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Alcohol & Other Drugs

Bobbi Jo H Yarborough, Felicia W Chi, Carla A Green, Agatha Hinman, Jennifer Mertens, Arne Beck, Michael Horberg, Constance Weisner, Cynthia I Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Understand patient and system characteristics associated with performance on the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Initiation and Engagement of Treatment (IET) measures. METHODS: This mixed-methods study linked patient and health system data from four Kaiser Permanente regions to HEDIS performance measure data for 44,320 commercially or Medicare-insured adults with HEDIS-eligible AOD diagnoses in 2012...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Amna Zehra, Jamie Burns, Christopher Kure Liu, Peter Manza, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Cannabis is the most commonly used substance of abuse in the United States after alcohol and tobacco. With a recent increase in the rates of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and a decrease in the perceived risk of cannabis use, it is imperative to assess the addictive potential of cannabis. Here we evaluate cannabis use through the neurobiological model of addiction proposed by Koob and Volkow. The model proposes that repeated substance abuse drives neurobiological changes in the brain that can be separated into three distinct stages, each of which perpetuates the cycle of addiction...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Jonathan Davies, Sarah Sullivan, Stanley Zammit
PURPOSE: To investigate whether psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms at ages 12 and 18 years are associated with adverse life outcomes across a range of functional domains between 16 and 20 years of age. METHODS: Data were gathered from ALSPAC, a UK birth cohort. Individuals were assessed with the semi-structured Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview and the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at ages 12 and 18 years. Logistic regression was used to explore associations with outcomes in education, occupation, social functioning, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, smoking, and other drugs), and illegal behaviour between the ages of 16 and 20 years...
March 19, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Li-Tzy Wu, Udi E Ghitza, He Zhu, Susan Spratt, Marvin Swartz, Paolo Mannelli
BACKGROUND: The majority of the U.S. healthcare resources are utilized by a small population characterized as high-risk, high-need persons with complex care needs (e.g., adults with multiple chronic conditions). Substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental health disorders (MHDs) are a driver of poor health and additional healthcare costs, but they are understudied among high-need patients. OBJECTIVE: We examine the prevalence and correlates of SUDs and MHDs among adults with high-risk diabetes, who are patients at the top 10% risk score for developing poor outcomes (hospital admission or death)...
March 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Albert Dahan, Rutger van der Schrier, Terry Smith, Leon Aarts, Monique van Velzen, Marieke Niesters
The ventilatory control system is highly vulnerable to exogenous administered opioid analgesics. Particularly respiratory depression is a potentially lethal complication that may occur when opioids are overdosed or consumed in combination with other depressants such as sleep medication or alcohol. Fatalities occur in acute and chronic pain patients on opioid therapy and individuals that abuse prescription or illicit opioids for their hedonistic pleasure. One important strategy to mitigate opioid-induced respiratory depression is cotreatment with nonopioid respiratory stimulants...
March 19, 2018: Anesthesiology
Sarah C M Roberts, Diana Greene Foster, Heather Gould, M Antonia Biggs
OBJECTIVE: Research on effects of pregnancy termination on women's alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use suffers from methodological and conceptual problems. Improving on prior methodologies, this study examines changes in ATOD use over 5 years among women seeking terminations. METHOD: Data are from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of 956 women seeking terminations at 30 U.S. facilities. Participants presented just below a facility's gestational limit and received terminations (Near-Limits) or just beyond the limit and were denied terminations (Turnaways)...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Danielle Gulick, Joshua J Gamsby
Although potent effects of psychoactive drugs on circadian rhythms were first described over 30 years ago, research into the reciprocal relationship between the reward system and the circadian system - and the impact of this relationship on addiction - has only become a focus in the last decade. Nonetheless, great progress has been made in that short time toward understanding how drugs of abuse impact the molecular and physiological circadian clocks, as well as how disruption of normal circadian rhythm biology may contribute to addiction and ameliorate the efficacy of treatments for addiction...
March 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Amy Jessica Marshall, Tim Schultz, Charlotte Francis de Crespigny
BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified perceived self-efficacy to be a vital component of clinicians' positive attitudes towards caring for intoxicated patients and women who have been assaulted. To date, little is known about the perceived self-efficacy and influences among emergency clinicians towards intoxicated women victims of violence. METHOD: Using mixed methods, 179 emergency clinicians were surveyed and 22 emergency clinicians were interviewed in South Australia about their education/training, their awareness and use of best practice guidelines and tools, and their perceived self-efficacy toward treating intoxicated women victims of violence...
March 15, 2018: International Emergency Nursing
Paul W Czoty, William S John, Amy Hauck Newman, Michael A Nader
Characterization of the effects of long-term alcohol consumption on the brain would be aided by the development of behavioral assays that are relatively easy to implement in animal models of alcohol use disorders. Assessing unconditioned behaviors, such as drug-elicited yawning in models that permit long-term alcohol ingestion, may be a valuable complement to more invasive and costly procedures. The present studies investigated previous unexpected findings of ethanol-induced yawning in nonhuman primates. Subjects were adult male rhesus monkeys (n = 8), all of which had experience self-administering intravenous cocaine for several years...
October 17, 2017: Alcohol
Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Julian D Ford, Ruby Charak, Crosby A Modrowski, Patricia K Kerig
Polyvictimization (PV) has been shown to be associated with psychosocial and behavioral impairment in community and high risk populations, including youth involved in juvenile justice. However, the mechanisms accounting for these adverse outcomes have not been empirically delineated. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation are documented sequelae of PV and are associated with a wide range of behavioral/emotional problems. This study used a cross-sectional research design and bootstrapped multiple mediation analyses with self-report measures completed by a large sample of justice-involved youth (N = 809, ages 12-19 years old, 27% female, 46...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Yuyan Gao, Li Li, David C Schwebel, Peishan Ning, Peixia Cheng, Guoqing Hu
Social medical insurance schemes are crucial for realizing universal health coverage and health equity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how reimbursement for injury-induced medical expenses is addressed in Chinese legislative documents relevant to social medical insurance. We retrieved legislative documents from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Lawyee databases. Four types of social medical insurance schemes were included: urban employee basic medical insurance, urban resident basic medical insurance, new rural cooperative medical system, and urban and rural resident medical insurance...
2018: PloS One
Igam Bagra, Vijay Krishnan, Ravindra Rao, Alok Agrawal
OBJECTIVES: Use of various psychoactive substances can influence outcomes of patients on opioid agonist treatment (OAT). While use of alcohol and cocaine has shown to adversely affect OAT results, associated cannabis use shows mixed results. This study aimed to assess the pattern of cannabis use among opioid-dependent patients maintained on buprenorphine. Additionally, the study compared the dose of buprenorphine, opioid-related craving and withdrawals, productivity, and also quality of life between those with and without recent (past 90-day) cannabis use...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Selene Cordeiro Vasconcelos, Iracema da Silva Frazão, Everton Botelho Sougey, Sandra Lopes de Souza, Tatiana de Paula Santana da Silva, Murilo Duarte da Costa Lima
INTRODUCTION: The abuse of alcohol and other drugs is a worldwide problem, the treatment of which poses a challenge to healthcare workers. OBJECTIVE: This study presents a proposal for a systematic review to analyse the psychometric properties of assessment tools developed to measure the self-efficacy of drug users with regard to resisting the urge to take drugs in high-risk situations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The guiding question was based on PICOS (Population Intervention Comparator Outcome Setting), and the report of the methods of review protocol was written in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Caroline Daly, Eve Griffin, Darren M Ashcroft, Roger T Webb, Ivan J Perry, Ella Arensman
Background: Intentional drug overdose (IDO) is the most common form of hospital-treated self-harm, yet no national study has systematically classified the range of drugs involved using a validated system. We aimed to determine the profile of patients engaging in overdose, to identify drugs frequently used and to quantify the contributions of multiple drug use and alcohol involvement. Methods: Between 2012 and 2014, the National Self-Harm Registry, Ireland recorded 18 329 presentations of non-fatal IDO to Irish emergency departments...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Kiffer G Card, Nathan J Lachowsky, Heather L Armstrong, Zishan Cui, Lu Wang, Paul Sereda, Jody Jollimore, Thomas L Patterson, Trevor Corneil, Robert S Hogg, Eric A Roth, David M Moore
INTRODUCTION: Among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM), collinearity between polysubstance use and mental health concerns has obscured their combined effects on HIV risk with multivariable results often highlighting only one or the other. METHODS: We used mediation and moderation analyses to examine the effects of polysubstance use and depressive symptoms on high-risk sex (i.e., condomless anal sex with serodiscordant/unknown status partner) in a sample of sexually-active GBM, aged ≥16 years, recruited in Metro Vancouver using respondent driven sampling...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: Erotic asphyxiation is a sexual phenomenon in which one partner reduces the other person's brain oxygen level through strangulation. This study analyzes deaths caused by sexually-motivated strangulation to cases of homicidal choking - summarizing criminal penalties for defendants, depending on the presence of drugs, or alcohol intoxication. METHODS: The mode of analysis involves three sources of data. First, a retrospective chart review of our clinics' two recent cases...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Siddharth A Mahure, Joseph A Bosco, James D Slover, Jonathan Vigdorchik, Richard Iorio, Ran Schwarzkopf
BACKGROUND: Individuals coinfected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV represent a unique and growing population of patients undergoing orthopaedic surgical procedures. Data regarding complications for HCV monoinfection or HIV monoinfection are robust, but there are no data available, to our knowledge, on patients who have both HCV and HIV infections. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We sought to determine whether patients with coinfection differed in terms of baseline demographics and comorbidity burden as compared with patients without coinfection and whether these potential differences were translated into varying levels of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmission risk...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
André Q C Miguel, Clarice S Madruga, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Rodolfo Yamauchi, Viviane Simões, Claudio J Da Silva, Renata R Abdalla, Michael McDonell, Sterling McPherson, John M Roll, Jair J Mari, Ronaldo R Laranjeira
Crack cocaine (crack) dependence is a severe disorder associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, constituting a major public health problem in Brazil. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the profile of treatment-seeking crack-dependent individuals. We recruited 65 crack-dependent individuals from among those seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic for alcohol and drug treatment in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Assessments, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, focused on sociodemographic characteristics, the pattern/history of crack use, treatment history, concomitant substance use disorders, psychiatric symptomatology, and impulsivity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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