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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655194/predicting-indirect-effects-of-predator-prey-interactions
#1
Sarah E Gilman
Predicting the effects of climate change on species and communities remains a pre-eminent challenge for biologists. Critical among this is understanding the indirect effects of climate change, which arise when the direct, physiological effects of climate on one species change the outcome of its interaction with a second species, altering the success of the second species. A diverse array of approaches to predicting indirect effects exists from mechanistic models, which attempt to build-up from physiological changes to ecological consequences, to ecological models that focus solely on the ecological scale...
June 23, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655190/right-ventricular-function-during-exercise-in-children-after-heart-transplantation
#2
B Cifra, C T Morgan, A Dragulescu, V C Guerra, C Slorach, M K Friedberg, C Manlhiot, B W McCrindle, A I Dipchand, L Mertens
Aims: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a common problem after heart transplant (HTx). In this study, we used semi-supine bicycle ergometry (SSBE) stress echocardiography to evaluate RV systolic and diastolic reserve in paediatric HTx recipients. Methods and results: Thirty-nine pediatric HTx recipients and 23 controls underwent stepwise SSBE stress echocardiography. Colour tissue doppler imaging (TDI) peak systolic (s') and peak diastolic (e') velocities, myocardial acceleration during isovolumic contraction (IVA), and RV free wall longitudinal strain were measured at incremental heart rates (HR)...
June 23, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655184/characterization-of-a-coupled-dna-replication-and-translesion-synthesis-polymerase-supraholoenzyme-from-archaea
#3
Matthew T Cranford, Aurea M Chu, Joshua K Baguley, Robert J Bauer, Michael A Trakselis
The ability of the replisome to seamlessly coordinate both high fidelity and translesion DNA synthesis requires a means to regulate recruitment and binding of enzymes from solution. Co-occupancy of multiple DNA polymerases within the replisome has been observed primarily in bacteria and is regulated by posttranslational modifications in eukaryotes, and both cases are coordinated by the processivity clamp. Because of the heterotrimeric nature of the PCNA clamp in some archaea, there is potential to occupy and regulate specific polymerases at defined subunits...
June 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655182/longitudinal-changes-in-mean-and-pulse-pressure-and-all-cause-mortality-data-from-71-629-untreated-normotensive-individuals
#4
Athanase D Protogerou, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Frederique Thomas, Yi Zhang, Bruno Pannier, Jacques Blacher, Michel E Safar
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) includes a steady (mean arterial pressure, MAP) and a pulsatile component that independently predict mortality. The association between longitudinal changes in central (c) pulse pressure (PP), brachial (b) PP, MAP, and incident mortality has never been investigated in this context. METHODS: Brachial MAP and PP were measured at 2 routine checkups (1st visit 1992; mean interval, 5.8 ± 2.4 years) in 71,629 individuals, age 16-95 years, none on antihypertensive drugs...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655175/associations-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-treatment-with-reduced-mortality-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-retrospective-survival-analysis
#5
Christoph Mueller, Gayan Perera, Richard D Hayes, Hitesh Shetty, Robert Stewart
Background: dementia is increasingly recognised as life-limiting condition. Although the benefits of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) on cognition and function are well established, their effect on survival is less clear. Objective: to investigate associations between AChEI prescription and mortality in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) in a naturalistic setting, using detailed baseline data on cognition, functioning, and mental and physical wellbeing...
June 24, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655171/regulatory-control-and-impulsivity-relate-to-resting-frontal-activity
#6
Lauren B Neal, Philip A Gable
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) asserts three core personality systems: the behavioral approach system (BAS), the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), and the revised behavioral inhibition system (r-BIS). Past models of frontal activity link greater relative left frontal activity with Carver and White's (1994) BAS scale and trait impulsivity and greater relative right frontal activity with Carver and White's (1994) BIS scale. However, the original BIS scale assesses both FFFS and r-BIS. Past work linking the BIS scale and right frontal activity does not indicate which system is related to right frontal activity...
June 26, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655169/hospital-at-home-integrated-care-programme-for-the-management-of-disabling-health-crises-in-older-patients-comparison-with-bed-based-intermediate-care
#7
Miquel À Mas, Marco Inzitari, Sergi Sabaté, Sebastià J Santaeugènia, Ramón Miralles
Objective: to analyse the clinical impact of a home-based Intermediate Care model in the Catalan health system, comparing it with usual bed-based care. Design: quasi-experimental longitudinal study. Setting: hospital Municipal de Badalona and El Carme Intermediate Care Hospital, Badalona, Catalonia, Spain. Participants: we included older patients with medical and orthopaedic disabling health crises in need of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) and rehabilitation...
June 24, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655163/microrna-21a-5p-pdcd4-axis-regulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-induced-neuroprotection-in-acute-glaucoma
#8
Wenru Su, Zuohong Li, Yu Jia, Yingting Zhu, Wenjia Cai, Peixing Wan, Yingying Zhang, Song Guo Zheng, Yehong Zhuo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have promising therapeutic benefits for a variety of neurological diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we showed that intravitreal infusion of MSCs promoted retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in a mouse model of acute glaucoma, with significant inhibition of microglial activation, production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and reactive oxygen species, as well as caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. In vitro, MSCs inhibited both caspase-8-mediated RGC apoptosis and microglial activation, partly via the action of stanniocalcin 1 (STC1)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655162/the-role-of-older-persons-environment-in-aging-well-quality-of-life-illness-and-community-context-in-south-africa
#9
Margaret Ralston
Purpose of the Study: This article evaluates the influence of local district conditions on subjective quality of life of older South African adults. Policymakers increasingly recognize that "successful" aging policies must not only address physical health needs but also factors that influence subjective well-being. Design and Methods: To investigate the influence of area-level distribution of "public goods" on well-being in a low- and middle-income setting, nationally representative WHO-Study of Global AGEing and Adult Health (WHO-SAGE) survey data is combined with district-level data that captures built resources and health system distribution...
June 24, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655161/dysfunction-of-pla2g6-and-cyp2c44-associated-network-signals-imminent-carcinogenesis-from-chronic-inflammation-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Meiyi Li, Chen Li, Wei-Xin Liu, Conghui Liu, Jingru Cui, Qingrun Li, Hong Ni, Yingcheng Yang, Chaochao Wu, Chunlei Chen, Xing Zhen, Tao Zeng, Mujun Zhao, Lei Chen, Jiarui Wu, Rong Zeng, Luonan Chen
Little is known about how chronic inflammation contributes to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially the initiation of cancer. To uncover the critical transition from chronic inflammation to HCC and the molecular mechanisms at a network level, we analyzed the time-series proteomic data of woodchuck hepatitis virus/c-myc mice and age-matched wt-C57BL/6 mice using our dynamical network biomarker (DNB) model. DNB analysis indicated that the 5th month after birth of transgenic mice was the critical period of cancer initiation, just before the critical transition, which is consistent with clinical symptoms...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655154/risk-model-for-deaths-and-renal-replacement-therapy-dependence-in-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-after-cardiac-surgery
#11
Shiren Sun, Feng Ma, Qiaoneng Li, Ming Bai, Yangping Li, Yan Yu, Chen Huang, Hanmin Wang, Xiaoxuan Ning
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased in-hospital deaths. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is becoming a routine strategy for severe AKI. Our goal was to evaluate the risk factors for death and RRT dependence in patients with AKI after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We included 190 eligible adult patients who had AKI following cardiac surgery and who required RRT at our centre from November 2010 to March 2015...
June 23, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655149/neuromodulation-of-axon-terminals
#12
Darpan Chakraborty, Dennis Q Truong, Marom Bikson, Hanoch Kaphzan
Understanding which cellular compartments are influenced during neuromodulation underpins any rational effort to explain and optimize outcomes. Axon terminals have long been speculated to be sensitive to polarization, but experimentally informed models for CNS stimulation are lacking. We conducted simultaneous intracellular recording from the neuron soma and axon terminal (blebs) during extracellular stimulation with weak sustained (DC) uniform electric fields in mouse cortical slices. Use of weak direct current stimulation (DCS) allowed isolation and quantification of changes in axon terminal biophysics, relevant to both suprathreshold (e...
June 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655145/partitioned-learning-of-deep-boltzmann-machines-for-snp-data
#13
Moritz Hess, Stefan Lenz, Tamara J Blätte, Lars Bullinger, Harald Binder
Motivation: Learning the joint distributions of measurements, and in particular identification of an appropriate low-dimensional manifold, has been found to be a powerful ingredient of deep leaning approaches. Yet, such approaches have hardly been applied to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, probably due to the high number of features typically exceeding the number of studied individuals. Results: After a brief overview of how deep Boltzmann machines (DBMs), a deep learning approach, can be adapted to SNP data in principle, we specifically present a way to alleviate the dimensionality problem by partitioned learning...
June 26, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655131/thrombospondin-i-concentrations-behavior-in-plasma-of-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#14
Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska, Anita Chudecka-Głaz, Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Bogusław Machaliński, Janusz Menkiszak
PURPOSE: To determine whether thrombospondin-1 might be used as a prognostic factor in ovarian cancer patients. METHOD: Ninety-six female subjects hospitalized in years 2011-2014 was included in the study. Transvaginal ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. In 39 cases of suspected ovarian cancer, CT scans were also performed. Each patient had been subjected to collection of a 5-mL blood sample before the laparoscopic procedure. Thrombospondin-1 concentrations were quantified in serum by multiplex fluorescent bead-based immunoassays (Luminex) at the Laboratory of the Department of General Pathology...
June 2, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655117/the-overall-5-year-survival-rate-of-breast-cancer-among-iranian-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-published-studies
#15
Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Maryam Jalali, Ahmad Maghsoudi, Ali Mohammad Mokhtari, Soheil Hassanipour Azgomi, Seyedeh Leila Dehghani
INTRODUCTION: Breast Cancer (BC) is the most prevalent cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among Iranian women. A valid estimation of the 5-year survival rate can improve the current BC treatment programs. The present study aimed to assess the 5-year survival rate through a systematic review of published studies. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and Science direct as well as Iranian databases was conducted to identify the original articles evaluating the 5-year survival rate of BC among women in Iran...
June 23, 2017: Breast Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655116/phytotoxic-effects-of-terrestrial-dissolved-organic-matter-on-a-freshwater-cyanobacteria-and-green-algae-species-is-affected-by-plant-source-and-dom-chemical-composition
#16
Amanda D Neilen, Darryl W Hawker, Katherine R O'Brien, Michele A Burford
Here we link plant source phylogeny to its chemical characteristics and determine parameters useful for predicting DOM phytotoxicity towards algal monocultures. We found that DOM characterised using UV-visible spectroscopic indices and elemental analysis is useful for distinguishing DOM plant sources. Specifically, combined values of absorbance at 440 nm and coefficients for the spectral slope ratio, were used to distinguish between gymnosperm-leached DOM and that from angiosperms. In our bioassays, DOM leached from 4 g leaf L(-1) resulted in over 40% inhibition of photosynthetic yield for the cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, for eight of the nine plants tested...
June 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655099/-mononuclear-cells-of-umbilical-cord-blood-differentiation-to-granulocyte-cell-in-vitro
#17
L Chen, X Y Xie, J Q Nie, D L Chen, A P Huang, F Fang, M Y Qu, X Nan, L J He, Z Fan, W Yue, X T Pei
Objective: To explore an optimal method for granulocyte cell production from umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells. Methods: Erythrocytes were precipitated by hydroxyethyl starch. Mononuclear cells were isolated through Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. Different media, additives and cultivation model were chosen for granulocyte induction. Cell morphology was observed by microscopy, and cell phenotype was detected by flow cytometry. The CD18 expression of granulocytes was tested by immunofluorescence assay, and phagocytosis test was executed as well...
June 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655095/-efficacy-and-prognostic-analysis-of-98-cases-of-relapsed-refractory-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-treated-with-second-line-regimens
#18
M C Zhang, Y Qian, J Hao, Z Y Liu, W L Zhao, L Wang
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and prognostic factors of second-line regimens for patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed in 98 patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL who were treated with salvage regimens in Rui Jin Hospital from July 2004 to June 2016. Overall response rate (ORR) was evaluated after all treatment finished. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate by Cox proportional hazards models...
June 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655080/-a-retrospective-controlled-clinical-study-of-single-incision-plus-one-port-laparoscopic-surgery-for-sigmoid-colon-and-upper-rectal-cancer
#19
G X Li, J M Li, Y N Wang, H J Deng, T Y Mou, H Liu
Objective: To evaluate the short-term and oncologic outcomes of single-incision plus one port laparoscopic surgery (SILS+ 1) for sigmoid colon and upper rectal cancer. Methods: The clinic data of 46 patients with sigmoid colon and upper rectal cancer underwent SILS+ 1 at Department of General Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from September 2013 to September 2014 were retrospectively reviewed (SILS+ 1 group). After generating 1∶1 ration propensity scores given the covariates of age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, surgeons, tumor location, the distance of tumor from anal, tumor diameter, and pathologic TNM stage, 46 patients with sigmoid colon and upper rectal cancer underwent conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS) in the same time were matched as CLS group...
July 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655070/inhibitory-effect-of-carnosol-on-phthalic-anhydride-induced-atopic-dermatitis-via-inhibition-of-stat3
#20
Do Yeon Lee, Chul Ju Hwang, Ji Yeon Choi, Mi Hee Park, Min Ji Song, Ki Wan Oh, Dong Ju Son, Seung Hwa Lee, Sang Bae Han, Jin Tae Hong
Carnosol is a phenolic antioxidant present in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). It is known for anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic activity and anti-cancer effects. However, no study has been dedicated yet to its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD). Here, we show that carnosol effectively inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) generation and expression of inflammatory marker proteins (iNOS and COX-2) in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, carnosol effectively inhibits the phosphorylation of STAT3 and DNA binding activity in RAW 264...
June 27, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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