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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342190/potential-of-vegetation-indices-combined-with-laser-induced-fluorescence-parameters-for-monitoring-leaf-nitrogen-content-in-paddy-rice
#1
Jian Yang, Lin Du, Wei Gong, Shuo Shi, Jia Sun, Biwu Chen
Nitrogen (N) is important for the growth of crops. Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) serves as a crucial indicator of the growth status of crops and can help determine the dose of N fertilizer. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology and the reflectance spectra of crops are widely used to detect the biochemical content of leaves. Many vegetation indices (VIs) and fluorescence parameters have been developed to estimate LNC. However, the comparison among VIs and between fluorescence parameters and VIs has been rarely studied in the estimation of LNC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342101/a-novel-methodology-for-improving-plant-pest-surveillance-in-vineyards-and-crops-using-uav-based-hyperspectral-and-spatial-data
#2
Fernando Vanegas, Dmitry Bratanov, Kevin Powell, John Weiss, Felipe Gonzalez
Recent advances in remote sensed imagery and geospatial image processing using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have enabled the rapid and ongoing development of monitoring tools for crop management and the detection/surveillance of insect pests. This paper describes a (UAV) remote sensing-based methodology to increase the efficiency of existing surveillance practices (human inspectors and insect traps) for detecting pest infestations (e.g., grape phylloxera in vineyards). The methodology uses a UAV integrated with advanced digital hyperspectral, multispectral, and RGB sensors...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341449/digging-deeper-a-holistic-perspective-of-factors-affecting-soil-organic-carbon-sequestration-in-agroecosystems
#3
Rattan Lal
The global magnitude (Pg) of soil organic carbon (SOC) is 677 to 0.3-m, 993 to 0.5-m, and 1505 to 1-m depth. Thus, ~55% of SOC to 1-m lies below 0.3-m depth. Soils of agroecosystems are depleted of their SOC stock and have a low use efficiency of inputs of agronomic yield. This review is a collation and synthesis of articles published in peer-reviewed journals. The rates of SOC sequestration are scaled up to the global level by linear extrapolation. Soil C sink capacity depends on depth, clay content and mineralogy, plant available water holding capacity, nutrient reserves, landscape position, and the antecedent SOC stock...
January 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340862/effect-of-brewery-wastewater-obtained-from-different-phases-of-treatment-plant-on-seed-germination-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-maize-zea-mays-and-pigeon-pea-cajanus-cajan
#4
Rupa Salian, Suhas Wani, Ramamohan Reddy, Mukund Patil
Brewing industry releases large quantities of wastewater after product generation. Brewery wastewater contains organic compounds which are biodegradable in nature. These biodegradable wastes can be recycled and reused and hence considered as suitable products for agriculture. But before using wastewater for agriculture, it is better to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of wastewater on crops. Hence, the main objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of brewery effluent on seed germination and growth parameters of selected crop species like chickpea (Cicer arietinum), maize (Zea mays), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340787/a-profilin-gene-promoter-from-switchgrass-panicum-virgatum-l-directs-strong-and-specific-transgene-expression-to-vascular-bundles-in-rice
#5
Wenzhi Xu, Wusheng Liu, Rongjian Ye, Mitra Mazarei, Debao Huang, Xinquan Zhang, C Neal Stewart
A switchgrass vascular tissue-specific promoter (PvPfn2) and its 5'-end serial deletions drive high levels of vascular bundle transgene expression in transgenic rice. Constitutive promoters are widely used for crop genetic engineering, which can result in multiple off-target effects, including suboptimal growth and epigenetic gene silencing. These problems can be potentially avoided using tissue-specific promoters for targeted transgene expression. One particularly urgent need for targeted cell wall modification in bioenergy crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L...
January 17, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340612/rice-field-spiders-in-china-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
Huilin Yang, Yuande Peng, Jianxiang Tian, Juan Wang, Baoyang Wei, Chunliang Xie, Zhi Wang
Many laboratory and field studies have been conducted on rice field spiders in China. There are 375 species, 108 genera, and 22 families of rice field spiders distributed within the major rice growing areas and 17 dominant species. The biological and ecological characteristics of 17 rice field spider species have been reported in detail. The biology and ecology of these species show significant differences among regions, farmland habitats, and agricultural practices. Future research should focus on rice field habitat diversity, enhancing the insecticide resistance of dominant spider populations, implementing large-scale breeding of spiders and augmentative release, breeding more leaf dominant species, conducting biosafety assessment of spiders in transgenic crops...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339970/a-new-image-based-tool-for-the-high-throughput-phenotyping-of-pollen-viability-evaluation-of-inter-and-intra-cultivar-diversity-in-grapevine
#7
Javier Tello, María Ignacia Montemayor, Astrid Forneck, Javier Ibáñez
Background: Low pollen viability may limit grapevine yield under certain conditions, causing relevant economic losses to grape-growers. It is usually evaluated by the quantification of the number of viable and non-viable pollen grains that are present in a sample after an adequate pollen grain staining procedure. Although the manual counting of both types of grains is the simplest and most sensitive approach, it is a laborious and time-demanding process. In this regard, novel image-based approaches can assist in the objective, accurate and cost-effective phenotyping of this trait...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339780/extractable-pool-of-biochar-controls-on-crop-productivity-rather-than-greenhouse-gas-emission-from-a-rice-paddy-under-rice-wheat-rotation
#8
Punhoon Khan Korai, Xin Xia, Xiaoyu Liu, Rongjun Bian, Morris Oduor Omondi, Alphonse Nahayo, Genxing Pan
The role of extractable pool of biochar in crop productivity and soil greenhouse gas (GHGs) emission is not yet clear. In this study, two biochars with and without extraction was added to a paddy before rice transplantation at 20 t·ha-1. Crop yield, plant traits and greenhouse gas emission monitored throughout a rice-wheat rotation. Between the biochar treatments, changes in bulk density and microbial biomass carbon were insignificant. However, the increase in organic carbon was similar between maize and wheat biochars while higher under bulk wheat biochar than extracted one...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339553/engineering-abiotic-stress-response-in-plants-for-biomass-production
#9
Sneh Lata Singla-Pareek, Rohit Joshi, Ashwani Pareek
One of the major challenges in today's agriculture is to achieve enhanced plant growth and biomass even under adverse environmental conditions. Recent advancements in genetics and molecular biology have enabled identification of a complex signaling network contributing towards plant growth and development on the one hand and abiotic stress response on the other. As an outcome of these studies, three major approaches have been identified having a potential to improve biomass production in plants under abiotic stress conditions...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339340/bioavailability-and-soil-to-crop-transfer-of-heavy-metals-in-farmland-soils-a-case-study-in-the-pearl-river-delta-south-china
#10
Jingru Zhang, Huizhen Li, Yongzhang Zhou, Lei Dou, Limei Cai, Liping Mo, Jing You
Soil-bound heavy metals are of great concern for human health due to the potential exposure via food chain transfer. In the present study, the occurrence, the bioavailability and the soil-to-crop transfer of heavy metals in farmland soils were investigated based on data from two agricultural areas, i.e. Sihui and Shunde in South China. Six heavy metals (As, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni and Pb) were quantified in the farmland soils. The mean single pollution level indices (PI) were all lower than 1 except for Hg in soils from Shunde (PI = 1...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339191/current-status-and-perspectives-of-fungal-entomopathogens-used-for-microbial-control-of-arthropod-pests-in-brazil
#11
REVIEW
Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Rogerio Biaggioni Lopes, Ítalo Delalibera, Éverton Kort Kamp Fernandes, Christian Luz, Marcos Faria
Entomopathogenic fungi play a central role in Brazil's biopesticide market. Approximately 50% of registered microbial biopesticides comprise mycoinsecticides consisting of hypocrealean fungi, with most based on Metarhizium anisopliae sensu stricto (s.str.) and Beauveria bassiana (s.str.). These fungi are used to control spittlebugs in sugarcane fields and whiteflies in row crops, respectively, with annual applications surpassing three million hectares. Research in Brazil also emphasizes the potential of fungal entomopathogens to manage arthropod vectors of human diseases...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338764/cropping-practices-manipulate-abundance-patterns-of-root-and-soil-microbiome-members-paving-the-way-to-smart-farming
#12
Kyle Hartman, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Raphaël A Wittwer, Samiran Banerjee, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
BACKGROUND: Harnessing beneficial microbes presents a promising strategy to optimize plant growth and agricultural sustainability. Little is known to which extent and how specifically soil and plant microbiomes can be manipulated through different cropping practices. Here, we investigated soil and wheat root microbial communities in a cropping system experiment consisting of conventional and organic managements, both with different tillage intensities. RESULTS: While microbial richness was marginally affected, we found pronounced cropping effects on community composition, which were specific for the respective microbiomes...
January 16, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338737/transcriptome-profiling-of-whitefly-guts-in-response-to-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-infection
#13
Liang Geng, Li-Xin Qian, Ruo-Xuan Shao, Yin-Quan Liu, Shu-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Plant viruses in agricultural crops are of great concern worldwide, and over 75% of them are transmitted from infected to healthy plants by insect vectors. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus, which is the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The circulation of TYLCV in the insect involves complex insect-virus interactions, whereas the molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain ambiguous...
January 16, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338687/use-of-easy-measurable-phenotypic-traits-as-a-complementary-approach-to-evaluate-the-population-structure-and-diversity-in-a-high-heterozygous-panel-of-tetraploid-clones-and-cultivars
#14
Martin E Tagliotti, Sofia I Deperi, Maria C Bedogni, Ruofang Zhang, Norma C Manrique Carpintero, Joseph Coombs, David Douches, Marcelo A Huarte
BACKGROUND: Diversity in crops is fundamental for plant breeding efforts. An accurate assessment of genetic diversity, using molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), must be able to reveal the structure of the population under study. A characterization of population structure using easy measurable phenotypic traits could be a preliminary and low-cost approach to elucidate the genetic structure of a population. A potato population of 183 genotypes was evaluated using 4859 high-quality SNPs and 19 phenotypic traits commonly recorded in potato breeding programs...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338085/the-century-experiment-the-first-twenty-years-of-uc-davis-mediterranean-agroecological-experiment
#15
Kristina M Wolf, Emma E Torbert, Dennis Bryant, Martin Burger, R Ford Denison, Israel Herrera, Jan Hopmans, Will Horwath, Stephen Kaffka, Angela Y Y Kong, R F Norris, Johan Six, Thomas P Tomich, Kate M Scow
The Century Experiment at the Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility at the University of California, Davis provides long-term agroecological data from row crop systems in California's Central Valley starting in 1993. The Century Experiment was initially designed to study the effects of a gradient of water and nitrogen availability on soil properties and crop performance in ten different cropping systems to measure tradeoffs and synergies between agricultural productivity and sustainability. Currently systems include 11 different cropping systems-consisting of four different crops and a cover crop mixture-and one native grass system...
January 16, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338040/identification-and-expression-analyses-of-wrky-genes-reveal-their-involvement-in-growth-and-abiotic-stress-response-in-watermelon-citrullus-lanatus
#16
Xiaozhen Yang, Hao Li, Yongchao Yang, Yongqi Wang, Yanling Mo, Ruimin Zhang, Yong Zhang, Jianxiang Ma, Chunhua Wei, Xian Zhang
Despite identification of WRKY family genes in numerous plant species, a little is known about WRKY genes in watermelon, one of the most economically important fruit crops around the world. Here, we identified a total of 63 putative WRKY genes in watermelon and classified them into three major groups (I-III) and five subgroups (IIa-IIe) in group II. The structure analysis indicated that ClWRKYs with different WRKY domains or motifs may play different roles by regulating respective target genes. The expressions of ClWRKYs in different tissues indicate that they are involved in various tissue growth and development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337927/the-plant-growth-promoting-fungus-pgpf-alternaria-sp-a13-markedly-enhances-salvia-miltiorrhiza-root-growth-and-active-ingredient-accumulation-under-greenhouse-and-field-conditions
#17
Li Si Zhou, Kun Tang, Shun Xing Guo
Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) have attracted considerable interest as bio-fertilisers due to their multiple beneficial effects on plant quantity and quality and their positive relationship with the ecological environment. Advancements in the development of PGPF for crops and economic plant cultivation applications have been achieved, but such improvements for the use of PGPF with popular medicinal herbs, such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, are rare. In this study, we collected S. miltiorrhiza specimens inhabiting wild, semi-wild, farmland and pot-cultured areas in the Henan province of China and isolated endophytes from the roots, shoots and leaves of these samples...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337864/effects-of-chitosan-pva-and-cu-nanoparticles-on-the-growth-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-tomato-under-saline-stress
#18
Hipólito Hernández-Hernández, Susana González-Morales, Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza, Hortensia Ortega-Ortiz, Gregorio Cadenas-Pliego, Antonio Juárez-Maldonado
Chitosan is a natural polymer, which has been used in agriculture to stimulate crop growth. Furthermore, it has been used for the encapsulation of nanoparticles in order to obtain controlled release. In this work, the effect of chitosan-PVA and Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs) absorbed on chitosan-PVA on growth, antioxidant capacity, mineral content, and saline stress in tomato plants was evaluated. The results show that treatments with chitosan-PVA increased tomato growth. Furthermore, chitosan-PVA increased the content of chlorophylls a and b, total chlorophylls, carotenoids, and superoxide dismutase...
January 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337681/dissipation-dynamics-of-terbuthylazine-in-soil-during-the-maize-growing-season
#19
Sanja Stipičević, Gordana Mendaš, Marija Dvoršćak, Sanja Fingler, Natalija Galzina, Klara Barić
Ever since terbuthylazine (TBA) replaced atrazine in herbicide crop treatment, its much greater persistence has raised considerable environmental concern. The aim of our field experiment was to establish the dissipation dynamics of TBA and its degradation product desethylterbuthylazine (DET) in soil over five months of maize growth. We applied TBA as part of pre-emergent treatment in the regular and double-the-regular amounts. Soil samples were collected periodically at the following depths: 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, and 30-50 cm...
December 20, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337656/a-review-of-methodology-for-the-analysis-of-pyrethrin-and-pyrethroid-residues-in-food-of-animal-origin
#20
S Tuck, A Furey, S R H Crooks, M Danaher
Pyrethrin and pyrethroid pesticides are commonly used in crop protection and animal health, to control pests. As a result, they can potentially transfer into food if good agricultural practice is not followed or even due to accidental contamination. The analysis of these compounds has been widely reported in crops and the environment. However, the analysis of pyrethrin and pyrethroids has not been reported frequently in foods of animal origin, particularly animal tissues. The focus of this review is to report on pyrethrin and pyrethroid analysis including key aspects such as chemistry, choice of target matrix, sample preparation, chemical analysis, legislation and method validation...
January 16, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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