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human adipocyte obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523759/role-of-sulfotransferases-in-resveratrol-metabolism-in-human-adipocytes
#1
Nele Gheldof, Sofia Moco, Christian Chabert, Tony Teav, Denis Barron, Jorg Hager
SCOPE: Polyphenols such as resveratrol received interest for their wide-ranging biological benefits, including anti-obesity potential, mimicking effects of caloric restriction with reduced body fat and increased energy expenditure. However, resveratrol is rapidly metabolized, and it is not completely understood which form of resveratrol is responsible for the effects observed within target cells such as adipocytes. Also the role of metabolizing enzymes has not been investigated before...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521687/diet-and-contaminants-driving-the-rise-to-obesity-epidemics
#2
Agostino Di Ciaula, Piero Portincasa
The obesity epidemic is spreading worldwide without reversal trend and despite specific policies oriented to dietary habits and lifestyle, which seem to have modest effects. Genetic factors only partly explain the rise, whereas environmental factors seem to play a key role, mainly by gene-environment interactions through epigenetic mechanisms. A number of animal and human studies point to maternal diet, intestinal microbiota and chemicals introduced as contaminants with food, all factors able to increase the risk of obesity...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518147/survivin-a-key-player-in-cancer-progression-increases-in-obesity-and-protects-adipose-tissue-stem-cells-from-apoptosis
#3
Miriam Ejarque, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Carolina Serena, Gisela Pachón, Yaiza Núñez-Álvarez, Margarida Terrón-Puig, Enrique Calvo, Catalina Núñez-Roa, Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera, Francisco J Tinahones, Miguel Angel Peinado, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Adipose tissue (AT) has a central role in obesity-related metabolic imbalance through the dysregulated production of cytokines and adipokines. In addition to its known risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, obesity is also a major risk for cancer. We investigated the impact of obesity for the expression of survivin, an antiapoptotic protein upregulated by adipokines and a diagnostic biomarker of tumor onset and recurrence. In a cross-sectional study of 111 subjects classified by body mass index, circulating levels of survivin and gene expression in subcutaneous AT were significantly higher in obese patients and positively correlated with leptin...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508896/obesity-related-cpg-methylation-cg07814318-of-kruppel-like-factor-13-klf13-gene-with-childhood-obesity-and-its-cis-methylation-quantitative-loci
#4
In-Uk Koh, Hye-Ja Lee, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Nak-Hyun Choi, Suman Lee
The cg07814318 hypermethylation of Kruppel-like factor 13 (KLF13) gene has been reported for its relevancy with Body Mass Index (BMI) from European origin. We explored the cg07814318 methylation and its cis-meQTL (cis-methylation quantitative loci) of KLF13 from a childhood obesity cohort. The cg07814318 methylation in blood was significantly associated with obesity and correlated with several obesity-related physical and biochemical traits. We examined the same loci from purified three human cell types (n = 47), i...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507012/dietary-factors-promoting-brown-and-beige-fat-development-and-thermogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Meshail Okla, Jiyoung Kim, Karsten Koehler, Soonkyu Chung
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that has a high capacity to dissociate cellular respiration from ATP utilization, resulting in the release of stored energy as heat. Adult humans possess a substantial amount of BAT in the form of constitutively active brown fat or inducible beige fat. BAT activity in humans is inversely correlated with adiposity, blood glucose concentrations, and insulin sensitivity; this suggests that strategies aimed at BAT-mediated bioenergetics are an attractive therapeutic target in combating the continuing epidemic of obesity and diabetes...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505257/micrornas-in-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-cardiovascular-implications
#6
Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and signaling pathways, in dysfunctional adipose tissue. We highlight current paradigms of microRNAs involved in adipose differentiation and function in depots such as white, brown, and beige adipose tissues and potential implications of microRNA dysregulation in human disease such as obesity, inflammation, microvasculature dysfunction, and related cardiovascular diseases. We highlight accumulating studies indicating that adipocyte-derived microRNAs may not only serve as biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease, but also may directly regulate gene expression of other tissues...
May 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501775/vitamin-d-correlation-with-biochemical-and-body-composition-changes-in-a-southern-brazilian-population-and-induction-of-cytotoxicity-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-human-adipose-tissue
#7
João Renato Pesarini, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira, Lucas Roberto Pessatto, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva, Ingrid Felicidade, Nance Beyer Nardi, Melissa Camassola, Mário Sérgio Mantovani, Lúcia Regina Ribeiro
Studies have shown that metabolic disorders, serum inflammatory markers and weight gain (obesity) are correlated with vitamin D deficiency. Therefore, the present study correlated the serum calcidiol (s25(OH)D3) levels in a sample of individuals from southern Brazil with variables related to metabolic disorders, obesity and lifestyle habits and assessed the cytotoxic effect of calcitriol on adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). The results showed a 79.23% prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the study population and a correlation (p<0...
May 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496985/the-effects-of-dietary-macronutrient-composition-on-lipid-metabolism-associated-factor-gene-expression-in-the-adipose-tissue-of-chickens-are-influenced-by-fasting-and-refeeding
#8
Guoqing Wang, Betty R McConn, Dongmin Liu, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Broiler chickens are compulsive feeders that become obese as juveniles and are thus a unique model for metabolic disorders in humans. However, little is known about the relationship between dietary composition, fasting and refeeding and adipose tissue physiology in chicks. Our objective was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and fasting and refeeding affect chick adipose physiology during the early post-hatch period. METHODS: Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric diets after hatch: high-carbohydrate (HC; control), high-fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high-protein (HP; 25% vs...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483278/specific-visible-radiation-facilitates-lipolysis-in-mature-3t3-l1-adipocytes-via-rhodopsin-dependent-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-signaling
#9
Phil June Park, Jae Youl Cho, Eun-Gyung Cho
The regulation of fat metabolism is important for maintaining functional and structural tissue homeostasis in biological systems. Reducing excessive lipids has been an important concern due to the concomitant health risks caused by metabolic disorders such as obesity, adiposity and dyslipidemia. A recent study revealed that unlike conventional care regimens (e.g., diet or medicine), low-energy visible radiation (VR) regulates lipid levels via autophagy-dependent hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation in differentiated human adipose-derived stem cells...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469146/optical-visualisation-of-thermogenesis-in-stimulated-single-cell-brown-adipocytes
#10
Rókus Kriszt, Satoshi Arai, Hideki Itoh, Michelle H Lee, Anna G Goralczyk, Xiu Min Ang, Aaron M Cypess, Andrew P White, Farnaz Shamsi, Ruidan Xue, Jung Yeol Lee, Sung-Chan Lee, Yanyan Hou, Tetsuya Kitaguchi, Thankiah Sudhaharan, Shin'ichi Ishiwata, E Birgitte Lane, Young-Tae Chang, Yu-Hua Tseng, Madoka Suzuki, Michael Raghunath
The identification of brown adipose deposits in adults has led to significant interest in targeting this metabolically active tissue for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Improved methods for the direct measurement of heat production as the signature function of brown adipocytes (BAs), particularly at the single cell level, would be of substantial benefit to these ongoing efforts. Here, we report the first application of a small molecule-type thermosensitive fluorescent dye, ERthermAC, to monitor thermogenesis in BAs derived from murine brown fat precursors and in human brown fat cells differentiated from human neck brown preadipocytes...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468243/effect-of-high-glucose-levels-on-white-adipose-cells-and-adipokines-fuel-for-the-fire
#11
REVIEW
Alexander Sorisky
White adipocytes release adipokines that influence metabolic and vascular health. Hypertrophic obesity is associated with adipose tissue malfunctioning, leading to inflammation and insulin resistance. When pancreatic islet β cells can no longer compensate, the blood glucose concentration rises (hyperglycemia), resulting in type 2 diabetes. Hyperglycaemia may further aggravate adipose cell dysfunction in ~90% of patients with type 2 diabetes who are obese or overweight. This review will focus on the effects of high glucose levels on human adipose cells and the regulation of adipokines...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467890/brown-and-brite-adipocytes-same-function-but-different-origin-and-response
#12
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Barbara Gawronska-Kozak
Inducing brown adipocytes in white adipose tissues is a promising target to combat obesity and its related disorders in human beings. This goal has been especially encouraged by new important discoveries of human brown adipose tissues. The accumulating evidence confirms the presence of active brown adipocytes, not only in newborns, but also in adult humans. In rodents, there are two populations of the Ucp1-expressing adipocytes with well characterized-thermogenic functions, classical interscapular brown adipocytes and brite/beige adipocytes (brown adipocytes that are induced in white adipose tissues)...
April 30, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465791/insulin-mimetic-compound-hexaquis-benzylammonium-decavanadate-is-antilipolytic-in-human-fat-cells
#13
Christian Carpéné, Silvia Garcia-Vicente, Marta Serrano, Luc Marti, Chloé Belles, Miriam Royo, Jean Galitzky, Antonio Zorzano, Xavier Testar
AIM: To assess in rodent and human adipocytes the antilipolytic capacity of hexaquis(benzylammonium) decavanadate (B6V10), previously shown to exert antidiabetic effects in rodent models, such as lowering free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose circulating levels. METHODS: Adipose tissue (AT) samples were obtained after informed consent from overweight women undergoing plastic surgery. Comparison of the effects of B6V10 and reference antilipolytic agents (insulin, benzylamine, vanadate) on the lipolytic activity was performed on adipocytes freshly isolated from rat, mouse and human AT...
April 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465400/the-significance-of-beige-and-brown-fat-in-humans
#14
Florian W Kiefer
Promotion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity or browning of white adipose tissue has shown great potential as anti-obesity strategy in numerous preclinical models. The discovery of active BAT in humans and the recent advances in the understanding of human BAT biology and function have significantly propelled this field of research. Pharmacological stimulation of energy expenditure to counteract obesity has always been an intriguing therapeutic concept; with the identification of the specific molecular pathways of brown fat function this idea has now become as realistic as ever...
May 2, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455113/a-synopsis-of-brown-adipose-tissue-imaging-modalities-for-clinical-research
#15
REVIEW
L Sun, J Yan, L Sun, S S Velan, M K S Leow
Body weight gain results from a chronic excess of energy intake over energy expenditure. Accentuating endogenous energy expenditure has been accorded considerable attention ever since the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was recognized, given that BAT is known to increase energy expenditure via thermogenesis. Besides classic BAT, significant strides in our understanding of inducible brown adipocytes have been made regarding its development and function. While it is ideal to study BAT histologically, its relatively inaccessible anatomical locations and the inherent risks associated with biopsy preclude invasive techniques to evaluate BAT on a routine basis...
April 25, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445821/the-ampk-mtor-pathway-is-involved-in-d-dopachrome-tautomerase-gene-transcription-in-adipocytes-differentiated-from-sgbs-cells-a-human-preadipocyte-cell-line
#16
Takeo Iwata, Kyoko Kuribayashi, Masahiko Nakasono, Noriko Saito-Tarashima, Noriaki Minakawa, Noriko Mizusawa, Rie Kido, Katsuhiko Yoshimoto
In adipose tissue, D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), a cytokine with structural similarity to macrophage migration inhibitory factor, is mainly expressed in adipocytes rather than preadipocytes and acts as an anti-obesity adipokine in an autocrine manner. However, its transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. In order to explore molecules affecting DDT transcription, a chemical library screening using HEK293 cells stably expressing a DDT promoter-reporter construct was performed. Several derivatives of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, were identified as transcriptional activators of the DDT gene...
April 23, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436964/swell1-is-a-regulator-of-adipocyte-size-insulin-signalling-and-glucose-homeostasis
#17
Yanhui Zhang, Litao Xie, Susheel K Gunasekar, Dan Tong, Anil Mishra, William J Gibson, Chuansong Wang, Trevor Fidler, Brodie Marthaler, Aloysius Klingelhutz, E Dale Abel, Isaac Samuel, Jessica K Smith, Lei Cao, Rajan Sah
Adipocytes undergo considerable volumetric expansion in the setting of obesity. It has been proposed that such marked increases in adipocyte size may be sensed via adipocyte-autonomous mechanisms to mediate size-dependent intracellular signalling. Here, we show that SWELL1 (LRRC8a), a member of the Leucine-Rich Repeat Containing protein family, is an essential component of a volume-sensitive ion channel (VRAC) in adipocytes. We find that SWELL1-mediated VRAC is augmented in hypertrophic murine and human adipocytes in the setting of obesity...
May 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425849/age-dependent-obesity-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#18
Qilong Oscar Yang Li, Ines Soro-Arnaiz, Julián Aragonés
Aging is associated with progressive visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion both in human and mouse. Importantly, WAT enlargement is initiated early in life, suggesting that molecular mechanisms underlying age-dependent obesity are activated at early stages of lifetime. Our recent study found that age-dependent obesity was associated with a specific decline in mitochondrial complex IV activity, which leads to reduced fatty acid oxidation and subsequent adipocyte hypertrophy. At the molecular level, global mitochondrial complex IV inhibition was driven by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)-mediated repression of some of its key subunits, including cytochrome c oxidase 5b (Cox5b)...
March 15, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425848/the-contribution-of-bone-marrow-derived-cells-to-the-human-adipocyte-pool
#19
Peter Arner, Mikael Rydén
White adipose tissue is a remarkably expandable organ with results in the last decade showing that human white adipocytes are continuously turned over during the entire life-span. Data primarily in murine models have demonstrated that adipocytes are derived from precursors present mainly in the perivascular areas of adipose tissue but their precise origin remains unclear. Subsets of cells present in bone marrow display a multipotent differentiation capacity which has prompted the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) may also contribute to the adipocyte pool present in peripheral fat depots...
March 15, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425845/nck2-an-unexpected-regulator-of-adipogenesis
#20
N Haider, J Dusseault, A Rudich, L Larose
The regulation of adipose tissue expansion by adipocyte hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia is the topic of extensive investigations given the potential differential contribution of the 2 processes to the development of numerous chronic diseases associated with obesity. We recently discovered that the loss-of-function of the Src homology domain-containing protein Nck2 in mice promotes adiposity accompanied with adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired function, and enhanced adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Moreover, in severely-obese human's adipose tissue, we found that Nck2 expression is markedly downregulated...
February 6, 2017: Adipocyte
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