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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324851/assessing-the-impacts-of-best-management-practices-on-nitrate-pollution-in-an-agricultural-dominated-lowland-catchment-considering-environmental-protection-versus-economic-development
#1
Marcelo B Haas, Björn Guse, Nicola Fohrer
Water quality is strongly affected by nitrate inputs in agricultural catchments. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are alternative practices aiming to mitigate the impacts derived from agricultural activities and to improve water quality. Management activities are influenced by different governmental policies like the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Their distinct goals can be contrasting and hamper an integrated sustainable development. Both need to be addressed in the actual conjuncture in rural areas...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324842/phenotypical-physiological-and-biochemical-analyses-provide-insight-into-selenium-induced-phytotoxicity-in-rice-plants
#2
Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Md Nurealam Siddiqui, Masayuki Fujita, Lam-Son Phan Tran
The present study investigated the phenotypical, physiological and biochemical changes of rice plants exposed to high selenium (Se) concentrations to gain an insight into Se-induced phytotoxicity. Results showed that exposure of rice plants to excessive Se resulted in growth retardation and biomass reduction in connection with the decreased levels of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The reduced water status and an associated increase in sugar and proline levels indicated Se-induced osmotic stress in rice plants...
March 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324819/impact-of-different-feedstocks-derived-biochar-amendment-with-cadmium-low-uptake-affinity-cultivar-of-pak-choi-brassica-rapa-ssb-chinensis-l-on-phytoavoidation-of-cd-to-reduce-potential-dietary-toxicity
#3
Kiran Yasmin Khan, Barkat Ali, Xiaoqiang Cui, Ying Feng, Xiaoe Yang, Peter Joseph Stoffella
Biochar has become eco-friendly amendment used for phytoavoidation with low cadmium (Cd) accumulating cultivars of crops to ensure food safety in Cd contaminated soils. In this study, biochar with different waste feedstock material were evaluated for their effectiveness on essential trace metals mobility, Cd bioavailability and its accumulation in two contrasting Cd accumulating cultivars of pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis L.) grown in Cd contaminated Mollisol soil. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with plants grown in Cd contaminated soil that had been amended with biochar derived from barley straw, tomato green waste, chicken manure, duck manure and swine manure at application rate of 0%, 2...
March 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324258/optimizing-irrigation-and-nitrogen-for-wheat-through-empirical-modeling-under-semi-arid-environment
#4
Umer Saeed, Syed Aftab Wajid, Tasneem Khaliq, Zahir Ahmad Zahir
Nitrogen fertilizer availability to plants is strongly linked with water availability. Excessive or insufficient use of nitrogen can cause reduction in grain yield of wheat and environmental issues. The per capita per annum water availability in Pakistan has reduced to less than 1000 m(3) and is expected to reach 800 m(3) during 2025. Irrigating crops with 3 or more than 3 in. of depth without measuring volume of water is not a feasible option anymore. Water productivity and economic return of grain yield can be improved by efficient management of water and nitrogen fertilizer...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324251/simulating-changes-in-cropping-practises-in-conventional-and-glyphosate-tolerant-maize-i-effects-on-weeds
#5
Nathalie Colbach, Alice Fernier, Valérie Le Corre, Antoine Messéan, Henri Darmency
Herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops such as those tolerant to glyphosate simplify weed management and make it more efficient, at least at short-term. Overreliance on the same herbicide though leads to the spread of resistant weeds. Here, the objective was to evaluate, with simulations, the impact on the advent of glyphosate resistance in weeds of modifications in agricultural practises resulting from introducing HT maize into cropping systems. First, we included a single-gene herbicide resistance submodel in the existing multispecific FLORSYS model...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324145/sustainable-development-for-whom-and-how-exploring-the-gaps-between-popular-discourses-and-ground-reality-using-the-mexican-jatropha-biodiesel-case
#6
Aparajita Banerjee, Kathleen E Halvorsen, Amarella Eastmond-Spencer, Sam R Sweitz
In the last decade, jatropha-based bioenergy projects have gotten significant attention as a solution to various social, economic, and environmental problems. Jatropha's popularity stemmed out from different discourses, some real and some perceived, in scientific and non-scientific literature. These discourses positioned jatropha as a crop helpful in producing biodiesel and protecting sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels and increasing local, rural development by creating jobs...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323903/global-potential-distribution-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae
#7
Luana A Dos Santos, Mayara F Mendes, Alexandra P Krüger, Monica L Blauth, Marco S Gottschalk, Flávio R M Garcia
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a species native to Western Asia that is able to pierce intact fruit during egg laying, causing it to be considered a fruit crop pest in many countries. Drosophila suzukii have a rapid expansion worldwide; occurrences were recorded in North America and Europe in 2008, and South America in 2013. Due to this rapid expansion, we modeled the potential distribution of this species using the Maximum Entropy Modeling (MaxEnt) algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm for Ruleset Production (GARP) using 407 sites with known occurrences worldwide and 11 predictor variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323437/potato-consumption-and-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-the-norwegian-women-and-cancer-cohort
#8
Lene A Åsli, Anja Olsen, Tonje Braaten, Eiliv Lund, Guri Skeie
Potatoes are the fourth most plentiful food crop in the world, yet the scientific literature on the health effects of potato consumption is scarce. This study aimed to investigate the association between potato consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) among 79,778 women aged 41-70, in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Information on diet, lifestyle, and health was collected by questionnaire. CRC cases (n  =  912) were identified through registry linkage. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between potato consumption and the risk of CRC...
March 21, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319994/growth-of-bacterial-phytopathogens-in-animal-manures
#9
Wojciech Sledz, Sabina Zoledowska, Agata Motyka, Leszek Kadziński, Bogdan Banecki
Animal manures are routinely applied to agricultural lands to improve crop yield, but the possibility to spread bacterial phytopathogens through field fertilization has not been considered yet. We monitored 49 cattle, horse, swine, sheep or chicken manure samples collected in 14 Polish voivodeships for the most important plant pathogenic bacteria - Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Erwinia amylovora (Eam), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp...
2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319818/a-task-based-assessment-of-parental-occupational-exposure-to-pesticides-and-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#10
Robert B Gunier, Alice Kang, S Katharine Hammond, Kyndaron Reinier, C Suzanne Lea, Jeffrey S Chang, Monique Does, Ghislaine Scelo, Janice Kirsch, Vonda Crouse, Robert Cooper, Patricia Quinlan, Catherine Metayer
OBJECTIVES: Associations between parental occupational pesticide exposure and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) vary across studies, likely due to different exposure assessment methodologies. METHODS: We assessed parental occupational pesticide exposure from the year before pregnancy to the child's third year of life for 669 children diagnosed with ALL and 1021 controls. We conducted expert rating using task-based job modules (JM) to estimate exposure to pesticides among farmer workers, gardeners, agricultural packers, and pesticide applicators...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319708/effect-of-application-of-dairy-manure-effluent-and-inorganic-fertilizer-on-nitrogen-leaching-in-clayey-fluvo-aquic-soil-a-lysimeter-study
#11
Jianling Fan, Jiao Xiao, Deyan Liu, Guiping Ye, Jiafa Luo, David Houlbrooke, Seth Laurenson, Jing Yan, Lvjun Chen, Jinping Tian, Weixin Ding
Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319670/identification-of-candidate-genes-for-the-seed-coat-colour-change-in-a-brachypodium-distachyon-mutant-induced-by-gamma-radiation-using-whole-genome-re-sequencing
#12
Man Bo Lee, Dae Yeon Kim, Yong Weon Seo
Brachypodium distachyon has been proposed as a model plant for agriculturally important cereal crops such as wheat and barley. Seed coat colour change from brown-red to yellow was observed in a mutant line (142-3) of B. distachyon, which was induced by chronic gamma radiation. In addition, dwarf phenotypes were observed in each of the lines 142-3, 421-2, and 1376-1. In order to identify causal mutations for the seed coat colour change, the three mutant lines and the wild type were subjected to whole-genome re-sequencing...
March 20, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319117/comparative-genomics-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-subspecies-pathogens-of-important-agricultural-crops
#13
James T Tambong
Subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis are important phytobacterial pathogens causing devastating diseases in several agricultural crops. The genome organizations of these pathogens are poorly understood. Here, the complete genomes of 5 subspecies (C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Cmi; C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Cms; C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, Cmn; C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Cmi and C. michiganensis subsp. capsici, Cmc) were analyzed. This study assessed the taxonomic position of the subspecies based on 16S rRNA and genome-based DNA homology and concludes that there is ample evidence to elevate some of the subspecies to species-level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319089/natural-variation-at-the-soybean-j-locus-improves-adaptation-to-the-tropics-and-enhances-yield
#14
Sijia Lu, Xiaohui Zhao, Yilong Hu, Shulin Liu, Haiyang Nan, Xiaoming Li, Chao Fang, Dong Cao, Xinyi Shi, Lingping Kong, Tong Su, Fengge Zhang, Shichen Li, Zheng Wang, Xiaohui Yuan, Elroy R Cober, James L Weller, Baohui Liu, Xingliang Hou, Zhixi Tian, Fanjiang Kong
Soybean is a major legume crop originating in temperate regions, and photoperiod responsiveness is a key factor in its latitudinal adaptation. Varieties from temperate regions introduced to lower latitudes mature early and have extremely low grain yields. Introduction of the long-juvenile (LJ) trait extends the vegetative phase and improves yield under short-day conditions, thereby enabling expansion of cultivation in tropical regions. Here we report the cloning and characterization of J, the major classical locus conferring the LJ trait, and identify J as the ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3)...
March 20, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319055/rational-design-of-high-yield-and-superior-quality-rice
#15
Dali Zeng, Zhixi Tian, Yuchun Rao, Guojun Dong, Yaolong Yang, Lichao Huang, Yujia Leng, Jie Xu, Chuan Sun, Guangheng Zhang, Jiang Hu, Li Zhu, Zhenyu Gao, Xingming Hu, Longbiao Guo, Guosheng Xiong, Yonghong Wang, Jiayang Li, Qian Qian
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food for more than half of the world's population. To meet the ever-increasing demand for food, because of population growth and improved living standards, world rice production needs to double by 2030(1). The development of new elite rice varieties with high yield and superior quality is challenging for traditional breeding approaches, and new strategies need to be developed. Here, we report the successful development of new elite varieties by pyramiding major genes that significantly contribute to grain quality and yield from three parents over five years...
March 20, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318377/root-hydrotropism-and-thigmotropism-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-are-differentially-controlled-by-redox-status
#16
Georgina Ponce, Gabriel Corkidi, Delfeena Eapen, Fernando Lledias, Luis Cárdenas, Gladys Cassab
Factors that affect the direction of root growth in response to environmental signals influence crop productivity. We analyzed the root tropic responses of thioredoxin (trxs), thigmotropic (wav2-1), and hydrotropic (ahr1 and nhr1) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants treated with low concentrations of paraquat (PQ), which induces mild oxidative stress, and established a new method for evaluating root waviness (root bending effort, RBE). This method estimates root bending by measuring and summing local curvature over the whole length of the root, regardless of the asymmetry of the wavy pattern under thigmostimulation...
March 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317783/heat-induced-formation-of-mepiquat-by-decarboxylation-of-pipecolic-acid-and-its-betaine-derivative-part-2-natural-formation-in-cooked-vegetables-and-selected-food-products
#17
Yuan Yuan, Adrienne Tarres, Thomas Bessaire, Wilhelm Rademacher, Richard H Stadler, Thierry Delatour
Mepiquat (N,N-dimethylpiperidinium) is a plant growth regulator registered for use as its chloride salt in many countries on cereals and other crops. Recent model system studies have shown that natural chemicals present in crop plants, such as pipecolic acid and pipecolic acid betaine, may furnish mepiquat through different chemical pathways, when subjected to temperatures in the range of 200°C. In this study, we cooked raw vegetables that did not contain mepiquat to a palatable state using different traditional cooking methods, and detected mepiquat in 9 out of 11 oven-cooked vegetables, reaching up to 189μg/kg dry wt in oven-cooked broccoli...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317545/phylogeny-and-pathogenicity-of-lasiodiplodia-species-associated-with-dieback-of-mango-in-peru
#18
Edgar Rodríguez-Gálvez, Pakita Guerrero, Carla Barradas, Pedro W Crous, Artur Alves
Mango, which is an important tropical fruit crop in the region of Piura (Peru), is known to be prone to a range of diseases caused by Lasiodiplodia spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of mango dieback in the region of Piura, and to identify the species of Lasiodiplodia associated with the disease and evaluate their pathogenicity towards mango. Mango dieback was present in all orchards surveyed but incidence varied with location. Identification of fungal isolates was based on morphological and cultural characteristics as well as sequence data of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1-α)...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317539/botryosphaeriaceae-species-associated-with-dieback-and-canker-disease-of-bay-laurel-in-northern-california-with-the-description-of-dothiorella-californica-sp-nov
#19
Daniel P Lawrence, Francesca Peduto Hand, W Douglas Gubler, Florent P Trouillas
Members of the Botryosphaeriaceae are cosmopolitan fungi that may exist as seemingly innocuous endophytes or as destructive pathogens of numerous woody hosts, including fruit and nut crops, urban ornamental trees and shrubs, and forest trees. Surveys of bay laurel in northern California have revealed symptoms of dieback and branch canker of unknown aetiology. The goals of this study were to identify and clarify the species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with these symptoms and to confirm their pathogenicity...
April 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317175/occupational-respiratory-allergy-in-peach-crop-workers
#20
Remedios Pérez-Calderón, M Ángeles Gonzalo-Garijo, Francisco José Rodríguez-Velasco, Silvia Sánchez-Vega, Borja Bartolomé-Zavala
BACKGROUND: Occupational respiratory diseases in workers of peach tree crops have been reported punctually and have been associated with sensitization to proteins present in both pollen and leaf tree. We report the study of 37 workers with respiratory symptoms related to occupational exposure to peach trees. METHODS: Prick tests and specific IgE determinations were performed with extracts from leaves and branches of peach tree. Immunodetection in leaf extract was realized by SDS-PAGE-immunoblotting with patient sera and rabbit serum anti-Pru p 3...
March 20, 2017: Allergy
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