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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886860/diagnosing-the-kaiser-psychiatry-wilhelm-ii-and-the-question-of-german-war-guilt-the-william-bynum-prize-essay-2016
#1
David Freis
After his abdication in November 1918, the German emperor Wilhelm II continued to haunt the minds of his people. With the abolition of the lese-majesty laws in the new republic, many topics that were only discussed privately or obliquely before could now be broached openly. One of these topics was the mental state of the exiled Kaiser. Numerous psychiatrists, physicians and laypeople published their diagnoses of Wilhelm in high-circulation newspaper articles, pamphlets, and books shortly after the end of the war...
July 2018: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750116/classification-of-osteoporosis-by-artificial-neural-network-based-on-monarch-butterfly-optimisation-algorithm
#2
D Devikanniga, R Joshua Samuel Raj
Osteoporosis is a life threatening disease which commonly affects women mostly after their menopause. It primarily causes mild bone fractures, which on advanced stage leads to the death of an individual. The diagnosis of osteoporosis is done based on bone mineral density (BMD) values obtained through various clinical methods experimented from various skeletal regions. The main objective of the authors' work is to develop a hybrid classifier model that discriminates the osteoporotic patient from healthy person, based on BMD values...
April 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743264/effects-of-simulated-highway-noise-on-heart-rates-of-larval-monarch-butterflies-danaus-plexippus-implications-for-roadside-habitat-suitability
#3
Andrew K Davis, Hayley Schroeder, Ian Yeager, Jana Pearce
Developed countries around the world are criss-crossed with vast networks of roadways. Conservationists have recently focused attention on roadsides as possible locations for establishing pollinator habitat, with the monarch butterfly ( Danaus plexippus ) featuring prominently in such discussions. However, roadsides are inherently loud, which could negatively affect developing larvae. We conducted a series of experiments testing if simulated highway noise stresses monarch larvae, which we gauged by non-destructive monitoring of heart rates...
May 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697777/on-the-cutting-edge-of-research-to-conserve-at-risk-species-maximizing-impact-through-partnerships
#4
Shauna R Marquardt, Mandy Annis, Ryan G Drum, Stephanie Longstaff Hummel, David E Mosby, Tamara Smith
Today's conservation challenges are complex. Solving these challenges often requires scientific collaborations that extend beyond the scope, expertise, and capacity of any single agency, organization, or institution. Conservation efforts can benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration, scientific and technological innovations, and the leveraging of capacity and resources among partners. Here we explore a series of case studies demonstrating how collaborative scientific partnerships are furthering the mission of the U...
April 25, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683473/toxicity-of-the-spiny-thick-foot-pachypodium
#5
Anurag A Agrawal, Aliya Ali, M Daisy Johnson, Amy P Hastings, Dylan Burge, Marjorie G Weber
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pachypodium (Apocynaceae) is a genus of iconic stem-succulent and poisonous plants endemic to Madagascar and southern Africa. We tested hypotheses about the mode of action and macroevolution of toxicity in this group. We further hypothesized that while monarch butterflies are highly resistant to cardenolide toxins (a type of cardiac glycoside) from American Asclepias, they may be negatively affected by Pachypodium defenses, which evolved independently. METHODS: We grew 16 of 21 known Pachypodium spp...
April 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618170/climate-change-and-an-invasive-tropical-milkweed-an-ecological-trap-for-monarch-butterflies
#6
Matthew J Faldyn, Mark D Hunter, Bret D Elderd
While it is well established that climate change affects species distributions and abundances, the impacts of climate change on species interactions has not been extensively studied. This is particularly important for specialists whose interactions are tightly linked, such as between the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) and the plant genus Asclepias, on which it depends. We used open-top chambers (OTCs) to increase temperatures in experimental plots and placed either nonnative Asclepias curassavica or native A...
May 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593856/seed-dormancy-and-germination-vary-within-and-among-species-of-milkweeds
#7
Thomas N Kaye, Isaac J Sandlin, Matt A Bahm
Pollinators in general and monarch butterflies in particular are in decline due to habitat loss. Efforts to restore habitats for insects that rely on specific plant groups as larvae or adults depend on the ability of practitioners to grow and produce these plants. Monarch larvae feed exclusively on milkweed species, primarily in the genus Asclepias , making propagation and restoration of these plants crucial for habitat restoration. Seed germination protocols for milkweeds are not well established, in part due to the large number of milkweed species and conflicting reports of seed dormancy in the genus...
March 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531149/responses-of-migratory-species-and-their-pathogens-to-supplemental-feeding
#8
REVIEW
Dara A Satterfield, Peter P Marra, T Scott Sillett, Sonia Altizer
Migratory animals undergo seasonal and often spectacular movements and perform crucial ecosystem services. In response to anthropogenic changes, including food subsidies, some migratory animals are now migrating shorter distances or halting migration altogether and forming resident populations. Recent studies suggest that shifts in migratory behaviour can alter the risk of infection for wildlife. Although migration is commonly assumed to enhance pathogen spread, for many species, migration has the opposite effect of lowering infection risk, if animals escape from habitats where pathogen stages have accumulated or if strenuous journeys cull infected hosts...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501691/identification-and-screening-of-potent-antimicrobial-peptides-in-arthropod-genomes
#9
Deepesh Duwadi, Anishma Shrestha, Binyam Yilma, Itamar Kozlovski, Munaya Sa-Eed, Nikesh Dahal, James Jukosky
Using tBLASTn and BLASTp searches, we queried recently sequenced arthropod genomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using a database of known arthropod cecropins, defensins, and attacins. We identified and synthesized 6 potential AMPs and screened them for antimicrobial activity. Using radial diffusion assays and microtiter antimicrobial assays, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial effects of these peptides against several human pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We also conducted hemolysis assays to examine the cytotoxicity of these peptides to mammalian cells...
May 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497278/abemaciclib-a-cdk4-6-inhibitor-for-the-treatment-of-hr-her2-advanced-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Silvia Paola Corona, Daniele Generali
Although early breast cancer (BC) is highly curable, advanced or metastatic disease poses numerous challenges in terms of medical management and treatment decisions and is associated with significantly worse prognosis. Among the new targeted agents, anticancer drugs exploiting the cell-cycle machinery have shown great potential in preclinical studies. CDK4/6 inhibitors target the cyclin D/CDK/retinoblastoma signaling pathway, inducing cell-cycle arrest, reduced cell viability and tumor shrinking. As the cyclin D/CDK complex is activated downstream of estrogen signaling, the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with standard endocrine therapies represents a rational approach to elicit synergic antitumor activity in hormone receptor-positive BC...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392640/corneal-incision-architecture-after-iol-implantation-with-three-different-injectors-an-environmental-scanning-electron-microscopy-study
#11
Rita Mencucci, Eleonora Favuzza, Maria Cristina Salvatici, Leopoldo Spadea, David Allen
PURPOSE: To evaluate by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) the corneal incision architecture after intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in pig eyes, using manual, automated injectors or preloaded delivery systems. METHODS: Twenty-four pig eyes underwent IOL implantation in the anterior chamber using three different injectors: manual (Monarch III) (n = 8), automated (AutoSert) (n = 8), or a preloaded system (UltraSert) (n = 8). Acrysof IQ IOLs, 21 Dioptres (D) (n = 12) and 27D (n = 12), were implanted through 2...
February 1, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286316/development-and-validation-of-an-uplc-ms-ms-method-for-pharmacokinetic-comparison-of-five-alkaloids-from-jinqi-jiangtang-tablets-and-its-monarch-drug-coptidis-rhizoma
#12
Lili Sun, Feifei Ding, Guangjiao You, Han Liu, Meng Wang, Xiaoliang Ren, Yanru Deng
JinQi Jiangtang (JQJT) tablets, a Chinese patent medicine approved by the State Food and Drug Administration, are composed of Coptidis Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, and Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, and have a significant effect on diabetes. Coptidis Rhizoma is monarch drug in the prescription. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetics of multiple ingredients from JQJT tablets and Coptidis Rhizoma extract (CRE) following oral administration in rats. Five alkaloids: coptisine chloride, epiberberine chloride, berberine chloride, jatrorrhizine chloride, and palmatine chloride, were simultaneously determined in rat plasma using established and validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)...
December 29, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274199/dereplication-guided-isolation-of-a-new-indole-alkaloid-triglycoside-from-the-hooks-of-uncaria-rhynchophylla-by-lc-with-ion-trap-time-of-flight-ms
#13
Jian-Gang Zhang, Xiao-Yan Huang, Yun-Bao Ma, Xue-Mei Zhang, Ji-Jun Chen, Chang-An Geng
Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gou-Teng) as the monarch herb of many formulae (Fufang), e.g. "Tian-Ma-Gou-Teng-Yin," "Ling-Jiao-Gou-Teng-Yin," and "Yi-Gan-San", is a famous traditional Chinese medicine documented in the Chinese pharmacopoeia for mental and cardiovascular diseases. In the traditional Chinese medicine system, only the hook-bearing stems are used as the crude materials for Gou-Teng, and the hooks are always considered more effective than the stems. Focusing on the mono-herb and its active constituents from combinatorial formulae is the core idea of reductionism of traditional Chinese medicine theory...
April 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273862/heterorhizy-and-fine-root-architecture-of-rabbiteye-blueberry-vaccinium-virgatum-softwood-cuttings
#14
Takashi Baba, Satoshi Nakaba, Satoshi Noma, Ryo Funada, Takuya Ban
All fine root systems consist of individual fine roots. Individual roots have morphological, anatomical, and functional heterogeneity (heterorhizy). Heterorhizy plays crucial roles in plant ecosystems. However, in many species, the heterorhizy and fine root system architecture based on individual root units are unclear. This study investigated heterorhizy along the root system architecture of Vaccinium virgatum Ait (rabbiteye blueberry) softwood-cuttings (propagated from annual shoots in growing season) using protoxylem groups (PGs), a classification according to the number of protoxylem poles, as an indicator of individual root traits...
March 2018: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235937/the-impact-of-genetically-modified-gm-crops-in-modern-agriculture-a-review
#15
Ruchir Raman
Genetic modification in plants was first recorded 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia where humans first bred plants through artificial selection and selective breeding. Since then, advancements in agriculture science and technology have brought about the current GM crop revolution. GM crops are promising to mitigate current and future problems in commercial agriculture, with proven case studies in Indian cotton and Australian canola. However, controversial studies such as the Monarch Butterfly study (1999) and the Séralini affair (2012) along with current problems linked to insect resistance and potential health risks have jeopardised its standing with the public and policymakers, even leading to full and partial bans in certain countries...
October 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197336/contrasting-patterns-of-evolutionary-constraint-and-novelty-revealed-by-comparative-sperm-proteomic-analysis-in-lepidoptera
#16
Emma Whittington, Desiree Forsythe, Kirill Borziak, Timothy L Karr, James R Walters, Steve Dorus
BACKGROUND: Rapid evolution is a hallmark of reproductive genetic systems and arises through the combined processes of sequence divergence, gene gain and loss, and changes in gene and protein expression. While studies aiming to disentangle the molecular ramifications of these processes are progressing, we still know little about the genetic basis of evolutionary transitions in reproductive systems. Here we conduct the first comparative analysis of sperm proteomes in Lepidoptera, a group that exhibits dichotomous spermatogenesis, in which males produce a functional fertilization-competent sperm (eupyrene) and an incompetent sperm morph lacking nuclear DNA (apyrene)...
December 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184137/potential-ash-impact-from-antarctic-volcanoes-insights-from-deception-island-s-most-recent-eruption
#17
A Geyer, A Marti, S Giralt, A Folch
Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions may disperse over vast areas of the globe posing a threat to human health and infrastructures and causing significant disruption to air traffic. In Antarctica, at least five volcanoes have reported historic activity. However, no attention has been paid to the potential socio-economic and environmental consequences of an ash-forming eruption occurring at high southern latitudes. This work shows how ash from Antarctic volcanoes may pose a higher threat than previously believed...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135927/design-and-calibration-of-a-novel-bio-inspired-pixelated-polarized-light-compass
#18
Guoliang Han, Xiaoping Hu, Junxiang Lian, Xiaofeng He, Lilian Zhang, Yujie Wang, Fengliang Dong
Animals, such as Savannah sparrows and North American monarch butterflies, are able to obtain compass information from skylight polarization patterns to help them navigate effectively and robustly. Inspired by excellent navigation ability of animals, this paper proposes a novel image-based polarized light compass, which has the advantages of having a small size and being light weight. Firstly, the polarized light compass, which is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, a pixelated polarizer array and a wide-angle lens, is introduced...
November 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130975/karyotypes-versus-genomes-the-nymphalid-butterflies-melitaea-cinxia-danaus-plexippus-and-d-chrysippus
#19
Walther Traut, Virpi Ahola, David A S Smith, Ian J Gordon, Richard H Ffrench-Constant
The number of sequenced lepidopteran genomes is increasing rapidly. However, the corresponding assemblies rarely represent whole chromosomes and generally also lack the highly repetitive W sex chromosome. Knowledge of the karyotypes can facilitate genome assembly and further our understanding of sex chromosome evolution in Lepidoptera. Here, we describe the karyotypes of the Glanville fritillary Melitaea cinxia (n = 31), the monarch Danaus plexippus (n = 30), and the African queen D. chrysippus (2n = 60 or 59, depending on the source population)...
2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118790/rescue-treatment-with-pipeline-embolization-for-postsurgical-clipping-recurrences-of-anterior-communicating-artery-region-aneurysms
#20
Li-Mei Lin, Rajiv R Iyer, Matthew T Bender, Thomas Monarch, Geoffrey P Colby, Judy Huang, Rafael J Tamargo, Alexander L Coon
Background: Postsurgical clipping aneurysm recurrences or residuals can be difficult to manage with either traditional open microsurgical approaches or endosaccular coiling. Endoluminal parent vessel reconstruction with flow diversion may be an ideal method for treating these recurrences by avoiding reoperative surgery or intraprocedural aneurysm rupture with aneurysm access. Method: We retrospectively reviewed a single-center aneurysm database identifying all anterior communicating artery (ACom) region aneurysms with recurrences after microsurgical clipping...
October 2017: Interventional Neurology
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