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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235937/the-impact-of-genetically-modified-gm-crops-in-modern-agriculture-a-review
#1
Ruchir Raman
Genetic modification in plants was first recorded 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia where humans first bred plants through artificial selection and selective breeding. Since then, advancements in agriculture science and technology have brought about the current GM crop revolution. GM crops are promising to mitigate current and future problems in commercial agriculture, with proven case studies in Indian cotton and Australian canola. However, controversial studies such as the Monarch Butterfly study (1999) and the Séralini affair (2012) along with current problems linked to insect resistance and potential health risks have jeopardised its standing with the public and policymakers, even leading to full and partial bans in certain countries...
December 13, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197336/contrasting-patterns-of-evolutionary-constraint-and-novelty-revealed-by-comparative-sperm-proteomic-analysis-in-lepidoptera
#2
Emma Whittington, Desiree Forsythe, Kirill Borziak, Timothy L Karr, James R Walters, Steve Dorus
BACKGROUND: Rapid evolution is a hallmark of reproductive genetic systems and arises through the combined processes of sequence divergence, gene gain and loss, and changes in gene and protein expression. While studies aiming to disentangle the molecular ramifications of these processes are progressing, we still know little about the genetic basis of evolutionary transitions in reproductive systems. Here we conduct the first comparative analysis of sperm proteomes in Lepidoptera, a group that exhibits dichotomous spermatogenesis, in which males produce a functional fertilization-competent sperm (eupyrene) and an incompetent sperm morph lacking nuclear DNA (apyrene)...
December 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184137/potential-ash-impact-from-antarctic-volcanoes-insights-from-deception-island-s-most-recent-eruption
#3
A Geyer, A Marti, S Giralt, A Folch
Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions may disperse over vast areas of the globe posing a threat to human health and infrastructures and causing significant disruption to air traffic. In Antarctica, at least five volcanoes have reported historic activity. However, no attention has been paid to the potential socio-economic and environmental consequences of an ash-forming eruption occurring at high southern latitudes. This work shows how ash from Antarctic volcanoes may pose a higher threat than previously believed...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135927/design-and-calibration-of-a-novel-bio-inspired-pixelated-polarized-light-compass
#4
Guoliang Han, Xiaoping Hu, Junxiang Lian, Xiaofeng He, Lilian Zhang, Yujie Wang, Fengliang Dong
Animals, such as Savannah sparrows and North American monarch butterflies, are able to obtain compass information from skylight polarization patterns to help them navigate effectively and robustly. Inspired by excellent navigation ability of animals, this paper proposes a novel image-based polarized light compass, which has the advantages of having a small size and being light weight. Firstly, the polarized light compass, which is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, a pixelated polarizer array and a wide-angle lens, is introduced...
November 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130975/karyotypes-versus-genomes-the-nymphalid-butterflies-melitaea-cinxia-danaus-plexippus-and-d-chrysippus
#5
Walther Traut, Virpi Ahola, David A S Smith, Ian J Gordon, Richard H Ffrench-Constant
The number of sequenced lepidopteran genomes is increasing rapidly. However, the corresponding assemblies rarely represent whole chromosomes and generally also lack the highly repetitive W sex chromosome. Knowledge of the karyotypes can facilitate genome assembly and further our understanding of sex chromosome evolution in Lepidoptera. Here, we describe the karyotypes of the Glanville fritillary Melitaea cinxia (n = 31), the monarch Danaus plexippus (n = 30), and the African queen D. chrysippus (2n = 60 or 59, depending on the source population)...
November 2, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118790/rescue-treatment-with-pipeline-embolization-for-postsurgical-clipping-recurrences-of-anterior-communicating-artery-region-aneurysms
#6
Li-Mei Lin, Rajiv R Iyer, Matthew T Bender, Thomas Monarch, Geoffrey P Colby, Judy Huang, Rafael J Tamargo, Alexander L Coon
Background: Postsurgical clipping aneurysm recurrences or residuals can be difficult to manage with either traditional open microsurgical approaches or endosaccular coiling. Endoluminal parent vessel reconstruction with flow diversion may be an ideal method for treating these recurrences by avoiding reoperative surgery or intraprocedural aneurysm rupture with aneurysm access. Method: We retrospectively reviewed a single-center aneurysm database identifying all anterior communicating artery (ACom) region aneurysms with recurrences after microsurgical clipping...
October 2017: Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075462/honey-bees-are-the-dominant-diurnal-pollinator-of-native-milkweed-in-a-large-urban-park
#7
James Scott MacIvor, Adriano N Roberto, Darwin S Sodhi, Thomas M Onuferko, Marc W Cadotte
In eastern North America, the field milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae), is used in planting schemes to promote biodiversity conservation for numerous insects including the endangered monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus) (Nymphalidae). Less is known about its pollinators, and especially in urban habitats where it is planted often despite being under increasing pressure from invasive plant species, such as the related milkweed, the dog-strangling vine (DSV), Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066784/density-dependence-in-the-declining-population-of-the-monarch-butterfly
#8
Lorenzo Marini, Myron P Zalucki
The Eastern monarch butterfly population has significantly declined over the last two decades creating growing concerns around its conservation status. Here, we showed that the overwintering population exhibited a negative density-dependence (i.e. a negative effect on growth rate of the density in the previous year) and that, after accounting for the density effect, the population growth rate tended to decline over time. The negative time effect is probably linked to the host plant (i.e. milkweed) decline in North America...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044468/matchmaker-exchange
#9
Nara L M Sobreira, Harindra Arachchi, Orion J Buske, Jessica X Chong, Ben Hutton, Julia Foreman, François Schiettecatte, Tudor Groza, Julius O B Jacobsen, Melissa A Haendel, Kym M Boycott, Ada Hamosh, Heidi L Rehm
In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems...
October 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029314/small-aneurysms-account-for-the-majority-and-increasing-percentage-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-25-year-single-institution-study
#10
Matthew T Bender, Haley Wendt, Thomas Monarch, Narlin Beaty, Li-Mei Lin, Judy Huang, Alexander Coon, Rafael J Tamargo, Geoffrey P Colby
BACKGROUND: Prospective studies of unruptured aneurysms have shown very low rates of rupture for small aneurysms (<10 mm) and suggested that the risk of treatment outweighs benefit. However, common clinical practice shows that patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) frequently have small aneurysms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in size and location of ruptured aneurysms over a 25-yr period. METHODS: A prospective, Institutional Review Board-approved database of all patients presenting to our institution with aSAH from 1991 to 2016 was analyzed...
October 6, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989778/monarch-butterfly-population-decline-in-north-america-identifying-the-threatening-processes
#11
Wayne E Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G Drum, Jay E Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby, Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977776/anthropogenic-impacts-on-mortality-and-population-viability-of-the-monarch-butterfly
#12
Stephen B Malcolm
Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are familiar herbivores of milkweeds of the genus Asclepias, and most monarchs migrate each year to locate these host plants across North American ecosystems now dominated by agriculture. Eastern migrants overwinter in high-elevation forests in Mexico, and western monarchs overwinter in trees on the coast of California. Both populations face three primary threats to their viability: (a) loss of milkweed resources for larvae due to genetically modified crops, pesticides, and fertilizers; (b) loss of nectar resources from flowering plants; and (c) degraded overwintering forest habitats due to commercially motivated deforestation and other economic activities...
October 4, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968163/monarch-3-abemaciclib-as-initial-therapy-for-advanced-breast-cancer
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Matthew P Goetz, Masakazu Toi, Mario Campone, Joohyuk Sohn, Shani Paluch-Shimon, Jens Huober, In Hae Park, Olivier Trédan, Shin-Cheh Chen, Luis Manso, Orit C Freedman, Georgina Garnica Jaliffe, Tammy Forrester, Martin Frenzel, Susana Barriga, Ian C Smith, Nawel Bourayou, Angelo Di Leo
Purpose Abemaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor, demonstrated efficacy as monotherapy and in combination with fulvestrant in women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer previously treated with endocrine therapy. Methods MONARCH 3 is a double-blind, randomized phase III study of abemaciclib or placebo plus a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor in 493 postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer who had no prior systemic therapy in the advanced setting...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961914/milkweed-matters-monarch-butterfly-lepidoptera-nymphalidae-survival-and-development-on-nine-midwestern-milkweed-species
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
V M Pocius, D M Debinski, J M Pleasants, K G Bidne, R L Hellmich, L P Brower
The population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline over the past 20 yr. In order to increase monarch numbers in the breeding range, habitat restoration that includes planting milkweed plants is essential. Milkweeds in the genus Asclepias and Cynanchum are the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies in North America, but larval performance and survival across nine milkweeds native to the Midwest is not well documented. We examined development and survival of monarchs from first-instar larval stages to adulthood on nine milkweed species native to Iowa...
October 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961403/the-z-chromosome-is-enriched-for-sperm-proteins-in-two-divergent-species-of-lepidoptera
#15
Andrew J Mongue, James Walters
Genes that promote sexual conflict, such as those with a sex-limited fitness benefit, are expected to accumulate differentially on sex chromosomes relative to autosomes. Few tests of this hypothesis exist for male homogametic (ZZ) taxa, however, and most use RNA expression data to identify such genes. Here, we employ a different identification method by using proteomic analysis of sperm cells to identify genes with a sex-limited benefit. We tested for a bias in genomic location of sperm protein genes in two species of Lepidoptera...
September 29, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928641/comparison-of-navigation-related-brain-regions-in-migratory-versus-non-migratory-noctuid-moths
#16
Liv de Vries, Keram Pfeiffer, Björn Trebels, Andrea K Adden, Ken Green, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923954/macroevolutionary-shifts-of-wnta-function-potentiate-butterfly-wing-pattern-diversity
#17
Anyi Mazo-Vargas, Carolina Concha, Luca Livraghi, Darli Massardo, Richard W R Wallbank, Linlin Zhang, Joseph D Papador, Daniel Martinez-Najera, Chris D Jiggins, Marcus R Kronforst, Casper J Breuker, Robert D Reed, Nipam H Patel, W Owen McMillan, Arnaud Martin
Butterfly wing patterns provide a rich comparative framework to study how morphological complexity develops and evolves. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 somatic mutagenesis to test a patterning role for WntA, a signaling ligand gene previously identified as a hotspot of shape-tuning alleles involved in wing mimicry. We show that WntA loss-of-function causes multiple modifications of pattern elements in seven nymphalid butterfly species. In three butterflies with a conserved wing-pattern arrangement, WntA is necessary for the induction of stripe-like patterns known as symmetry systems and acquired a novel eyespot activator role specific to Vanessa forewings...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886032/emergence-phenology-uncertainty-and-the-evolution-of-migratory-behavior-in-anax-junius-odonata-aeshnidae
#18
Michael L May, John A Gregoire, Suzanne M Gregoire, Maria Aliberti Lubertazzi, John H Matthews
Mass migrations by Odonata, although less studied than those of Monarch butterflies and plague locusts, have provoked comment and study for many years. Relatively recently, increasing interest in dragonflies, supported by new technologies, has resulted in more detailed knowledge of the species involved, behavioral mechanisms, and geographic extent. In this paper we examine, in four independent but complementary studies, how larval habitat and emergence phenology interact with climate to shape the evolution of migratory strategy in Anax junius, a common species throughout much of the eastern United States and southern Canada...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839116/neo-sex-chromosomes-in-the-monarch-butterfly-danaus-plexippus
#19
Andrew J Mongue, Petr Nguyen, Anna Voleníková, James R Walters
We report the discovery of a neo-sex chromosome in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, and several of its close relatives. Z-linked scaffolds in the D. plexippus genome assembly were identified via sex-specific differences in Illumina sequencing coverage. Additionally, a majority of the D. plexippus genome assembly was assigned to chromosomes based on counts of one-to-one orthologs relative to the butterfly Melitaea cinxia (with replication using two other lepidopteran species), in which genome scaffolds have been mapped to linkage groups...
October 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831003/vertebrate-like-cryptochrome-2-from-monarch-regulates-circadian-transcription-via-independent-repression-of-clock-and-bmal1-activity
#20
Ying Zhang, Matthew J Markert, Shayna C Groves, Paul E Hardin, Christine Merlin
Circadian repression of CLOCK-BMAL1 by PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) in mammals lies at the core of the circadian timekeeping mechanism. CRY repression of CLOCK-BMAL1 and regulation of circadian period are proposed to rely primarily on competition for binding with coactivators on an α-helix located within the transactivation domain (TAD) of the BMAL1 C terminus. This model has, however, not been tested in vivo. Here, we applied CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), which possesses a vertebrate-like CRY (dpCRY2) and an ortholog of BMAL1, to show that insect CRY2 regulates circadian repression through TAD α-helix-dependent and -independent mechanisms...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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