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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909172/metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-class-d-carbapenemases-in-south-east-of-tunisia-implication-of-mobile-genetic-elements-in-their-dissemination
#1
Olfa Dziri, Carla Andrea Alonso, Raoudha Dziri, Haythem Gharsa, Abderrahmen Maraoub, Carmen Torres, Chedly Chouchani
Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria constitutes a major clinical problem. We propose to characterize molecular features among carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from Southeastern Tunisian Island Hospital. Eighteen carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates (13 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 Proteus mirabilis, 1 Enterobacter cloacae, 3 Acinetobacter baumannii) were recovered during April 2015-August 2016. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance was performed by PCR and sequencing...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908916/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enteric-bacteria-from-pigs-and-chickens-in-nsukka-nigeria
#2
Kennedy F Chah, Ifeoma C Ugwu, Angela Okpala, Kwabugge Y Adamu, Carla Andrea Alonso, Sara Ceballos, John N Nwanta, Carmen Torres
OBJECTIVE: To screen chickens and pigs slaughtered for human consumption for presence and characteristics of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) beta-lactamase-producing enteric bacteria. METHODS: Faecal samples from 410 broiler chickens and 100 pigs were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2μg/ml cefotaxime. The antibacterial resistance phenotypes of the recovered isolates were determined by disc-diffusion method while PCR and subsequent sequencing was performed to identify the ESBL and pAmpC gene variants and other associated resistance determinants...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908805/field-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-an-intranasal-respiratory-vaccine-protocol-on-calf-health-ultrasonographic-lung-consolidation-and-growth-in-holstein-dairy-calves
#3
T L Ollivett, K E Leslie, T F Duffield, D V Nydam, J Hewson, J Caswell, P Dunn, D F Kelton
The objective of this field trial was to evaluate the effect of a vaccine protocol using a commercially available trivalent vaccine designed for intranasal use. Experimental challenge studies have demonstrated varying efficacies of vaccines administered via the intranasal route. A total of 468 calves from 3 herds were enrolled and randomized into 3 treatment groups (positive control, PC, n = 211; intranasal vaccine, IN, n = 215; negative control, NC, n = 42) and followed for 8 to 12 wk. The PC consisted of one dose of commercially available multivalent injectable vaccine against bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, and bovine viral diarrhea administered subcutaneously at 6 wk of age...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908521/respiratory-viruses-among-children-with-non-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Amanda C Nascimento-Carvalho, Ana-Luisa Vilas-Boas, Maria-Socorro H Fontoura, Tytti Vuorinen, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes a major burden to the health care system among children under-5 years worldwide. Information on respiratory viruses in non-severe CAP cases is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the frequency of respiratory viruses among non-severe CAP cases. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study conducted in Salvador, Brazil. Out of 820 children aged 2-59 months with non-severe CAP diagnosed by pediatricians (respiratory complaints and radiographic pulmonary infiltrate/consolidation), recruited in a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908315/expression-and-purification-of-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-of-clade-4-in-escherichia-coli-using-hydroxylapatite-and-ion-exchange-column-chromatography
#5
Hualong Xi, Jinfei Yu, Qing Sun, Jingcai Lu, Tiejun Gu, Xiaonan Guo, Bo Li, Xiaorui Chen, Kaixin Zhang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, worldwide and especially in young children and the elderly. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a widely studied candidate protein vaccine that represents a promising replacement for current polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines. In this study, we describe a simple method to produce PspA of clade 4 from an Escherichia coli expression system using hydroxylapatite and ion-exchange chromatography...
June 13, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908309/anti-inflammatory-and-antibacterial-effects-of-thymus-sipyleus-boiss-subsp-sipyleus-boiss-var-sipyleus-l-essential-oil-against-rhinosinusitis-pathogens
#6
Fatih Demirci, Nursenem Karaca, Mehmet Tekin, Betül Demirci
Thymus sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. sipyleus L. of the Lamiaceae, locally known as thyme scented lemon, which is an endemic taxon collected from Sivas in Anatolia, was investigated in this study due to its folk medicine use against rhinosinusitis. The aromatic characteristics of the plant material gave the idea for the detailed evaluation of the volatiles and essential oil thereof. Consequently, the oil was obtained by Clevenger type hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses for phytochemical characterization...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908308/efficacy-of-whole-cell-pneumococcal-vaccine-in-mice-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Mona Mohammadzadeh, Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi, Abbas Keshtkar, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi, Setareh Mamishi
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have significantly reduced the rate of invasive pneumococcal diseases through the use of vaccine serotypes, infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major public health hazard. Serotype-independent vaccines that are economically viable species of common protein antigens such as whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) are needed. Considering the ongoing debate about the effectiveness of WCVs, a systematic literature review and meta-analysis was carried out to determine the efficacy of WCVs against colonization in mice...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908098/modelling-the-population-effectiveness-of-the-national-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-programme-in-scotland-the-impact-of-targeting-all-individuals-aged-65-years-and-over-flu-vaccination-programme-effectiveness
#8
Stephen Corson, Chris Robertson, Arlene Reynolds, Jim McMenamin
BACKGROUND: For the last 17 years, the UK has employed a routine influenza vaccination programme with the aim of reducing the spread of seasonal influenza. In mid-2000, the programme moved from a purely risk-based approach to a risk and age group targeted approach with all those aged 65+ years being included. To date, there has been no assessment of the population effectiveness of this age targeted policy in Scotland. OBJECTIVES: Statistical modelling techniques were used to determine what impact the routine vaccination of those aged 65+ years has had on influenza related morbidity and mortality in Scotland...
June 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908086/innate-immune-response-reflects-disease-activity-in-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#9
Naomi Tsurikisawa, Chiyako Oshikata, Maiko Watanabe, Takahiro Tsuburai, Takeshi Kaneko, Hiroshi Saito
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a disease characterized by allergic granulomatosis, necrotizing vasculitis, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Interleukin (IL)-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are involved in the innate and type-2 immune responses in EGPA. However, the relationships among these molecules and the mechanisms underlying the development of EGPA remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationships among peripheral blood eosinophil count, serum IL-33 and TSLP concentration, and peripheral blood ILC2 count in patients with EGPA, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), or bronchial asthma (BA)...
June 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907900/-anesthesia-ventilation-and-pain-treatment-in-thoracic-trauma
#10
REVIEW
M Weigeldt, M Paul, S Schulz-Drost, M D Schmittner
The management of anesthesia plays a central role in the treatment of thoracic trauma, both in the initial phase when safeguarding the difficult airway and in the intensive care unit. A rapid transfer to a trauma center should be considered in order to recognize and treat organ dysfunction in time. Development of atelectasis, pneumonia and acute lung failure are common pulmonary complications. Non-invasive ventilation combined with physiotherapy and respiratory training can help to minimize these pulmonary complications...
June 15, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907877/electroporation-mediated-delivery-of-fer-gene-enhances-innate-immune-response-and-improves-survival-in-a-murine-model-of-pneumonia
#11
Vladislav Dolgachev, Sreehari Panicker, Sanjay Balijepalli, Lane Kelly McCandless, Yue Yin, Samantha Swamy, M V Suresh, Matthew J Delano, Mark R Hemmila, Krishnan Raghavendran, David Machado-Aranda
Previously, we reported that electroporation-mediated (EP) delivery of the FER gene improved survival in a combined trauma-pneumonia model. The mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. In this paper, we performed a pneumonia model in C57/BL6 mice with 500 CFU of Klebsiella pneumoniae. After inoculation, a plasmid encoding human FER was delivered by EP into the lung (PNA/pFER-EP). Survival of FER-treated vs. controls (PNA; PNA/EP-pcDNA) was recorded. In parallel cohorts, bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) and lung were harvested at 24 and 72 h with markers of infection measured...
June 15, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907655/causes-and-predictors-of-readmission-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-undergoing-catheter-ablation-a-national-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Shilpkumar Arora, Sopan Lahewala, Byomesh Tripathi, Varshil Mehta, Varun Kumar, Divya Chandramohan, Alejandro Lemor, Mihir Dave, Nileshkumar Patel, Nilay V Patel, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha, Juan Viles-Gonzalez, Abhishek Deshmukh
BACKGROUND: Reducing readmission after catheter ablation (CA) in atrial fibrillation (AF) is important. METHODS AND RESULTS: We utilized National Readmission Data (NRD) 2010-2014. AF was identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic code 427.31 in the primary field, while first CA of AF was identified via ICD-9 -procedure code 37.34. Any admission within 30 or 90 days of index admission was considered a readmission...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907439/distribution-of-biocide-resistant-genes-and-biocides-susceptibility-in-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-a-first-report-from-the-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia
#13
Rajendran Vijayakumar, Tim Sandle, Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody, Meshal K AlFonaisan, Wael Alturaiki, Suresh Mickymaray, Mariappan Premanathan, Suliman A Alsagaby
PURPOSES: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of biocide resistant genes, qacA, qacE and cepA in multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii and to correlate the presence or absence of resistant genes with biocides susceptibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 44 MDR K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii microorganisms. The bacteria were screened for the presence of biocide resistant genes by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907119/efficient-production-of-1-3-propanediol-from-crude-glycerol-by-repeated-fed-batch-fermentation-strategy-of-a-lactate-and-2-3-butanediol-deficient-mutant-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#14
Baek-Rock Oh, Sung-Mok Lee, Sun-Yeon Heo, Jeong-Woo Seo, Chul Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) is important building blocks for the bio-based chemical industry, Klebsiella pneumoniae can be an attractive candidate for their production. However, 1,3-PDO production is high but productivity is generally low by K. pneumoniae. In this study, repeated fed-batch cultivation by a lactate and 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) deficient mutant of K. pneumoniae were investigated for efficient 1,3-PDO production from industrial by-products such as crude glycerol...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907077/oral-chlorhexidine-against-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-and-microbial-colonization-in-intensive-care-patients
#15
Elem Kocaçal Güler, Gülengün Türk
The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effect of chlorhexidine at different concentration and frequency on ventilator-associated pneumonia and microbial colonization in mechanically ventilated patients. Relevant studies in English language were identified by searching data bases between January 2010 and December 2017. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Chlorhexidine with 0.2% concentration was found to be more effective than the control group (placebo dental gel and normal saline) in preventing the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia in three of the eight studies...
June 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906743/costunolide-ameliorates-lipoteichoic-acid-induced-acute-lung-injury-via-attenuating-mapk-signaling-pathway
#16
Zhengxu Chen, Dan Zhang, Man Li, Baolong Wang
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is an experimental model for mimicking Gram-positive bacteria-induced pneumonia that is a refractory disease with lack of effective medicines. Here, we reported that costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone, ameliorated LTA-induced ALI. Costunolide treatment reduced LTA-induced neutrophil lung infiltration, cytokine and chemokine production (TNF-α, IL-6 and KC), and pulmonary edema. In response to LTA challenge, treatment with costunolide resulted less iNOS expression and produced less inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs)...
June 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906699/causes-of-mortality-in-early-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Graciane Radaelli, Francisco de Souza Santos, Wyllians Vendramini Borelli, Leonardo Pisani, Magda Lahorgue Nunes, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Jaderson Costa da Costa
INTRODUCTION: Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy syndrome (EIEE), also known as Ohtahara syndrome, is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy syndrome defined by clinical features and electroencephalographic findings. Epileptic disorders with refractory seizures beginning in the neonatal period and/or early infancy have a potential risk of premature mortality, including sudden death. We aimed to identify the causes of death in EIEE and conducted a literature survey of fatal outcomes...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906680/an-updated-assessment-of-morbidity-and-mortality-following-skull-base-surgical-approaches
#18
Brittany N Burton, Jenny Q Hu, Aria Jafari, Richard D Urman, Ian F Dunn, W Linda Bi, Adam S DeConde, Rodney A Gabriel
OBJECTIVES: Updated multi-institutional database studies assessing perioperative risk factors on 30-day morbidity and mortality after skull base surgeries are limited. We aim to identify perioperative risk factors and report the incidence of 30-day morbidity and mortality in adult patients after skull base surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We queried the 2007-2016 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement program database to identify patients who underwent anterior, middle, or posterior skull base surgery...
June 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906599/application-of-the-biofire-filmarray-blood-culture-identification-panel-for-rapid-identification-of-the-causative-agents-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#19
Marina R Pulido, Verónica González-Galán, Felipe Fernández Cuenca, Álvaro Pascual, José Garnacho-Montero, Massimo Antonelli, George Dimopoulos, José A Lepe, Michael J McConnell, José Miguel Cisneros
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the BioFire FilmArray Blood Culture Identification (BCID) Panel to rapidly detect pathogens producing late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), a severe infection often produced by Gram negative bacteria. These microorganisms are frequently multidrug resistant (MDR) and typically require broad spectrum empiric treatment. METHODS: In this study, in the context of an international multicenter clinical trial (Magic Bullet), respiratory samples were collected at the time of suspicion of VAP from 165 patients in 32 participating hospitals in Spain, Greece and Italy...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906566/high-mortality-among-patients-infected-with-hypervirulent-antimicrobial-resistant-capsular-type-k1-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-in-taiwan
#20
Yi-Tsung Lin, Yi-Hsiang Cheng, Chih-Han Juan, Ping-Feng Wu, Yi-Wei Huang, Sheng-Hua Chou, Tsuey-Ching Yang, Fu-Der Wang
Capsular type K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae, highly virulent strains which are common in Asian countries, can cause pyogenic infections. These hypervirulent strains are usually susceptible to most antimicrobials, except for ampicillin. Little is known regarding the clinical and molecular characteristics of antimicrobial-resistant K1 K. pneumoniae strains. This retrospective study evaluated patients infected with capsular type K1 K. pneumoniae strains in a Taiwanese medical centre between April 2013 and March 2016...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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