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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166639/apobec3a-expression-in-penile-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Martina Heller, Elena-Sophie Prigge, Adam Kaczorowski, Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz, Markus Hohenfellner, Stefan Duensing
BACKGROUND: APOBECs (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptides) are cytidine deaminases that have been implicated in the host defense against viruses by blocking viral replication. They have also been shown to play a role in genome hypermutation in several human cancers. An APOBEC3 hypermutation signature has been discovered in cervical cancer, which is intimately associated with infection by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). At the same time, HPV genomes themselves are subject to DNA editing by APOBECs...
November 23, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166591/a-cd103-conventional-dendritic-cell-surveillance-system-prevents-development-of-overt-heart-failure-during-subclinical-viral-myocarditis
#2
Xavier Clemente-Casares, Siyavash Hosseinzadeh, Iulia Barbu, Sarah A Dick, Jillian A Macklin, Yiming Wang, Abdul Momen, Crystal Kantores, Laura Aronoff, Maylis Farno, Tiffany M Lucas, Joan Avery, Dorrin Zarrin-Khat, Heidi J Elsaesser, Babak Razani, Kory J Lavine, Mansoor Husain, David G Brooks, Clinton S Robbins, Myron Cybulsky, Slava Epelman
Innate and adaptive immune cells modulate heart failure pathogenesis during viral myocarditis, yet their identities and functions remain poorly defined. We utilized a combination of genetic fate mapping, parabiotic, transcriptional, and functional analyses and demonstrated that the heart contained two major conventional dendritic cell (cDC) subsets, CD103(+) and CD11b(+), which differentially relied on local proliferation and precursor recruitment to maintain their tissue residency. Following viral infection of the myocardium, cDCs accumulated in the heart coincident with monocyte infiltration and loss of resident reparative embryonic-derived cardiac macrophages...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166336/valganciclovir-prophylaxis-versus-preemptive-therapy-in-cytomegalovirus-positive-renal-allograft-recipients-long-term-results-after-7-years-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Oliver Witzke, Martin Nitschke, Michael Bartels, Heiner Wolters, Gunter Wolf, Petra Reinke, Ingeborg A Hauser, Ulrich Alshuth, Volker Kliem
BACKGROUND: The VIPP study compared valganciclovir prophylaxis with preemptive treatment regarding efficacy, safety and long-term graft outcome in CMV-positive (R+) renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical study with a 12-month study phase and a follow-up of up to 84 months. Patients in the prophylaxis group received 2x450 mg/day oral valganciclovir for 100 days adjusted to renal function. Preemptive treatment with 2x900 mg/day valganciclovir was initiated at a viral load of ≥400 CMV copies/mL (PCR) and maintained over ≥14 days, followed by secondary prophylaxis...
November 22, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166266/application-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assays-for-the-detection-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1
#4
W Socha, J Rola, R Urban-Chmiel, J F Żmudziński
Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), a causative agent of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), is responsible for high economic losses in cattle farming industry. The use of testing methods that allow early detection of BoHV-1-infected animals is a key element of each program of IBR eradication. The aim of the study was to design and evaluate two variants of LAMP isothermal tests with SYBR Green fluorescence probes, specific to the genes encoding gD and gE glycoproteins of BoHV-1. LAMP gE BoHV-1 assay was able to distinguish between gE- and gE+ strains of the virus...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165760/factors-responsible-for-mother-to-child-transmission-mtct-of-hiv-1-a-review
#5
J-F Liu, G Liu, Z-G Li
Many factors have been identified to influence the risk of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Chief amongst these is high maternal VL and advanced disease. High maternal viral load (mVL), measured at delivery, has been described as the strongest risk factor for both in utero (IU) and intrapartum (IP) transmission. Similarly, CD4+ T cell count and clinical stage of infection are also the confirmed significant predictors of transmission. Correspondingly, higher mVL in the genital tract has also been independently associated with a higher risk of MTCT of HIV-1...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165625/evidence-of-chikungunya-virus-circulation-in-the-terai-region-of-nepal-in-2014-and-2015
#6
Kishor Pandey, Basu Dev Pandey, Ram Rekha Chaurasiya, Mahesh Thakur, Biswas Neupane, Yogendra Shah, Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Kouichi Morita
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is an emerging viral disease in Nepal, with the reported by our laboratories in 2013. Because of the similarity in signs and symptoms to dengue virus (DENV) and misdiagnosis, the under-reporting of CHIKV infection in DENV-endemic areas of Nepal is very common. The aim of the present study is to identify CHIKV infection among patients with febrile illness during the 2014-2015 outbreaks. Methods: A total of 219 serum samples were tested for CHIKV and DENV by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies, with confirmation by a 50% focal reduction neutralization test (FRNT50)...
November 20, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165511/-cystoisospora-belli-infection-in-hiv-patients-analysis-of-cases-with-different-clinical-evolution
#7
Heber Silva-Díaz, Darwin Fernández-Valverde, Gustavo Hernández-Córdova, Virgilio E Failoc-Rojas
INTRODUCTION: Cystoisospora belli infection is one of the most important causes of watery diarrhea in patients with HIV and causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in patients with HIV and diarrhea by C. belli. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected by analyzing clinical records. RESULTS: Four had recurrent diarrhea despite receiving secondary prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole and specific treatment, two of which had a good viral and immunological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at the time of diagnosis and antiparasitic treatment...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165417/-pterygium-etiology-pathogenesis-treatment
#8
S A Malozhen, S V Trufanov, D A Krakhmaleva
Pterygium is a degenerative condition characterized by fibrovascular outgrowth of conjunctiva over the cornea. Many theories exist that try to explain its pathogenesis. The current belief is that this disease is multifactorial with ultraviolet radiation being the most important trigger. Attention is also paid to such factors as tear film changes, cytokines and growth factors disbalance, immunologic disturbances, genetic mutations, and viral infections. Modern classifications consider the rate of fibrovascular growth, its progressive potential, and histological features...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165231/sequence-optimized-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-detection-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus
#9
Jeffrey W Koehler, Korey L Delp, Adrienne T Hall, Scott P Olschner, Brian J Kearney, Aura R Garrison, Louis A Altamura, Cynthia A Rossi, Timothy D Minogue
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus within the family Bunyaviridae. Infection can result in general myalgia, fever, and headache with some patients developing hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates ranging from 5% to 30%. CCHFV has a wide geographic range that includes Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe with nucleotide sequence variation approaching 20% across the three negative-sense RNA genome segments. While phylogenetic clustering generally aligns with geographic origin of individual strains, distribution can be wide due to tick/CCHFV dispersion via migrating birds...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165087/nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-a-thorough-review-present-status-and-future-perspective-as-hiv-therapeutics
#10
Ashley D Holec, Subhra Mandal, Pavan Kumar Prathipati, Christopher J Destache
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a severe fatal viral infection that has claimed approximately 658,507 lives in the US within the year 2010-2014. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has proven to inhibit HIV-1, but unlike other viral illness, not cure the infection. Among various Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ARVs, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are most effective in limiting HIV-1 infection. This review focuses on NRTIs mechanism of action and metabolism...
November 19, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164490/immunotherapy-with-interferon-%C3%AE-induced-dendritic-cells-for-chronic-hcv-infection-the-results-of-pilot-clinical-trial
#11
Elena Chernykh, Olga Leplina, Ekaterina Oleynik, Marina Tikhonova, Tamara Tyrinova, Natalia Starostina, Alexandr Ostanin
The key role of T cells in hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination and the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to induce antiviral T cell responses suggest that DC vaccines could be a promising approach in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. The aim of our study was to evaluate, whether immunotherapy with DCs is safe and elicits anti-HCV T cell responses. Ten patients with HCV (genotype 1) were vaccinated with monocyte-derived DCs, generated in the presence of IFN-α (IFN-DCs) and pulsed with recombinant HCV Core and NS3 proteins...
November 21, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164488/spontaneous-elimination-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#12
Maciej Janiak, Kamila Caraballo Cortes, Urszula Demkow, Marek Radkowski
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the etiological agent of chronic hepatitis C and a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Only a minority of infected individuals can clear the virus spontaneously. The knowledge of the determinants of virus clearance would allow the development of effective methods preventing its further spread and optimizing treatment regimens. Viral factors associated with spontaneous virus clearance in the acute phase of infection, such as HCV genotype, virus heterogeneity, and the impact of viral proteins on the immune system have been characterized...
November 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164400/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-illicit-drug-users-in-an-archipelago-of-the-amazon
#13
Fabricio Q Silva, Francisco J A Santos, Andreia P Andrade, Suzy D B Pacheco, Benedikt Fischer, João Renato R Pinho, José Alexandre R Lemos, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes acute and chronic liver disease and may lead to cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. The behavior of illicit drug users (DUs) typically exposes them to risks of viral infection. In the Brazilian Amazon region, a number of studies have identified high rates of drug use among adolescents, and a high prevalence of HBV infection in DUs, disseminated by sexual and parenteral activities. However, the epidemiological scenario of HCV infection in the region is still poorly understood...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164341/mathematical-models-of-hiv-latency
#14
Alison L Hill
Viral latency is a major barrier to curing HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy, and consequently, for eliminating the disease globally. The establishment, maintenance, and potential clearance of latent infection are complex dynamic processes and can be best understood and described with the help of mathematical models. Here we review the use of viral dynamics models for HIV, with a focus on applications to the latent reservoir. Such models have been used to explain the multiphasic decay of viral load during antiretroviral therapy, the early seeding of the latent reservoir during acute infection and the limited inflow during treatment, the dynamics of viral blips, and the phenomenon of posttreatment control...
November 22, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164277/high-prevalence-of-dengue-antibodies-and-the-arginine-variant-of-the-fc%C3%AE-riia-polymorphism-in-asymptomatic-individuals-in-a-population-of-minas-gerais-state-southeast-brazil
#15
Anna Carolina Toledo da Cunha Pereira, Tatiane Ribeiro de Siqueira, Andressa Anunciação de Oliveira Prado, Camila Almeida Veiga da Silva, Thaís de Fátima Silva Moraes, Alan Alex Aleixo, José Carlos de Magalhaes, Gabriel Augusto Pires de Souza, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Gustavo Portela Ferreira, Breno de Mello Silva, Cintia Lopes de Brito Magalhães, Luciana Lara Santos, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira Ferreira, Luiz Cosme Cotta Malaquias, Luiz Felipe Leomil Coelho
Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans worldwide. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the immune response, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), IgG Fc receptor II-A (FcγRIIa), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), were previously reported to be associated with susceptibility to dengue disease in different human populations. Therefore, due to the relevant association of host immune and genetic status with disease susceptibility/severity of dengue, this work aims to verify the frequency of anti-dengue virus antibodies and some dengue-associated risk SNPs in a population in Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil...
November 21, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164156/disseminated-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-infection-presenting-with-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-an-aids-patient
#16
Folusakin Ayoade, James Cotelingam, Andrew Stevenson Joel Chandranesan
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection is one of the relatively common opportunistic infections seen in severely immunocompromised AIDS patients. A constellation of clinical, laboratory, and pathological features involving multiple organ systems are often present in disseminated MAC infection but disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has not been previously described in association with this condition. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of DIC complicating disseminated MAC infection in an AIDS patient...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164151/naturally-occurring-resistance-associated-variants-to-hepatitis-c-virus-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-in-treatment-naive-hcv-genotype-6a-infected-patients
#17
Zhanyi Li, Ying Liu, Ying Zhang, Xiaoqiong Shao, Qiumin Luo, Xiaoyan Guo, Guoli Lin, Qingxian Cai, Zhixin Zhao, Yutian Chong
Background and Objective: The direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) antiviral therapy has drastically improved the prognosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. However, the viral drug resistance-associated variants (RAVs) can limit the efficacy of DAAs. For the HCV-6a is not the predominant prevalent genotype; the data on the prevalence of naturally occurring RAVs in it is scarce. Our study aims to assess the prevalence of RAVs in treatment-naive HCV-6a patients. Methods: Nested PCR assays were performed on 95 HCV-6a patients to amplify HCV viral regions of NS3, NS5A, and NS5B...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164104/targeting-dengue-virus-ns-3-helicase-by-ligand-based-pharmacophore-modeling-and-structure-based-virtual-screening
#18
Sobia A Halim, Shanza Khan, Ajmal Khan, Abdul Wadood, Fazal Mabood, Javid Hussain, Ahmed Al-Harrasi
Dengue fever is an emerging public health concern, with several million viral infections occur annually, for which no effective therapy currently exist. Non-structural protein 3 (NS-3) Helicase encoded by the dengue virus (DENV) is considered as a potential drug target to design new and effective drugs against dengue. Helicase is involved in unwinding of dengue RNA. This study was conducted to design new NS-3 Helicase inhibitor by in silico ligand- and structure based approaches. Initially ligand-based pharmacophore model was generated that was used to screen a set of 1201474 compounds collected from ZINC Database...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164043/antiviral-activity-of-itraconazole-against-echovirus-30-infection-in-vitro
#19
Jae-Sug Lee, Hwa-Jung Choi, Jae-Hyoung Song, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Kyungah Yoon, Jeong-Min Seong
Objectives: Echovirus 30 is a major cause of meningitis in children and adults. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the antifungal drug itraconazole could exhibit antiviral activity against echovirus 30. Methods: The cytopathic effect and viral RNA levels were assessed in RD cells as indicators of viral replication. The effects of itraconazole were compared to those of two known antiviral drugs, rupintrivir and pleconaril. The time course and time-of-addition assays were used to approximate the time at which itraconazole exerts its activity in the viral cycle...
October 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164007/adult-onset-still-s-disease-is-this-truly-a-diagnosis-of-exclusion
#20
Caleb W Anderson, Phalgoon A Shah, Jefferson R Roberts
Adult-onset Still's Disease is a rare, idiopathic, inflammatory disorder characterized by arthralgia, evanescent, salmon-colored rash, and daily fevers as well as lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, splenomegaly, myalgias, and serositis. The inciting etiology of this syndrome is unknown, though it has been hypothesized that infection triggers an autoimmune response. The Yamaguchi Criteria, the most sensitive and widely used diagnostic criteria, requires both a minimum set of criteria to be met as well other potential etiologies to be excluded...
November 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
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