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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775862/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-max2-ortholog-from-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l
#1
Tingting Cheng, Donghua Wang, Yongfeng Wang, Shumeng Zhang, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi, Fengli Sun
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a sustainable cellulosic energy crop with high biomass yield on marginal soils. Tillering, an important agronomic characteristic related to biomass production in gramineous plants, is regulated by complex interacting factors, such as plant hormones. Strigolactones (SLs) comprise a novel class of plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching. The MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2)/DWARF 3 (D3)/RAMOSUS (RMS4) genes encode proteins involved in the SL signaling pathway in various plants...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775722/inflammatory-and-oxidative-mechanisms-potentiate-bifenthrin-induced-neurological-alterations-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-rats
#2
Brahim Gargouri, Harsharan S Bhatia, Michèle Bouchard, Bernd L Fiebich, Hamadi Fetoui
Bifenthrin (BF) is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide widely used in several countries to manage insect pests on diverse agricultural crops. Growing evidence indicates that BF exposure is associated with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanisms by which BF induces neurological and anxiety alterations in the frontal cortex and striatum are not well known. The present in vivo study was carried out to determine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation are involved in such alterations...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775612/crystal-structure-of-wa352-provides-insight-into-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-rice
#3
Xiang Wang, Zeyuan Guan, Zhou Gong, Junjie Yan, Guangsheng Yang, Yao-Guang Liu, Ping Yin
Plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important phenomenon and is widely utilized in hybrid crop breeding. The Wild Abortive CMS (CMS-WA), a well-known CMS type, has been successfully applied in the commercial production of hybrid rice seeds for more than 40 years. The CMS-WA causal gene WA352 encodes a novel transmenbrane protein and the interacts with the mitochondrial copper chaperone COX11, triggering reactive oxygen species production and resulting in male sterility in CMS-WA lines. However, the structure of WA352 is currently unknown, and the structural mechanism whereby WA352 perturbs COX11 function to cause CMS remains largely unknown...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775568/neonicotinoids-decrease-sucrose-responsiveness-of-honey-bees-at-first-contact
#4
Fabien J Démares, Christian W W Pirk, Susan W Nicolson, Hannelie Human
For two decades, neonicotinoid insecticides have been extensively used worldwide. Targeting neuronal receptors, they have deleterious effects on the behaviour and physiology of many of many beneficial as well as harmful insects. Bees are exposed to these insecticides in pollen and nectar while providing pollination services to agricultural crops, and neonicotinoids have been shown to impair navigation by bees and to decrease their foraging activity. We have previously reported the effect of dietary thiamethoxam on sucrose responsiveness of young worker bees...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775500/endosperm-sugar-accumulation-caused-by-mutation-of-phs8-isa1-leads-to-pre-harvest-sprouting-in-rice
#5
Lin Du, Fan Xu, Jun Fang, Shaopei Gao, Jiuyou Tang, Shuang Fang, Hongru Wang, Hongning Tong, Fengxia Zhang, Jinfang Chu, Guodong Wang, Chengcai Chu
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is an unfavorable trait in cereal crops which could seriously decrease grain yield and quality. Although some PHS-associated quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes in cereals have been reported, the molecular mechanism underlying PHS remains largely elusive. Here, we characterized a rice mutant, phs8, which exhibits PHS phenotype accompanied by sugary endosperm. Map-based cloning revealed that PHS8 encodes a starch debranching enzyme named isoamylase1. Mutation in PHS8 resulted in the phytoglycogen breakdown and sugar accumulation in the endosperm...
May 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775492/a-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-phosphatase-influences-grain-size-and-weight-in-rice
#6
Ran Xu, Haiyue Yu, Junmin Wang, Penggen Duan, Baolan Zhang, Jing Li, Yu Li, Jinsong Xu, Jia Lyu, Na Li, Tuanyao Chai, Yunhai Li
Grain size and weight are directly associated with grain yield in crops. However, the molecular mechanisms that set final grain size and weight remain largely unknown. Here, we characterize two large grain mutants, large grain8-1 (large8-1) and large grain8-2 (large8-2). LARGE8 encodes the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase1 (OsMKP1). Loss of function mutations in OsMKP1 results in large grains, while overexpression of OsMKP1 leads to small grains. OsMKP1 determines grain size by restricting cell proliferation in grain hulls...
May 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775469/pioneer-farming-in-southeast-europe-during-the-early-sixth-millennium-bc-climate-related-adaptations-in-the-exploitation-of-plants-and-animals
#7
Maria Ivanova, Bea De Cupere, Jonathan Ethier, Elena Marinova
The Old World farming system arose in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments of southwest Asia. Pioneer farmers settling the interior of the Balkans by the early sixth millennium BC were among the first to introduce southwest Asian-style cultivation and herding into areas with increasingly continental temperate conditions. Previous research has shown that the bioarchaeological assemblages from early farming sites in southeast Europe vary in their proportions of plant and animal taxa, but the relationship between taxonomic variation and climate has remained poorly understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774952/plant-roots-redesign-the-rhizosphere-to-alter-the-three-dimensional-physical-architecture-and-water-dynamics
#8
Sheikh M F Rabbi, Matthew K Tighe, Richard J Flavel, Brent N Kaiser, Chris N Guppy, Xiaoxian Zhang, Iain M Young
The mechanisms controlling the genesis of rhizosheaths are not well understood, despite their importance in controlling the flux of nutrients and water from soil to root. Here, we examine the development of rhizosheaths from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive chickpea varieties; focusing on the three-dimensional characterization of the pore volume (> 16 μm voxel spatial resolution) obtained from X-ray microtomography, along with the characterization of mucilage and root hairs, and water sorption. We observe that drought-tolerant plants generate a larger diameter root, and a greater and more porous mass of rhizosheath, which also has a significantly increased water sorptivity, as compared with bulk soil...
May 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774556/physiological-response-of-tomatoes-at-drought-heat-and-their-combination-followed-by-recovery
#9
Rong Zhou, Lingpeng Kong, Zhen Wu, Eva Rosenqvist, Yinlei Wang, Liping Zhao, Tongmin Zhao, Carl-Otto Ottosen
In nature, crops encounter a combination of abiotic stresses that severely limit yield. Our aim was to dynamically expose the changes of tomatoes' physiological parameters to drought, heat and their combination and thereby clarify the relationship between the responses to single and combined stress. We studied the effect of single and combined drought and heat stresses on the shoot and root of two tomato cultivars (Sufen No.14 as CV1; Jinlingmeiyu as CV2). After being exposed to combined stress for six days, the dry weight of shoot and root significantly decreased...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774547/petunia-as-model-for-elucidating-adventitious-root-formation-and-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-at-the-nexus-of-physiology-genetics-microbiology-and-horticulture
#10
Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken
Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774513/coordinated-effects-of-lead-toxicity-and-nutrient-deprivation-on-growth-oxidative-status-and-elemental-composition-of-primed-and-non-primed-rice-seedlings
#11
Fahad Khan, Saddam Hussain, Mohsin Tanveer, Sehrish Khan, Hafiz Athar Hussain, Biland Iqbal, Mingjian Geng
Rice crop is highly susceptible to the toxic levels of lead (Pb) during early growth stages. Moreover, a sufficient availability of mineral nutrients is critical for survival of plants particularly under stressful conditions. An experiment was carried out to unravel the coordinated effects of Pb stress (1-mM PbCl2 ) and different nutrient treatments (sufficient nutrient supply, nitrogen (N) deprivation, phosphorus (P) deprivation, and potassium (K) deprivation) on morphological growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidants, and nutrient status in primed and non-primed rice seedlings...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774047/genome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-the-peanut-b-genome-progenitor-arachis-ipaensis
#12
Qing Lu, Haifen Li, Yanbin Hong, Guoqiang Zhang, Shijie Wen, Xingyu Li, Guiyuan Zhou, Shaoxiong Li, Hao Liu, Haiyan Liu, Zhongjian Liu, Rajeev K Varshney, Xiaoping Chen, Xuanqiang Liang
Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.), an important leguminous crop, is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. Peanut is an allotetraploid, having A and B subgenomes that maybe have originated in its diploid progenitors Arachis duranensis (A-genome) and Arachis ipaensis (B-genome), respectively. We previously sequenced the former and here present the draft genome of the latter, expanding our knowledge of the unique biology of Arachis . The assembled genome of A. ipaensis is ~1.39 Gb with 39,704 predicted protein-encoding genes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774036/the-pattern-and-distribution-of-induced-mutations-in-j-curcas-using-reduced-representation-sequencing
#13
Fatemeh Maghuly, Stephan Pabinger, Julie Krainer, Margit Laimer
Mutagenesis in combination with Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) is a powerful tool for introducing variation, studying gene function and identifying causal mutations underlying phenotypes of interest in crop plant genomes. About 400 million paired-end reads were obtained from 82 ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) induced mutants and 14 wild-type accessions of Jatropha curcas for the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Insertion/Deletions (InDels) by two different approaches (nGBS and ddGBS) on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773992/functional-analysis-of-rna-interference-related-soybean-pod-borer-lepidoptera-genes-based-on-transcriptome-sequences
#14
Fanli Meng, Mingyu Yang, Yang Li, Tianyu Li, Xinxin Liu, Guoyue Wang, Zhanchun Wang, Xianhao Jin, Wenbin Li
RNA interference (RNAi) is useful for controlling pests of agriculturally important crops. The soybean pod borer (SPB) is the most important soybean pest in Northeastern Asia. In an earlier study, we confirmed that the SPB could be controlled via transgenic plant-mediated RNAi. Here, the SPB transcriptome was sequenced to identify RNAi-related genes, and also to establish an RNAi-of-RNAi assay system for evaluating genes involved in the SPB systemic RNAi response. The core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) uptake were identified based on SPB transcriptome sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773873/therapeutic-nanoparticles-penetrate-leaves-and-deliver-nutrients-to-agricultural-crops
#15
Avishai Karny, Assaf Zinger, Ashima Kajal, Janna Shainsky-Roitman, Avi Schroeder
As the world population grows, there is a need for efficient agricultural technologies to provide global food requirements and reduce environmental toll. In medicine, nanoscale drug delivery systems grant improved therapeutic precision by overcoming biological barriers and enhancing drug targeting to diseased tissues. Here, we loaded nanoscale drug-delivery systems with agricultural nutrients, and applied them to the leaves of tomato plants. We show that the nanoparticles - liposomes composed of plant-derived lipids, penetrate the leaf and translocate in a bidirectional manner, distributing to other leaves and to the roots...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773744/worldwide-emergence-of-resistance-to-antifungal-drugs-challenges-human-health-and-food-security
#16
REVIEW
Matthew C Fisher, Nichola J Hawkins, Dominique Sanglard, Sarah J Gurr
The recent rate of emergence of pathogenic fungi that are resistant to the limited number of commonly used antifungal agents is unprecedented. The azoles, for example, are used not only for human and animal health care and crop protection but also in antifouling coatings and timber preservation. The ubiquity and multiple uses of azoles have hastened the independent evolution of resistance in many environments. One consequence is an increasing risk in human health care from naturally occurring opportunistic fungal pathogens that have acquired resistance to this broad class of chemicals...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772906/visualization-and-semi-quantity-study-of-the-distribution-of-ma-jor-components-in-wheat-straw-in-mesoscopic-scale-using-ftir-microspectroscopic-imaging
#17
Zengling Yang, Jiaqi Mei, Zhiqiang Liu, Guangqun Huang, Guan Huang, Lujia Han
Understanding the biochemical heterogeneity of plant tissue linked to crop straw anatomy is attractive to plant researchers and researchers in the field of biomass-refinery. This study provides an in-situ analysis and semi-quantitative, visualization distributions of major composition distribution in internodal transverse sections of wheat straw based on FTIR microspec-troscopic imaging, with a fast Non-Negativity-Constrained Least Squares (fast NNLS) fitting. The paper investigates changes in biochemical components of tissue during stages of elongation, booting, heading, flowering, grain-filling, milk-ripening, dough, and full-ripening...
May 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772783/atpap2-a-unique-member-of-the-pap-family-functions-in-the-plasma-membrane
#18
Qingqing Sun, Jinyu Li, Wenzhen Cheng, Huihong Guo, Xiaomin Liu, Hongbo Gao
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play various physiological roles in plants. AtPAP2 was previously shown to localize to both chloroplasts and mitochondria and to modulate carbon metabolism in Arabidopsis . Over-expression of AtPAP2 resulted in faster growth and increased biomass in several plant species, indicating its great potential for crop improvement of phosphate use and yield. Here, we studied the localization of AtPAP2 by transient expression in tobacco leaves. The results showed AtPAP2 was localized to the plasma membrane through the secretory pathway, which is different from previous studies...
May 17, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772750/the-late-embryogenesis-abundant-protein-family-in-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz-genome-wide-characterization-and-expression-during-abiotic-stress
#19
Chunlai Wu, Wei Hu, Yan Yan, Weiwei Tie, Zehong Ding, Jianchun Guo, Guangyuan He
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, as a highly diverse group of polypeptides, play an important role in plant adaptation to abiotic stress; however, LEAs from cassava have not been studied in cassava. In this study, 26 LEA members were genome-wide identified from cassava, which were clustered into seven subfamily according to evolutionary relationship, protein motif, and gene structure analyses. Chromosomal location and duplication event analyses suggested that 26 MeLEAs distributed in 10 chromosomes and 11 MeLEA paralogues were subjected to purifying selection...
May 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772666/weed-growth-stage-estimator-using-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#20
Nima Teimouri, Mads Dyrmann, Per Rydahl Nielsen, Solvejg Kopp Mathiassen, Gayle J Somerville, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen
This study outlines a new method of automatically estimating weed species and growth stages (from cotyledon until eight leaves are visible) of in situ images covering 18 weed species or families. Images of weeds growing within a variety of crops were gathered across variable environmental conditions with regards to soil types, resolution and light settings. Then, 9649 of these images were used for training the computer, which automatically divided the weeds into nine growth classes. The performance of this proposed convolutional neural network approach was evaluated on a further set of 2516 images, which also varied in term of crop, soil type, image resolution and light conditions...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
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