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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335445/deciphering-egyptian-hieroglyphs-towards-a-new-strategy-for-navigation-in-museums
#1
Jaime Duque-Domingo, Pedro Javier Herrera, Enrique Valero, Carlos Cerrada
This work presents a novel strategy to decipher fragments of Egyptian cartouches identifying the hieroglyphs of which they are composed. A cartouche is a drawing, usually inside an oval, that encloses a group of hieroglyphs representing the name of a monarch. Aiming to identify these drawings, the proposed method is based on several techniques frequently used in computer vision and consists of three main stages: first, a picture of the cartouche is taken as input and its contour is localized. In the second stage, each hieroglyph is individually extracted and identified...
March 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334410/pretty-picky-for-a-generalist-impacts-of-toxicity-and-nutritional-quality-on-mantid-prey-processing
#2
Jamie L Rafter, Justin F Vendettuoli, Liahna Gonda-King, Daniel Niesen, Navindra P Seeram, Chad M Rigsby, Evan L Preisser
Prey have evolved a number of defenses against predation, and predators have developed means of countering these protective measures. Although caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L., are defended by cardenolides sequestered from their host plants, the Chinese mantid Tenodera sinensis Saussure guts the caterpillar before consuming the rest of the body. We hypothesized that this gutting behavior might be driven by the heterogeneous quality of prey tissue with respect to toxicity and/or nutrients...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323544/host-diet-affects-the-morphology-of-a-butterfly-parasite
#3
Kevin Ming-Kong Hoang, Leiling Tao, Jacobus C de Roode, Mark D Hunter
Understanding host-parasite interactions is essential for ecological research, wildlife conservation and health management. While most studies focus on numerical traits of parasite groups, such as changes in parasite load, less focus is placed on the traits of individual parasites, such as parasite size and shape (parasite morphology). Parasite morphology has significant effects on parasite fitness, such as initial colonization of hosts, avoidance of host immune defenses, and the availability of resources for parasite replication...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300580/feeding-on-toxic-prey-the-praying-mantis-mantodea-as-predator-of-poisonous-butterfly-and-moth-lepidoptera-caterpillars
#4
Dietrich Mebs, Cora Wunder, Werner Pogoda, Stefan W Toennes
Caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, feed on milkweed plants, Asclepias spp. (Apocynaceae), and sequester their toxic cardenolides aimed at deterring predators. Nevertheless, Chinese praying mantids, Tenodera sinensis, consume these caterpillars after removing the midgut ("gutting") including its plant content. In the present study, monarch caterpillars raised on A. curassavica, and those of the death's-head hawkmoth, Acherontia atropos, raised on Atropa belladonna containing atropine, were fed to mantids, Hierodula membranacea, which removed the gut of both species discarding about 59% of cardenolides and more than 90% of atropine, respectively...
March 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275381/dietary-risk-assessment-of-v-atpase-a-dsrnas-on-monarch-butterfly-larvae
#5
Huipeng Pan, Xiaowei Yang, Keith Bidne, Richard L Hellmich, Blair D Siegfried, Xuguo Zhou
By suppressing the expression of genes with essential biological functions, in planta RNAi can negatively affect the development and survival of target pests. As a part of a concerted effort to assess the risks of RNAi transgenic crops on non-target organisms, we developed an in vivo toxicity assay to examine the impacts of ingested dsRNAs incurred to the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), an iconic eco-indicator in North America. To create the worst case scenario, the full-length v-ATPase A cDNAs from the target pest, western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and the non-target D...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218646/impact-of-consuming-toxic-monarch-caterpillars-on-adult-chinese-mantid-mass-gain-and-fecundity
#6
Jamie L Rafter, Liahna Gonda-King, Daniel Niesen, Navindra P Seeram, Chad M Rigsby, Evan L Preisser
Predators that feed on chemically-defended prey often experience non-lethal effects that result in learned avoidance of the prey species. Some predators are able to consume toxic prey without ill-effect. The Chinese mantid is able to consume cardenolide-containing monarch caterpillars without immediate adverse effects. Although they discard the caterpillars' gut contents, mantids consume sequestered cardenolides. Although consumption of these cardenolides does not elicit an acute response, there may be long-term costs associated with cardenolide consumption...
February 17, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101270/using-online-active-learning-techniques-to-convey-time-compensated-sun-compass-orientation-in-the-eastern-north-american-monarch
#7
Noah H Green, Douglas G McMahon, Cynthia Brame
A common tool that animals use to navigate in a constant direction is known as "time compensated sun compass orientation." This is a process by which animals use the position of the sun along with information from their internal circadian clocks to determine and maintain a directional heading. Many circadian scientists and educators use this process as an example of how the internal circadian clock can directly influence animal behavior. However, many students have difficulty grasping this biological process due to its multivariable nature...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099501/environmental-persistence-influences-infection-dynamics-for-a-butterfly-pathogen
#8
Dara A Satterfield, Sonia Altizer, Mary-Kate Williams, Richard J Hall
Many pathogens, including those infecting insects, are transmitted via dormant stages shed into the environment, where they must persist until encountering a susceptible host. Understanding how abiotic conditions influence environmental persistence and how these factors influence pathogen spread are crucial for predicting patterns of infection risk. Here, we explored the consequences of environmental transmission for infection dynamics of a debilitating protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) that infects monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053160/the-24th-annual-nucleic-acids-research-database-issue-a-look-back-and-upcoming-changes
#9
Michael Y Galperin, Xosé M Fernández-Suárez, Daniel J Rigden
This year's Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research contains 152 papers that include descriptions of 54 new databases and update papers on 98 databases, of which 16 have not been previously featured in NAR As always, these databases cover a broad range of molecular biology subjects, including genome structure, gene expression and its regulation, proteins, protein domains, and protein-protein interactions. Following the recent trend, an increasing number of new and established databases deal with the issues of human health, from cancer-causing mutations to drugs and drug targets...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045226/regional-climate-on-the-breeding-grounds-predicts-variation-in-the-natal-origin-of-monarch-butterflies-overwintering-in-mexico-over-38%C3%A2-years
#10
D T Tyler Flockhart, Lincoln P Brower, M Isabel Ramirez, Keith A Hobson, Leonard I Wassenaar, Sonia Altizer, D Ryan Norris
Addressing population declines of migratory insects requires linking populations across different portions of the annual cycle and understanding the effects of variation in weather and climate on productivity, recruitment, and patterns of long-distance movement. We used stable H and C isotopes and geospatial modeling to estimate the natal origin of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America using over 1000 monarchs collected over almost four decades at Mexican overwintering colonies. Multinomial regression was used to ascertain which climate-related factors best-predicted temporal variation in natal origin across six breeding regions...
January 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007114/in%C3%A2-vitro-delivery-performance-assessment-of-a-new-preloaded-intraocular-lens-delivery-system
#11
Lixin Wang, Patricia Wolfe, Alexis Chernosky, Sumit Paliwal, Khiun Tjia, Stephen Lane
PURPOSE: To compare the delivery performance of a new preloaded intraocular lens (IOL) delivery system (Ultrasert [system U]) with that of 2 commercially available preloaded systems (iSert [system S] and Tecnis iTec [system T]), and a manual system (Monarch III D). SETTING: Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Freshly excised porcine eyes were randomly assigned to 5 groups of 10 eyes each as follows: preloaded systems U, S, T 2...
December 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003372/population-genetics-of-overwintering-monarch-butterflies-danaus-plexippus-linnaeus-from-central-mexico-inferred-from-mitochondrial-dna-and-microsatellite-markers
#12
Edward Pfeiler, Nestor O Nazario-Yepiz, Fernan Pérez-Gálvez, Cristina Alejandra Chávez-Mora, Mariana Ramírez Loustalot Laclette, Eduardo Rendón-Salinas, Therese Ann Markow
Population genetic variation and demographic history in Danaus plexippus (L.), from Mexico were assessed based on analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; 658 bp) and subunit II (COII; 503 bp) gene segments and 7 microsatellite loci. The sample of 133 individuals included both migratory monarchs, mainly from 4 overwintering sites within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) in central Mexico (states of Michoacán and México), and a nonmigratory population from Irapuato, Guanajuato...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899636/the-monarch-initiative-an-integrative-data-and-analytic-platform-connecting-phenotypes-to-genotypes-across-species
#13
Christopher J Mungall, Julie A McMurry, Sebastian Köhler, James P Balhoff, Charles Borromeo, Matthew Brush, Seth Carbon, Tom Conlin, Nathan Dunn, Mark Engelstad, Erin Foster, J P Gourdine, Julius O B Jacobsen, Dan Keith, Bryan Laraway, Suzanna E Lewis, Jeremy NguyenXuan, Kent Shefchek, Nicole Vasilevsky, Zhou Yuan, Nicole Washington, Harry Hochheiser, Tudor Groza, Damian Smedley, Peter N Robinson, Melissa A Haendel
The correlation of phenotypic outcomes with genetic variation and environmental factors is a core pursuit in biology and biomedicine. Numerous challenges impede our progress: patient phenotypes may not match known diseases, candidate variants may be in genes that have not been characterized, model organisms may not recapitulate human or veterinary diseases, filling evolutionary gaps is difficult, and many resources must be queried to find potentially significant genotype-phenotype associations. Non-human organisms have proven instrumental in revealing biological mechanisms...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859127/consequences-of-toxic-secondary-compounds-in-nectar-for-mutualist%C3%A2-bees-and-antagonist-butterflies
#14
Patricia L Jones, Anurag A Agrawal
Attraction of mutualists and defense against antagonists are critical challenges for most organisms and can be especially acute for plants with pollinating and non-pollinating flower visitors. Secondary compounds in flowers have been hypothesized to adaptively mediate attraction of mutualists and defense against antagonists, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. The tissues of milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) contain toxic cardenolides that have long been studied as chemical defenses against herbivores. Milkweed nectar also contains cardenolides, and we have examined the impact of manipulating cardenolides in nectar on the foraging choices of two flower visitors: generalist bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, which are mutualistic pollinators, and specialist monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, which are herbivores as larvae and ineffective pollinators as adults...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856432/efficacy-and-safety-of-sarilumab-monotherapy-versus-adalimumab-monotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-active-rheumatoid-arthritis-monarch-a-randomised-double-blind-parallel-group-phase-iii-trial
#15
Gerd R Burmester, Yong Lin, Rahul Patel, Janet van Adelsberg, Erin K Mangan, Neil M H Graham, Hubert van Hoogstraten, Deborah Bauer, Juan Ignacio Vargas, Eun Bong Lee
OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy and safety of sarilumab monotherapy with adalimumab monotherapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who should not continue treatment with methotrexate (MTX) due to intolerance or inadequate response. METHODS: MONARCH was a randomised, active-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, phase III superiority trial. Patients received sarilumab (200 mg every 2 weeks (q2w)) or adalimumab (40 mg q2w) monotherapy for 24 weeks...
November 17, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759059/evidence-for-discrete-solar-and-lunar-orientation-mechanisms-in-the-beach-amphipod-talitrus-saltator-montagu-crustacea-amphipoda
#16
Alberto Ugolini, Laura S Hoelters, Alice Ciofini, Vittorio Pasquali, David C Wilcockson
Animals that use astronomical cues to orientate must make continuous adjustment to account for temporal changes in azimuth caused by Earth's rotation. For example, the Monarch butterfly possesses a time-compensated sun compass dependent upon a circadian clock in the antennae. The amphipod Talitrus saltator possesses both a sun compass and a moon compass. We reasoned that the time-compensated compass mechanism that enables solar orientation of T. saltator is located in the antennae, as is the case for Monarch butterflies...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726788/history-of-smallpox-and-its-spread-in-human-populations
#17
Catherine Thèves, Eric Crubézy, Philippe Biagini
Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. The disease was officially declared eradicated in 1979 following intensive vaccination campaigns...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720080/a-call-to-insect-scientists-challenges-and-opportunities-of-managing-insect-communities-under-climate-change
#18
Jessica J Hellmann, Ralph Grundel, Chris Hoving, Gregor W Schuurman
As climate change moves insect systems into uncharted territory, more knowledge about insect dynamics and the factors that drive them could enable us to better manage and conserve insect communities. Climate change may also require us to revisit insect management goals and strategies and lead to a new kind of scientific engagement in management decision-making. Here we make five key points about the role of insect science in aiding and crafting management decisions, and we illustrate those points with the monarch butterfly and the Karner blue butterfly, two species undergoing considerable change and facing new management dilemmas...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650673/monarchs-in-decline-a-collateral-landscape-level-effect-of-modern-agriculture
#19
REVIEW
Carl Stenoien, Kelly R Nail, Jacinta M Zalucki, Hazel Parry, Karen S Oberhauser, Myron P Zalucki
We review the postulated threatening processes that may have affected the decline in the eastern population of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), in North America. Although there are likely multiple contributing factors, such as climate and resource-related effects on breeding, migrating, and overwintering populations, the key landscape-level change appears to be associated with the widespread use of genetically modified herbicide resistant crops that have rapidly come to dominate the extensive core summer breeding range...
September 21, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642090/occurrence-and-host-specificity-of-a-neogregarine-protozoan-in-four-milkweed-butterfly-hosts-danaus-spp
#20
Paola A Barriga, Eleanore D Sternberg, Thierry Lefèvre, Jacobus C de Roode, Sonia Altizer
Throughout their global range, wild monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are infected with the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE). In monarchs, OE infection reduces pupal eclosion, adult lifespan, adult body size and flight ability. Infection of other butterfly hosts with OE is rare or unknown, and the only previously published records of OE infection were on monarch and queen butterflies (D. gilippus). Here we explored the occurrence and specificity of OE and OE-like parasites in four Danaus butterfly species...
October 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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