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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454173/on-the-cancellation-of-oam-beams-propagating-through-convective-turbulence
#1
Gustavo Funes, Jaime Anguita
By means of an experimental setup, we study the time evolution of orbital angular momentum (OAM) crosstalk after a 5 m propagation path with a turbulence perturbation generated by a flat heater. This convective turbulence could simulate the beam passing over hot concrete or building roofs. We study the consequences of using a wide range of transmission OAM states. We also explore the effect of misalignment, and we propose two new different techniques for analyzing the vortex cancellation. Even though results are inconsistent with theoretical predictions, especially for low turbulence regimes, we state that signal-to-noise ratio is the key factor to understanding this discrepancy...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454172/are-optical-fibers-really-uniform-measurement-of-refractive-index-on-a-centimeter-scale
#2
Sébastien Loranger, Raman Kashyap
Many applications of optical fiber, such as specialized fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), require high uniformity of a fiber's refractive index (RI) along its length. We show here that the mode effective index of most fibers is not constant, even on a short length scale. To help improve fiber manufacturing and selection, we demonstrate a technique for characterizing a meter length single-mode optical fiber's effective RI over a centimeter scale with a precision of 3×10<sup>-6</sup> RI units (RIUs) and an absolute accuracy of 2×10<sup>-4</sup> RIU...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454167/nanofilm-induced-spectral-tuning-of-third-harmonic-generation
#3
Stephen C Warren-Smith, Mario Chemnitz, Henrik Schneidewind, Roman Kostecki, Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Tanya M Monro, Markus A Schmidt
Intermodal third-harmonic generation using waveguides is an effective frequency conversion process due to the combination of long interaction lengths and strong modal confinement. Here we introduce the concept of tuning the third harmonic phase-matching condition via the use of dielectric nanofilms located on an open waveguide core. We experimentally demonstrate that tantalum oxide nanofilms coated onto the core of an exposed core fiber allow tuning the third harmonic wavelength over 30 nm, as confirmed by qualitative simulations...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454098/the-impact-of-receptor-recycling-on-the-exocytosis-of-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-targeted-gold-nanoparticles
#4
Yanan Cui, Xiaoning Song, Suxin Li, Bing He, Lan Yuan, Wenbing Dai, Hua Zhang, Xueqing Wang, Bin Yang, Qiang Zhang
Among the diverse factors that may influence the therapeutic outcomes, the exocytosis of targeted drug delivery systems (TDDS) and its relationship with the corresponding receptor receive little attentions. In this study, cRGDfK modified gold nanoparticles (cRGDfK-PEG-AuNPs) were synthesized, and their cellular transportation including endocytosis and exocytosis, as well as the potential relations with αvβ3 integrin were carefully studied. The results showed that the enhanced and fast internalization of cRGDfK-PEG-AuNPs into U87 cells was associated with the high expression level of αvβ3 integrin...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454078/new-complexes-of-cu-ii-with-dipicolinate-and-pyridyl-based-ligands-an-experimental-and-dft-approach
#5
Florencia Luzardo, Natalia Álvarez, Carlos Kremer, Andrea S S de Camargo, Jorge S Gancheff
The three novel mononuclear copper(II) complexes with dipicolinate and pyridyl-based ligands [Cu(dipic)(L)(OH2)] (L=4-picoline, vinylpyridine, 4-styrylpyridine; dipic(2-)=dipicolinate) were afforded and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction studies accounted for slight distorted square-pyramidal structures in which the dianion dipic(2-) acts as a tridentate ligand in a mer-fashion, the N-donor species occupy an in-plane position, and a water molecule was detected apically coordinated. To assess the effect of the nature of the pyridyl-substituent (para position) on electronic properties, other complexes were also synthesized: [Cu(dipic)(py)(OH2)], [{Cu(dipic)(OH2)}2(μ-pyz)] and [{Cu(dipic)(OH2)}(μ-pypy){Cu(dipic)}] (py=pyridine, pyz=pyrazine, pypy=(E)-1,2-bis(pyridine-4-yl)ethane)...
April 8, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454067/assessment-of-the-swat-model-to-simulate-a-watershed-with-limited-available-data-in-the-pampas-region-argentina
#6
Martín Romagnoli, Margarita Portapila, Alfredo Rigalli, Gisela Maydana, Martín Burgués, Carlos M García
Argentina has been among the world leaders in the production and export of agricultural products since the 1990s. The Carcarañá River Lower Basin (CRLB), a cropland of the Pampas region supplied by extensive rainfall, is located in an area with few streamgauging and other hydrologic/water-quality stations. Therefore, limited hydrologic data are available resulting in limited water-resources assessment. This work explores the application of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to the CRLB in the Santa Fe province of the Pampas region...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454025/review-and-analysis-of-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-agro-ecosystem-models-for-simulating-c-and-n-fluxes
#7
REVIEW
Lorenzo Brilli, Luca Bechini, Marco Bindi, Marco Carozzi, Daniele Cavalli, Richard Conant, Cristopher D Dorich, Luca Doro, Fiona Ehrhardt, Roberta Farina, Roberto Ferrise, Nuala Fitton, Rosa Francaviglia, Peter Grace, Ileana Iocola, Katja Klumpp, Joël Léonard, Raphaël Martin, Raia Silvia Massad, Sylvie Recous, Giovanna Seddaiu, Joanna Sharp, Pete Smith, Ward N Smith, Jean-Francois Soussana, Gianni Bellocchi
Biogeochemical simulation models are important tools for describing and quantifying the contribution of agricultural systems to C sequestration and GHG source/sink status. The abundance of simulation tools developed over recent decades, however, creates a difficulty because predictions from different models show large variability. Discrepancies between the conclusions of different modelling studies are often ascribed to differences in the physical and biogeochemical processes incorporated in equations of C and N cycles and their interactions...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454018/chemical-characteristic-of-pm2-5-emission-and-inhalational-carcinogenic-risk-of-domestic-chinese-cooking
#8
Nan Zhang, Bin Han, Fei He, Jia Xu, Ruojie Zhao, Yujuan Zhang, Zhipeng Bai
To illustrate chemical characteristic of PM2.5 emission and assess inhalational carcinogenic risk of domestic Chinese cooking, 5 sets of duplicate cooking samples were collected, using the most used 5 types of oil. The mass abundance of 14 elements, 5 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were calculated; the signature and diagnostic ratio of cooking in the domestic kitchen were analyzed; and carcinogenic risks of heavy metals and PAHs via inhalation were assessed in two scenarios...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453939/all-atom-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-peptide-amphiphile-assemblies-that-spontaneously-form-twisted-and-helical-ribbon-structures
#9
Cheng-Tsung Lai, Nathaniel L Rosi, George C Schatz
Self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles (PAs) has been an active research area as the assemblies can be programmed into various shaped nanostructures. Although cylindrical micelles are common structures, gold-binding peptide conjugates PEPAu can self-assemble into chiral nanofibers with single or double helices. When gold nanoparticles bind to the helices, the resulting chiral nanoparticle assemblies have a collective plasmonic circular dichroism signal that can serve as nanoscale circular polarizers or chiroptical sensors...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453938/simulated-force-quench-dynamics-shows-gb1-protein-is-not-a-two-state-folder
#10
Ronen Berkovich, Jagannath Mondal, Inga Paster, Bruce J Berne
Single molecule force spectroscopy is a useful technique for investigating mechanically induced protein unfolding and refolding under reduced forces by monitoring the end-to-end distance of the protein, Ree. The data is often interpreted via a "two-state" model based on the assumption that Ree alone is a good reaction coordinate and the thermodynamic behavior is then ascribed to the free energy as a function of this one reaction coordinate. In this paper, we determined the free energy surface (PMF) of GB1 protein from atomistic simulations in explicit solvent under different applied forces as a function of two collective variables (Ree, and the fraction of native contacts ρ)...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453933/computational-fluid-dynamics-studies-of-a-flow-reactor-free-energies-of-clusters-of-sulfuric-acid-with-nh3-or-dimethyl-amine
#11
David R Hanson, Imanuel Bier, Baradan Panta, Coty N Jen, Peter H McMurry
Computational fluid dynamics simulations (CFD) of a flow reactor provided 3D spatial distributions of its temperature and flow profiles and abundances of sulfuric acid, nitrogeneous base and the acid-base clusters formed from them. Clusters were simulated via their kinetic formation and decomposition involving sulfuric acid and base molecules. Temperature and flow profiles and the base and sulfuric acid distributions are characterized and the latter is compared to mass spectrometer measurements. Concentrations of simulated clusters of sulfuric acid with either NH3 or dimethylamine were compared to experimentally measured particle concentrations...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453832/study-of-residual-tl-of-caso4-dy-based-thermoluminescence%C3%A2-dosemeter
#12
Manish K Sahai, S M Pradhan, A K Bakshi, D Datta
Thermoluminescence (TL) signal obtained during second readout of a TL dosemeter disc previously exposed to ionising radiation is termed as residual TL. The origin of residual TL has not been discussed in detail so far in the literature. In this work, experimentally obtained residual TL signal and its origin is studied for CaSO4:Dy-based TL dosemeter through numerical simulation and role of deeper traps has been discussed.
April 27, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453794/blood-flow-competition-after-aortic-valve-bypass-an-evaluation-using-computational-fluid-dynamics
#13
Koji Kawahito, Naoyuki Kimura, Kenji Komiya, Masanori Nakamura, Yoshio Misawa
OBJECTIVES: Aortic valve bypass (AVB) (apico-aortic conduit) remains an effective surgical alternative for patients in whom surgical aortic valve replacement or transcatheter aortic valve implantation is not feasible. However, specific complications include thrombus formation, possibly caused by stagnation arising from flow competition between the antegrade and retrograde flow, but this has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse flow characteristics after AVB and to elucidate mechanisms of intra-aortic thrombus using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...
May 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453724/a-generative-angular-model-of-protein-structure-evolution
#14
Michael Golden, Eduardo Garcia-Portugues, Michael Sørensen, Kanti V Mardia, Thomas Hamelryck, Jotun Hein
Recently described stochastic models of protein evolution have demonstrated that the inclusion of structural information in addition to amino acid sequences leads to a more reliable estimation of evolutionary parameters. We present a generative, evolutionary model of protein structure and sequence that is valid on a local length scale. The model concerns the local dependencies between sequence and structure evolution in a pair of homologous proteins. The evolutionary trajectory between the two structures in the protein pair is treated as a random walk in dihedral angle space, which is modeled using a novel angular diffusion process on the two-dimensional torus...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453685/phenocurve-capturing-dynamic-phenotype-environment-relationships-using-phenomics-data
#15
Yifan Yang, Lei Xu, Zheyun Feng, Jeffrey A Cruz, Linda J Savage, David M Kramer, Jin Chen
Motivation: Phenomics is essential for understanding the mechanisms that regulate or influence growth, fitness, and development. Techniques have been developed to conduct high-throughput large-scale phenotyping on animals, plants and humans, aiming to bridge the gap between genomics, gene functions and traits. Although new developments in phenotyping techniques are exciting, we are limited by the tools to analyze fully the massive phenotype data, especially the dynamic relationships between phenotypes and environments...
May 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453671/wright-fisher-exact-solver-wfes-scalable-analysis-of-population-genetic-models-without-simulation-or-diffusion-theory
#16
Ivan Krukov, Bianca de Sanctis, A P Jason de Koning
Motivation: The simplifying assumptions that are used widely in theoretical population genetics may not always be appropriate for empirical population genetics. General computational approaches that do not require the assumptions of classical theory are therefore quite desirable. One such general approach is provided by the theory of absorbing Markov chains, which can be used to obtain exact results by directly analyzing population genetic Markov models, such as the classic bi-allelic Wright-Fisher model...
May 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453670/gppfst-genomic-posterior-predictive-simulations-of-fst-and-dxy-for-identifying-outlier-loci-from-population-genomic-data
#17
Richard H Adams, Drew R Schield, Daren C Card, Heath Blackmon, Todd A Castoe
Summary: We introduce GppFst, an open source R package that generates posterior predictive distributions of FST and dx under a neutral coalescent model to identify putative targets of selection from genomic data. Availability and Implementation: GppFst is available at ( https://github.com/radamsRHA/GppFst ). Contact: todd.castoe@uta.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online...
May 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453667/linearity-of-network-proximity-measures-implications-for-set-based-queries-and-significance-testing
#18
Sean Maxwell, Mark R Chance, Mehmet Koyutürk
Motivation: In recent years, various network proximity measures have been proposed to facilitate the use of biomolecular interaction data in a broad range of applications. These applications include functional annotation, disease gene prioritization, comparative analysis of biological systems and prediction of new interactions. In such applications, a major task is the scoring or ranking of the nodes in the network in terms of their proximity to a given set of 'seed' nodes (e.g. a group of proteins that are identified to be associated with a disease, or are deferentially expressed in a certain condition)...
May 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453660/effect-of-patient-size-anatomical-location-and-modulation-strength-on-dose-delivered-and-image-quality-on-ct-examination
#19
Joël Greffier, Ahmed Larbi, Francesco Macri, Jean-Paul Beregi, Fabricio Pereira
To study the effect of patient size, anatomical location and modulation strength (MS) on image-quality and delivered dose of CT scans acquired with automatic-exposure-control system (AEC). Four anthropomorphic phantoms (three paediatric and one thin adult) were studied, and normal and obese adults were simulated by placing bolus plates around the adult phantom. Thorax and abdomen-pelvis CT were performed using an AEC system equipped with five possible MS. Modulated tube current (mAsmod) was compared to Reference mAs and image-noise was assessed...
April 27, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453646/protecting-confidentiality-in-cancer-registry-data-with-geographic-identifiers
#20
Mandi Yu, Jerome Phillip Reiter, Li Zhu, Benmei Liu, Kathleen A Cronin, Eric J Rocky Feuer
The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program releases research files of cancer registry data. These files include geography at the county level, but no finer. Access to finer geography, such as tract identifiers, would enable richer analyses, for example, examination of health disparities across neighborhoods. To date, tract identifiers are left off the research files because they could compromise the confidentiality of patients' identities. We present an approach to include tract identifiers based on multiply-imputed, synthetic data...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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