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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708851/interpreting-surveys-to-estimate-the-size-of-the-monarch-butterfly-population-pitfalls-and-prospects
#1
John M Pleasants, Myron P Zalucki, Karen S Oberhauser, Lincoln P Brower, Orley R Taylor, Wayne E Thogmartin
To assess the change in the size of the eastern North American monarch butterfly summer population, studies have used long-term data sets of counts of adult butterflies or eggs per milkweed stem. Despite the observed decline in the monarch population as measured at overwintering sites in Mexico, these studies found no decline in summer counts in the Midwest, the core of the summer breeding range, leading to a suggestion that the cause of the monarch population decline is not the loss of Midwest agricultural milkweeds but increased mortality during the fall migration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672808/ecosystem-based-incorporation-of-nectar-producing-plants-for-stink-bug-parasitoids
#2
REVIEW
Glynn Tillman
Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems...
June 24, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657360/a-current-and-comprehensive-review-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-%C3%A4-nhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-breast-cancer
#3
Burak Bilgin, Mehmet An Sendur, Didem Şener Dede, Muhammed Bülent Akıncı, Bülent Yalçın
BACKGROUND: Resistance to endocrine treatment generally occurs over time, especially in the metastatic stage. In this paper, we aimed to review the mechanisms of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 inhibition and clinical usage of new agents in the light of recent literature updates. SCOPE: A literature search was carried out using PubMed, Medline and ASCO and ESMO annual-meeting abstracts by using the following search keywords; "palbociclib", "abemaciclib", "ribociclib", "cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors" and "CDK 4/6" in metastatic breast cancer (MBC)...
June 28, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580882/monarch-2-abemaciclib-in-combination-with-fulvestrant-in-women-with-hr-her2-advanced-breast-cancer-who-had-progressed-while-receiving-endocrine-therapy
#4
George W Sledge, Masakazu Toi, Patrick Neven, Joohyuk Sohn, Kenichi Inoue, Xavier Pivot, Olga Burdaeva, Meena Okera, Norikazu Masuda, Peter A Kaufman, Han Koh, Eva-Maria Grischke, Martin Frenzel, Yong Lin, Susana Barriga, Ian C Smith, Nawel Bourayou, Antonio Llombart-Cussac
Purpose MONARCH 2 ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02107703) compared the efficacy and safety of abemaciclib, a selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor, plus fulvestrant with fulvestrant alone in patients with advanced breast cancer (ABC). Patients and Methods MONARCH 2 was a global, double-blind, phase III study of women with hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative ABC who had progressed while receiving neoadjuvant or adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET), ≤ 12 months from the end of adjuvant ET, or while receiving first-line ET for metastatic disease...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533223/monarch-1-a-phase-2-study-of-abemaciclib-a-cdk4-and-cdk6-inhibitor-as-a-single-agent-in-patients-with-refractory-hr-her2-metastatic-breast-cancer
#5
Maura N Dickler, Sara Tolaney, Hope S Rugo, Javier Cortés, Veronique Dieras, Debra A Patt, Hans Wildiers, Clifford A Hudis, Joyce A O'Shaughnessy, Esther Zamora, Denise Yardley, Martin Frenzel, Andrew G Koustenis, José Baselga
<br />The phase 2 MONARCH 1 study was designed to evaluate the single-agent activity and adverse event (AE) profile of abemaciclib, a selective inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, in women with refractory hormone receptor positive (HR+), HER2- metastatic breast cancer (MBC). <br /><br />Experimental Design: <br />MONARCH 1 was a phase 2 single arm open-label study. Women with HR+/HER2- MBC who had progressed on or after prior endocrine therapy and had 1 or 2 chemotherapy regimens in the metastatic setting were eligible...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514934/a-hypothesis-king-henry-viii-s-1491-1547-personality-change-a-case-of-lead-poisoning
#6
Anne Charlton
Henry VIII (1491-1547) became King of England in 1509. He started out as a good monarch, sensible, reasonable and pleasant, but later his behaviour changed drastically. He became irascible, intolerant, violent and tyrannical. In January 1536, Henry had a serious jousting accident and was unconscious for 2 h. It is generally believed that this accident played a major role in his personality change. Letters of that time, however, indicate that the change began insidiously in 1534 and became most drastic in 1535, a year before the accident...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462031/density-estimates-of-monarch-butterflies-overwintering-in-central-mexico
#7
Wayne E Thogmartin, Jay E Diffendorfer, Laura López-Hoffman, Karen Oberhauser, John Pleasants, Brice X Semmens, Darius Semmens, Orley R Taylor, Ruscena Wiederholt
Given the rapid population decline and recent petition for listing of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) under the Endangered Species Act, an accurate estimate of the Eastern, migratory population size is needed. Because of difficulty in counting individual monarchs, the number of hectares occupied by monarchs in the overwintering area is commonly used as a proxy for population size, which is then multiplied by the density of individuals per hectare to estimate population size. There is, however, considerable variation in published estimates of overwintering density, ranging from 6...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438691/niche-separation-in-flycatcher-like-species-in-the-lowland-rainforests-of-malaysia
#8
Mohammad Saiful Mansor, Rosli Ramli
Niche theory suggests that sympatric species reduce interspecific competition through segregation of shared resources by adopting different attack manoeuvres. However, the fact that flycatcher-like bird species exclusively use the sally manoeuvre may thus challenge this view. We studied the foraging ecology of three flycatcher-like species (i.e. Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone sp., Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea, and Rufous-winged Philentoma Philentoma pyrhoptera) in the Krau Wildlife Reserve in central Peninsular Malaysia...
April 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417003/migration-distance-as-a-selective-episode-for-wing-morphology-in-a-migratory-insect
#9
D T Tyler Flockhart, Blair Fitz-Gerald, Lincoln P Brower, Rachael Derbyshire, Sonia Altizer, Keith A Hobson, Leonard I Wassenaar, D Ryan Norris
BACKGROUND: Selective pressures that occur during long-distance migration can influence morphological traits across a range of taxa. In flying insects, selection should favour individuals that have wing morphologies that increase energy efficiency and survival. In monarch butterflies, differences in wing morphology between migratory and resident populations suggest that migratory populations have undergone selection for larger (as measured by length and area) and more elongated (as measured by roundness and aspect ratio) forewings...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335445/deciphering-egyptian-hieroglyphs-towards-a-new-strategy-for-navigation-in-museums
#10
Jaime Duque-Domingo, Pedro Javier Herrera, Enrique Valero, Carlos Cerrada
This work presents a novel strategy to decipher fragments of Egyptian cartouches identifying the hieroglyphs of which they are composed. A cartouche is a drawing, usually inside an oval, that encloses a group of hieroglyphs representing the name of a monarch. Aiming to identify these drawings, the proposed method is based on several techniques frequently used in computer vision and consists of three main stages: first, a picture of the cartouche is taken as input and its contour is localized. In the second stage, each hieroglyph is individually extracted and identified...
March 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334410/pretty-picky-for-a-generalist-impacts-of-toxicity-and-nutritional-quality-on-mantid-prey-processing
#11
Jamie L Rafter, Justin F Vendettuoli, Liahna Gonda-King, Daniel Niesen, Navindra P Seeram, Chad M Rigsby, Evan L Preisser
Prey have evolved a number of defenses against predation, and predators have developed means of countering these protective measures. Although caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L., are defended by cardenolides sequestered from their host plants, the Chinese mantid Tenodera sinensis Saussure guts the caterpillar before consuming the rest of the body. We hypothesized that this gutting behavior might be driven by the heterogeneous quality of prey tissue with respect to toxicity and/or nutrients...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323544/host-diet-affects-the-morphology-of-monarch-butterfly-parasites
#12
Kevin Hoang, Leiling Tao, Mark D Hunter, Jacobus C de Roode
Understanding host-parasite interactions is essential for ecological research, wildlife conservation, and health management. While most studies focus on numerical traits of parasite groups, such as changes in parasite load, less focus is placed on the traits of individual parasites such as parasite size and shape (parasite morphology). Parasite morphology has significant effects on parasite fitness such as initial colonization of hosts, avoidance of host immune defenses, and the availability of resources for parasite replication...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300580/feeding-on-toxic-prey-the-praying-mantis-mantodea-as-predator-of-poisonous-butterfly-and-moth-lepidoptera-caterpillars
#13
Dietrich Mebs, Cora Wunder, Werner Pogoda, Stefan W Toennes
Caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, feed on milkweed plants, Asclepias spp. (Apocynaceae), and sequester their toxic cardenolides aimed at deterring predators. Nevertheless, Chinese praying mantids, Tenodera sinensis, consume these caterpillars after removing the midgut ("gutting") including its plant content. In the present study, monarch caterpillars raised on A. curassavica, and those of the death's-head hawkmoth, Acherontia atropos, raised on Atropa belladonna containing atropine, were fed to mantids, Hierodula membranacea, which removed the gut of both species discarding about 59% of cardenolides and more than 90% of atropine, respectively...
March 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275381/dietary-risk-assessment-of-v-atpase-a-dsrnas-on-monarch-butterfly-larvae
#14
Huipeng Pan, Xiaowei Yang, Keith Bidne, Richard L Hellmich, Blair D Siegfried, Xuguo Zhou
By suppressing the expression of genes with essential biological functions, in planta RNAi can negatively affect the development and survival of target pests. As a part of a concerted effort to assess the risks of RNAi transgenic crops on non-target organisms, we developed an in vivo toxicity assay to examine the impacts of ingested dsRNAs incurred to the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), an iconic eco-indicator in North America. To create the worst case scenario, the full-length v-ATPase A cDNAs from the target pest, western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and the non-target D...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218646/impact-of-consuming-toxic-monarch-caterpillars-on-adult-chinese-mantid-mass-gain-and-fecundity
#15
Jamie L Rafter, Liahna Gonda-King, Daniel Niesen, Navindra P Seeram, Chad M Rigsby, Evan L Preisser
Predators that feed on chemically-defended prey often experience non-lethal effects that result in learned avoidance of the prey species. Some predators are able to consume toxic prey without ill-effect. The Chinese mantid is able to consume cardenolide-containing monarch caterpillars without immediate adverse effects. Although they discard the caterpillars' gut contents, mantids consume sequestered cardenolides. Although consumption of these cardenolides does not elicit an acute response, there may be long-term costs associated with cardenolide consumption...
February 17, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101270/using-online-active-learning-techniques-to-convey-time-compensated-sun-compass-orientation-in-the-eastern-north-american-monarch
#16
Noah H Green, Douglas G McMahon, Cynthia Brame
A common tool that animals use to navigate in a constant direction is known as "time compensated sun compass orientation." This is a process by which animals use the position of the sun along with information from their internal circadian clocks to determine and maintain a directional heading. Many circadian scientists and educators use this process as an example of how the internal circadian clock can directly influence animal behavior. However, many students have difficulty grasping this biological process due to its multivariable nature...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099501/environmental-persistence-influences-infection-dynamics-for-a-butterfly-pathogen
#17
Dara A Satterfield, Sonia Altizer, Mary-Kate Williams, Richard J Hall
Many pathogens, including those infecting insects, are transmitted via dormant stages shed into the environment, where they must persist until encountering a susceptible host. Understanding how abiotic conditions influence environmental persistence and how these factors influence pathogen spread are crucial for predicting patterns of infection risk. Here, we explored the consequences of environmental transmission for infection dynamics of a debilitating protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) that infects monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053160/the-24th-annual-nucleic-acids-research-database-issue-a-look-back-and-upcoming-changes
#18
Michael Y Galperin, Xosé M Fernández-Suárez, Daniel J Rigden
This year's Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research contains 152 papers that include descriptions of 54 new databases and update papers on 98 databases, of which 16 have not been previously featured in NAR As always, these databases cover a broad range of molecular biology subjects, including genome structure, gene expression and its regulation, proteins, protein domains, and protein-protein interactions. Following the recent trend, an increasing number of new and established databases deal with the issues of human health, from cancer-causing mutations to drugs and drug targets...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045226/regional-climate-on-the-breeding-grounds-predicts-variation-in-the-natal-origin-of-monarch-butterflies-overwintering-in-mexico-over-38%C3%A2-years
#19
D T Tyler Flockhart, Lincoln P Brower, M Isabel Ramirez, Keith A Hobson, Leonard I Wassenaar, Sonia Altizer, D Ryan Norris
Addressing population declines of migratory insects requires linking populations across different portions of the annual cycle and understanding the effects of variation in weather and climate on productivity, recruitment, and patterns of long-distance movement. We used stable H and C isotopes and geospatial modeling to estimate the natal origin of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America using over 1000 monarchs collected over almost four decades at Mexican overwintering colonies. Multinomial regression was used to ascertain which climate-related factors best-predicted temporal variation in natal origin across six breeding regions...
January 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007114/in%C3%A2-vitro-delivery-performance-assessment-of-a-new-preloaded-intraocular-lens-delivery-system
#20
Lixin Wang, Patricia Wolfe, Alexis Chernosky, Sumit Paliwal, Khiun Tjia, Stephen Lane
PURPOSE: To compare the delivery performance of a new preloaded intraocular lens (IOL) delivery system (Ultrasert [system U]) with that of 2 commercially available preloaded systems (iSert [system S] and Tecnis iTec [system T]), and a manual system (Monarch III D). SETTING: Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Freshly excised porcine eyes were randomly assigned to 5 groups of 10 eyes each as follows: preloaded systems U, S, T 2...
December 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
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