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antibiogram interpretation

Muhammad Sohail, Abid Rashid, Bilal Aslam, Muhammad Waseem, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Akram, Mohsin Khurshid, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool
INTRODUCTION: The drug resistant Acinetobacter strains are important causes of nosocomial infections that are difficult to control and treat. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Acinetobacter strains isolated from different clinical specimens obtained from patients belonging to different age groups. METHODS: In total, 716 non-duplicate Acinetobacter isolates were collected from the infected patients admitted to tertiary-care hospitals at Lahore, Pakistan, over a period of 28 months...
May 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Belal Hossain, Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Atiqur Rahman, Mahfuza Marzan, Iftekhar Rafiqullah, Nicholas E Connor, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman, Maksuda Islam, Davidson H Hamer, Patricia L Hibberd, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Interpretation of blood culture isolates is challenging due to a lack of standard methodologies for identifying contaminants. This problem becomes more complex when the specimens are from sick young infants, as a wide range of bacteria can cause illness among this group. METHODS: We used 43 key words to find articles published between 1970 and 2011 on blood culture isolates and possible contaminants in the PubMed database. Experts were also consulted to obtain other relevant articles...
May 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Hojatolah Barati, Ghobad Moradi, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli, Parvin Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Although the national guidelines recommend special antibiotics, based on the antibiogram of National Reference Laboratory, it seems that, because of uncontrolled usage of antibiotics in the society and due to the changes in the serotypes causing the disease, it is essential to monitor the status of drug resistance, permanently, and to revise the current prescriptions guidelines. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the epidemiological aspects and drug resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, in cholera outbreak, in Alborz province in Iran, during 2011...
November 2015: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Rebekka Kohlmann, Sören G Gatermann
INTRODUCTION: Many clinical microbiology laboratories report on cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (cAST) data on a regular basis. Criteria for generation of cAST reports, however, are often obscure and inconsistent. Whereas the CLSI has published a guideline for analysis and presentation of cAST data, national guidelines directed at clinical microbiology laboratories are not available in Europe. Thus, we sought to describe the influence of different parameters in the process of cAST data analysis in the setting of a German routine clinical microbiology laboratory during 2 consecutive years...
2016: PloS One
Loveleena Agarwal, Amit Kumar Singh, Chandrim Sengupta, Amitabh Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ranks top among the nosocomial pathogens. Nasal formulation of mupirocin is found to eradicate MRSA from colonized individuals, but the emergence of resistant strains is a matter of concern. METHODS: Nasal swabs were collected from 200 health care workers (HCWs) who were screened for MRSA. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to perform antibiotic susceptibility test. MRSA detection was done using a cefoxitin 30 µg disc and interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines...
October 2015: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
Steen Andreassen, Alina Zalounina, Mical Paul, Line Sanden, Leonard Leibovici
BACKGROUND: An antibiogram (ABG) gives the results of in vitro susceptibility tests performed on a pathogen isolated from a culture of a sample taken from blood or other tissues. The institutional cross-ABG consists of the conditional probability of susceptibility for pairs of antimicrobials. This paper explores how interpretative reading of the isolate ABG can be used to replace and improve the prior probabilities stored in the institutional ABG. Probabilities were calculated by both a naïve and semi-naïve Bayesian approaches, both using the ABG for the given isolate and institutional ABGs and cross-ABGs...
November 2015: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Susette K Var, Rouba Hadi, Nancy M Khardori
We studied recent antibiograms (2010 to 2011) from 12 hospitals in the Hampton Roads area, Virginia, that refer patients to a tertiary-care facility affiliated with Eastern Virginia Medical School. The data was compiled into a regional antibiogram, and sensitivity rates of common isolates from the tertiary-care facility (central) were compared to those of referring hospitals grouped by locale. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common Gram- positive and E. coli the most common Gram- negative organism grown from clinical samples in the area...
2015: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Deepti, Sanjeev Sinha, Surendra K Sharma, Praveen Aggarwal, Ashutosh Biswas, Seema Sood, P Ragunandan, Meera Ekka, Immaculata Xess, V Sreenivas
AIMS: To determine the incidence of central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) and ward setting at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was conducted in the medical ICU, a 9-bedded ICU at the AIIMS, a tertiary care teaching hospital. The study design was a prospective observational study. METHODS: One hundred patients admitted to medical ICU and the ward at AIIMS with an indwelling, non-tunnelled central venous catheter (CVC) in place at admission and those with a hospital stay with indwelling CVC for more than 48 hours were monitored...
April 2014: Indian Journal of Chest Diseases & Allied Sciences
Florian P Maurer, Patrice Courvalin, Erik C Böttger, Michael Hombach
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) assigns pathogens to "susceptible" or "resistant" clinical categories based on clinical breakpoints (CBPs) derived from MICs or inhibition zone diameters and indicates the likelihood for therapeutic success. AST reports do not provide quantitative measures for the reliability of such categorization. Thus, it is currently impossible for clinicians to estimate the technical forecast uncertainty of an AST result regarding clinical categorization. AST error rates depend on the localization of pathogen populations in relation to CBPs...
October 2014: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Sreenivasan Srirangaraj, Arunava Kali, M V Pravin Charles
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is an important public health problem in developing countries like India.1 The emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones has reduced the therapeutic options available. Currently, the uniform laboratory interpretation of ciprofloxacin and azithromycin susceptibility remains unclear. AIMS: To study the antibiogram of S. Typhi isolates with special emphasis on in-vitro activity of ciprofloxacin and azithromycin...
2014: Australasian Medical Journal
Aline Wolfensberger, Hugo Sax, Rainer Weber, Reinhard Zbinden, Stefan P Kuster, Michael Hombach
OBJECTIVE: We studied whether the change in antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) guidelines from CLSI to EUCAST influenced cumulative antibiograms in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibilities of non-duplicate isolates collected within a one-year period before (period A) and after (period B) changing AST interpretation from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 1.3 (2011) guidelines were analysed. In addition, period B isolates were reinterpreted according to the CLSI 2009, CLSI 2013 and EUCAST 3...
2013: PloS One
Lutfiye Oksuz, Celine Dupieux, Anne Tristan, Michele Bes, Jerome Etienne, Nezahat Gurler
BACKGROUND: To characterize the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones present in Istanbul, 102 MRSA isolates collected during a 5-year period at the Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital were characterized using microarray analysis and phenotypic resistance profiles. METHODS: Resistance to methicillin was detected with a cefoxitin disk diffusion assay and confirmed with a MRSA-agar and MRSA detection kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by a disk diffusion assay and interpreted according to the 2012 guidelines of the Antibiogram Committee of the French Society for Microbiology...
2013: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Ronald N Jones, Mariana Castanheira, Bijie Hu, Yuxing Ni, Stephen S F Lin, Rodrigo E Mendes, Yao Wang
Antimicrobial resistance (R) surveillance across Asia and especially in China has documented unique patterns and mechanisms. This 2011 study reports results for 2278 isolates from 12 hospitals in China (94-216 strains/site); most from bacteremia (20.4%), pneumonias (29.1%), or skin and skin structure infections (20.9%). Samples were tested by reference broth microdilution methods, interpreted by published susceptibility (S) breakpoints. The most common species were Staphylococcus aureus (343, 45.8% MRSA), Escherichia coli (EC; 288), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA; 221), Klebsiella spp...
November 2013: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Elisa García-Vázquez, Encarnación Moral-Escudero, Alicia Hernández-Torres, Manuel Canteras, Joaquín Gómez, Joaquín Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in antibiotic therapeutic decisions in non-paediatric patients with Gram-negative bacteraemia (GNB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A RDT consisting of a direct antibiogram was used on blood isolates of GNB. GNB were also identified and sensitivity tests were performed according to standard criteria. Information on empirical treatment was registered (T1), as well as the antibiotic administered once the results of the RDT were available (T2)...
August 2013: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Syed Mustaq Ahmed, Ramakrishna Pai Jakribettu, Shaniya Koyakutty Meletath, Arya B, Shakir Vpa
BACKGROUND: Community acquired respiratory tract infections are one of the commonest health issues globally, which demand frequent visits to the family practitioners. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in the frequently isolated pathogens has complicated the use of the empiric therapy with traditional agents. AIM: This study was focused on obtaining a comprehensive insight into the microbial profile, its prevalence and the susceptibility patterns of the gram negative bacilli isolates in lower respiratory tract infections...
February 2013: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Toni Beavers-May, Richard F Jacobs
The prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has steadily increased over the past 40 years. Today, intravenous clindamycin or vancomycin is recommended for anti-staphylococcal coverage. Failure to identify resistant strains could result in the overuse of vancomycin and subsequent resistance to that antibiotic. Concerns over the emergence of this pathogen has caused many hospital laboratories to reassess their ability to identify antibiogram patterns and epidemiological shifts, determine appropriate laboratory testing, and review empiric therapy guidelines...
April 2004: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
N Niederstebruch, D Sixt
In the industrial world, the agar diffusion test is a standard procedure for the susceptibility testing of bacteria isolates. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. are tested with Müller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5 % blood, a so-called blood agar. The results are interpreted using standardized tables, which only exist for this type of nutrient matrix. Because of a number difficulties, both with respect to technical issues and to manual skills, blood agar is not a feasible option in many developing countries...
February 2013: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
W Hansen, M Kietzmann
In 2010 the German Bundestierärztekammer (Federal Chamber of Veterinarians) and the AGTAM (Working Group "Veterinary Pharmaceuticals") published the Guidelines for the prudent use of antibacterial veterinary pharmaceuticals in an updated version. Within the limits of therapeutic freedom, veterinarians are committed to take into account the latest scientific findings in veterinary medicine. These findings may, however, include conflicting interpretations if such an approach is expressed by an accredited university or anywhere else in the field of science...
2012: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Daniel Marcano, Andreína De Jesús, Luis Hernández, Luis Torres
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of enzymatic mechanisms associated with reduced sensitivity to broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics in enterobacteria isolates obtained at hospital centers in Caracas, Venezuela. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on enterobacteria isolated from patients at eight hospital centers in Caracas, Venezuela, from 15 October 2009 to 15 January 2010. The species were identified using conventional biochemical tests, and their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs was assessed by antibiogram (Kirby-Bauer method), using the 2010 performance standards published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...
December 2011: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
A Desrosiers, P Dolcé, P Jutras, L P Jetté
OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) in the lower St Lawrence region, Quebec to different antibiotics, particularly macrolides, and to compare different antibiogram methods (disk diffusion, E-test and microdilution) and incubation atmospheres (ambient air and 5% carbon dioxide). METHODS: A total of 384 strains of GABHS isolated from 377 patients (throat 335; other sites 49) from three hospitals in the lower St Lawrence region were analyzed for their susceptibility to erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, penicillin, clindamycin, cephalothin, rifampin and vancomycin by disk diffusion on Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood (MHB) at 35ºC in 5% carbon dioxide...
July 1999: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Journal Canadien des Maladies Infectieuses
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