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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331098/blunted-cortisol-reactivity-and-risky-driving-in-young-offenders-a-pilot-study
#1
Sophie Couture, Marie Claude Ouimet, Katarina Dedovic, Catherine Laurier, Pierrich Plusquellec, Thomas G Brown
Adolescent risky driving is a significant burden on public health. Young offenders (i.e. under custody and supervision of the criminal justice system) may be particularly vulnerable, but research is scant. Previous work indicated that blunted cortisol reactivity to stress is a marker of risk-taking predisposition, including risky driving. In this study, we hypothesized that young offenders display higher levels of risky driving than a non-offender comparison group, and that cortisol reactivity contributes to the variance in risky driving independent of other associated characteristics (i...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330817/effect-of-levofloxacin-pazufloxacin-enrofloxacin-and-meloxicam-on-the-immunolocalization-of-abcg-2-transporter-protein-in-rabbit-retina
#2
Adil Mehraj Khan, Satyavan Rampal, Naresh Kumar Sood
Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) sub-family G member-2 (ABCG-2) is a transporter protein, implicated for multi-drug efflux from tissues. This study evaluated the effect of fluoroquinolones; levofloxacin, pazufloxacin and enrofloxacin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, meloxicam; on the immunolocalization of ABCG-2 transporter protein of rabbit retinas. Thirty-two male rabbits were randomly divided in to eight groups. Control group was gavaged, 2% benzyl alcohol in 5% dextrose since these chemicals are excipients of the drug preparations used in the treatment groups of this study...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330163/affective-stimuli-in-behavioural-interventions-soliciting-for-health-check-up-services-and-the-service-users-socioeconomic-statuses-a-study-at-japanese-pachinko-parlours
#3
Naoki Kondo, Yoshiki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically vulnerable people are likely to have more health risks because of inadequate behaviour choices related to chronic social stresses. Brain science suggests that stress causes cognitively biased automatic decision making, preferring instant stress relief and pleasure (eg, smoking, alcohol use and drug abuse) as opposed to reflectively seeking health-maintenance services (eg, health check-ups). As such, hedonic stimuli that nudge people towards preventive actions could reduce health behaviour disparities...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329423/development-and-early-validation-of-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-to-assess-sleep-amongst-people-experiencing-problems-with-alcohol-or-other-drugs
#4
Joanne Neale, Silia Vitoratou, Paul Lennon, Robert Meadows, Sarah Nettleton, Daria Panebianco, John Strang, John Marsden
Study Objectives: To develop a patient reported outcome measure to assess sleep amongst people experiencing problems with alcohol or other drugs. Methods: Item development included secondary analyses of qualitative interviews with drug/alcohol users in residential treatment, a review of validated sleep measures, focus groups with drug/alcohol users in residential treatment, and feedback from drug/alcohol users recruited from community and residential settings. An initial version of the measure was completed by 549 current and former drug/alcohol users (442 in person [IP] and 107 online [OL])...
January 10, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329388/a-series-of-deaths-involving-carfentanil-in-the-uk-and-associated-post-mortem-blood-concentrations
#5
Simon P Elliott, Elena Hernandez Lopez
The potent opioid and veterinary drug, carfentanil has recently entered the illicit drug market, especially in relation to heroin and cocaine. Recent publications have reported carfentanil concentrations found in fatalities occurring in the USA. This article presents the toxicological findings in seven heroin/cocaine cases occurring in the UK within a short period of time where carfentanil was detected and measured. Carfentanil was detected along with other drugs in all cases with no alcohol detected in the post-mortem blood in any of the cases...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327387/student-survey-trends-in-reported-alcohol-use-and-influencing-factors-in-australia
#6
John W Toumbourou, Bosco Rowland, Matin Ghayour-Minaie, Shauna Sherker, George C Patton, Joanne W Williams
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is a need to explain reported trends of reduced alcohol and drug (substance) use in school-aged children in Australia. This study used student survey data collected in the states of Victoria, Western Australia and Queensland to examine trends in substance use and associated influencing factors. DESIGN AND METHODS: Youth self-reports were examined from 11 cross-sectional surveys completed by 41 328 adolescents (average age 13.5 years, 52...
January 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#7
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322265/the-role-of-sphingolipids-in-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction
#8
REVIEW
Liubov S Kalinichenko, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychoactive drug use is a common behavior in many societies worldwide, frequently associated with drug instrumentalization. Regular use may develop into drug addiction, which is a severe psychiatric disorder with multiple pathological effects to virtually all organ systems. Treatment strategies for addiction are often insufficient with no broadly working pharmaco-treatment available. Recently, lipids, and particularly sphingolipids, have been considered as new mediators in the pathogenic pathways and as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of addictive states...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321922/longitudinal-pharmacoepidemiological-and-health-services-research-for-substance-users-in-treatment-protocol-of-the-belgian-tdi-ima-linkage
#9
Luk Van Baelen, Karin De Ridder, Jérôme Antoine, Lies Gremeaux
Background: Not much is known about the health seeking behavior of people with substance use disorders before they enter specialized treatment and afterwards. This paper explains in detail the protocol that has been followed to establish the Belgian TDI-IMA-database, which is linking two separate databases: the Treatment Demand Indicator (TDI) and the database of the Intermutualistic Agency (IMA). The Treatment Demand Indicator is measuring incidence of people with substance use disorders entering drug treatment...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317062/could-the-screening-for-correct-oral-health-reduce-the-impact-of-death-due-to-bolus-asphyxia-in-adult-patients-a-forensic-case-report
#10
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Emilio Nuzzolese, Vittorio Fineschi, Paola Frati, Pietrantonio Ricci
INTRODUCTION: "Bolus death" or "Café Coronary syndrome" refers to death due to asphyxia caused by an occlusion of the upper airways due to food. In this kind of asphyxia, the food bolus obstructs the larynx or the bronchial branches. This kind of event often affects subjects with acute intoxication due to alcohol or drugs, or with edentulism and with neurological or psychiatric diseases. CASE REPORT: An elderly woman, suffering from schizophrenia, was found dead in her house due to food bolus asphyxia...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316897/influence-of-mental-health-and-alcohol-or-other-drug-use-risk-on-adolescent-reported-care-received-in-primary-care-settings
#11
Lisa S Meredith, Brett A Ewing, Bradley D Stein, William G Shadel, Stephanie Brooks Holliday, Layla Parast, Elizabeth J D'Amico
BACKGROUND: To describe patterns of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use risk and adolescent reported primary care (PC) screening and intervention, and examine associations of AOD risk and mental health with reported care received. METHODS: We analyzed data from cross-sectional surveys collected from April 3, 2013 to November 24, 2015 from 1279 diverse adolescents ages 12-18 who reported visiting a doctor at least once in the past year. Key measures were AOD risk using the Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire; mental health using the 5-item Mental Health Inventory; binary measures of adolescent-reported screening and intervention...
January 9, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315544/homicide-suicide-in-cuyahoga-county-ohio-1991-2016
#12
Wendy C Regoeczi, Thomas Gilson
Research on homicides followed by suicides has relied heavily on small samples and relatively short time spans of data. This study helps to fill this gap by examining 26 years of homicide-suicide data from Cuyahoga County, Ohio, between 1991 and 2016. The main data source for the study is medical examiner files. Analyses of the data indicate the rate of homicide-suicide in Cuyahoga County is consistent with other studies but fluctuates considerably across years studied. The majority of victims are female while perpetrators are overwhelmingly male...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310077/characteristics-of-drug-use-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states-opioid-and-non-opioid-illegal-drug-use
#13
Verena E Metz, Qiana L Brown, Silvia S Martins, Joseph J Palamar
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic in the US is affecting pregnant women and their offspring, with rising numbers of maternal and neonatal treatment episodes. The aim of this study was to characterize pregnant drug users in order to inform intervention strategies based on sociodemographic, mental health, and substance use characteristics. METHODS: Data on pregnant women aged 18-44 reporting past-year, nonmedical opioid use or use of non-opioid illegal drugs (other than marijuana) were analyzed from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2005-2014)...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310049/-positive-urine-testing-for-cannabis-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-traffic-crashes
#14
Giovanna Del Balzo, Rossella Gottardo, Silvia Mengozzi, Romolo M Dorizzi, Federica Bortolotti, Svetlana Appolonova, Franco Tagliaro
Although recent Cannabis use is widely reported to be associated with drug-related traffic accidents, the evidence that Cannabis users show an increased risk of being involved in road crashes is still not unequivocally proved. The purpose of the present work is to provide an objective assessment of this hypothesis, by comparing the frequency of occurrence of positive urine analyses in drivers involved in traffic accidents (n = 1406) with that observed in a control population undergoing mandatory urine drug testing (n = 1953)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305665/synergistic-effect-of-polyvinyl-alcohol-and-copovidone-in-itraconazole-amorphous-solid-dispersions
#15
Kamil Wlodarski, Feng Zhang, Tongzhou Liu, Wieslaw Sawicki, Thomas Kipping
PURPOSE: The first objective is to evaluate the feasibility of melt-extruding polyvinyl alcohol-based amorphous solid dispersions for oral drug delivery. The second objective is to investigate the miscibility between polyvinyl alcohol 4-88 and copovidone, and to characterize the properties of ternary itraconazole amorphous solid dispersions comprising both polymers. METHODS: Samples were prepared using a co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. A solution precipitation study was conducted to compare the precipitation inhibition of polyvinyl alcohol against other commonly used polymers for amorphous solid dispersions...
January 5, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298737/a-feasible-model-for-early-intervention-for-high-risk-substance-use-in-the-emergency-department-setting
#16
Rebecca Howard, Stephanie Fry, Andrew Chan, Brigid Ryan, Yvonne Bonomo
Objective In response to escalating alcohol and other drug (AOD)-related emergency department (ED) presentations, a tertiary Melbourne hospital embedded experienced AOD clinical nurse consultants in the ED on weekends to trial a model for screening, assessment and brief intervention (BI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative contributions of AOD to ED presentations and to pilot a BI model.Methods Using a customised AOD screening tool and a framework for proactive case finding, screened participants were offered a comprehensive AOD assessment and BI in the ED...
January 4, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297862/estimate-of-the-prevalence-of-subjects-with-gambling-related-problems-requiring-treatment-a-study-in-northern-italy
#17
Raimondo Maria Pavarin, Corrado Zenesini, Angelo Fioritti
This study analyzes the data related to subjects who for the first time turned to a hospital or to a Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts or to a Community Mental Health Center for problems related to pathological gambling in the metropolitan area of Bologna (Northern Italy) in the period 2000/2015. The aims were to describe characteristics and problems of pathological gamblers (PGs), and to estimate the prevalence of PGs using the capture-recapture method. Four hundred and ninety-five residents were identified, with an estimate of 1570 PGs and a prevalence of 1...
October 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296084/development-and-characterization-of-p1025-loaded-bioadhesive-liquid-crystalline-system-for-the-prevention-of-streptococcus-mutans-biofilms
#18
Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto, Cristiane Duque, Kelly Limi Aida, Vanessa Rodrigues Dos Santos, Loiane Massunari, Marlus Chorilli
Formation of a dental biofilm by Streptococcus mutans can cause dental caries, and remains a costly health problem worldwide. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of peptidic drugs, such as peptide p1025, analogous to the fragments 1025-1044 of S. mutans cellular adhesin, responsible for the adhesion and formation of dental biofilm. However, peptides have physicochemical characteristics that may affect their biological action, limiting their clinical performance. Therefore, drug-delivery systems, such as a bioadhesive liquid-crystalline system (LCS), may be attractive strategies for peptide delivery...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294664/risk-factors-for-spousal-physical-violence-against-women-in-saudi-arabia
#19
Halah M Eldoseri, Phyllis Sharps
This study aimed to explore selected risk factors for spousal physical violence (SPV) in women frequenting primary health care clinics (PHCs) in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in six PHCs, where one-on-one, private interviews with 200 women were conducted using a standardized World Health Organization (WHO) violence against women questionnaire (v.10.0). SPV was reported by 45.5% of women. Husband-specific risk factors including alcohol or drug addiction, unemployment, control of wealth in the family, and physical aggression toward other men were significant predictors for SPV...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289665/disulfiram-can-inhibit-mers-and-sars-coronavirus-papain-like-proteases-via-different-modes
#20
Min-Han Lin, David C Moses, Chih-Hua Hsieh, Shu-Chun Cheng, Yau-Hung Chen, Chiao-Yin Sun, Chi-Yuan Chou
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in southern China in late 2002 and caused a global outbreak with a fatality rate around 10% in 2003. Ten years later, a second highly pathogenic human CoV, MERS-CoV, emerged in the Middle East and has spread to other countries in Europe, North Africa, North America and Asia. As of November 2017, MERS-CoV had infected at least 2102 people with a fatality rate of about 35% globally, and hence there is an urgent need to identify antiviral drugs that are active against MERS-CoV...
December 28, 2017: Antiviral Research
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