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human adipocyte obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233982/cacul1-reciprocally-regulates-sirt1-and-lsd1-to-repress-ppar%C3%AE-and-inhibit-adipogenesis
#1
Min Jun Jang, Ui-Hyun Park, Jeong Woo Kim, Hanbyeul Choi, Soo-Jong Um, Eun-Joo Kim
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is the master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and is closely linked to the development of obesity. Despite great progress in elucidating the transcriptional network of PPARγ, epigenetic regulation of this pathway by histone modification remains elusive. Here, we found that CDK2-associated cullin 1 (CACUL1), identified as a novel SIRT1 interacting protein, directly bound to PPARγ through the co-repressor nuclear receptor (CoRNR) box 2 and repressed the transcriptional activity and adipogenic potential of PPARγ...
December 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230933/biology-and-pathological-implications-of-brown-adipose-tissue-promises-and-caveats-for-the-control-of-obesity-and-its-associated-complications
#2
Pablo Tapia, Marta Fernández-Galilea, Fermín Robledo, Pablo Mardones, José E Galgani, Víctor A Cortés
The discovery of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has fuelled the research of diverse aspects of this previously neglected tissue. BAT is solely present in mammals and its clearest physiological role is non-shivering thermogenesis, owing to the capacity of brown adipocytes to dissipate metabolic energy as heat. Recently, a number of other possible functions have been proposed, including direct regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis and the secretion of a number of factors with diverse regulatory actions...
December 11, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224107/sex-dependent-role-of-estrogen-sulfotransferase-and-steroid-sulfatase-in-metabolic-homeostasis
#3
Wojciech G Garbacz, Mengxi Jiang, Wen Xie
Sulfonation and desulfation are two opposing processes that represent an important layer of regulation of estrogenic activity via ligand supplies. Enzymatic activities of families of enzymes, known as sulfotransferases and sulfatases, lead to structural and functional changes of the steroids, thyroids, xenobiotics, and neurotransmitters. Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) and steroid sulfatase (STS) represent negative and positive regulation of the estrogen activity, respectively. This is because EST-mediated sulfation deactivates estrogens, whereas STS-mediated desulfation converts the inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217197/effect-of-lncrna-hoxa11-as1-on-adipocyte-differentiation-in-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#4
Nuerbiye Nuermaimaiti, Jie Liu, Xiaodi Liang, Yi Jiao, Dan Zhang, Ling Liu, Xuanyu Meng, Yaqun Guan
AIMS: To determine the role of lncRNA HOXA11-AS1 on adipocyte differentiation. METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) were isolated from adipose tissues of patients and cultured in vitro, followed by knockdown of HOXA11-AS1. Then, adipocyte differentiation and expression of adipogenic-related genes (CEBP-α, DGAT2, CIDEC, and perilipin) were measured by RT-qPCR and Western blot. RESULTS: We demonstrated that knockdown of HOXA11-AS1 inhibited adipocyte differentiation, leading to suppression of adipogenic-related gene (CEBP-α, DGAT2, CIDEC, and perilipin) transcription, as well as decreased lipid accumulation in hADSCs...
December 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201145/ocdd-an-obesity-and-co-morbid-disease-database
#5
Indrani Ray, Anindya Bhattacharya, Rajat K De
Background: Obesity is a medical condition that is known for increased body mass index (BMI). It is also associated with chronic low level inflammation. Obesity disrupts the immune-metabolic homeostasis by changing the secretion of adipocytes. This affects the end-organs, and gives rise to several diseases including type 2 diabetes, asthma, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and cancers. These diseases are known as co-morbid diseases. Several studies have explored the underlying molecular mechanisms of developing obesity associated comorbid diseases...
2017: BioData Mining
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197497/delta-like-homolog1-gata-binding-protein-2-axis-mediates-leptin-inhibition-of-ppar%C3%AE-2-expression-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-vitro
#6
Yuanyuan Cheng, Xiaofei Zhu, Fangyun Cheng, Li Ji, Yajun Zhou
AIMS: Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a pivotal role in inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, a key step for liver fibrogenesis. Adipocyte-derived hormone leptin has been shown to promote liver fibrosis in murine and human. PPARγ includes two subtypes, PPARγ1 and PPARγ2. Our previous study indicated that leptin down-regulated PPARγ1 expression in HSCs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leptin on PPARγ2 expression and the underlying mechanisms in HSCs...
November 29, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191698/micrornas-361-5p-and-mir-574-5p-associate-with-human-adipose-morphology-and-regulate-ebf1-expression-in-white-adipose-tissue
#7
Yasmina Belarbi, Niklas Mejhert, Hui Gao, Peter Arner, Mikael Rydén, Agné Kulyté
Reduced adipose expression of the transcription factor Early B cell factor 1 (EBF1) is linked to white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with WAT hypertrophy and EBF1 regulation. We mapped WAT miRNA expression from 26 non-obese women discordant in WAT morphology and determined EBF1 activity in the non-obese and 30 obese women. Expression of 15 miRNAs was higher in hypertrophy and 10 were predicted to target EBF1. Binding of miR-365-5p/miR-574-5p were validated with 3'-UTR assay...
November 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191637/spontaneous-development-of-hepatosteatosis-in-perilipin-1-null-mice-with-adipose-tissue-dysfunction
#8
Suning Wei, Shangxin Liu, Xueying Su, Weiyi Wang, Fengjuan Li, Jingna Deng, Ying Lyu, Bin Geng, Guoheng Xu
Fatty liver features triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes and often occurs with obesity and lipodystrophy in humans. Here, we investigated the mechanism of maladaptive hepatosteatosis with adipose-tissue dysfunction. Perilipin 1 (Plin1) did not exist in hepatocytes but was expressed exclusively in adipocytes as a dual modulator for regulating two principal adipose-tissue functions, triglyceride storage and breakdown. Plin1-/- mice showed decreased fat storage but increased lipolysis and efflux of fatty acids from adipose tissue, and hepatosteatosis spontaneously developed without altered circulating inflammatory adipocytokine levels...
November 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189864/-the-potential-contribution-of-adenovirus-36-to-the-development-of-obesity
#9
Francisca Villavicencio, Macarena Valladares
The evidence of the last 20 years shows a link between viral infections and obesity in animals and humans. There are five adenovirus which have been associated with development of obesity in animals. SMAM-1 virus was the first studied in humans associated with obesity. There is compelling evidence that Ad-36 virus could contribute to the development of obesity in humans and it is related with body mass index (BMI). This manuscript reviews the association between Ad-36 and the other four virus infections with obesity...
August 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188818/no-evidence-of-white-adipocyte-browning-after-endurance-exercise-training-in-obese-men
#10
T Tsiloulis, A L Carey, J Bayliss, B Canny, R C R Meex, M J Watt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The phenomenon of adipocyte 'beiging' involves the conversion of non-classic brown adipocytes to brown-like adipose tissue with thermogenic, fat-burning properties, and this phenomenon has been shown in rodents to slow the progression of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Rodent studies consistently report adipocyte beiging after endurance exercise training, indicating that increased thermogenic capacity in these adipocytes may underpin the improved health benefits of exercise training...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182628/inhibitory-activity-of-chokeberry-bilberry-raspberry-and-cranberry-polyphenol-rich-extract-towards-adipogenesis-and-oxidative-stress-in-differentiated-3t3-l1-adipose-cells
#11
Katarzyna Kowalska, Anna Olejnik, Dominik Szwajgier, Mariola Olkowicz
Berries are a rich source of antioxidants and phytochemicals that have received considerable interest for their possible relations to human health. In this study, the anti-adipogenic effect of polyphenol-rich extract obtained from chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot, raspberry Rubus idaeus L., bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus L. and cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton fruits and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipose cells. Treatment with the extract (25-100 μg/mL) significantly decreased lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species generation in adipocytes without showing cytotoxicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178600/genetic-markers-of-brown-adipose-tissue-identity-and-in-vitro-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-humans
#12
Emmani B M Nascimento, Lauren M Sparks, Adeline Divoux, Marike W van Gisbergen, Evie P M Broeders, Johanna A Jörgensen, Gert Schaart, Nicole D Bouvy, Wouter D van Marken Lichtenbelt, Patrick Schrauwen
OBJECTIVE: Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity decreases with age and obesity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), several genetic markers of BAT in humans have been published. However, the link between human BAT activity and genetic markers has been inadequately explored. METHODS: White adipose tissue (WAT) and BAT biopsies were obtained from 16 patients undergoing deep neck surgery. In vitro differentiated adipocytes were used to measure norepinephrine-stimulated mitochondrial uncoupling as a measure of in vitro BAT activity...
November 27, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176631/lack-of-adipocyte-fndc5-irisin-expression-and-secretion-reduces-thermogenesis-and-enhances-adipogenesis
#13
D Pérez-Sotelo, A Roca-Rivada, I Baamonde, J Baltar, A I Castro, E Domínguez, M Collado, F F Casanueva, M Pardo
Irisin is a browning-stimulating molecule secreted from the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 precursor (FNDC5) by muscle tissue upon exercise stimulation. Despite its beneficial role, there is an unmet and clamorous need to discern many essential aspects of this protein and its mechanism of action not only as a myokine but also as an adipokine. Here we contribute to address this topic by revealing the nature and role of FNDC5/irisin in adipose tissue. First, we show that FNDC5/irisin expression and secretion are induced by adipocyte differentiation and confirm its over-secretion by human obese visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176006/gpr120-mechanism-of-action-role-and-potential-for-medical-applications
#14
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Joanna Róg, Dariusz Juchnowicz, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate many cellular processes. GPR120/FFAR4, a receptor from this family that is activated by fatty acids, has received considerable attention recently. This paper presents a literature review concerning the role of GPR120 and its mechanism of action in animal and human studies as well as the potential use of GPR120 for the treatment of chronic diseases. Two electronic databases - Medline and Google Scholar - were searched for available studies addressing the review topic that were written in English and published from 2000 to June 2017...
November 19, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172481/fucoxanthin-and-its-metabolite-fucoxanthinol-do-not-induce-browning-in-human-adipocytes
#15
Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway, William Johnson, David Ribnicky, Alexander Poulev, Krisztian Stadler, Ann Coulter
Evidence from rodent studies suggests that the anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin relate to the activation of brown fat and the conversion of white adipocytes to the brown phenotype as well as to downregulation of adipocyte differentiation. Further, obese females given a fucoxanthin supplement for 12 weeks displayed a reduction in body weight. In this study, fucoxanthinol the metabolite present in human plasma, stimulated lipolysis acutely in human adipocytes. However, there was no effect on oxygen consumption rate or the mRNA expression of UCP1, CPT-1β, and GLUT4, the genes largely associated with the browning of adipose tissue and consequential metabolic effects, when human adipocytes were treated with fucoxanthin or fucoxanthinol...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171144/altered-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-fabp4-expression-and-function-in-human-and-animal-models-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Kyle J Thompson, R Garland Austin, Shayan S Nazari, Keith S Gersin, David A Iannitti, Iain H McKillop
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Risk factors for developing HCC include viral hepatitis, alcohol, and obesity. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) and are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern; FABP1 being the predominant hepatic form, and FABP4 the predominant adipocyte form. The aims of this study were to investigate the expression and function of FABPs1-9 in human and animal models of obesity-related HCC...
November 24, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154418/measuring-non-polyaminated-lipocalin-2-for-cardiometabolic-risk-assessment
#17
Kangmin Yang, Han-Bing Deng, Andy W C Man, Erfei Song, Jialiang Zhang, Cuiting Luo, Bernard M Y Cheung, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Pia Søndergaard Jensen, Akhmadjon Irmukhamedov, Atlanta G I M Elie, Paul M Vanhoutte, Aimin Xu, Jo G R De Mey, Yu Wang
AIMS: Lipocalin-2 is a pro-inflammatory molecule characterized by a highly diversified pattern of expression and structure-functional relationships. In vivo, this molecule exists as multiple variants due to post-translational modifications and/or protein-protein interactions. Lipocalin-2 is modified by polyamination, which enhances the clearance of this protein from the circulation and prevents its excessive accumulation in tissues. On the other hand, animal studies suggest that non-polyaminated lipocalin-2 (npLcn2) plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated medical complications...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151594/adipocytes-sustain-pancreatic-cancer-progression-through-a-non-canonical-wnt-paracrine-network-inducing-ror2-nuclear-shuttling
#18
C Carbone, G Piro, N Gaianigo, F Ligorio, R Santoro, V Merz, F Simionato, C Zecchetto, G Falco, G Conti, P T Kamga, M Krampera, F Di Nicolantonio, L De Franceschi, A Scarpa, G Tortora, D Melisi
BACKGROUND: Solid epidemiological evidences connect obesity with incidence, stage, and survival in pancreatic cancer. However, the underlying mechanistic basis linking adipocytes to pancreatic cancer progression remain largely elusive. We hypothesized that factors secreted by adipocytes could be responsible for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction and, in turn, a more aggressive phenotype in models of pancreatic preneoplastic lesions. METHODS: We studied the role of factors secreted by two adipogenic model systems from primary human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (hBMSC) in an in vitro experimental cell transformation model system of human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE) cell stably expressing activated KRAS (HPDE/KRAS),RESULTS:We measured a significant induction of EMT and aggressiveness in HPDE and HPDE/KRAS cell lines when cultured with medium conditioned by fully differentiated adipocytes (ADIPO(CM)) if compared with the same cells cultured with medium conditioned by hBMSC (hBMSC(CM)) from two different healthy donors...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145717/ctrp9-regulates-growth-differentiation-and-apoptosis-in-human-keratinocytes-through-tgf%C3%AE-1-p38-dependent-pathway
#19
Tae Woo Jung, Hyung Sub Park, Geum Hee Choi, Daehwan Kim, Taeseung Lee
Impairment of wound healing is a common problem in individuals with diabetes. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has many beneficial effects on metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. C1q/TNF-Related Protein 9 (CTRP9), the closest paralog of adiponectin, has been reported to have beneficial effects on wound healing. In the current study, we demonstrate that CTRP9 regulates growth, differentiation, and apoptosis of HaCaT human keratinocytes. We found that CTRP9 augmented expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) by transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding activity and phosphorylation of p38 in a dosedependent manner...
November 16, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141038/depot-specific-inflammation-with-decreased-expression-of-atm2-in-white-adipose-tissues-induced-by-high-margarine-lard-intake
#20
Nannan Wang, Jie Guo, Fuding Liu, Mingxia Wang, Chuntao Li, Lihong Jia, Lingling Zhai, Wei Wei, Yinglong Bai
A high-fat diet has been recognized as an important risk factor of obesity, with variable impacts of different fatty acid compositions on the physiological process. To understand the effects of a high-margarine/lard diet, which is a major source of trans fatty acids (TFAs)/ saturated fatty acids (SFAs), elaidic acid as a biomarker of margarine intake was used to screen affected adipokines on mature human adipocytes in vitro. Weaned male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet enriched with margarine/lard to generate obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) models, which were then used to explore the inflammatory responses of depot-specific white adipose tissue...
2017: PloS One
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