun Chen, Jun J Yang, Kristine R Crews, Nancy Kornegay, Seth E Karol, F Lennie Wong, Sima Jeha, John T Sandlund, Raul R Ribeiro, Jeffrey E Rubnitz, Monika L Metzger, Ching-Hon Pui, William E Evans, Smita Bhatia, Mary V Relling
We performed a genome-wide association study of primary erythrocyte TPMT activity in children with leukemia (n = 1026). Adjusting for age and ancestry, TPMT was the only gene that reached genome-wide significance (top hit rs1142345 or 719A>G, P = 8.6 × 10(-61) ). Additional genetic variants (besides the 3 SNPs rs1800462, rs1800460 and rs1142345 defining TPMT clinical genotype) did not significantly improve classification accuracy for TPMT phenotype. Clinical mercaptopurine tolerability in 839 patients was related to TPMT clinical genotype (P = 2...
August 26, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Yoichi Tanaka
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic drugs can greatly vary among individuals. For example, it is sometimes necessary to alter the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia from the standard protocol. Genetic variation is one important factor, which can exert a wide range of effects on sensitivities and responses to therapeutic agents. Thiopurine S-methyl transferase (TPMT) is a useful test for predicting 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) sensitivity in Caucasians. However, it is not effective for predicting the 6-MP therapeutic responses of Japanese patients because the frequency of TPMT deficiency is lower in the Japanese population (approximately 1% versus approximately 10% in Caucasians)...
July 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
F Bahrehmand, A Kiani, A Vaisi-Raygani, H Bashiri, M Zobeiri, M Tanhapour, T Pourmotabbed
Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) is progressing rapidly in developing countries such as Iran. This research is intended to compile the frequency distribution of the drug metabolizing enzyme, thiopurine methyl transferase(TPMT) and the drug transporter, Multi drug resistance(MDR1) which are involved in metabolism of many therapeutics such as thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease(IBD). Ethnicity is an important variable influencing drug response. The aims of this research were to investigate the association of TPMT phenotypes with MDR1 genotypes...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Alenka Smid, Natasa Karas-Kuzelicki, Janez Jazbec, Irena Mlinaric-Rascan
Adequate maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with 6-mercaptopurine as an essential component, is necessary for retaining durable remission. Interruptions or discontinuations of the therapy due to drug-related toxicities, which can be life threatening, may result in an increased risk of relapse. In this retrospective study including 305 paediatric ALL patients undergoing maintenance therapy, we systematically investigated the individual and combined effects of genetic variants of folate pathway enzymes, as well as of polymorphisms in PACSIN2 and ITPA, on drug-induced toxicities by applying a multi-analytical approach including logistic regression (LR), classification and regression tree (CART) and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Amine Benmassaoud, Xuanqian Xie, Motaz AlYafi, Yves Theoret, Alain Bitton, Waqqas Afif, Talat Bessissow
Background and Aims. Thiopurines are used in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity can guide thiopurine dosing to avoid adverse events. This retrospective study evaluated the safety and efficacy of starting thiopurines at low dose versus full dose in patients with CD and normal TPMT. Methods. This was a single center retrospective study including adult CD patients with normal TPMT levels (≥25 nmol/hr/g Hgb) who were followed for 1 year. Patients started at full dose of azathioprine (2-2...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Nataša Karas-Kuželički, Simona Mencej-Bedrač, Janez Jazbec, Janja Marc, Irena Mlinarič-Raščan
Treatment induced non-traumatic osteonecrosis (ON) has been reported increasingly in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Several risk factors for ON have been identified in childhood cancer patients; however, their diagnostic and prognostic power is limited and the etiology of the disease remains unclear. Therefore, a continuous effort is focused on the identification of additional ON risk factors. We performed a retrospective study of 313 childhood ALL patients to test the association between the ON occurrence in children receiving ALL therapy and common polymorphisms in potential target genes: Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT; 460G>A, 719A>G), 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; 677C>T, 1298A>C), estrogen receptor alpha 1 (ESR1; XbaI) and collagen type I, α1 (COL1A1; Sp1)...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Swarup A V Shah, Minal Paradkar, Devendra Desai, Tester F Ashavaid
BACKGROUND & AIM: Inter-individual variation seen in the thiopurine metabolism is attributed to the genetic variant in Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) gene leading to myelosuppression. In Asians, the thiopurine-induced toxicity is not completely explained by TPMT variants. Literature indicates that a newer genetic variant in nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X-type motif 15 (NUDT15) gene is associated with thiopurine intolerance. We aimed to determine the risk allele frequency of NUDT15 genetic variant and it's association with thiopurine-induced toxicity in Indian patients...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Dennis R Wong, Marieke J H Coenen, Sita H Vermeulen, Luc J J Derijks, Corine J van Marrewijk, Olaf H Klungel, Hans Scheffer, Barbara Franke, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Dirk J de Jong, Leopold G J B Engels, André L M Verbeek, Piet M Hooymans
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Only a quarter of thiopurine-induced myelotoxicity in IBD patients is related to TPMT deficiency. We determined the predictive value of 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleotide (6MMPR) concentrations one week after initiation (T1) for development of leukopenia during the first eight weeks of thiopurine treatment. METHODS: The study was performed in IBD patients starting thiopurine therapy as part of the Dutch randomised controlled TOPIC trial (ClinicalTrials...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
May Fakhoury, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain, Tiphaine de Beaumais, Yves Médard
6-mercaptopurine, a key drug for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children, is a prodrug metabolized into 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) which are the active compounds and into methylated metabolites, primary by thiopurine S-methyltransferase enzyme (TPMT). This enzyme displays important inter subject variability linked to a genetic polymorphism: when treated with standard doses of thiopurine, TPMT-deficient and heterozygous patients are at great risk for developing severe and potentially life-threatening toxicity (hematopoietic, hepatic, mucositis...
May 2010: Thérapie
Shunsuke Kimura, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yuri Yoshimoto, Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Yosuke Hosoya, Hiroki Yoshihara, Tadashi Kumamoto, Yoichi Tanaka, Atsushi Manabe
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and nucleoside diphosphate-linked moiety X-type motif 15 (NUDT15) variants are considered to be genes responsible for severe myelotoxicity induced by 6-mercaptopurine (6MP). We report a 4-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed the complication of severe 6MP-induced myelotoxicity due to homozygous NUDT15 variant alleles. In early consolidation therapy containing 6MP, her course was complicated by severe neutropenia (Grade 4) and chemotherapy had to be discontinued for 33 days...
June 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
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