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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820881/vector-competence-of-populations-of-aedes-aegypti-from-three-distinct-cities-in-kenya-for-chikungunya-virus
#1
Sheila B Agha, Edith Chepkorir, Francis Mulwa, Caroline Tigoi, Samwel Arum, Milehna M Guarido, Peris Ambala, Betty Chelangat, Joel Lutomiah, David P Tchouassi, Michael J Turell, Rosemary Sang
BACKGROUND: In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone), Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak) to transmit CHIKV...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820758/lack-of-association-between-interleukin-28b-polymorphism-and-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c
#2
Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Olga Filipovich, Jessica Nyström, Anton Zhirkov, Erwin Daniel Brenndörfer, Lars Frelin, Elena Rukoiatkina, Yuriy Lobzin, Matti Sällberg, Björn Fischler, Anton Lutckii
OBJECTIVES: Single genetic nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) near the gene for Interleukin 28B (IL28B), is known to be of importance for frequency of spontaneous clearance and treatment outcome in interferon based therapies in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if IL28B polymorphism in children and/or their mothers plays a role in vertical transmission of HCV (HCV-VT). METHODS: Plasma samples from 59 infected women, 76 uninfected children born to infected mothers, and 47 children with known vertically transmitted HCV infection, were analysed for IL28B polymorphism and classified by the IL28B genotype (C/C, C/T and T/T) as well as by viral genotype...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820725/understanding-hepatitis-c-virus-drug-resistance-clinical-implications-for-current-and-future-regimens
#3
David L Wyles, Anne F Luetkemeyer
Viral resistance to direct-acting antiviral drugs may impact their effectiveness during treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Most data on HCV drug resistance concern genotypes 1 and 3. The clinical impact of resistance to HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitors and a practical approach to indications and methods for resistance testing are discussed.
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820612/the-potential-of-signal-peptide-peptidase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-hepatitis-c
#4
Kohji Moriishi
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver steatosis, cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome with inflammation, and eventually leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV core protein is a well-known capsid protein and pathogenic factor related to lipid accumulation, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and carcinogenesis. Cleavage of the C-terminal transmembrane region by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is required for maturation of the core protein. Areas covered: Herein, this review details the general aspects of the structure, lifecycle, pathogenesis, and maturation of the HCV core protein, the function of SPP, and clinically available direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820498/interference-of-apoptosis-by-hepatitis-b-virus
#5
REVIEW
Shaoli Lin, Yan-Jin Zhang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver diseases that have been a consistent problem for human health, leading to more than one million deaths every year worldwide. A large proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases across the world are closely associated with chronic HBV infection. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death and is frequently altered in cancer development. HBV infection interferes with the apoptosis signaling to promote HCC progression and viral proliferation. The HBV-mediated alteration of apoptosis is achieved via interference with cellular signaling pathways and regulation of epigenetics...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820495/human-papillomavirus-and-the-dna-damage-response-exploiting-host-repair-pathways-for-viral-replication
#6
REVIEW
Chelsey C Spriggs, Laimonis A Laimins
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical and other genital cancers. In addition, HPV infections are associated with the development of many oropharyngeal cancers. HPVs activate and repress a number of host cellular pathways to promote their viral life cycles, including those of the DNA damage response. High-risk HPVs activate the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) DNA damage repair pathways, which are essential for viral replication (particularly differentiation-dependent genome amplification)...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820470/adaption-of-fmdv-asia-1-to-suspension-culture-cell-resistance-is-overcome-by-virus-capsid-alterations
#7
Veronika Dill, Bernd Hoffmann, Aline Zimmer, Martin Beer, Michael Eschbaumer
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease with catastrophic economic impact for affected countries. BHK21 suspension cells are preferred for the industrial production of FMDV vaccine antigen, but not all virus strains can be successfully propagated in these cells. Serotype Asia-1 is often affected by this phenomenon. In this study, the Asia-1 strain Shamir was used to examine viral, cellular and environmental factors that contribute to resistance to cell culture infection. Cell media composition, pH and ammonium chloride concentration did not affect Asia-1 differently than other serotypes...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820433/targeting-persistent-human-papillomavirus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Srinidhi Shanmugasundaram, Jianxin You
While the majority of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient and cleared within a couple of years following exposure, 10-20% of infections persist latently, leading to disease progression and, ultimately, various forms of invasive cancer. Despite the clinical efficiency of recently developed multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines, these preventive measures are not effective against pre-existing infection. Additionally, considering that the burden associated with HPV is greatest in regions with limited access to preventative vaccination, the development of effective therapies targeting persistent infection remains imperative...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820067/a-comprehensive-review-on-ebola-ebov-virus-future-prospects
#9
Dr Abdru Rauf, Muhammad, Abdur Rauf, Ahsan Khan, Muhammad Rizwan, Seema Patel, Haroon Khan, Adel Mahasneh, Mohammad S Mubarak
Ebola virus (EBOV) was discovered for the first time in 1976. It belongs to the family Filoviridae, which causes hemorrhagic fever that could lead to death in a few days. West Africa faced a major outbreak where symptoms appeared in the form of chills, myalgia, fever, diarrhea, and vomiting, and the disease finally reached a severe state as a result of hemorrhagic complications and failure of multiple organs. EBOV spreads by contact with body fluids of an infected person such as blood, saliva, urine, and seminal fluid, and also spreads by a contact with contaminated surfaces...
August 16, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819988/behavior-change-following-hiv-diagnosis-findings-from-a-cohort-of-los-angeles-msm
#10
Pamina M Gorbach, Marjan Javanbakht, Robert K Bolan
The effect of an HIV diagnosis on subsequent behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM) remains unclear. From 2009 to 2012 the NIDA funded Metromates Study enrolled and followed for one year MSM seeking testing for HIV in Los Angeles, assessing those with new HIV diagnoses for acute/recent HIV infection. Behavioral data were collected via Computer-Assisted Self-Interview from 321 men of whom 125 were classified as recently HIV infected, 91 as not recently HIV infected, and 105 as HIV-negative. Differences over time between those with recent HIV infection, not recent HIV infection, and no HIV were evaluated using bivariate and multivariable analyses for repeat measures to assess associations between HIV group, behaviors and condomless receptive (CRAI), intersertive (CIAI), or any condomless anal intercourse (CAI)...
August 18, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819570/hcv-integrated-care-a-randomized-trial-to-increase-treatment-initiation-and-svr-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#11
Erik J Groessl, Lin Liu, Marisa Sklar, Samuel B Ho
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Psychiatric or substance use disorders are barriers to successful HCV antiviral treatment. In a randomized, controlled trial (RCT), the effects of HCV Integrated Care (IC) for increasing treatment rates and sustained viral response (SVR) were studied with direct acting antivirals (DAA). METHODS: In 2012-13, VA patients, whose screening was positive for depression, PTSD, or substance use (N = 79), were randomized to IC or Usual Care (UC). IC consisted of brief psychological interventions and case management...
2017: International Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819257/cytolytic-dna-vaccine-encoding-lytic-perforin-augments-the-maturation-of-and-antigen-presentation-by-dendritic-cells-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#12
Danushka K Wijesundara, Wenbo Yu, Ben J C Quah, Preethi Eldi, John D Hayball, Kerrilyn R Diener, Ilia Voskoboinik, Eric J Gowans, Branka Grubor-Bauk
The use of cost-effective vaccines capable of inducing robust CD8(+) T cell immunity will contribute significantly towards the elimination of persistent viral infections and cancers worldwide. We have previously reported that a cytolytic DNA vaccine encoding an immunogen and a truncated mouse perforin (PRF) protein significantly augments anti-viral T cell (including CD8(+) T cell) immunity. Thus, the current study investigated whether this vaccine enhances activation of dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in greater priming of CD8(+) T cell immunity...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819247/delta-inulin-based-adjuvants-promote-the-generation-of-polyfunctional-cd4-t-cell-responses-and-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#13
Claudio Counoupas, Rachel Pinto, Gayathri Nagalingam, Warwick J Britton, Nikolai Petrovsky, James A Triccas
There is an urgent need for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines to protect against chronic bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Advax™ is a novel adjuvant based on delta inulin microparticles that enhances immunity with a minimal inflammatory profile and has entered human trials to protect against viral pathogens. In this report we determined if Advax displays broad applicability against important human pathogens by assessing protective immunity against infection with M. tuberculosis...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819195/human-cytomegalovirus-escapes-immune-recognition-by-nk-cells-through-the-downregulation-of-b7-h6-by-the-viral-genes-us18-and-us20
#14
Yoav Charpak-Amikam, Tobias Kubsch, Einat Seidel, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Noemi Cavaletto, Rachel Yamin, Dominik Schmiedel, Dana Wolf, Giorgio Gribaudo, Martin Messerle, Luka Cicin-Sain, Ofer Mandelboim
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major human pathogen, causing serious diseases in immunocompromised populations and congenially infected neonates. One of the main immune cells acting against the virus are Natural Killer (NK) cells. Killing by NK cells is mediated by a small family of activating receptors such as NKp30 that interact with the cellular ligand B7-H6. The outcome of B7-H6-NKp30 interaction was, so far, mainly studied with regard to NK recognition and killing of tumors. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of B7-H6 is upregulated following HCMV infection and that HCMV uses two of its genes: US18 and US20, to interfere with B7-H6 surface expression, in a mechanism involving endosomal degradation, in order to evade NK cell recognition...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819179/identification-of-polo-like-kinases-as-potential-novel-drug-targets-for-influenza-a-virus
#15
Marie O Pohl, Jessica von Recum-Knepper, Ariel Rodriguez-Frandsen, Caroline Lanz, Emilio Yángüez, Stephen Soonthornvacharin, Thorsten Wolff, Sumit K Chanda, Silke Stertz
In recent years genome-wide RNAi screens have revealed hundreds of cellular factors required for influenza virus infections in human cells. The long-term goal is to establish some of them as drug targets for the development of the next generation of antivirals against influenza. We found that several members of the polo-like kinases (PLK), a family of serine/threonine kinases with well-known roles in cell cycle regulation, were identified as hits in four different RNAi screens and we therefore studied their potential as drug target for influenza...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819165/atp-sensitive-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channel-regulation-of-viral-infections-in-honey-bees
#16
Scott T O'Neal, Daniel R Swale, Troy D Anderson
Honey bees are economically important pollinators of a wide variety of crops that have attracted the attention of both researchers and the public alike due to unusual declines in the numbers of managed colonies in some parts of the world. Viral infections are thought to be a significant factor contributing to these declines, but viruses have proven a challenging pathogen to study in a bee model and interactions between viruses and the bee antiviral immune response remain poorly understood. In the work described here, we have demonstrated the use of flock house virus (FHV) as a model system for virus infection in bees and revealed an important role for the regulation of the bee antiviral immune response by ATP-sensitive inwardly rectifying potassium (KATP) channels...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819105/a-novel-method-for-genome-wide-profiling-of-dynamic-host-pathogen-interactions-using-3-end-enriched-rna-seq
#17
Jie Li, Liangliang He, Yun Zhang, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang Cao
Marek's disease is a contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens and typical model of viral oncogenesis. Mapping changes or different states over the course of infection for both host and pathogen would provide important insights into dynamic host-pathogen interactions. Here we introduced 3' end enriched RNA-seq as a novel method to study host-pathogen interactions in chicken embryo fibroblasts cells challenged with Marek's disease virus. The method allowed accurate profiling of gene expression and alternative polyadenylation sites for host and pathogen simultaneously...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819012/how-herpesviruses-pass-on-their-genomes
#18
Anna K Serquiña, Joseph M Ziegelbauer
Herpesvirus genomes exist and replicate as episomes inside the host cell nucleus during latent infection. Chiu et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201702013) find that unlike Epstein-Barr virus, which partitions viral genomes faithfully during cell division, Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus clusters viral genomes into loci that are distributed unequally to daughter cells.
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818896/genome-sequences-of-three-novel-isolates-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-2-associated-with-acute-respiratory-infection
#19
J L Kennedy, J C Kincaid, K C Schwalm, A N Stoner, T J Abramo, T M Thompson, O Hardin, C Putt, D L Dinwiddie
Using target capture of viral nucleic acid and next-generation sequencing, we generated the genome sequences of three novel human parainfluenza virus 2 isolates. Isolates ACRI_0185 (GenBank accession number MF077311), ACRI_0230 (MF077312), and ACRI_0248 (MF077313) were collected in October 2016, February 2017, and March 2017, respectively, from pediatric patients with acute respiratory infection in Arkansas.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818789/immune-mechanisms-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-asthma
#20
REVIEW
Hugo A Farne, Sebastian L Johnston
The more severe pathology respiratory viral infections produce in asthma sufferers is a result of a dysregulated immune response. Excess type 2 inflammation is a well-described feature of virally induced asthma exacerbations, with growing evidence that production of antiviral interferons may also be impaired. However, the mechanisms underlying these are little understood. This review summarizes the current understanding and recent discoveries of the cellular and molecular events that follow viral infections in asthma...
August 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
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