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Luca Antonio Dimuccio, Nelson Rodrigues, Felice Larocca, João Pratas, Ana Margarida Amado, Luís A E Batista de Carvalho
This study examines the geochemical and mineralogical variations in the ferruginous mineralisations that crop out within Grotta della Monaca, which is considered to be the most striking and best known example of a prehistoric iron mine-cave from the southern Apennines (Calabria, Italy). Previous archaeological research identified three local and distinct ancient exploitation phases of these ferruginous mineralisations: (1) an Upper Palaeolithic phase; (2) a Late Neolithic phase; and (3) a post-Medieval phase...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Yuanyao Ye, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Yiwen Liu, Jixiang Li, Yi Liu, Xinbo Zhang, Hui Jia
Phosphate plays an irreplaceable role in the production of fertilizers. However, its finite availability may not be enough to satisfy increasing demands for the fertilizer production worldwide. In this scenario, phosphate recovery can effectively alleviate this problem. Municipal wastewater has received high priority to recover phosphate because its quantity is considerable. Therefore, phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater can bring many benefits such as relieving the burden of increasing production of fertilizers and reduction in occurrence of eutrophication caused by the excessive concentration of phosphate in the released effluent...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Peter Olsén, Jenny Undin, Karin Odelius, Helmut Keul, Ann-Christine Albertsson
Full control over the ceiling temperature (Tc) enables a selective transition between the monomeric and polymeric state. This is exemplified by the conversion of the monomer 2-allyloxymethyl-2-ethyl-trimethylene carbonate (AOMEC) to poly(AOMEC) and back to AOMEC within 10 h by controlling the reaction from conditions that favor ring-opening polymerization (Tc > T0) (where T0 is the reaction temperature) to conditions that favor ring-closing depolymerization (Tc < T0). The ring-closing depolymerization (RCDP) mirrors the polymerization behavior, with a clear relation between the monomer concentration and the molecular weight of the polymer, indicating that RCDP occurs at the chain end...
October 26, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Nataliya Taran, Ludmila Batsmanova, Oksana Kosyk, Oleksandr Smirnov, Mariia Kovalenko, Liubov Honchar, Alexander Okanenko
The use of colloidal solutions of metals as micronutrients enhances plant resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions and ensures high yields of food crops. The purpose of the study was a comparative evaluation of presowing treatment with nanomolybdenum and microbiological preparation impact upon the development of adaptive responses in chickpea plants. Oxidative processes did not develop in all variants of the experiment but in variants treated with microbial preparation, and joint action of microbial and nanopreparations even declined, as evidenced by the reduction of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in photosynthetic tissues by 15 %...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Yuwen Wang, Chao Xu, Kang Li, Xiaojie Cai, Min Wu, Guoxiang Chen
Iron deficiency is an important abiotic stress that limits productivity of crops all over the world. We selected a hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), LYPJ, which is super high-yield and widely cultured in China, to investigate changes in the components and structure of thylakoid membranes and photosynthetic performance in response to iron deficiency. Our results demonstrated that photosystem I (PSI) is the primary target for iron deficiency, while the changes in photosystem II (PSII) are important for rebuilding a balance in disrupted energy utilization and dissipation caused by differential degradation of photosynthetic components...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Moses Abiala, John Olayiwola, Oluwatoyin Babatunde, Olapeju Aiyelaagbe, Sunday Akinyemi
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts were evaluated on poultry bacteria known to be threatening public health. This is to develop better bio-therapeutic agents from plant origin. METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from water, feed, crop, gizzard and faeces of layer chicken. Isolates of interest (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca) were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility test. Resistant strains were further evaluated against different plant extracts in comparison to Meropenem (control) using agar diffusion method...
October 26, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Hanwool Park, Choul-Gyun Lee
Microalgae have long been considered as one of most promising feedstocks with better characteristics for biofuels production over conventional energy crops. There have been a wide range of estimations on the feasibility of microalgal biofuels based on various productivity assumptions and data from different scales. The theoretical maximum algal biofuel productivity, however, can be calculated by the amount of solar irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency (PE), assuming other conditions are within the optimal range...
October 26, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Patrick M Shih, Khanh Vuu, Nasim Mansoori, Leïla Ayad, Katherine B Louie, Benjamin P Bowen, Trent R Northen, Dominique Loqué
The advent and growth of synthetic biology has demonstrated its potential as a promising avenue of research to address many societal needs. However, plant synthetic biology efforts have been hampered by a dearth of DNA part libraries, versatile transformation vectors and efficient assembly strategies. Here, we describe a versatile system (named jStack) utilizing yeast homologous recombination to efficiently assemble DNA into plant transformation vectors. We demonstrate how this method can facilitate pathway engineering of molecules of pharmaceutical interest, production of potential biofuels and shuffling of disease-resistance traits between crop species...
October 26, 2016: Nature Communications
P Campagne, C Capdevielle-Dulac, R Pasquet, S J Cornell, M Kruger, J-F Silvain, B LeRü, J Van den Berg
Since transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins were first released, resistance evolution leading to failure in control of pests populations has been observed in a number of species. Field resistance of the moth Busseola fusca was acknowledged 8 years after Bt maize was introduced in South Africa. Since then, field resistance of this corn borer has been observed at several locations, raising questions about the nature, distribution and dynamics of the resistance trait. Using genetic markers, our study identified four outlier loci clearly associated with resistance...
October 26, 2016: Heredity
Jianfeng Zhang, Jinyang Hu, Lvwen Huang, Zhiyong Zhang, Yimian Ma
Precision agriculture is the trend of modern agriculture, and it is also one of the important ways to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. In order to meet the production requirements of precision agriculture-efficient use of agricultural resources, and improving the crop yields and quality-some necessary field information in crop growth environment needs to be collected and monitored. In this paper, a farmland information collection system is developed, which includes a portable farmland information collection device based on STM32 (a 32-bit comprehensive range of microcontrollers based on ARM Crotex-M3), a remote server and a mobile phone APP...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
Victoria M Pearson, S Brian Caudle, Darin R Rokyta
Understanding the structure and dynamics of microbial communities, especially those of economic concern, is of paramount importance to maintaining healthy and efficient microbial communities at agricultural sites and large industrial cultures, including bioprocessors. Wastewater treatment plants are large bioprocessors which receive water from multiple sources, becoming reservoirs for the collection of many viral families that infect a broad range of hosts. To examine this complex collection of viruses, full-length genomes of circular ssDNA viruses were isolated from a wastewater treatment facility using a combination of sucrose-gradient size selection and rolling-circle amplification and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq...
2016: PeerJ
Jonathan B Shurin, Michael D Burkart, Stephen P Mayfield, Val H Smith
Modern society is fueled by fossil energy produced millions of years ago by photosynthetic organisms. Cultivating contemporary photosynthetic producers to generate energy and capture carbon from the atmosphere is one potential approach to sustaining society without disrupting the climate. Algae, photosynthetic aquatic microorganisms, are the fastest growing primary producers in the world and can therefore produce more energy with less land, water, and nutrients than terrestrial plant crops. We review recent progress and challenges in developing bioenergy technology based on algae...
2016: F1000Research
Iara P Calil, Elizabeth P B Fontes
BACKGROUND: Among the environmental limitations that affect plant growth, viruses cause major crop losses worldwide and represent serious threats to food security. Significant advances in the field of plant-virus interactions have led to an expansion of potential strategies for genetically engineered resistance in crops during recent years. Nevertheless, the evolution of viral virulence represents a constant challenge in agriculture that has led to a continuing interest in the molecular mechanisms of plant-virus interactions that affect disease or resistance...
October 24, 2016: Annals of Botany
Ghazala Mustafa, Setsuko Komatsu
Rapid developments in nanotechnology have led to the increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the agricultural sector. To investigate the possible interactions between NPs and crops under flooding stress, the molecular mechanisms in soybean affected by exposure to various sizes of Al2O3 NPs were analyzed using a proteomic technique. In plants exposed to 30-60 nm Al2O3 NPs, the length of root including hypocotyl was increased and proteins related to glycolysis were suppressed. Exposure to 30-60 nm Al2O3 NPs mediated the scavenging activity of cells by regulating the ascorbate/glutathione pathway...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Luciano Rogério Braatz de Andrade, Roberto Fritsche Neto, Ítalo Stefanine Correia Granato, Gustavo César Sant'Ana, Pedro Patric Pinho Morais, Aluízio Borém
A few breeding companies dominate the maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid market in Brazil: Monsanto® (35%), DuPont Pioneer® (30%), Dow Agrosciences® (15%), Syngenta® (10%) and Helix Sementes (4%). Therefore, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity in commercial germplasms as breeding practices, registration and marketing of new cultivars can lead to a significant reduction of the genetic diversity. Reduced genetic variation may lead to crop vulnerabilities, food insecurity and limited genetic gains following selection...
2016: PloS One
Catherine Jumarie, Philippe Aras, Monique Boily
The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. In previous studies we investigated the effects of environmentally relevant doses of herbicides and metals, each individually, on caged honey bees...
October 22, 2016: Chemosphere
Abdelilah El-Abbassi, Nabila Saadaoui, Hajar Kiai, Jihane Raiti, Abdellatif Hafidi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Marta W Vasconcelos, Wilhelm Gruissem, Navreet K Bhullar
Plant-based foods offer a wide range of nutrients that are essential for human and animal health. Among these nutrients, iron stands out as one of the most important micronutrients. Increasing the iron content in many staple and non-staple plant foods continues to be a goal of many scientists around the world. However, the success of such initiatives has sometimes fallen short of their expected targets. In this review we highlight the most recent and promising results that have contributed to increasing the iron content in different crops...
October 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Mark Hoppé, Ottmar F Hueter, Andy Bywater, Philip Wege, Peter Maienfisch
Malaria is a vector-borne and life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The vector control insecticide market represents a small fraction of the crop protection market and is estimated to be valued at up to $500 million at the active ingredient level. Insecticide resistance towards the current WHOPES-approved products urgently requires the development of new tools to protect communities against the transmission of malaria...
October 2016: Chimia
Aleksandar Ž Kostić, Lazar M Kaluđerović, Biljana P Dojčinović, Miroljub B Barać, Vojka B Babić, Marina P Mačukanović-Jocić
BACKGROUND: Bee pollen has already proved to be a good supplement rich in content of iron and zinc. Studies about application of flower pollen in food industry and medicine have been started. Bearing in mind prevalence of maize as crop culture its pollen will be easily available. The mineral composition of pollen of seven Serbian maize hybrids was analyzed in order to establish its nutritional value and benefits of its implementation in the human diet using ICP method. RESULTS: Presence of twenty four different macro- (nine) and micronutrients (fifteen) was detected...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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