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melatonin newborn

Marina Colella, Valérie Biran, Olivier Baud
Brain injury related to preterm birth and neonatal asphyxia is a leading cause of childhood neuromotor and cognitive disabilities. Unfortunately, the strategies to prevent perinatal brain damages remain limited. Among the candidate molecules, melatonin appears to be one of the most promising agents for its antioxidant and neuromodulatory action. Robust preclinical evidences and few clinical studies have suggested a neuroprotective benefit conferred by neonatal exposure to melatonin. This review recapitulates current basic research, safety and pharmacokinetic data and ongoing clinical trials on the use of melatonin as a neuroprotective agent in the newborn...
September 9, 2016: Early Human Development
Suzana Elena Voiculescu, Diana Le Duc, Adrian Eugen Roșca, Vlad Zeca, Diana Maria Chiţimuș, Andreea Letiţia Arsene, Cristina Manuela Drăgoi, Alina Crenguţa Nicolae, Leon Zăgrean, Torsten Schöneberg, Ana-Maria Zăgrean
Disruption of the maternal environment during pregnancy leads to behavioral changes and diseases in the adult offspring. To explore the influence of prenatal continuous light exposure (PCLE) on the adult offspring, we exposed pregnant Wistar rats to constant light during late gestation. Adult PCLE offspring showed an anxiety-like behavior and impairment of short-term memory in different tests. Measurements in the whole brain homogenates from newborn and adult offspring indicated decreased melatonin and serotonin levels and increased reactive oxygen species level in PCLE offspring...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
Joanna Ripoll Rozisky, Vanessa Leal Scarabelot, Carla de Oliveira, Isabel Cristina de Macedo, Alícia Deitos, Gabriela Laste, Wolnei Caumo, Iraci L S Torres
Morphine administration in the neonatal period can induce long-term effects in pain circuitry leading to hyperalgesia induced by the opioid in adult life. This study explored a new pharmacological approach for reversing this effect of morphine. We focused on melatonin owing its well-known antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, and its ability to interact with the opioid system. We used the formalin test to assess the medium and long-term effects of melatonin administration on hyperalgesia induced by morphine in early life...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Jiang Tao, Yue Zhai, Hyun Park, Junli Han, Jianhui Dong, Ming Xie, Ting Gu, Keidren Lewi, Fang Ji, William Jia
Rhythmic incremental growth lines and the presence of melatonin receptors were discovered in tooth enamel, suggesting possible role of circadian rhythm. We therefore hypothesized that circadian rhythm may regulate enamel formation through melatonin receptors. To test this hypothesis, we examined expression of melatonin receptors (MTs) and amelogenin (AMELX), a maker of enamel formation, during tooth germ development in mouse. Using qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we found that mRNA and protein levels of both MTs and AMELX in normal mandibular first molar tooth germs increased gradually after birth, peaked at 3 or 4 day postnatal, and then decreased...
2016: PloS One
Silvia Carloni, Géraldine Favrais, Elie Saliba, Maria Cristina Albertini, Sylvie Chalon, Mariangela Longini, Pierre Gressens, Giuseppe Buonocore, Walter Balduini
Maternal infection/inflammation represents one of the most important factors involved in the etiology of brain injury in newborns. We investigated the modulating effect of prenatal melatonin on the neonatal brain inflammation process resulting from maternal intraperitoneal (i.p.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections. LPS (300 μg/kg) was administered to pregnant rats at gestational days 19 and 20. Melatonin (5 mg/kg) was administered i.p. at the same time as LPS. Melatonin counteracted the LPS sensitization to a second ibotenate-induced excitotoxic insult performed on postnatal day (PND) 4...
October 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Yousif Nijim, Amin Adawi, Bishara Bisharat, Abdalla Bowirrat
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS0) is a complex and rare genetic multisystem disorder characterized by a variable pattern of cognitive deficits accompanied by a1 distinctive behavioral phenotype. SMS is characterized by subtle facial dysmorphology, short stature, sleep disturbances, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Little is known about the manifestation of his unique case among Arab population and its strategic treatment.This study comes to present a case of SMS in an Arab newborn male who was born in spontaneous delivery on June 29, 2015, with tachypnea, tracheomalacia, and mild hypotonia...
January 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Asilay Pazar, Meltem Kolgazi, Aslı Memisoglu, Elif Bahadir, Serap Sirvanci, Akan Yaman, Berrak Ç Yeğen, Eren Ozek
Melatonin exerts protection in several inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. To investigate the neuroprotective effects of melatonin in an experimental hemolysis-induced hyperbilirubinemia, newborn Sprague-Dawley rats (25-40 g, n = 72) were injected with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHZ; 75 mg/kg) and the injections were repeated at the 24th hour. Rats were treated with saline or melatonin (10 mg/kg) 30 min before the first and second PHZ injections and 24 h after the 2nd PHZ injections. Control rats (n = 24) were injected with saline, but not PHZ...
January 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Alana Pimentel Moura, Belisa Parmeggiani, Mateus Grings, Leonardo de Moura Alvorcem, Rafael Mello Boldrini, Anna Paula Bumbel, Marcela Moreira Motta, Bianca Seminotti, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Accumulation of glycine (GLY) is the biochemical hallmark of glycine encephalopathy (GE), an aminoacidopathy characterized by severe neurological dysfunction that may lead to early death. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a single intracerebroventricular administration of GLY on bioenergetics, redox homeostasis, and histopathology in brain of neonatal rats. Our results demonstrated that GLY decreased the activities of the respiratory chain complex IV and creatine kinase, induced reactive species generation, and diminished glutathione (GSH) levels 1, 5, and 10 days after GLY injection in cerebral cortex of 1-day-old rats...
October 26, 2015: Molecular Neurobiology
S Luridiana, M C Mura, C Daga, F Farci, M V Di Stefano, F Zidda, V Carcangiu
With the aim to evaluate the effect of melatonin treatment on the advanced reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score (BCS) and age, 800 ewes were selected from two farms. These ewes (3-6 years old, multiparous and with BCS 2.5-4.0) were subdivided into two Groups (200 M and 200 C), balanced on their BCS and age. On 20 March, Group M was treated with one melatonin implant (18 mg). Group C was untreated. Males were introduced to the groups 35 days after treatment. Gestation was diagnosed between day 45 and 90 after mating by transabdominal ultrasonography...
September 2015: Animal Reproduction Science
Kasper J Kyng, Torjus Skajaa, Sigrid Kerrn-Jespersen, Christer S Andreassen, Kristine Bennedsgaard, Tine B Henriksen
Birth asphyxia, which causes hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), accounts for 0.66 million deaths worldwide each year, about a quarter of the world's 2.9 million neonatal deaths. Animal models of HIE have contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology in HIE, and have highlighted the dynamic process that occur in brain injury due to perinatal asphyxia. Thus, animal studies have suggested a time-window for post-insult treatment strategies. Hypothermia has been tested as a treatment for HIE in pdiglet models and subsequently proven effective in clinical trials...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
K Jane Hassell, Mojgan Ezzati, Daniel Alonso-Alconada, Derek J Hausenloy, Nicola J Robertson
Intrapartum-related events are the third leading cause of childhood mortality worldwide and result in one million neurodisabled survivors each year. Infants exposed to a perinatal insult typically present with neonatal encephalopathy (NE). The contribution of pure hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) to NE has been debated; over the last decade, the sensitising effect of inflammation in the aetiology of NE and neurodisability is recognised. Therapeutic hypothermia is standard care for NE in high-income countries; however, its benefit in encephalopathic babies with sepsis or in those born following chorioamnionitis is unclear...
November 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Catrin Furster, Maria Unenge Hallerbäck
PURPOSE: The use of melatonin is increasing among Swedish children and adolescents despite deficient knowledge of usage in these groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of melatonin in Swedish children and adolescents according to age, gender, dosage, treatment duration, and use of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. METHODS: Data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register was analyzed for children and adolescents 0-19 years old in Sweden during 2006-2013...
July 2015: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Hong Ni, Qi Sun, Tian Tian, Xing Feng, Bao-Liang Sun
Despite the effective use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for epilepsy, therapeutic failure occurs in 30% of patients. Novel approaches are targeting the inhibition of epileptogenesis. N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin) is an indoleamine produced mainly by the pineal gland, and has been observed to exhibit antiepileptic and neuroprotective effects in experimental and clinical investigations. In the present study, the underlying protective mechanism of melatonin on neonatal seizure-induced long-term excitotoxicity was examined in the hippocampus of rats, predominantly on the metabolism-associated genes...
August 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Katherine Louise Shea, Arvind Palanisamy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates. Treating such injury by interrupting the excitotoxic-oxidative cascade is of immense importance. This review will focus on novel techniques of neuroprotection and describe the latest advances in established therapeutic methods. KEY FINDINGS: Although the primacy of therapeutic hypothermia in treating hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is well established, recent research establishes that the arbitrarily chosen regimen of cooling to 33°C for 72 h may indeed be the most appropriate method...
June 2015: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Hong Ni, Qi Sun, Tian Tian, Xing Feng, Bao-liang Sun
Although it has been suggested that the protective effect of melatonin against seizure-induced neurotoxicity involves inhibition of neuronal lipid peroxidation, current data concerning the exact molecular mechanism are still limited. This study was undertaken to investigate the changes in neurobehavioral, cognitive and lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in both hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rats subjected to recurrent neonatal seizures, and the effects of melatonin treatment before seizure (55mg/kg, 1mg/ml)...
June 2015: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Patricia Santofimia-Castaño, Lourdes Garcia-Sanchez, Deborah Clea Ruy, Beatriz Sanchez-Correa, Miguel Fernandez-Bermejo, Raquel Tarazona, Gines M Salido, Antonio Gonzalez
Melatonin, the product of the pineal gland, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties in different tissues, in addition to its role as regulator of biological rhythms. In this study, the effects of pharmacological concentrations of melatonin (1 μM-1 mM) on pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have been examined. Cell viability was studied using AlamarBlue® test. Cell-type specific markers and total amylase content were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and colorimetric methods, respectively...
April 2015: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Verónica López-Virgen, David Zárate-López, Fabián L Adirsch, Jorge Collas-Aguilar, Óscar González-Pérez
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus is a process that involves proliferation, differentiation, maturation, migration, and integration of young neurons in the granular layer of DG. These newborn neurons mature in three to four weeks and incorporate into neural circuits in the hippocampus. There, these new neurons play a role in cognitive functions, such as acquisition and retention of memory, which are consolidated during sleep period. In this review, we describe recent findings that associate sleep deprivation with changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive processes...
January 2015: Gaceta Médica de México
Lucia Marseglia, Gabriella D'Angelo, Sara Manti, Salvatore Aversa, Russel J Reiter, Pietro Antonuccio, Antonio Centorrino, Carmelo Romeo, Pietro Impellizzeri, Eloisa Gitto
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis is a gastrointestinal surgical emergency in premature neonates. Free radicals have been linked to the development of the disease in infants. Ischemia, hypoxia-reperfusion, infection, and inflammation produce elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, impairing the redox balance and shifting cells into a state of oxidative stress. Melatonin, an effective direct free-radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant agent, exerts pleiotropic action on the human body...
August 2015: American Journal of Perinatology
Flavio Torres, Alejandro González-Candia, Camilo Montt, Germán Ebensperger, Magdalena Chubretovic, María Serón-Ferré, Roberto V Reyes, Aníbal J Llanos, Emilio A Herrera
Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PHN) constitutes a critical condition with severe cardiovascular and neurological consequences. One of its main causes is hypoxia during gestation, and thus, it is a public health concern in populations living above 2500 m. Although some mechanisms are recognized, the pathophysiological facts that lead to PHN are not fully understood, which explains the lack of an effective treatment. Oxidative stress is one of the proposed mechanisms inducing pulmonary vascular dysfunction and PHN...
April 2015: Journal of Pineal Research
Wen-Long Sheng, Wei-Yi Chen, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong, Shi-Jun Weng
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are involved in circadian and other non-image forming visual responses. An open question is whether the activity of these neurons may also be under the regulation mediated by the neurohormone melatonin. In the present work, by double-staining immunohistochemical technique, we studied the expression of MT1 and MT2, two known subtypes of mammalian melatonin receptors, in rat ipRGCs. A single subset of retinal ganglion cells labeled by the specific antibody against melanopsin exhibited the morphology typical of M1-type ipRGCs...
2015: PloS One
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