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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644843/a-high-density-genetic-map-and-qtl-analysis-of-agronomic-traits-in-foxtail-millet-setaria-italica-l-p-beauv-using-rad-seq
#1
Jun Wang, Zhilan Wang, Xiaofen Du, Huiqing Yang, Fang Han, Yuanhuai Han, Feng Yuan, Linyi Zhang, Shuzhong Peng, Erhu Guo
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a very important grain crop in China, has become a new model plant for cereal crops and biofuel grasses. Although its reference genome sequence was released recently, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling complex agronomic traits remains limited. The development of massively parallel genotyping methods and next-generation sequencing technologies provides an excellent opportunity for developing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for linkage map construction and QTL analysis of complex quantitative traits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644397/relationship-between-remote-sensing-data-plant-biomass-and-soil-nitrogen-dynamics-in-intensively-managed-grasslands-under-controlled-conditions
#2
Christoph Knoblauch, Conor Watson, Clara Berendonk, Rolf Becker, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Florian Wichern
The sustainable use of grasslands in intensive farming systems aims to optimize nitrogen (N) inputs to increase crop yields and decrease harmful losses to the environment at the same time. To achieve this, simple optical sensors may provide a non-destructive, time- and cost-effective tool for estimating plant biomass in the field, considering spatial and temporal variability. However, the plant growth and related N uptake is affected by the available N in the soil, and therefore, N mineralization and N losses...
June 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644383/use-of-ultrasonication-technology-for-the-increased-production-of-plant-secondary-metabolites
#3
REVIEW
Md Mohidul Hasan, Tufail Bashir, Hanhong Bae
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) provide taste, color, odor, and resistance to plants, and they are also used to treat cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Synthesis of PSMs in plants is stimulated in response to different forms of external stress. Use of ultrasonication (US) to clean or decontaminate fruits and vegetables leads to physical stress that finally results in the accumulation of PSMs. US can stimulate accumulation of taxol, ginsenoside saponins, shikonin, and resveratrol, e.g., up to 319-fold increase of resveratrol synthesis has been observed in grape due to US...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644041/identifying-the-functional-groups-and-the-influence-of-synthetic-chelators-on-cd-availability-and-microbial-biomass-carbon-in-cd-contaminated-soil
#4
Muhammad Afzal Chhajro, Qingling Fu, Muhammad Shaaban, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan, Jun Zhu, Abdus Salam, Kashif Ali Kubar, Saqib Bashir, Hongqing Hu, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro
Synthetic chelators play an important role in boosting the microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and heavy metal solubility in a contaminated soil towards a sustainability of environment for agricultural crops. Castor was selected as a potential cadmium (Cd) accumulator in different levels of Cd (-Cd and +Cd) contamination with using three chelating agents, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (H4EDTA), nitriloacetic acid (H3 NTA) and NH4 citrate (ammonium citrate) were added to soil at rates of 10, 15 and 25 mmol in 5 kg of soil per pot...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644028/understanding-the-effects-of-genotype-growing-year-and-breeding-on-tunisian-durum-wheat-allergenicity-part-1-the-baker-s-asthma-case
#5
Fatma Boukid, Barbara Prandi, Stefano Sforza, Rhouma Sayar, Yong Weon Seo, Mondher Mejri, Ines Yacoubi
Baker's asthma is a serious airway disease triggered by wheat proteins CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of genotype and crop year on allergen CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor associated to baker's asthma. A historical series of Tunisian durum wheat (100 accessions), derived from three crop years, was used to compare the amount of CM3 from landraces to advanced cultivars. CM3 protein quantification was assessed after an enzymatic cleavage of the soluble protein extracts on an UPLC/ESI-MS system, using a marker peptide for its quantification...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644007/cyclotides-as-tools-in-chemical-biology
#6
Simon J de Veer, Joachim Weidmann, David J Craik
Among the various molecules that plants produce for defense against pests and pathogens, cyclotides stand out as exceptionally stable and structurally unique. These ribosomally synthesized peptides are around 30 amino acids in size, and are stabilized by a head-to-tail cyclic peptide backbone and three disulfide bonds that form a cystine knot. They occur in certain plants of the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae families, with an individual plant producing up to hundreds of different cyclotides...
June 23, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643882/the-history-and-current-status-of-glyphosate
#7
Stephen O Duke
Glyphosate is the only herbicide to target the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl-3-shikimate phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is a high use rate, non-selective herbicide that translocates primarily to metabolic sinks, killing meristematic tissues away from the application site. Its phloem-mobile properties and slow action in killing weeds allows the herbicide to move throughout the plant to kill all meristems, making it effective for perennial weed control. Since commercialization in 1974, its use has grown to dominate the herbicide market...
June 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643859/gibberellic-and-kaurenoic-hybrid-strigolactone-mimics-for-seed-germination-of-parasitic-weeds
#8
Rondinelle G Pereira, Antonio Cala, Mónica Fernández-Aparicio, José M G Molinillo, Maria A D Boaventura, Francisco A Macías
BACKGROUND: Parasitic weeds are widespread and they cause significant losses in important crops. Their germination requires the detection of crop-derived molecules such as strigolactones. Strigolactone mimics are germination-inducing molecules with potential to apply the suicidal germination strategy for seed bank control of parasitic weeds. RESULTS: Attachment of the D-ring, which is instrumental in the germination process of seeds of parasitic weeds, has been carried out to gibberellin (GA3 ) and kaurenoic as the scaffold...
June 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643846/feeding-behaviour-of-generalist-pests-on-brassica-juncea-implication-for-manipulation-of-glucosinolate-biosynthesis-pathway-for-enhanced-resistance
#9
Pawan Kumar, Rehna Augustine, Amarjeet Kumar Singh, Naveen C Bisht
Differential accumulation of plant defense metabolites has been suggested to have important ecological consequence in the context of plant-insect interactions. Feeding of generalist pests on Brassica juncea showed a distinct pattern with selective exclusion of leaf margins which are high in glucosinolates. Molecular basis of this differential accumulation of glucosinolates could be explained based on differential expression profile of BjuMYB28 homologs, the major biosynthetic regulators of aliphatic glucosinolates, as evident from quantitative real-time PCR and promoter:GUS fusion studies in allotetraploid B...
June 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643581/a-white-paper-on-global-wheat-health-based-on-scenario-development-and-analysis
#10
Serge Savary, Annika Djurle, Jonathan Yuen, Andrea Ficke, Vittorio Rossi, Paul Esker, Jose M Fernandes, Emerson Del Ponte, Jatindra Kumar, Laurence V Madden, Pierce A Paul, Neil McRoberts, Pawan Kumar Singh, Laurent Huber, Claude Pope de Vallavieille, Sébastien Saint-Jean, Laetitia Willocquet
Scenario analysis constitutes a useful approach to synthesize knowledge and derive hypotheses in the case of complex systems which are documented with mainly qualitative or very diverse information. In this article, a framework for scenario analysis is designed and then, applied to global wheat health within a timeframe from today to 2050. Scenario analysis entails the choice of settings, the definition of scenarios of change, and the analysis of outcomes of these scenarios in the chosen settings. Three idealized agrosystems, representing a large fraction of the global diversity of wheat-based agrosystems, are considered, which represent the settings of the analysis...
June 23, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643122/symbiotic-performance-and-induction-of-systemic-resistance-against-cercospora-sojina-in-soybean-plants-co-inoculated-with-bacillus-sp-chep5-and-bradyrhizobium-japonicum-e109
#11
María Laura Tonelli, C Magallanes-Noguera, A Fabra
Soybean is an economically very important crop throughout the word and particularly in Argentina. Soybean yield may be affected by many factors such as the lack of some essential nutrients or pathogens attack. In this work we demonstrated that the co-inoculation of the native biocontrol bacterium Bacillus sp. CHEP5 which induces resistance against Cercospora sojina in soybean and the nitrogen fixing strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum E109, was more effective in reducing frog leaf spot severity than the inoculation of the biocontrol agent alone...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642973/estimating-the-magnitude-of-morphoscapes-how-to-measure-the-morphological-component-of-biodiversity-in-relation-to-habitats-using-geometric-morphometrics
#12
Diego Fontaneto, Martina Panisi, Mauro Mandrioli, Dario Montardi, Maurizio Pavesi, Andrea Cardini
Ecological indicators are currently developed to account for the different facets of loss of biological diversity due to direct or indirect effects of human activities. Most ecological indicators include species richness as a metric. Others, such as functional traits and phylogenetic diversity, account for differences in species, even when species richness is the same. Here, we describe and apply a different indicator, called morphoscape dimension, accounting for morphological variability across habitats in a geographical region...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642785/potassium-starvation-limits-soybean-growth-more-than-the-photosynthetic-processes-across-co2-levels
#13
Shardendu K Singh, Vangimalla R Reddy
Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) often enhances plant photosynthesis, growth, and productivity. However, under nutrient-limited conditions the beneficial effects of high CO2 are often diminished. To evaluate the combined effects of potassium (K) deficiency and eCO2 on soybean photosynthesis, growth, biomass partitioning, and yields, plants were grown under controlled environment conditions with an adequate (control, 5.0 mM) and two deficient (0.50 and 0.02 mM) levels of K under ambient CO2 (aCO2; 400 μmol mol(-1)) and eCO2 (800 μmol mol(-1))...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642781/effects-of-nitrogen-supply-on-water-stress-and-recovery-mechanisms-in-kentucky-bluegrass-plants
#14
Shah Saud, Shah Fahad, Chen Yajun, Muhammad Z Ihsan, Hafiz M Hammad, Wajid Nasim, Amanullah, Muhammad Arif, Hesham Alharby
Non-irrigated crops in temperate and irrigated crops in arid regions are exposed to an incessant series of drought stress and re-watering. Hence, quick and efficient recuperation from drought stress may be amongst the key determinants of plant drought adjustment. Efficient nitrogen (N) nutrition has the capability to assuage water stress in crops by sustaining metabolic activities even at reduced tissue water potential. This study was designed to understand the potential of proper nutrition management by studying the morphological and physiological attributes, and assimilation of nitrogen in Kentucky bluegrass under drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642779/mitigating-groundwater-depletion-in-north-china-plain-with-cropping-system-that-alternate-deep-and-shallow-rooted-crops
#15
Xiao-Lin Yang, Yuan-Quan Chen, Tammo S Steenhuis, Steven Pacenka, Wang-Sheng Gao, Li Ma, Min Zhang, Peng Sui
In the North China Plain, groundwater tables have been dropping at unsustainable rates of 1 m per year due to irrigation of a double cropping system of winter wheat and summer maize. To reverse the trend, we examined whether alternative crop rotations could save water. Moisture contents were measured weekly at 20 cm intervals in the top 180 cm of soil as part of a 12-year field experiment with four crop rotations: sweet potato→ cotton→ sweet potato→ winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle); peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle); ryegrass-cotton→ peanuts→ winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle); and winter wheat-summer maize (WS, each year)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642778/characterization-of-salt-induced-epigenetic-segregation-by-genome-wide-loss-of-heterozygosity-and-its-association-with-salt-tolerance-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#16
Min Li, Wen-Sheng Wang, Yun-Long Pang, Jessica R Domingo, Jauhar Ali, Jian-Long Xu, Bin-Ying Fu, Elec B Venus, Zhi-Kang Li
In a breeding effort to develop salt tolerant (ST) rice varieties by designed QTL pyramiding, large numbers of progenies derived from four crosses between salt- or drought- tolerant BC2F5 IR64 introgression lines, were subjected to severe salt stress, resulting in 422 ST plants. The progeny testing of the selected F3 lines under more severe salt stress resulted in identification of 16 promising homozygous lines with high levels of ST. Genetic characterization of the 422 ST F3 progeny and 318 random F2 plants from the same four crosses using 105 segregating SSR markers lead to three interesting discoveries: (1) salt stress can induce genome-wide epigenetic segregation (ES) characterized by complete loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and nearly complete loss of an allele (LOA) in the F3 progenies of four rice populations in a single generation; (2) ∼25% of the stress-induced ES loci were transgenerational and inherited from their salt- and drought- selected parents; and (3) the salt-induced LOH and LOA loci (regions) appeared to contain genes/alleles associated with ST and/or drought tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642774/increasing-provasculature-complexity-in-the-arabidopsis-embryo-may-increase-total-iron-content-in-seeds-a-hypothesis
#17
Hannetz Roschzttardtz, Sofía Bustos, Maria F Coronas, Miguel A Ibeas, Susana Grant-Grant, Joaquín Vargas-Pérez
Anemia due to iron deficiency is a worldwide issue, affecting mainly children and women. Seed iron is a major source of this micronutrient for feeding, however, in most crops these levels are too low to meet daily needs. Thus, increasing iron allocation and its storage in seeds can represent an important step to enhance iron provision for humans and animals. Our knowledge on seed iron homeostasis is mainly based on studies performed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where iron accumulates in endodermis cells surrounding the embryo provasculature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642771/transcriptomic-analysis-of-avocado-hass-persea-americana-mill-in-the-interaction-system-fruit-chitosan-colletotrichum
#18
Luis-Ángel Xoca-Orozco, Esther Angélica Cuellar-Torres, Sandra González-Morales, Porfirio Gutiérrez-Martínez, Ulises López-García, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Julio Vega-Arreguín, Alejandra Chacón-López
Avocado (Persea americana) is one of the most important crops in Mexico as it is the main producer, consumer, and exporter of avocado fruit in the world. However, successful avocado commercialization is often reduced by large postharvest losses due to Colletotrichum sp., the causal agent of anthracnose. Chitosan is known to have a direct antifungal effect and acts also as an elicitor capable of stimulating a defense response in plants. However, there is little information regarding the genes that are either activated or repressed in fruits treated with chitosan...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642765/genome-wide-identification-of-ap2-erf-transcription-factors-in-cauliflower-and-expression-profiling-of-the-erf-family-under-salt-and-drought-stresses
#19
Hui Li, Yu Wang, Mei Wu, Lihong Li, Cong Li, Zhanpin Han, Jiye Yuan, Chengbin Chen, Wenqin Song, Chunguo Wang
The AP2/ERF transcription factors (TFs) comprise one of the largest gene superfamilies in plants. These TFs perform vital roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, 171 AP2/ERF TFs were identified in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis), one of the most important horticultural crops in Brassica. Among these TFs, 15, 9, and 1 TFs were classified into the AP2, RAV, and Soloist family, respectively. The other 146 TFs belong to ERF family, which were further divided into the ERF and DREB subfamilies...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642761/overexpression-of-bdmate-gene-improves-aluminum-tolerance-in-setaria-viridis
#20
Ana P Ribeiro, Wagner R de Souza, Polyana K Martins, Felipe Vinecky, Karoline E Duarte, Marcos F Basso, Bárbara A D B da Cunha, Raquel B Campanha, Patrícia A de Oliveira, Danilo C Centeno, Geraldo M A Cançado, Jurandir V de Magalhães, Carlos A F de Sousa, Alan C Andrade, Adilson K Kobayashi, Hugo B C Molinari
Acidic soils are distributed worldwide, predominantly in tropical and subtropical areas, reaching around 50% of the arable soil. This type of soil strongly reduces crop production, mainly because of the presence of aluminum, which has its solubility increased at low pH levels. A well-known physiological mechanism used by plants to cope with Al stress involves activation of membrane transporters responsible for organic acid anions secretion from the root apex to the rhizosphere, which chelate Al, preventing its absorption by roots...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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