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cerebral amyloid angiopathy inflammation

Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
There is accumulating evidence that RAS inhibitors not only reduce blood pressure, but also exert pleiotropic effects, including a renoprotective effect, amelioration of insulin resistance, reduction in onset of diabetes, and suppression of cardiovascular remodelling,. However, the definite benefit of RAS inhibition in treatment of hypertension with CKD or DM is not conclusive. We previously performed the OlmeSartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR) study comparing the preventive effect of high-dose ARB therapy versus ARB plus CCB combination therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in 1164 Japanese elderly hypertensive patients with baseline type 2 diabetes and/or CVD (Am J Med (2012))...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
There is accumulating evidence that RAS inhibitors not only reduce blood pressure, but also exert pleiotropic effects, including a renoprotective effect, amelioration of insulin resistance, reduction in onset of diabetes, and suppression of cardiovascular remodelling,. However, the definite benefit of RAS inhibition in treatment of hypertension with CKD or DM is not conclusive. We previously performed the OlmeSartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR) study comparing the preventive effect of high-dose ARB therapy versus ARB plus CCB combination therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in 1164 Japanese elderly hypertensive patients with baseline type 2 diabetes and/or CVD (Am J Med (2012))...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
F Schöberl, O E Eren, F A Wollenweber, T Kraus, L Kellert
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebral small vessel disease in the elderly. Neuropathologically, it is characterized by deposition of amyloid-ß (Aß) in the wall of small to medium-sized arteries, capillaries and venules of the cerebral cortex and leptomeninges. Over the last years it was recognized as an important cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive deficits in the elderly. The clinical and radiological manifestations are diverse ranging from acute onset focal neurological deficits due to intracerebral lobar hemorrhage to subacute progressive cognitive impairment due to Aß-mediated inflammation confluent subcortical edema...
September 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Benjamin Tolchin, Tadeau Fantaneanu, Michael Miller, Jeffrey Helgager, Jong Woo Lee
This report discusses a case of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation. Brain biopsy demonstrated cerebral amyloid angiopathy, with clinical and radiographic features indicative of a fluctuating inflammatory process. Immunomodulatory treatment with pulse steroids resulted in rapid and dramatic clinical and radiographic improvement. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of new-onset seizures after the age of 40, when associated with fluctuating multifocal T2 hyperintensities and petechial hemorrhages on gradient echo (GRE) or susceptibility-weighted (SWI) MRI sequences...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Yun Zhai, Toru Yamashita, Yumiko Nakano, Zhuoran Sun, Jingwei Shang, Tian Feng, Ryuta Morihara, Yusuke Fukui, Yasuyuki Ohta, Nozomi Hishikawa, Koji Abe
Recently, aging societies have been showing an increasingly strong relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (HP). In the present study, we created a new mouse model for AD with HP, and investigated its clinical and pathological characteristics. Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice (APP23) were subjected to bilateral common carotid arteries stenosis with ameroid constrictors for slowly progressive cerebral HP. In contrast to simple APP23 mice, cerebral HP exacerbated motor and cognitive dysfunctions with white matter lesions and meningo-parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) burdens...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Philipp Eisele, Angelika Alonso, Martin Griebe, Kristina Szabo, Michael G Hennerici, Achim Gass
OBJECTIVE: In multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions blood-brain-barrier (BBB) breakdown is a common phenomenon delineating the phase of focal inflammation in developing MS lesions. In other pathologies like cerebral amyloid angiopathy or arteriosclerotic cerebral small vessel disease permanent cerebral microbleeds (CMB) have been shown to be sensitive markers indicating BBB dysfunction. We were interested in the potential role of T(2)*-weighted MRI and CMBs as BBB integrity markers in MS. METHODS: A large cohort of 189 MS patients (179 relapsing remitting MS and 10 secondary progressive MS) was investigated on a 3T MRI system with conventional and T(2)*-weighted gradient echo MRI (T(2)*w) sequences...
May 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Carlo Salvarani, Jonathan M Morris, Caterina Giannini, Robert D Brown, Teresa Christianson, Gene G Hunder
Vascular inflammation is present in a subset of patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and has a major influence in determining the disease manifestations. Radiological characterization of this subset is particularly important to achieve early recognition and treatment. We conducted this study to investigate the role of imaging in differentiating CAA with and without inflammation. We reviewed neuroimaging findings for 54 patients seen at Mayo Clinic over 25 years with pathological evidence of CAA and with available neuroimaging at the time of diagnosis...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dimitri Renard, Anne Wacongne, Anne Le Floch, Eric Thouvenot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: European Neurology
Yazan S Batarseh, Quoc-Viet Duong, Youssef M Mousa, Sweilem B Al Rihani, Khaled Elfakhri, Amal Kaddoumi
Amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology is known to promote chronic inflammatory responses in the brain. It was thought previously that Aβ is only associated with Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome. However, studies have shown its involvement in many other neurological disorders. The role of astrocytes in handling the excess levels of Aβ has been highlighted in the literature. Astrocytes have a distinctive function in both neuronal support and protection, thus its involvement in Aβ pathological process may tip the balance toward chronic inflammation and neuronal death...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shuguang Chu, Feijia Xu, Ya Su, Hong Chen, Xin Cheng
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) is a relatively rare syndrome of reversible encephalopathy and could be divided into two subtypes of inflammatory CAA (ICAA) and amyloid-β-related angiitis (ABRA) according to histopathology. We present a case of pathologically proved ABRA with partial seizures and headache, and a focal lesion in the right temporal lobes on magnetic resonance imaging. Summarized from previous 139 ABRA and ICAA cases, ABRA is preferred when the lesion is enhanced on MRI and requires combination drug therapy, while ICAA is highly suspected with ApoE genotype of ɛ4/ɛ4...
2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Solène Ronsin, Gianluca Deiana, Ana Filipa Geraldo, Françoise Durand-Dubief, Laure Thomas-Maisonneuve, Maïté Formaglio, Virginie Desestret, David Meyronet, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yves Berthezène, Jérôme Honnorat, François Ducray
OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical and radiologic features that should raise suspicion for the pseudotumoral presentation of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-I). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the characteristics of 5 newly diagnosed and 23 previously reported patients in whom the CAA-I imaging findings were initially interpreted as CNS neoplasms. RESULTS: Most cases (85%) occurred in patients >60 years old. The clinical characteristics at presentation included subacute cognitive decline (50%), confusion (32%), focal deficits (32%), seizures (25%), and headaches (21%)...
March 8, 2016: Neurology
Patrizia Giannoni, Margarita Arango-Lievano, Ines Das Neves, Marie-Claude Rousset, Kévin Baranger, Santiago Rivera, Freddy Jeanneteau, Sylvie Claeysen, Nicola Marchi
Clinical and experimental evidence point to a possible role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 5xFAD mouse model of AD expresses human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin genes with mutations found in AD patients. It remains unknown whether amyloid deposition driven by these mutations is associated with cerebrovascular changes. 5xFAD and wild type mice (2 to 12months old; M2 to M12) were used. Thinned skull in vivo 2-photon microscopy was used to determine Aβ accumulation on leptomeningeal or superficial cortical vessels over time...
April 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Dimitri Renard, Anne Wacongne, Xavier Ayrignac, Mahmoud Charif, Genevieve Fourcade, Souhayla Azakri, Anne Le Floch, Stephane Bouly, Cecilia Marelli, Caroline Arquizan, Christophe Hirtz, Audrey Gabelle, Eric Thouvenot, Sylvain Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Decreased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β 1-40 (Aβ40) and amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) and increased total and phosphorylated tau (t-tau, p-tau) concentrations have been described in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyze these biomarkers in patients with CAA-related inflammation (CAA-I). METHODS: We prospectively recruited nine patients with acute phase CAA-I fulfilling Chung criteria. CSF was analyzed for t-tau, p-tau, Aβ42, and Aβ40...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Andreas Charidimou
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy- related inflammation (CAA-ri) is an aggressive disease subtype of CAA with characteristic clinical and radiological findings. CAA-ri is an important diagnosis to reach in clinical practice, as patients typically respond to prompt immunosuppressive treatment. A definitive diagnosis of CAA-ri still requires a brain biopsy, and hence developing non-invasive diagnostic criteria and biomarkers for this syndrome are key priorities in the field. CAA-ri has gained additional interest for its notable similarities to amyloid-related imaging abnormalities, a complication of immunotherapy treatments in Alzheimer's disease patients...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Eitan Auriel, Andreas Charidimou, M Edip Gurol, Jun Ni, Ellis S Van Etten, Sergi Martinez-Ramirez, Gregoire Boulouis, Fabrizio Piazza, Jacopo C DiFrancesco, Matthew P Frosch, Oct Vio M Pontes-Neto, Ashkan Shoamanesh, Yael Reijmer, Anastasia Vashkevich, Alison M Ayres, Kristin M Schwab, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg
IMPORTANCE: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) is an important diagnosis to reach in clinical practice because many patients with the disease respond to immunosuppressive therapy. Reliable noninvasive diagnostic criteria for CAA-ri would allow some patients to avoid the risk of brain biopsy. OBJECTIVE: To test the sensitivity and specificity of clinical and neuroimaging-based criteria for CAA-ri. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We modified the previously proposed clinicoradiological criteria and retrospectively analyzed clinical medical records and magnetic resonance imaging fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and gradient-echo scans obtained from individuals with CAA-ri and noninflammatory CAA...
February 2016: JAMA Neurology
Amanda M Carpenter, Inder P Singh, Chirag D Gandhi, Charles J Prestigiacomo
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with the greatest morbidity and mortality of all stroke subtypes. Established risk factors for ICH include hypertension, alcohol use, current cigarette smoking, and use of oral anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet agents. Familial aggregation of ICH has been observed, and the heritability of ICH risk has been estimated at 44%. Few genes have been found to be associated with ICH at the population level, and much of the evidence for genetic risk factors for ICH comes from single studies conducted in relatively small and homogenous populations...
January 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
María Carmona-Iragui, Ana Fernández-Arcos, Daniel Alcolea, Fabrizio Piazza, Estrella Morenas-Rodriguez, Sofía Antón-Aguirre, Isabel Sala, Jordi Clarimon, Oriol Dols-Icardo, Valle Camacho, Frederic Sampedro, Josep Munuera, Fidel Nuñez-Marin, Alberto Lleó, Juan Fortea, Beatriz Gómez-Ansón, Rafael Blesa
We report a biomarker and genetic evaluation of four patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) treated with corticosteroids. Patients presented with focal symptomatology and cognitive impairment. MRI revealed cortical microbleeds and asymmetrical hyperintense white matter lesions (WML). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker analyses showed increased anti-Aβ autoantibodies, t-Tau, and p-Tau and decreased Aβ40 and Aβ42. After treatment, focal symptomatology disappeared, and WML and anti-Aβ autoantibodies decreased...
2015: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Andreas Traschütz, Theophilos Tzaridis, Arndt-Hendrik Penner, Klaus Kuchelmeister, Horst Urbach, Elke Hattingen, Michael T Heneka
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the occurrence or clearance of microhemorrhages in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-related vascular inflammation can be modified by immunosuppressive treatment. METHODS: Clinical and radiologic follow-up for more than 5 years of a patient with histopathologically confirmed CAA-related vascular inflammation treated with a prolonged and tapered regimen of IV cyclophosphamide and oral steroids. RESULTS: Under long-term immunosuppressive treatment, a reduced number of cortical micobleeds was observed on repeat MRIs because of both the prevention of new microbleeds and the clearance of those existing at baseline...
December 2015: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Prashant Raghavan, Seamus Looby, T David Bourne, Max Wintermark
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy with inflammation (CAA-I) is a less well-recognized clinically and radiologically distinct subtype of CAA. We aim to describe the imaging manifestations of this uncommon entity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records and imaging database yielded 9 patients with clinical and radiological findings compatible with CAA-I. The neurological findings at presentation, MRI findings including the presence of white matter involvement, mass effect, microhemorrhages and contrast enhancement, treatment provided and outcome were evaluated...
February 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Jacopo C DiFrancesco, Martina Longoni, Fabrizio Piazza
Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) represent the major severe side effect of amyloid-beta (Aβ) immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early biomarkers of ARIA represent an important challenge to ensure safe and beneficial effects of immunotherapies, given that different promising clinical trials in prodromal and subjects at risk for AD are underway. The recent demonstration that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) anti-Aβ autoantibodies play a key role in the development of the ARIA-like events characterizing cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation generated great interest in the field of immunotherapy...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
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