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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351663/mini-review-can-non-human-leucocyte-antigen-genes-determine-susceptibility-to-severe-dengue-syndromes
#1
Dorothy Ng, Aparna Ghosh, Mark Jit, Suranjith L Seneviratne
Dengue viral infections are endemic or epidemic in virtually all tropical countries. Among individuals infected with the dengue virus, severe dengue syndromes (i.e., dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndromes) tend to affect only some and this may be due to a combination of host genetic susceptibility and viral factors. In this review article we analyse and discuss the present knowledge of non-human leucocyte antigen host genetic susceptibility to severe dengue syndromes. The relevance of genetic polymorphisms in the pathways of antigen recognition, uptake, processing and presentation, activation of interferon α responses, mast cell and complement activation and T cell activation and dengue disease severity has been reviewed and analysed...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351639/call-to-action-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-africa
#2
Peyton Wilson, Jonathan B Parr, Ravi Jhaveri, Steve R Meshnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue that has not been adequately addressed, especially in the high-prevalence region of Africa. Despite the incorporation of HBV vaccines into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), children continue to be infected with HBV through maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT). The addition of a birth dose of HBV vaccine would be a cost-effective method to reduce MTCT. Birth-dose HBV vaccine policies have been adopted in the Western Pacific region but have yet to be implemented in the African region...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351447/cigarette-smoke-dampens-anti-viral-signaling-in-small-airway-epithelial-cells-by-disrupting-tlr3-cleavage
#3
Parker F Duffney, Claire E McCarthy, Aitor Nogales, Thomas H Thatcher, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Cigarette smokers and people exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for pulmonary viral infections, yet the mechanism responsible for this heightened susceptibility is not understood. To understand the effect of cigarette smoke on susceptibility to viral infection we used an air-liquid interface culture system, and exposed primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) to whole cigarette smoke followed by treatment with the viral mimetic polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or influenza A virus (IAV)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351277/ex-ante-assessment-of-different-vaccination-based-control-schedules-against-the-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
Pachka Hammami, Renaud Lancelot, Joseph Domenech, Matthieu Lesnoff
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and widespread viral infection of small ruminants (goats and sheep), causing heavy economic losses in many developing countries. Therefore, its progressive control and global eradication by 2030 was defined as a priority by international organizations addressing animal health. The control phase of the global strategy is based on mass vaccination of small ruminant populations in endemic regions or countries. It is estimated that a 70% post-vaccination immunity rate (PVIR) is needed in a given epidemiological unit to prevent PPR virus spread...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351201/in-vivo-characterisation-of-five-strains-of-bovine-viral-diarrhoea-virus-1-subgenotype-1c
#5
Rebecca K Ambrose, Jennifer L Gravel, Margaret A Commins, Elizabeth V Fowler, Timothy J Mahony
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is strongly associated with several important diseases of cattle, such as bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and haemoragic lesions. To date many subgenotypes have been reported for BVDV-1, currently ranging from subgenotype 1a to subgenotype 1u. While BVDV-1 has a world-wide distribution, the subgenotypes have a more restricted geographical distribution. As an example, BVDV-1 subgenotypes 1a and 1b are frequently detected in North America and Europe, while the subgenotype 1c is rarely detected...
January 19, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351149/contributors-perinatal-viral-infections-considering-achievements-opportunities-and-paradoxes-in-management
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350414/ross-river-virus-in-australian-blood-donors-possible-implications-for-blood-transfusion-safety
#7
Helen M Faddy, Thu V Tran, Veronica C Hoad, Clive R Seed, Elvina Viennet, Hiu-Tat Chan, Robert Harley, Elise Hewlett, Roy A Hall, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Robert L P Flower, Natalie A Prow
BACKGROUND: Emerging transfusion-transmissible pathogens, including arboviruses such as West Nile, Zika, dengue, and Ross River viruses, are potential threats to transfusion safety. The most prevalent arbovirus in humans in Australia is Ross River virus (RRV); however, prevalence varies substantially around the country. Modeling estimated a yearly risk of 8 to 11 potentially RRV-viremic fresh blood components nationwide. This study aimed to measure the occurrence of RRV viremia among donors who donated at Australian collection centers located in areas with significant RRV transmission during one peak season...
January 19, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350407/recent-progress-in-the-antiviral-activity-and-mechanism-study-of-pentacyclic-triterpenoids-and-their-derivatives
#8
REVIEW
Sulong Xiao, Zhenyu Tian, Yufei Wang, Longlong Si, Lihe Zhang, Demin Zhou
Viral infections cause many serious human diseases with high mortality rates. New drug-resistant strains are continually emerging due to the high viral mutation rate, which makes it necessary to develop new antiviral agents. Compounds of plant origin are particularly interesting. The pentacyclic triterpenoids (PTs) are a diverse class of natural products from plants composed of three terpene units. They exhibit antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. Oleanolic, betulinic, and ursolic acids are representative PTs widely present in nature with a broad antiviral spectrum...
January 19, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350337/baseline-neurocognitive-functioning-predicts-viral-load-suppression-at-1-year-follow-up-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infected-patients
#9
Lokesh Shahani, Lucrecia Salazar, Steven P Woods, Rodrigo Hasbun
The current prospective observational study evaluated the impact of baseline neurocognitive impairment on future viral load suppression among antiretroviral medication naive persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score less than 26, to identify patients with neurocognitive deficits. Of the 138 patients enrolled; virologic suppression was seen in 61% of the participants, while 72% of the participants had a MoCA score less than 26 at baseline. Variables significantly associated with low MoCA score included higher age (p < 0...
January 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350329/detection-of-human-papillomavirus-dna-in-tumors-from-rwandese-breast-cancer-patients
#10
REVIEW
Thierry Habyarimana, Mohammed Attaleb, Jean Baptiste Mazarati, Youssef Bakri, Mohammed El Mzibri
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, a great interest was given to viral etiology of breast cancer. Indeed, due to recent technical improvements and some encouraging new results, it has been a resurgence of interest in the possibility that a substantial proportion of human breast cancers may be caused by viral infections. High-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been found in breast cancer cases. In the present study, we aimed to assess the presence of HPV DNA in breast cancer cases from Rwanda and to evaluate the association between HPV infection and clinico-pathological features...
January 19, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350173/membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis-and-interstitial-nephritis-in-the-setting-of-epstein-barr-virus-related-hemophagocytic-syndrome%C3%A2
#11
Iolanda Godinho, Estela Nogueira, Sofia Jorge, António Teixeira Alves, António Gomes da Costa
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare, aggressive disorder characterized by dysregulation of lymphocyte and macrophage activity, which culminates in tissue infiltration with hemophagocytosis and ultimately organ failure. Renal involvement frequently ensues and usually results in acute tubular necrosis with associated interstitial inflammation. Less frequently, glomerulopathy can also be found. CASE: We report a case of a 24-year-old Caucasian woman with previous asymptomatic hematuria, mild proteinuria, and normal renal function who presented to us with fever...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350137/multiplex-pcr-based-next-generation-sequencing-and-global-diversity-of-seoul-virus-in-humans-and-rats
#12
Won-Keun Kim, Jin Sun No, Seung-Ho Lee, Dong Hyun Song, Daesang Lee, Jeong-Ah Kim, Se Hun Gu, Sunhye Park, Seong Tae Jeong, Heung-Chul Kim, Terry A Klein, Michael R Wiley, Gustavo Palacios, Jin-Won Song
Seoul virus (SEOV) poses a worldwide public health threat. This virus, which is harbored by Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus rats, is the causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans, which has been reported in Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Africa. Defining SEOV genome sequences plays a critical role in development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against the unique worldwide hantavirus. We applied multiplex PCR-based next-generation sequencing to obtain SEOV genome sequences from clinical and reservoir host specimens...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349092/cathepsin-b-plays-a-key-role-in-optimal-production-of-the-influenza-a-virus
#13
Macon D Coleman, Soon-Duck Ha, S M Mansour Haeryfar, Stephen Dominic Barr, Sung Ouk Kim
Background: Influenza A virus (IAV) is the etiologic agent of the febrile respiratory illness, commonly referred to as 'flu'. The lysosomal protease cathepsin B (CTSB) has shown to be involved in the lifecycle of various viruses. Here, we examined the role of CTSB in the IAV lifecycle. Methods: CTSB-deficient (CTSB-/-) macrophages and the human lung epithelial cell line A549 cells treated with CA-074Me were infected with the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain of IAV (IAV-PR8)...
2018: Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348831/aberrant-expression-of-mir-21-mir-376c-and-mir-145-and-their-target-host-genes-in-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Ismini Lasithiotaki, Eliza Tsitoura, Anastasios Koutsopoulos, Eleni Lagoudaki, Chara Koutoulaki, George Pitsidianakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Nikolaos M Siafakas, George Sourvinos, Katerina M Antoniou
Merkel Cell Polyoma Virus (MCPyV) infection has been associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Viruses can manipulate cellular miRNAs or have a profound impact on cellular miRNA expression to control host regulatory pathways. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles of cancer-associated and virally affected host microRNAs miR-21, miR-145, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-302c, miR-367 and miR-376c in a series of NSCLC tissue samples as well as in samples from "healthy" sites, distant from the tumour region that were either positive or negative for MCPyV DNA...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348664/stress-induced-trbp-phosphorylation-enhances-its-interaction-with-pkr-to-regulate-cellular-survival
#15
Evelyn Chukwurah, Rekha C Patel
Transactivation response element RNA-binding protein (TRBP or TARBP2) initially identified to play an important role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication also has emerged as a regulator of microRNA biogenesis. In addition, TRBP functions in signaling pathways by negatively regulating the interferon-induced double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) during viral infections and cell stress. During cellular stress, PKR is activated and phosphorylates the α subunit of the eukaryotic translation factor eIF2, leading to the cessation of general protein synthesis...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348630/expression-of-inflammasome-proteins-and-inflammasome-activation-occurs-in-human-but-not-in-murine-keratinocytes
#16
Jennifer Sand, Eric Haertel, Thomas Biedermann, Emmanuel Contassot, Ernst Reichmann, Lars E French, Sabine Werner, Hans-Dietmar Beer
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that assemble upon sensing of a variety of stress factors. Their formation results in caspase-1-mediated activation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines pro-interleukin(IL)-1β and -18, which induce an inflammatory response. Inflammation is supported by a lytic form of cell death, termed pyroptosis. Innate immune cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, express and activate inflammasomes. However, it has also been demonstrated that human primary keratinocytes activate different types of inflammasomes in vitro, for example, upon UVB irradiation or viral infection...
January 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348627/chikungunya-virus-nsp1-interacts-directly-with-nsp2-and-modulates-its-atpase-activity
#17
Sameer Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Prabhudutta Mamidi, Atul Tiwari, Sriram Kumar, Animamalar Mayavannan, Sagarika Mudulli, Ajit Kumar Singh, Bharat Bhusan Subudhi, Soma Chattopadhyay
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus, which has created an alarming threat in the world due to unavailability of vaccine and antiviral compounds. The CHIKV nsP2 contains ATPase, RTPase, helicase and protease activities, whereas, nsP1 is a viral capping enzyme. In alphaviruses, the four non-structural proteins form the replication complex in the cytoplasm and this study characterizes the interaction between CHIKV nsP1 and nsP2. It was observed that, both the proteins co-localize in the cytoplasm and interact in the CHIKV infected cells by confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation assay...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348203/infectious-virus-in-exhaled-breath-of-symptomatic-seasonal-influenza-cases-from-a-college-community
#18
Jing Yan, Michael Grantham, Jovan Pantelic, P Jacob Bueno de Mesquita, Barbara Albert, Fengjie Liu, Sheryl Ehrman, Donald K Milton
Little is known about the amount and infectiousness of influenza virus shed into exhaled breath. This contributes to uncertainty about the importance of airborne influenza transmission. We screened 355 symptomatic volunteers with acute respiratory illness and report 142 cases with confirmed influenza infection who provided 218 paired nasopharyngeal (NP) and 30-minute breath samples (coarse >5-µm and fine ≤5-µm fractions) on days 1-3 after symptom onset. We assessed viral RNA copy number for all samples and cultured NP swabs and fine aerosols...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347945/microrna-transcriptome-analysis-of-porcine-vital-organ-responses-to-immunosuppressive-porcine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#19
Xiao Liu, Haoche Wei, Shan Liao, Jianheng Ye, Ling Zhu, Zhiwen Xu
BACKGROUND: Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits T-lymphocyte and macrophage immune functions; it has significantly damaged the farming industry. Although recent studies have shown that miRNAs play important roles in immune responses, the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs during immunosuppressive virus infection remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, porcine small-RNA transcriptomes of PCMV-infected and uninfected vital organs were first characterised by high-throughput sequencing...
January 18, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347563/importance-of-small-degree-nodes-in-assortative-networks-with-degree-weight-correlations
#20
Sijuan Ma, Ling Feng, Christopher Pineda Monterola, Choy Heng Lai
It has been known that assortative network structure plays an important role in spreading dynamics for unweighted networks. Yet its influence on weighted networks is not clear, in particular when weight is strongly correlated with the degrees of the nodes as we empirically observed in Twitter. Here we use the self-consistent probability method and revised nonperturbative heterogenous mean-field theory method to investigate this influence on both susceptible-infective-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS) spreading dynamics...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
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