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Chien-Hui Syu, Po-Hsuan Chien, Chia-Chen Huang, Pei-Yu Jiang, Kai-Wei Juang, Dar-Yuan Lee
Limited information is available on the effects of gallium (Ga) and indium (In) on the growth of paddy rice. The Ga and In are emerging contaminants and widely used in high-tech industries nowadays. Understanding the toxicity and accumulation of Ga and In by rice plants is important for reducing the effect on rice production and exposure risk to human by rice consumption. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of Ga and In on the growth of rice seedlings and examines the accumulation and distribution of those elements in plant tissues...
September 24, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Lorenzo Rossi, Monica Borghi, Alessandra Francini, Xiuli Lin, De-Yu Xie, Luca Sebastiani
Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in the Mediterranean Basin where drought and salinity are two of the main factors affecting plant productivity. Despite several studies have reported different responses of various olive tree cultivars to salt stress, the mechanisms that convey tolerance and sensitivity remain largely unknown. To investigate this issue, potted olive plants of Leccino (salt-sensitive) and Frantoio (salt-tolerant) cultivars were grown in a phytotron chamber and treated with 0, 60 and 120mM NaCl...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Tomasz L Woznicki, Anita Sønsteby, Kjersti Aaby, Berit K Martinsen, Ola M Heide, Anne-Berit Wold, Siv F Remberg
BACKGROUND: Marked effects of the climatic environment on fruit chemical composition has often been demonstrated in field experiments. However, complex covariations of several climatic factors in the natural environment complicates the interpretation of such experiments and the identification of the causal factors. This can better be done in a phytotron where the various climatic factors can be varied systematically. Therefore, we grew four black currant cultivars of contrasting origin in a phytotron under controlled post-flowering temperature and photoperiod conditions and analysed the berries for their contents of ascorbic acids, sugars and organic acids...
June 22, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Edina Türkösi, András Cseh, Éva Darkó, Márta Molnár-Láng
BACKGROUND: Cultivated barley belongs to the tertiary genepool of hexaploid wheat. Genes of interest can be transferred from barley into wheat through wide hybridization. The application of wheat-barley introgression lines could provide an excellent tool for the transfer of earliness, favourable amino acid composition, biotic stress resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, or good tillering ability into wheat. RESULTS: A set of 10 wheat-barley ditelosomic addition lines (2HS, 2HL, 3HS, 3HL, 4HS, 4HL, 6HS, 6HL, 7HS and 7HL) was developed from the progenies of an Asakaze/Manas wheat-barley hybrid produced in Martonvásár, Hungary...
2016: BMC Genetics
Xiaocheng Zhu, Dominik Skoneczny, Jeffrey D Weidenhamer, James M Mwendwa, Paul A Weston, Geoff M Gurr, Ragan M Callaway, Leslie A Weston
Bioactive plant secondary products are frequently the drivers of complex rhizosphere interactions, including those with other plants, herbivores and microbiota. These chemically diverse molecules typically accumulate in a highly regulated manner in specialized plant tissues and organelles. We studied the production and localization of bioactive naphthoquinones (NQs) in the roots of Echium plantagineum, an invasive endemic weed in Australia. Roots of E. plantagineum produced red-coloured NQs in the periderm of primary and secondary roots, while seedling root hairs exuded NQs in copious quantities...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Neslihan Saruhan Guler, Necla Pehlivan
Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) functions as a signal molecule in plants under abiotic and biotic stress. In this study, the role of exogenous H(2)O(2) in improving drought tolerance in two soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merrill) differing in their tolerance to drought was evaluated. Plants were grown in plastic pots with normal irrigation in a phytotron. Four weeks after radicle emergence, either 1 mM H(2)O(2) or distilled water was sprayed as foliar onto the leaves of each plant, after drought stress was applied...
June 2016: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Li Li, Jia Li, Qing Gao, Jin-xing Chen
Abstract: The effects of day and night temperature difference (DIF) on tomato's growth were studied in three precisely controlled units in phytotron. Set DIF as 6 °C (25/19 C), 8 °C (26/18 °C), 10 °C (27/17 °C) respectively, with the same diurnal mean temperature as 22 °C. The results showed that, different tomato varieties needed different suitable DIF at different growth stages. Before flouring, compared with DIF 6 °C , DIF 8 °C could significantly improve the growth and development of the wild currant tomato LA1781, increasing the plant height by 23...
September 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Tomasz L Woznicki, Kjersti Aaby, Anita Sønsteby, Ola M Heide, Anne-Berit Wold, Siv F Remberg
The effects of postflowering temperature and daylength on the concentration of individual phenolic compounds were studied in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) berries under controlled phytotron conditions. The four cultivars studied varied greatly in their concentrations of individual phenolic compounds and temperature stability for accumulation. The concentrations of a wide range of identified phenolic compounds were strongly influenced by temperature over the 12-24 °C range, often with opposite temperature gradient patterns for compounds within the same subclass...
February 3, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bing Liu, Senthold Asseng, Leilei Liu, Liang Tang, Weixing Cao, Yan Zhu
Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages...
May 2016: Global Change Biology
Chun-yan Li, Wen Xu, Li-wei Liu, Jing Yang, Xin-kai Zhu, Wen-shan Guo
Low temperature stresses (-3 and -5 °C) were simulated using artificial temperature-controlled phytotrons to study the freezing rate, the contents of endogenous hormones, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes in the leaves of wheat plants of Yangmai 16 (YM 16) and Xumai 30 (XM 30) at jointing stage. The grade and index of freezing injury increased with lower temperature and longer stress. The freezing rate was at the 5th level and the main stems and tillers of both cultivars were finally dead under -5 °C lasting for 72 h...
July 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yan-hua Zeng, Yu-ping Zhang, Jing Xiang, Ya-liang Wang, Hui-zhe Chen, De-feng Zhu
A pot experiment in phytotron with controlled temperature was conducted to examine the effects of low temperature (LT) on differentiation and retrogression of branches and spikelets and grain filling of rice during panicle initiation (PI). In this study, indica inbred rice called Zhong-jiazaol7 was planted and treated at 17 and 20 °C of LT during primary branches anlage differentiation (II) and pollen mother cell meiosis stage (VI) of PI. The results showed that the numbers of differentiated and survived branches per panicle were significantly reduced under LT treatment compared with control, and the number of survived spikelets was significantly decreased by 7...
July 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Walter Chitarra, Ilenia Siciliano, Ilario Ferrocino, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Angelo Garibaldi
The severity of F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans on rocket plants grown under simulated climate change conditions has been studied. The rocket plants were cultivated on an infested substrate (4 log CFU g-1) and a non-infested substrate over three cycles. Pots were placed in six phytotrons in order to simulate different environmental conditions: 1) 400-450 ppm CO2, 18-22°C; 2) 800-850 ppm CO2, 18-22°C; 3) 400-450 ppm CO2, 22-26°C, 4) 800-850 ppm CO2, 22-26°C, 5) 400-450 ppm CO2, 26-30°C; 6) 800-850 ppm CO2, 26-30°C...
2015: PloS One
Iman Mirmazloum, Márta Ladányi, Zsuzsanna György
Phytochemical participants in the biosynthetic pathway of salidroside and cinnamyl alcohol glycosides were studied from seven Rhodiola rosea L. individuals originating from a wild population. Plants were grown in a phytotron and samples were taken at 3 weekly intervals during the vegetation period. Based on HPLC analysis, all the key compounds to which roseroot medicinal property is attributed were detected, with salidrosde being the most dominant, followed by its aglycone, tyrosol. The contents of all compounds were 2-3 times more in the rhizomes than in roots...
August 2015: Natural Product Communications
M Kitao, T Hida, N Eguchi, H Tobita, H Utsugi, A Uemura, S Kitaoka, T Koike
We measured leaf photosynthetic traits in shade-grown seedlings of four tree species native to northern Japan, raised under an elevated CO2 condition, to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 on shade tolerance of deciduous broadleaf tree species with different successional traits. We considered Betula platyphylla var. japonica and Betula maximowicziana as pioneer species, Quercus mongolica var. crispula as a mid-successional species, and Acer mono as a climax species. The plants were grown under shade conditions (10% of full sunlight) in a CO2 -regulated phytotron...
January 2016: Plant Biology
David P D Munns
This paper describes how, from the early twentieth century, and especially in the early Cold War era, the plant physiologists considered their discipline ideally suited among all the plant sciences to study and explain biological functions and processes, and ranked their discipline among the dominant forms of the biological sciences. At their apex in the late-1960s, the plant physiologists laid claim to having discovered nothing less than the "basic laws of physiology." This paper unwraps that claim, showing that it emerged from the construction of monumental big science laboratories known as phytotrons that gave control over the growing environment...
April 2015: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
David P D Munns
After Darwin, experimental biology sought to unravel organisms. By the early twentieth century, organisms were broadly conceived as the product of their heredity and their environment. Much historical work has explored the scientific attack on the genotype, particularly through the new science of genetics. This article explores the tandem efforts to assert experimental control over the environment in which plants grew and developed. The case described here concerns the creation of the first phytotron at Caltech by botanist and plant physiologist Frits Went...
2014: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Yao Liang, Xiao-Li Jiang, Fen-Tuan Yang, Qing-Jun Cao, Gang Li
The paper aimed to evaluate the effects of lead stress on photosynthetic performance and ginsenoside content in ginseng (Panax ginseng). To accomplish this, three years old ginseng were cultivated in pot and in phytotron with different concentrations of lead, ranging from 0 to 1000 mg x kg(-1) soil for a whole growth period (about 150 days). The photosynthetic parameters in leaves and ginsenoside content in roots of ginseng were determined in green fruit stage and before withering stage, respectively. In comparison with the control, net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in ginseng leaves cultivated with 100 and 250 mg x kg(-1) of lead changed insignificantly, however, ginseng supplied with 500 and 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed a noticeably decline in the net rate of photosynthesis and SPAD value (P < 0...
August 2014: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jørgen A B Mølmann, Anne L H Steindal, Gunnar B Bengtsson, Randi Seljåsen, Per Lea, Josefine Skaret, Tor J Johansen
Broccoli is grown around the world at a wide range of photoperiods and temperatures, which may influence both sensory quality and phytochemical contents. Florets produced in phytotron and at two semi-field sites (70 °N and 58 °N) were examined for effects of contrasting temperatures and photoperiods on sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, flavonols and vitamin C. Growth conditions associated with high northern latitudes of low temperature and long photoperiods, produced bigger floral buds, and florets with sweeter taste and less colour hue than more southern conditions...
April 1, 2015: Food Chemistry
Wilma Ritter, Christoph Andreas Lehmeier, Jana Barbro Winkler, Rainer Matyssek, Thorsten Erhard Edgar Grams
Allocation of recent photoassimilates of juvenile beech and spruce in response to twice-ambient ozone (2 × O(3)) and plant competition (i.e. intra vs. inter-specific) was examined in a phytotron study. To this end, we employed continuous (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) labeling during late summer and pursued tracer kinetics in CO(2) released from stems. In beech, allocation of recent photoassimilates to stems was significantly lowered under 2 × O(3) and increased in spruce when grown in mixed culture. As total tree biomass was not yet affected by the treatments, C allocation reflected incipient tree responses providing the mechanistic basis for biomass partitioning as observed in longer experiments...
January 2015: Environmental Pollution
Naoya Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Shizen Ohnishi, Chika Suzuki, Seiji Hagihara, Tomoaki Miyoshi, Mineo Senda
In Hokkaido, northern Japan, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops are damaged by cold weather. Chilling temperatures result in the appearance of cracking seeds (CS) in soybean crops, especially those grown in eastern and northern Hokkaido. Seed coats of CS are severely split on the dorsal side, and the cotyledons are exposed and frequently separated. CS occurrence causes unstable production because these seeds have no commodity value. However, little is known about the CS phenomenon. The aims of this study were to identify the cold-sensitive stage associated with CS occurrence and to develop a method to select CS-tolerant lines...
May 2014: Breeding Science
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