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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925705/occurrence-of-pesticide-residues-in-fruiting-vegetables-from-production-farms-in-south-eastern-region-of-poland
#1
Magdalena Słowik-Borowiec, Ewa Szpyrka, Julian Rupar, Magdalena Podbielska, Aneta Matyaszek
Background: Considering the fact that pesticides are commonly used in agriculture, continuous monitoring of these substances in food products is of great significance. Residues of these substances can be present in crops after harvest. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate presence of pesticide residues in fruiting vegetables from production farms in south-eastern region of Poland in 2012–2015. Material and methods: 138 samples were tested using accredited test methods...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925500/current-understandings-on-plant-nonhost-resistance
#2
Hyun-Ah Lee, Hye-Young Lee, Eunyoung Seo, Joohyun Lee, Saet-Byul Kim, SooHyun Oh, Eunbi Choi, Eunhye Choi, So Eui Lee, Doil Choi
Nonhost resistance, a resistance of plant species against all non-adapted pathogens, is considered the most durable and efficient immune system of plants but yet remains elusive. The underlying mechanism of nonhost resistance has been investigated at multiple levels of plant defense for several decades. In this review, we have comprehensively surveyed the latest literature on nonhost resistance in terms of pre-invasion, metabolic defense, pattern-triggered immunity, effector-triggered immunity, defense signaling, and possible application in crop protection...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925415/utilization-of-red-light-emitting-cdte-nanoparticles-for-the-trace-level-detection-of-harmful-herbicides-in-adulterated-food-and-agricultural-crops
#3
Nilanjan Dey, Deepa Bhagat, Durgadas Cherukaraveedu, Santanu Bhattacharya
Red-light-emitting water-soluble semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by using a wide variety of commercially available thiol-type capping agents. QDs with a negatively charged nanosurface showed excellent selectivity for paraquat (PQ) at pH 7.4 over other commonly encountered pesticides/herbicides, including diquat (DQ). The presence of a 4,4'-bis-pyridinium unit in PQ enabled it to initiate long-range aggregation, thereby leading to the formation of nanostructures with excellent emission-quenching behavior...
November 7, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925171/matching-habitat-choice-in-nomadic-crossbills-appears-most-pronounced-when-food-is-most-limiting
#4
Craig W Benkman
Of the various forms of non-random dispersal, matching habitat choice, whereby individuals preferentially reside in habitats where they are best adapted, has relatively little empirical support. Here I use mark-recapture data to test for matching habitat choice in two nomadic ecotypes of North American Red Crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) that occur in the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in the South Hills, Idaho every summer. Crossbills are adapted for foraging on seeds in conifer cones, and in the South Hills the cones are distinctive, favoring a relatively large bill...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925005/seed-desiccation-tolerance-and-cryopreservation-of-philippine-calamansi-x-citrofortunella-microcarpa-bunge-wijnands
#5
O L Damasco, L C Refuerzo
BACKGROUND: The traditional on farm conservation of Calamansi [x Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands], an important indigenous Citrus species in the Philippines, is now being threatened by shifting agricultural crop production, climate change, and increasing biotic and abiotic stresses. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to characterize the desiccation and cryopreservation tolerance of seeds as the basis for complementary long term ex situ conservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intact seeds were desiccated in an airtight container filled with activated silica gel for 0-96 h...
July 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924540/targeting-fumonisin-biosynthetic-genes
#6
Robert H Proctor, Martha M Vaughan
The fungus Fusarium is an agricultural problem because it can cause disease on most crop plants and can contaminate crops with mycotoxins. There is considerable variation in the presence/absence and genomic location of gene clusters responsible for synthesis of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites among species of Fusarium. Here, we describe a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for distinguishing between and estimating the biomass of two closely related species, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, that are pathogens of maize...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924531/fusarium-species-and-their-associated-mycotoxins
#7
Gary P Munkvold
The genus Fusarium includes numerous toxigenic species that are pathogenic to plants or humans, and are able to colonize a wide range of environments on earth. The genus comprises around 70 well-known species, identified by using a polyphasic approach, and as many as 300 putative species, according to phylogenetic species concepts; many putative species do not yet have formal names. Fusarium is one of the most economically important fungal genera because of yield loss due to plant pathogenic activity; mycotoxin contamination of food and feed products which often render them unaccep for marketing; and health impacts to humans and livestock, due to consumption of mycotoxins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924528/mycotoxins-an-underhand-food-problem
#8
Antonio Moretti, Antonio F Logrieco, Antonia Susca
Among the food safety issues, the occurrence of fungal species able to produce toxic metabolites on the agro-food products has acquired a general attention. These compounds, the mycotoxins, generally provided of low molecular weight, are the result of the secondary metabolism of the toxigenic fungi. They may have toxic activity toward the plants, but mostly represent a serious risk for human and animal health worldwide, since they can be accumulated on many final crop products and they have a broad range of toxic biological activities...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924134/a-physical-map-of-important-qtls-functional-markers-and-genes-available-for-sesame-breeding-programs
#9
Komivi Dossa
Sesame is one of the oldest oilseed crops grown mainly in Africa and Asia. Although genetic and genomic studies on sesame have started late, the past 5 years have witnessed extensive progresses in these areas on this crop. Important genomic sequence resources such as functional markers, genes and QTLs linked to agronomically important traits, have been generated through linkage mapping and association analysis to assist sesame improvement programs. However, most of these data are scattered in different maps making them hard to be exploited efficiently in breeding programs...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924126/utilization-of-in-silico-est-ssr-markers-for-diversity-studies-in-castor-ricinus-communis-l
#10
Ramesh Thatikunta, A Siva Sankar, J Sreelakshmi, Gouthami Palle, C Leela, Ch V Durga Rani, V Gouri Shankar, B Lavanya, P Narayana Reddy, M Y Dudhe
Castor (Ricinus communis L.) a chief non-edible oilseed crop has numerous industrial applications. Systematic genetic diversity analysis utilizing DNA based markers has been quick and reliable method that ensures selection of diverse parents for exploitation of higher levels of heterosis in breeding programs. From NCBI database, 63,852 EST sequences of castor were mined. One thousand one hundred and five (1105) EST-SSRs and 1652 repeat motifs sequences were identified from 20,495 non-redundant unigene sequences...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924119/differential-accumulation-of-cadmium-in-near-isogenic-lines-of-durum-wheat-no-role-for-phytochelatins
#11
Sheila M Macfie, Shirin Bahrami, Brian D McGarvey
Certain cultivars of some crops, including durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), have a propensity to accumulate cadmium in the grain. In the 1980s, a Canadian wheat breeding program generated five pairs of near-isogenic lines of durum wheat that vary in cadmium-accumulation. Within each pair, one member accumulates twofold to threefold higher concentrations of cadmium in the shoot and grain. However, the physiological explanation for the high-low phenotype is unknown. We studied correlations between concentrations of cadmium and non-protein thiols, including phytochelatins, in these five pairs of near-isogenic lines to test the hypothesis that differential retention of cadmium-binding complexes in the root would explain the phenotype...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924118/native-halo-tolerant-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-enterococcus-and-pantoea-sp-improve-seed-yield-of-mungbean-vigna-radiata-l-under-soil-salinity-by-reducing-sodium-uptake-and-stress-injury
#12
Meenu Panwar, Rupinder Tewari, Harsh Nayyar
The beneficial microbial-plant interaction plays important role in the soil health, crop growth and productivity. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are such beneficial microorganisms, which in association with plant roots not only promote their growth but also help in counteracting the detrimental effects of soil stresses. Salt stress is one such stress, frequently confronted by the plants. The present study aimed at isolation and identification of PGPR inhabiting the mungbean rhizosphere, testing them for salt (NaCl) tolerance and subsequently in salt-supplemented mungbean crop...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924117/transcriptome-differences-between-fiber-type-and-seed-type-cannabis-sativa-variety-exposed-to-salinity
#13
Jiajia Liu, Qin Qiao, Xia Cheng, Guanghui Du, Gang Deng, Mingzhi Zhao, Feihu Liu
The industrial hemp varieties 'Yunma 5' and 'Bamahuoma,' which demonstrate growth vigor and environmental adaptability, have been primarily cultivated in Yunnan and Guangxi, China, respectively, for fiber and seeds. The results of physiological measurements showed the phenotypic differences between the two varieties in response to salt stress. RNA-Seq analysis was first performed on leaves of both varieties sampled at four time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6 days) after treatment with salt (500 mM NaCl) We identified 220 co-up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the two varieties, while 26 up-regulated DEGs and 24 down-regulated DEGs were identified exclusively in the single varieties after 2 days of salt stress...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923542/spray-induced-gene-silencing-a-powerful-innovative-strategy-for-crop-protection
#14
Ming Wang, Hailing Jin
Plant pathogens cause serious crop losses worldwide. Recent new studies demonstrate that spraying double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and small RNAs (sRNAs) that target essential pathogen genes on plant surfaces confer efficient crop protection. This so-called spray-induced gene silencing (SIGS) strategy of disease control is potentially sustainable and environmentally friendly.
December 3, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923352/genome-survey-of-pistachio-pistacia-vera-l-by-next-generation-sequencing-development-of-novel-ssr-markers-and-genetic-diversity-in-pistacia-species
#15
Elmira Ziya Motalebipour, Salih Kafkas, Mortaza Khodaeiaminjan, Nergiz Çoban, Hatice Gözel
BACKGROUND: Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important nut crops in the world. There are about 11 wild species in the genus Pistacia, and they have importance as rootstock seed sources for cultivated P. vera and forest trees. Published information on the pistachio genome is limited. Therefore, a genome survey is necessary to obtain knowledge on the genome structure of pistachio by next generation sequencing. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are useful tools for germplasm characterization, genetic diversity analysis, and genetic linkage mapping, and may help to elucidate genetic relationships among pistachio cultivars and species...
December 7, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923349/assessing-the-effects-of-hybridization-and-precipitation-on-invasive-weed-demography-using-strength-of-selection-on-vital-rates
#16
Zachary Teitel, Agnieszka Klimowski, Lesley G Campbell
BACKGROUND: As global climate change transforms average temperature and rainfall, species distributions may meet, increasing the potential for hybridization and altering individual fitness and population growth. Altered rainfall specifically may shift the strength and direction of selection, also manipulating population trajectories. Here, we investigated the role of interspecific hybridization and selection imposed by rainfall on the evolution of weedy life-history in non-hybrid (Raphanus raphanistrum) and hybrid (R...
December 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923135/crop-domestication-a-sneak-peek-into-the-midpoint-of-maize-evolution
#17
Garrett M Janzen, Matthew B Hufford
In a new study, DNA from a 5,310-year-old corn cob found in the Tehuacán Valley in Mexico was sequenced and compared to modern maize and its wild progenitor grasses. The sample was found to be an intermediate between modern maize and its wild relatives, suggesting a gradual, protracted domestication process.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923048/contribution-of-wastewater-irrigation-to-soil-transmitted-helminths-infection-among-vegetable-farmers-in-kumasi-ghana
#18
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Amina Abubakari, Thor Axel Stenström, Robert Clement Abaidoo, Razak Seidu
Wastewater irrigation is associated with several benefits but can also lead to significant health risks. The health risk for contracting infections from Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) among farmers has mainly been assessed indirectly through measured quantities in the wastewater or on the crops alone and only on a limited scale through epidemiological assessments. In this study we broadened the concept of infection risks in the exposure assessments by measurements of the concentration of STHs both in wastewater used for irrigation and the soil, as well as the actual load of STHs ova in the stool of farmers and their family members (165 and 127 in the wet and dry seasons respectively) and a control group of non-farmers (100 and 52 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922095/co-expression-network-analyses-identify-functional-modules-associated-with-development-and-stress-response-in-gossypium-arboreum
#19
Qi You, Liwei Zhang, Xin Yi, Kang Zhang, Dongxia Yao, Xueyan Zhang, Qianhua Wang, Xinhua Zhao, Yi Ling, Wenying Xu, Fuguang Li, Zhen Su
Cotton is an economically important crop, essential for the agriculture and textile industries. Through integrating transcriptomic data, we discovered that multi-dimensional co-expression network analysis was powerful for predicting cotton gene functions and functional modules. Here, the recently available transcriptomic data on Gossypium arboreum, including data on multiple growth stages of tissues and stress treatment samples were applied to construct a co-expression network exploring multi-dimensional expression (development and stress) through multi-layered approaches...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922076/identification-of-bnayucca6-as-a-candidate-gene-for-branch-angle-in-brassica-napus-by-qtl-seq
#20
Hui Wang, Hongtao Cheng, Wenxiang Wang, Jia Liu, Mengyu Hao, Desheng Mei, Rijin Zhou, Li Fu, Qiong Hu
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil crops in China as well as worldwide. Branch angle as a plant architecture component trait plays an important role for high density planting and yield performance. In this study, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) combined with next generation sequencing technology was used to fine map QTL for branch angle. A major QTL, designated as branch angle 1 (ba1) was identified on A06 and further validated by Indel marker-based classical QTL mapping in an F2 population...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
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