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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813093/where-is-sugarcane-cropping-expanding-in-the-brazilian-cerrado-and-why-a-case-study
#1
Murilo R DE Arruda, Ken E Giller, Maja Slingerland
Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to verify this assumption, we investigate at farm and field levels which types of land use sugarcane cropping replaced between 2005 and 2010 and the reasons for farmers shifting or not shifting to sugarcane, as a case study in two counties in the state of Goiás...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811879/growth-and-fecundity-of-fertile-miscanthus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-giganteus-powercane-compared-to-feral-and-ornamental-miscanthus-sinensis-in-a-common-garden-experiment-implications-for-invasion
#2
Maria N Miriti, Tahir Ibrahim, Destiny Palik, Catherine Bonin, Emily Heaton, Evans Mutegi, Allison A Snow
Perennial grasses are promising candidates for bioenergy crops, but species that can escape cultivation and establish self-sustaining naturalized populations (feral) may have the potential to become invasive. Fertile Miscanthus × giganteus, known as "PowerCane," is a new potential biofuel crop. Its parent species are ornamental, non-native Miscanthus species that establish feral populations and are sometimes invasive in the USA. As a first step toward assessing the potential for "PowerCane" to become invasive, we documented its growth and fecundity relative to one of its parent species (Miscanthus sinensis) in competition with native and invasive grasses in common garden experiments located in Columbus, Ohio and Ames, Iowa, within the targeted range of biofuel cultivation...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811756/pseudomonas-oleovorans-strain-kbpf-004-culture-supernatants-reduced-seed-transmission-of-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-and-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-and-remodeled-aggregation-of-126-kda-and-subcellular-localization-of-movement-protein-of-pepper-mild-mottle
#3
Nam-Gyu Kim, Eun-Young Seo, Sang-Hyuk Han, Jun-Su Gong, Cheol-Nam Park, Ho-Seop Park, Leslie L Domier, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
Efforts to control viral diseases in crop production include several types of physical or chemical treatments; antiviral extracts of a number of plants have also been examined to inhibit plant viral infection. However, treatments utilizing naturally selected microorganisms with activity against plant viruses are poorly documented. Here we report isolation of a soil inhabiting bacterium, Pseudomonas oleovorans strain KBPF-004 (developmental code KNF2016) which showed antiviral activity against mechanical transmission of tobamoviruses...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811753/characterization-of-the-rosellinia-necatrix-transcriptome-and-genes-related-to-pathogenesis-by-single-molecule-mrna-sequencing
#4
Hyeongmin Kim, Seung Jae Lee, Ick-Hyun Jo, Jinsu Lee, Wonsil Bae, Hyemin Kim, Kyungho Won, Tae Kyung Hyun, Hojin Ryu
White root rot disease, caused by the pathogen Rosellinia necatrix, is one of the world's most devastating plant fungal diseases and affects several commercially important species of fruit trees and crops. Recent global outbreaks of R. necatrix and advances in molecular techniques have both increased interest in this pathogen. However, the lack of information regarding the genomic structure and transcriptome of R. necatrix has been a barrier to the progress of functional genomic research and the control of this harmful pathogen...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811598/effects-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-megaselia-scalaris-lowe-diptera-phoridae-and-its-microbial-community
#5
Marcus J Pennington, Jason A Rothman, Michael B Jones, Quinn S McFrederick, Jay Gan, John T Trumble
Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811563/crosstalk-between-diurnal-rhythm-and-water-stress-reveals-an-altered-primary-carbon-flux-into-soluble-sugars-in-drought-treated-rice-leaves
#6
Seo-Woo Kim, Sang-Kyu Lee, Hee-Jeong Jeong, Gynheung An, Jong-Seong Jeon, Ki-Hong Jung
Plants retain rhythmic physiological responses when adapting to environmental challenges. However, possible integrations between drought conditions and those responses have not received much focus, especially regarding crop plants, and the relationship between abiotic stress and the diurnal cycle is generally not considered. Therefore, we conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify genes showing both diurnal regulation and water-deficiency response in rice (Oryza sativa). Among the 712 drought-responsive genes primary identified, 56...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811544/mutations-in-the-promoter-intron-and-cds-of-two-fad2-generate-multiple-alleles-modulating-linoleic-acid-level-in-yellow-mustard
#7
Fangqin Zeng, Vicky Roslinsky, Bifang Cheng
Linoleic acid (C18:2) is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid in the seed oil of many crops. Here, we report that mutations in the promoter, intron and CDS of the FAD2 genes SalFAD2.LIA1 and SalFAD2.LIA2 generate three alleles LIA (1a) , LIA (1b) and lia (1) and two alleles LIA (2) and lia (2), respectively, controlling the C18:2 variation (4.4-32.7%) in yellow mustard. The allelic effect on increasing C18:2 content is LIA (1a)  > LIA (1b)  > lia (1) , LIA (2) > lia (2), and LIA (1a)  > LIA (2)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811531/the-selective-antifungal-activity-of-drosophila-melanogaster-metchnikowin-reflects-the-species-dependent-inhibition-of-succinate-coenzyme-q-reductase
#8
Mohammad-Reza Bolouri Moghaddam, Thomas Gross, Annette Becker, Andreas Vilcinskas, Mohammad Rahnamaeian
Insect-derived antifungal peptides have a significant economic potential, particularly for the engineering of pathogen-resistant crops. However, the nonspecific antifungal activity of such peptides could result in detrimental effects against beneficial fungi, whose interactions with plants promote growth or increase resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. The antifungal peptide metchnikowin (Mtk) from Drosophila melanogaster acts selectively against pathogenic Ascomycota, including Fusarium graminearum, without affecting Basidiomycota such as the beneficial symbiont Piriformospora indica...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811511/from-metabolome-to-phenotype-gc-ms-metabolomics-of-developing-mutant-barley-seeds-reveals-effects-of-growth-temperature-and-genotype
#9
Bekzod Khakimov, Morten Arendt Rasmussen, Rubini Maya Kannangara, Birthe Møller Jespersen, Lars Munck, Søren Balling Engelsen
The development of crop varieties tolerant to growth temperature fluctuations and improved nutritional value is crucial due to climate change and global population growth. This study investigated the metabolite patterns of developing barley seed as a function of genotype and growth temperature for ideal vegetable protein production and for augmented β-glucan production. Seeds from three barley lines (Bomi, lys3.a and lys5.f) were sampled eight times during grain filling and analysed for metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811504/complementarity-among-natural-enemies-enhances-pest-suppression
#10
Matteo Dainese, Gudrun Schneider, Jochen Krauss, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Natural enemies have been shown to be effective agents for controlling insect pests in crops. However, it remains unclear how different natural enemy guilds contribute to the regulation of pests and how this might be modulated by landscape context. In a field exclusion experiment in oilseed rape (OSR), we found that parasitoids and ground-dwelling predators acted in a complementary way to suppress pollen beetles, suggesting that pest control by multiple enemies attacking a pest during different periods of its occurrence in the field improves biological control efficacy...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811498/genome-re-sequencing-reveals-the-history-of-apple-and-supports-a-two-stage-model-for-fruit-enlargement
#11
Naibin Duan, Yang Bai, Honghe Sun, Nan Wang, Yumin Ma, Mingjun Li, Xin Wang, Chen Jiao, Noah Legall, Linyong Mao, Sibao Wan, Kun Wang, Tianming He, Shouqian Feng, Zongying Zhang, Zhiquan Mao, Xiang Shen, Xiaoliu Chen, Yuanmao Jiang, Shujing Wu, Chengmiao Yin, Shunfeng Ge, Long Yang, Shenghui Jiang, Haifeng Xu, Jingxuan Liu, Deyun Wang, Changzhi Qu, Yicheng Wang, Weifang Zuo, Li Xiang, Chang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang, Yuan Gao, Yimin Xu, Kenong Xu, Thomas Chao, Gennaro Fazio, Huairui Shu, Gan-Yuan Zhong, Lailiang Cheng, Zhangjun Fei, Xuesen Chen
Human selection has reshaped crop genomes. Here we report an apple genome variation map generated through genome sequencing of 117 diverse accessions. A comprehensive model of apple speciation and domestication along the Silk Road is proposed based on evidence from diverse genomic analyses. Cultivated apples likely originate from Malus sieversii in Kazakhstan, followed by intensive introgressions from M. sylvestris. M. sieversii in Xinjiang of China turns out to be an "ancient" isolated ecotype not directly contributing to apple domestication...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811489/high-temperature-stress-during-flowering-and-grain-filling-offsets-beneficial-impact-of-elevated-co2-on-assimilate-partitioning-and-sink-strength-in-rice
#12
Ashish K Chaturvedi, Rajeev N Bahuguna, Divya Shah, Madan Pal, S V Krishna Jagadish
Elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]) environments have been predicted to improve rice yields under future climate. However, a concomitant rise in temperature could negate e[CO2] impact on plants, presenting a serious challenge for crop improvement. High temperature (HT) stress tolerant NL-44 and high yielding basmati Pusa 1121 rice cultivars, were exposed to e[CO2] (from panicle initiation to maturity) and a combination of e[CO2] + HT (from heading to maturity) using field based open top chambers. Elevated [CO2] significantly increased photosynthesis, seed-set, panicle weight and grain weight across both cultivars, more prominently with Pusa 1121...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811375/temperature-increase-reduces-global-yields-of-major-crops-in-four-independent-estimates
#13
Chuang Zhao, Bing Liu, Shilong Piao, Xuhui Wang, David B Lobell, Yao Huang, Mengtian Huang, Yitong Yao, Simona Bassu, Philippe Ciais, Jean-Louis Durand, Joshua Elliott, Frank Ewert, Ivan A Janssens, Tao Li, Erda Lin, Qiang Liu, Pierre Martre, Christoph Müller, Shushi Peng, Josep Peñuelas, Alex C Ruane, Daniel Wallach, Tao Wang, Donghai Wu, Zhuo Liu, Yan Zhu, Zaichun Zhu, Senthold Asseng
Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Assessing the impact of global temperature increase on production of these crops is therefore critical to maintaining global food supply, but different studies have yielded different results. Here, we investigated the impacts of temperature on yields of the four crops by compiling extensive published results from four analytical methods: global grid-based and local point-based models, statistical regressions, and field-warming experiments...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811335/the-conserved-and-unique-genetic-architecture-of-kernel-size-and-weight-in-maize-and-rice
#14
Jie Liu, Juan Huang, Huan Guo, Liu Lan, Hongze Wang, Yuancheng Xu, Xiaohong Yang, Wenqiang Li, Hao Tong, Yingjie Xiao, Qingchun Pan, Feng Qiao, Mohammad Sharif Raihan, Haijun Liu, Xuehai Zhang, Ning Yang, Xiaqing Wang, Min Deng, Minliang Jin, Lijun Zhao, Xin Luo, Yang Zhou, Xiang Li, Wei Zhan, Nannan Liu, Hong Wang, Gengshen Chen, Qing Li, Jianbing Yan
Maize is a major staple crop. Maize kernel size and weight are important contributors to its yield. Here, we measured kernel length, kernel width, kernel thickness, hundred kernel weight and kernel test weight in 10 recombinant inbred line populations and dissected their genetic architecture using three statistical models. In total, 729 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified, many of which were identified in all three models, including 22 major QTLs that each can explain more than 10% of phenotypic variation...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811265/molecular-cloning-heterologous-expression-and-functional-characterization-of-gamma-tocopherol-methyl-transferase-%C3%AE-tmt-from-glycine-max
#15
Kalpana Tewari, Anil Dahuja, Archana Sachdev, Kishwar Ali, Vaibhav Kumar, Amresh Kumar, Sweta Kumari
γ-Tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) (EC 2.1.1.95) is the last enzyme in the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway and it catalyzes the conversion of γ-tocopherol into α-tocopherol, the nutritionally significant and most bioactive form of vitamin E. Although the γ-TMT gene has been successfully overexpressed in many crops to enhance their α-tocopherol content but still only few attempts have been made to uncover its structural, functional and regulation aspects at protein level. In this study, we have cloned the complete 909bp coding sequence of Glycine max γ-TMT (Gm γ-TMT) gene that encodes the corresponding protein comprising of 302 amino acid residues...
August 12, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810845/a-bioinformatics-approach-for-identifying-transgene-insertion-sites-using-whole-genome-sequencing-data
#16
Doori Park, Su-Hyun Park, Yong Wook Ban, Youn Shic Kim, Kyoung-Cheul Park, Nam-Soo Kim, Ju-Kon Kim, Ik-Young Choi
BACKGROUND: Genetically modified crops (GM crops) have been developed to improve the agricultural traits of modern crop cultivars. Safety assessments of GM crops are of paramount importance in research at developmental stages and before releasing transgenic plants into the marketplace. Sequencing technology is developing rapidly, with higher output and labor efficiencies, and will eventually replace existing methods for the molecular characterization of genetically modified organisms...
August 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810521/cropping-systems-affect-paddy-soil-organic-carbon-and-total-nitrogen-stocks-in-rice-garlic-and-rice-fava-systems-in-temperate-region-of-southern-china
#17
Tao Zhang, Anqiang Chen, Jian Liu, Hongbin Liu, Baokun Lei, Limei Zhai, Dan Zhang, Hongyuan Wang
The accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils is critical to food security and climate change. However, there is still limited information on the dynamic trend of SOC sequestration following changes in cropping systems. Paddy soils, typical of temperate region of southern China, have a large potential for carbon (C) sequestration and nitrogen (N) fixation. It is of great importance to study the impacts of changes in cropping systems on stocks of SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in paddy soils...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810516/lectin-from-inflorescences-of-ornamental-crop-alpinia-purpurata-acts-on-immune-cells-to-promote-th1-and-th17-responses-nitric-oxide-release-and-lymphocyte-activation
#18
Jéssica de Santana Brito, Gustavo Ramos Salles Ferreira, Emeline Klimczak, Liliya Gryshuk, Nataly Diniz de Lima Santos, Leydianne Leite de Siqueira Patriota, Leyllane Rafael Moreira, Ana Karine Araújo Soares, Bruno Rafael Barboza, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Virgínia Maria Barros de Lorena, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos de Melo, Marília Cavalcanti Coriolano, Thiago Henrique Napoleão
Alpinia purpurata is an ornamental crop known as a source of bioactive molecules. This is the first study to report isolation of a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein) from A. purpurata inflorescences (ApuL). The immunomodulatory potential of ApuL was evaluated by investigating its effects on the production of cytokines and release of nitric oxide by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In addition, the differentiation and activation of lymphocytes treated with ApuL was evaluated by immunophenotyping assays...
August 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810512/co-digestion-of-rice-straw-and-cow-dung-to-supply-cooking-fuel-and-fertilizers-in-rural-india-impact-on-human-health-resource-flows-and-climate-change
#19
Sophie Sfez, Steven De Meester, Jo Dewulf
Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810219/industrial-hemp-as-a-potential-bioenergy-crop-in-comparison-with-kenaf-switchgrass-and-biomass-sorghum
#20
Lalitendu Das, Enshi Liu, Areej Saeed, David W Williams, Hongqiang Hu, Chenlin Li, Allison E Ray, Jian Shi
This study takes combined field trial, lab experiment, and economic analysis approaches to evaluate the potential of industrial hemp in comparison with kenaf, switchgrass and biomass sorghum. Agronomy data suggest that the per hectare yield (5437kg) of industrial hemp stem alone was at a similar level with switchgrass and sorghum; while the hemp plants require reduced inputs. Field trial also showed that ∼1230kg/ha hemp grain can be harvested in addition to stems. Results show a predicted ethanol yield of ∼82gallons/dry ton hemp stems, which is comparable to the other three tested feedstocks...
August 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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