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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527182/water-for-agriculture-the-convergence-of-sustainability-and-safety
#1
Sarah M Markland, David Ingram, Kalmia E Kniel, Manan Sharma
Agricultural water is a precious and limited resource. Increasingly more water types and sources are being explored for use in irrigation within the United States and across the globe. As outlined in this chapter, the Produce Safety Rule (PSR) in the Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) provide irrigation water standards for application of water to fruits and vegetables consumed raw. These rules for production and use of water will continue to develop and be required as the world experiences aspects of a changing climate including flooding as well as drought conditions...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527137/genome-based-identification-of-heterotic-patterns-in-rice
#2
Ulrike Beukert, Zuo Li, Guozheng Liu, Yusheng Zhao, Nadhigade Ramachandra, Vilson Mirdita, Fabiano Pita, Klaus Pillen, Jochen Christoph Reif
BACKGROUND: Hybrid rice breeding facilitates to increase grain yield and yield stability. Long-term success of hybrid breeding depends on the recognition of high-yielding complementary heterotic patterns, which is lacking in crops like rice. RESULT: The main goal of this study was to evaluate the potential and limits to use genomics for establishing heterotic patterns in rice. For this purpose, data of a commercial hybrid rice breeding program targeted to India was analyzed, including 1,960 phenotyped hybrids from three market segments and 262 genotyped parental lines...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527114/current-and-future-editing-reagent-delivery-systems-for-plant-genome-editing
#3
REVIEW
Yidong Ran, Zhen Liang, Caixia Gao
Many genome editing tools have been developed and new ones are anticipated; some have been extensively applied in plant genetics, biotechnology and breeding, especially the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These technologies have opened up a new era for crop improvement due to their precise editing of user-specified sequences related to agronomic traits. In this review, we will focus on an update of recent developments in the methodologies of editing reagent delivery, and consider the pros and cons of current delivery systems...
May 1, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527035/comparison-of-rhizosphere-properties-as-affected-by-different-bt-and-non-bt-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-genotypes-and-fertilization
#4
Maqshoof Ahamd, Waleed Mumtaz Abbasi, Moazzam Jamil, Muhammad Iqbal, Azhar Hussain, Muhammad Fakhar-U-Zaman Akhtar, Farheen Nazli
Incorporation of genetically modified crops in the cropping system raises the need for studying the effect of these crops on the soil ecosystem. The current study aimed to compare the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and non-Bt-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes on rhizosphere properties under fertilized and unfertilized soil conditions. One non-Bt-cotton (IUB 75) and four Bt-cotton varieties (IUB-222, MM-58, IUB-13, FH-142) were sown in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a factorial fashion with three replications under unfertilized (T1) and fertilized (T2 at NPK 310-170-110 kg ha(-1)) soil conditions...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526984/reduced-weed-seed-shattering-by-silencing-a-cultivated-rice-gene-strategic-mitigation-for-escaped-transgenes
#5
Huanxin Yan, Lei Li, Ping Liu, Xiaoqi Jiang, Lei Wang, Jia Fang, Zhimin Lin, Feng Wang, Jun Su, Bao-Rong Lu
Transgene flow form a genetically engineered (GE) crop to its wild relatives may result in unwanted environmental consequences. Mitigating transgenes via introducing a gene that is disadvantageous to wild relatives but beneficial to crops, and is tightly-linked with the target transgenes, may provide a promising solution to limit the spread of transgenes in wild/weedy populations. Here we demonstrate a novel system with significantly reduced seed shattering in crop-weed hybrid descendants by partially silenced expression of the seed-shattering gene SH4 in cultivated rice, using artificial microRNA and antisense RNA techniques...
May 19, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526844/identification-of-extracellular-glycerophosphodiesterases-in-pseudomonas-and-their-role-in-soil-organic-phosphorus-remineralisation
#6
Ian D E A Lidbury, Andrew R J Murphy, Tandra D Fraser, Gary D Bending, Alexandra M E Jones, Jonathan D Moore, Andrew Goodall, Mark Tibbett, John P Hammond, David J Scanlan, Elizabeth M H Wellington
In soils, phosphorus (P) exists in numerous organic and inorganic forms. However, plants can only acquire inorganic orthophosphate (Pi), meaning global crop production is frequently limited by P availability. To overcome this problem, rock phosphate fertilisers are heavily applied, often with negative environmental and socio-economic consequences. The organic P fraction of soil contains phospholipids that are rapidly degraded resulting in the release of bioavailable Pi. However, the mechanisms behind this process remain unknown...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525996/cancer-risks-in-a-population-based-study-of-70-570-agricultural-workers-results-from-the-canadian-census-health-and-environment-cohort-canchec
#7
Linda Kachuri, M Anne Harris, Jill S MacLeod, Michael Tjepkema, Paul A Peters, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. METHODS: Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992-2010...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525940/spray-pesticide-applications-in-mediterranean-citrus-orchards-canopy-deposition-and-off-target-losses
#8
Cruz Garcerá, Enrique Moltó, Patricia Chueca
Only a portion of the water volume sprayed is deposited on the target when applying plant protection products with air-assisted axial-fan airblast sprayers in high growing crops. A fraction of the off-target losses deposits on the ground, but droplets also drift away from the site. This work aimed at assessing the spray distribution to different compartments (tree canopy, ground and air) during pesticide applications in a Mediterranean citrus orchard. Standard cone nozzles (Teejet D3 DC35) and venturi drift reducing nozzles (Albuz TVI 80 03) were compared...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525880/differential-sulphur-assimilation-mechanism-regulates-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-natural-variation-towards-arsenic-stress-under-limiting-sulphur-condition
#9
Ria Khare, Smita Kumar, Tapsi Shukla, Avriti Ranjan, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element, which imposes threat to crops productivity and human health through contaminated food chain. As a part of detoxification mechanism, As is chelated and sequestered into the vacuoles via sulphur containing compounds glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs). Under limiting sulphur (LS) conditions, exposure of As leads to enhanced toxic effects in plants. Therefore, it is a prerequisite to understand molecular mechanisms involved in As stress response under sulphur deficiency conditions in plants...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525719/phosphorus-availability-and-release-pattern-from-activated-dolomite-phosphate-rock-in-central-florida
#10
Xiaoyun Mao, Qin Lu, Wei Mo, Xiaoping Xin, Xian Chen, Zhenli He
In this study, novel technology was developed to convert dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) into slow release P fertilizers. The DPR was powdered to < 100 mesh and activated with organic molecules under optimal reaction conditions. As compared to original DPR, available P, estimated by water soluble P released from the three DPRs activated with three types of organic molecules, increased by 6.86, 3.32, and 7.46 times, respectively. Phosphorus supply from the activated DPRs was greater than that of superphosphates (SP)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525659/genetic-variability-in-jatropha-curcas-l-from-diallel-crossing
#11
D O Ribeiro, R Silva-Mann, S V Alvares-Carvalho, E M S Souza, M C Vasconcelos, A F Blank
Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) presents high oilseed yield and low production cost. However, technical-scientific knowledge on this crop is still limited. This study aimed to evaluate and estimate the genetic variability of hybrids obtained from dialell crossing. Genetic variability was carried out using ISSR molecular markers. For genetic variability, nine primers were used, and six were selected with 80.7% polymorphism. Genetic similarity was obtained using the NTSYS pc. 2.1 software, and cluster analysis was obtained by the UPGMA method...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524697/emerging-functions-of-multi-protein-complex-mediator-with-special-emphasis-on-plants
#12
Naveen Malik, Pinky Agarwal, Akhilesh Tyagi
Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Functional attributes of different Mediator subunits have been largely defined in yeast and mammalian systems earlier, while such studies in plants have gained momentum recently...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523922/comparative-genetic-diversity-of-potato-virus-y-populations-based-on-coat-protein-gene
#13
H Hosseini, M Mehrvar, M Zakiaghl, M Siampour
Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant pathogen with a wide host range including economically important crops of potato, tobacco, tomato, and pepper. The coat protein gene has been commonly used in studying molecular biology of plant viruses including PVY. In this study, we used a large dataset of CP sequences from isolates collected across the world to assess the detailed molecular evolution of PVY populations with a focus on the Iranian PVY population. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the world PVY population had two major lineages (O:C and N:NTN); each comprising several divergent sublineages...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523619/effect-of-calcium-bentonite-on-zn-and-cu-mobility-and-their-accumulation-in-vegetable-growth-in-soil-amended-with-compost-during-consecutive-planting
#14
Quan Wang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Ronghua Li, Feng Shen, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to investigate the Cu and Zn mobility and their accumulations in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapachinensis L.) growth in Ca-bentonite-pig manure co-compost (CBC)-soil system during three consecutive planting. Five composts (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% Ca-bentonite-pig manure co-composts) amended soil with 5% (w/w) application rate and compared to control without any additive. The results showed that the addition of CBC increased the biomass and chlorophyll content of pakchoi, and the maximum overall yield was found in 7...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523009/transgenerational-defense-priming-for-crop-protection-against-plant-pathogens-a-hypothesis
#15
Gabriela Ramírez-Carrasco, Keren Martínez-Aguilar, Raúl Alvarez-Venegas
Throughout evolution, plants have developed diverse mechanisms of defense that "prime" their innate immune system for more robust and active induction of defense responses against different types of stress. Nowadays there are numerous reports concerning the molecular bases of priming, as well as the generational priming mechanisms. Information concerning transgenerational priming, however, remains deficient. Some reports have indicated, nonetheless, that the priming status of a plant can be inherited to its offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522863/effects-of-replacing-leymus-chinensis-with-whole-crop-wheat-hay-on-holstein-bull-apparent-digestibility-plasma-parameters-rumen-fermentation-and-microbiota
#16
Wenjing Niu, Yang He, Chuanqi Xia, Muhammad Aziz Ur Rahman, Qinghua Qiu, Taoqi Shao, Yixun Liang, Linbao Ji, Haibo Wang, Binghai Cao
Twelve Holstein bulls were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of using whole-crop wheat hay (WCWH) as a substitute for Leymus chinensis (LC) on apparent digestibility, plasma parameters, ruminal fermentation, and microbial communities. Experimental treatments were four proportions of WCWH, 0, 33, 67, and 100%, as a substitute for LC (WCWH0, WCWH33, WCWH67, and WCWH100, respectively). The WCWH100 group showed a higher nutritional intake of crude protein (CP) and higher apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, and ether extract (EE) than the WCWH0 group (P < 0...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522839/fast-diffusion-of-domesticated-maize-to-temperate-zones
#17
Xiaolong Li, Yinqiao Jian, Chuanxiao Xie, Jun Wu, Yunbi Xu, Cheng Zou
Adaptation to a temperate climate was a prerequisite for the spread of maize across a broad geographical range. To explicitly explore the demographic process underlying maize adaptation, we used a diffusion-based method to model the differentiation between temperate and tropical populations using the Non-Stiff Stalk group as a proxy for temperate maize. Based on multiple sequential Markovian coalescent approaches, we estimate that tropical and temperate maize diverged approximately 3'000 to 5'000 years ago and the population size shrank after the split...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522547/a-regulatory-hierarchy-of-the-arabidopsis-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolic-network
#18
Anqi Xing, Robert L Last
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) Ile, Val and Leu are essential nutrients that humans and other animals obtain from plants. However, total and relative amounts of plant BCAAs rarely match animal nutritional needs, and improvement requires a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for BCAA homeostasis. We present an in vivo regulatory model of BCAA homeostasis derived from analysis of feedback-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for the three allosteric committed enzymes in the biosynthetic network: threonine deaminase (also named L-O-methylthreonine resistant 1, OMR1), acetohydroxyacid synthase small subunit 2 (AHASS2) and isopropylmalate synthase 1 (IPMS1)...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521948/genomics-of-interaction-between-the-brown-planthopper-and-rice
#19
REVIEW
Shengli Jing, Yan Zhao, Bo Du, Rongzhi Chen, Lili Zhu, Guangcun He
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) form a model system for dissection of the mechanism of interaction between insect pest and crop. In this review, we focus on the genomics of BPH-rice interaction. On the side of rice, a number of BPH-resistance genes have been identified genetically. Thirteen of these genes have been cloned which shed a light on the molecular basis of the interaction. On the aspect of BPH, a lot of salivary proteins have been identified using transcriptome and proteome techniques...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521945/whitefly-interactions-with-plants
#20
REVIEW
Xiao-Wei Wang, Ping Li, Shu-Sheng Liu
Whiteflies are important pests of many crops worldwide. They are polyphagous and effectively feed on phloem sap using mouthparts modified into long, flexible stylets. Plants respond to whitefly attack by activating defense genes leading to production of toxic compounds. To reach plant phloem and survive on host plants, whiteflies secret effectors in the saliva to regulate plant responses and activate detoxification system to cope with plant defenses. Additionally, whitefly-transmitted viruses may exert substantial effects on host plants and in turn the performance of whiteflies...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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