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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732403/ecosystem-service-trade-offs-and-their-influencing-factors-a-case-study-in-the-loess-plateau-of-china
#1
Qiang Feng, Wenwu Zhao, Bojie Fu, Jingyi Ding, Shuai Wang
Soil erosion control (SEC), carbon sequestration (CAS), and soil moisture (SMO) strongly interact in the semi-arid Loess Plateau. Since SMO has supportive effects on SEC and CAS, it can be considered as ecosystem service (ES), and there is an immediate need to coordinate the relationships among these ecosystem services (ESs) to promote the sustainability of vegetation recovery. In this study, we quantified the ESs, ES trade-offs, and the environmental factors in 151 sample plots in the Ansai watershed, and we used a redundancy analysis (RDA) to clarify the effects of environmental factors on these ESs and their trade-offs...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732400/solar-photocatalytic-disinfection-of-agricultural-pathogenic-fungi-curvularia-sp-in-real-urban-wastewater
#2
Yelitza Aguas, Margarita Hincapie, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, María Inmaculada Polo-López
The interest in developing alternative water disinfection methods that increase the access to irrigation water free of pathogens for agricultural purposes is increasing in the last decades. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been demonstrated to be very efficient for the abatement of several kind of pathogens in contaminated water. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate and compare the capability of several solar AOPs for the inactivation of resistant spores of agricultural fungi. Solar photoassisted H2O2, solar photo-Fenton at acid and near-neutral pH, and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2, with and without H2O2, have been studied for the inactivation of spores of Curvularia sp...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732398/simulation-of-targeted-pollutant-mitigation-strategies-to-reduce-nitrate-and-sediment-hotspots-in-agricultural-watershed
#3
Awoke Dagnew Teshager, Philip W Gassman, Silvia Secchi, Justin T Schoof
About 50% of U.S. water pollution problems are caused by non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients from agricultural areas, despite the widespread implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs). However, the effectiveness of implementation strategies and type of BMPs at watershed scale are still not well understood. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ecohydrological model was used to assess the effectiveness of pollutant mitigation strategies in the Raccoon River watershed (RRW) in west-central Iowa, USA...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732264/insights-into-plant-phosphate-sensing-and-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Byung-Kook Ham, Jieyu Chen, Yan Yan, William J Lucas
Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient essential for plant growth, therefore, soil P level is critical to crop yield potential in agriculture. As Pi levels limit crop yield under many soil conditions, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms by which plants adapt to low-phosphate (Pi) soil conditions and interact with their soil microbiome to improve crop P use efficiency, in order to ensure global food security. Recent advances have been made towards achieving this goal through advancing our understanding of the plant's response to limiting Pi conditions to maintain P homeostasis...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732022/global-economic-trade-offs-between-wild-nature-and-tropical-agriculture
#5
Luis R Carrasco, Edward L Webb, William S Symes, Lian P Koh, Navjot S Sodhi
Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731563/improving-fructose-utilization-and-butanol-production-by-clostridium-acetobutylicum-via-extracellular-redox-potential-regulation-and-intracellular-metabolite-analysis
#6
Li-Jie Chen, You-Duo Wu, Chuang Xue, Feng-Wu Bai
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) can grow well in marginal lands with high biomass yield, and thus is a potential energy crop for biorefinery. The major biomass of JA is from tubers, which contain inulin that can be easily hydrolyzed into a mixture of fructose and glucose, but fructose utilization for producing butanol as an advanced biofuel is poor compared to glucose-based ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In this article, the impact of extracellular redox potential (ORP) on the process was studied using a mixture of fructose and glucose to simulate the hydrolysate of JA tubers...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731217/small-rnas-in-regulating-temperature-stress-response-in-plants
#7
Qing Liu, Shijuan Yan, Tifeng Yang, Shaohong Zhang, Yue-Qin Chen, Bin Liu
Due to global climate change, temperature stress has become one of the primary causes of crop losses worldwide. Much progress has been made in unraveling the complex stress response mechanisms in plants, particularly in the identification of temperature stress responsive protein-coding genes. Recently discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have also been demonstrated as important players in plant temperature stress response. Using high-throughput sequencing, many small RNAs, especially miRNAs, have been identified to be triggered by cold or heat...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731201/a-technological-and-regulatory-outlook-on-crispr-crop-editing
#8
Rea Globus, Udi Qimron
Generating plants with increased yields while maintaining low production and maintenance costs is highly important since plants are the major food source for humans and animals, as well as important producers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and fuels. Gene editing approaches, particularly the CRISPR-Cas system, are the preferred methods for improving crops, enabling quick, robust, and accurate gene manipulation. Nevertheless, new breeds of genetically-modified crops have initiated substantial debates concerning their biosafety, commercial use, and regulation...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730873/physiological-traits-determining-yield-tolerance-of-wheat-to-foliar-diseases
#9
Femke van den Berg, Neil Paveley, I J Bingham, Frank van den Bosch
Tolerance is defined as the ability of one cultivar to yield more than another cultivar, under similar disease severity. If both cultivars suffer an equal loss in healthy (green) leaf area duration (HAD) over the grain filling period due to disease presence, then the yield loss per unit HAD loss is smaller for a more tolerant cultivar. Little is understood of what physiological and developmental traits of cultivars determine disease tolerance. In this study we use a mathematical model of wheat to investigate the effect of a wide range of wheat phenotypes on tolerance...
July 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730723/do-assortative-mating-and-immigrant-inviability-help-maintain-population-genetic-structuring-of-an-herbivore-on-a-crop-and-a-wild-relative
#10
Ricardo Ramirez-Romero, Delia Garibay-Benítez, Ofelia Vargas-Ponce, Andrea Joyce, Julio S Bernal
Population genetic structuring is common among herbivorous insects and frequently is associated with divergent host plants, such as crops and their wild relatives. Previous studies showed population genetic structuring in corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis in Mexico, such that the species consists of two sympatric, host plant-associated populations: an abundant and widespread "pestiferous" population on maize (Zea mays mays), and a small and localized "wild" population on perennial teosinte (Zea diploperennis), a maize wild relative with a limited distribution...
July 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730551/pseudomonas-fluorescens-r68-assisted-enhancement-in-growth-and-fertilizer-utilization-of-amaranthus-tricolor-l
#11
C Jimtha John, P Jishma, N R Karthika, K S Nidheesh, J G Ray, Jyothis Mathew, E K Radhakrishnan
Plant probiotic potential of rhizosphere microbiome and its role in phytofertilizer mobilization are largely unexplored. In the current study, the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens R68 (PFR68) isolated from Western Ghat was analyzed for its growth enhancement effect on the leafy vegetable Amaranthus tricolor (L.). One month of field growth of PFR68 inoculated A. tricolor has found to have enhanced growth parameters such as leaf number (1.57 fold), root number (1.76 fold), shoot length (1.28 fold) and fresh weight (2...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730464/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-canopy-wilting-in-diverse-soybean-genotypes
#12
Avjinder S Kaler, Jeffery D Ray, William T Schapaugh, C Andy King, Larry C Purcell
Genome-wide association analysis identified 61 SNP markers for canopy wilting, which likely tagged 51 different loci. Based on the allelic effects of the significant SNPs, the slowest and fastest wilting genotypes were identified. Drought stress is a major global constraint for crop production, and slow canopy wilting is a promising trait for improving drought tolerance. The objective of this study was to identify genetic loci associated with canopy wilting and to confirm those loci with previously reported canopy wilting QTLs...
July 20, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730463/exploring-new-alleles-for-frost-tolerance-in-winter-rye
#13
Wiltrud Erath, Eva Bauer, D Brian Fowler, Andres Gordillo, Viktor Korzun, Mira Ponomareva, Malthe Schmidt, Brigitta Schmiedchen, Peer Wilde, Chris-Carolin Schön
Rye genetic resources provide a valuable source of new alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance in rye breeding programs. Frost tolerance is a must-have trait for winter cereal production in northern and continental cropping areas. Genetic resources should harbor promising alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance of winter rye elite lines. For frost tolerance breeding, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the choice of optimum genome-based selection methods are essential. We identified genomic regions involved in frost tolerance of winter rye by QTL mapping in a biparental population derived from a highly frost tolerant selection from the Canadian cultivar Puma and the European elite line Lo157...
July 20, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729876/genetic-architecture-of-flooding-tolerance-in-the-dry-bean-middle-american-diversity-panel
#14
Ali Soltani, Samira MafiMoghaddam, Katelynn Walter, Daniel Restrepo-Montoya, Sujan Mamidi, Stephan Schroder, Rian Lee, Phillip E McClean, Juan M Osorno
Flooding is a devastating abiotic stress that endangers crop production in the twenty-first century. Because of the severe susceptibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to flooding, an understanding of the genetic architecture and physiological responses of this crop will set the stage for further improvement. However, challenging phenotyping methods hinder a large-scale genetic study of flooding tolerance in common bean and other economically important crops. A greenhouse phenotyping protocol was developed to evaluate the flooding conditions at early stages...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729874/systematic-analysis-of-hsf-family-genes-in-the-brassica-napus-genome-reveals-novel-responses-to-heat-drought-and-high-co2-stresses
#15
Xiaoyi Zhu, Chunqian Huang, Liang Zhang, Hongfang Liu, Jinhui Yu, Zhiyong Hu, Wei Hua
Drought and heat stress are major causes of lost plant crop yield. In the future, high levels of CO2, in combination of other abiotic stress factors, will become a novel source of stress. Little is known of the mechanisms involved in the acclimation responses of plants to this combination of abiotic stress factors, though it has been demonstrated that heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are involved in plant response to various abiotic stresses. In this study, we performed a genome-wide identification and a systematic analysis of genes in the Hsf gene family in Brassica napus...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729855/desirable-traits-of-a-good-biocontrol-agent-against-verticillium-wilt
#16
REVIEW
Silke Deketelaere, Lien Tyvaert, Soraya C França, Monica Höfte
The soil-borne fungus Verticillium causes serious vascular disease in a wide variety of annual crops and woody perennials. Verticillium wilt is notoriously difficult to control by conventional methods, so there is great potential for biocontrol to manage this disease. In this study we aimed to review the research about Verticillium biocontrol to get a better understanding of characteristics that are desirable in a biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt. We only considered studies in which the BCAs were tested on plants...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729817/ssr-marker-variations-in-brassica-species-provide-insight-into-the-origin-and-evolution-of-brassica-amphidiploids
#17
Ajay Kumar Thakur, Kunwar Harendra Singh, Lal Singh, Joghee Nanjundan, Yasin Jeshima Khan, Dhiraj Singh
BACKGROUND: Oilseed Brassica represents an important group of oilseed crops with a long history of evolution and cultivation. To understand the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to unravel genetic variations in three diploids and three amphidiploid Brassica species of U's triangle along with Eruca sativa as an outlier. RESULTS: Of 124 Brassica-derived SSR loci assayed, 100% cross-transferability was obtained for B...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729759/transcriptome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-starch-branching-enzyme-in-finger-millet
#18
Rajhans Tyagi, Apoorv Tiwari, Vijay Kumar Garg, Sanjay Gupta
Starch-branching enzymes (SBEs) are one of the four major enzyme classes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants and play an important role in determining the structure and physical properties of starch granules. Multiple SBEs are involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Finger millet is calcium rich important serial crop belongs to grass family and the transcriptome data of developing spikes is available on NCBI. In this study it was try to find out the gene sequence of starch branching enzyme and annotate the sequence and submit the sequence for further use...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729687/canopy-physiology-vine-performance-and-host-pathogen-interaction-in-a-fungi-resistant-cv-sangiovese-x-bianca-accession-vs-a-susceptible-clone
#19
S Poni, G Chiari, T Caffi, F Bove, S Tombesi, A Moncalvo, M Gatti
The present study compares the physiological and cropping response of the new fungi-resistant grapevine Accession 72-096 ('Sangiovese' x 'Bianca' hybrid) against a susceptible 'Sangiovese' clone which was either fully (FS-SG) or partially sprayed (PS-SG). Data logged on Accession 72-096 indicate that while two early season sprays were enough to avoid major downy mildew (DM) and powdery mildew (PM) outbreaks, Accession 72-096 also showed concurrent desirable features such as moderate cropping, loose clusters, fast sugar accumulation coupled with sufficient acidity even at peak total soluble solids (TSS) concentration (around 24 °Brix), good color and higher flavonols prompting co-pigmentation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729614/knockdown-of-two-cadherin-genes-confers-resistance-to-cry2a-and-cry1c-in-chilo-suppressalis
#20
Zan Zhang, Xiaolu Teng, Weihua Ma, Fei Li
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins play an important role in the management of insect pests. Resistance to Bt toxins has been reported in many pest insects but the mechanism responsible for this resistance in rice crop pests remains largely unknown. Cadherin is one of several Bt toxin receptors. At present, only one cadherin gene, CsCAD1, has been documented in the striped rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. We amplified a nearly full-length transcript of another C. suppressalis cadherin gene, CsCAD2, and found that it has a different expression pattern to CsCAD1...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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