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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614757/%C3%AE-glucans-multi-functional-modulator-of-wound-healing
#1
REVIEW
Juraj Majtan, Milos Jesenak
β-glucans are derived from a variety of sources including yeast, grain and fungus and belong to the class of drugs known as biological response modifiers. They possess a broad spectrum of biological activities that enhance immunity in humans. One promising area for β-glucans' application is dermatology, including wound care. Topical applications of β-glucans are increasing, especially due to their pluripotent properties. Macrophages, keratinocytes and fibroblasts are considered the main target cells of β-glucans during wound healing...
April 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601862/phagocytes-as-central-players-in-the-defence-against-invasive-fungal-infection
#2
REVIEW
Kerstin Hünniger, Oliver Kurzai
Fungal pathogens cause severe and life-threatening infections worldwide. The majority of invasive infections occurs in immunocompromised patients and is based on acquired as well as congenital defects of innate and adaptive immune responses. In many cases, these defects affect phagocyte functions. Consequently, professional phagocytes - mainly monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes - have been shown to act as central players in initiating and modulating antifungal immune responses as well as elimination of fungal pathogens...
March 27, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600522/studies-on-the-effects-of-lps-%C3%A3-glucan-and-metabolic-inhibitors-on-the-respiratory-burst-and-gene-expression-in-atlantic-salmon-macrophages
#3
J S Ulvestad, J Kumari, T Seternes, H Chi, R A Dalmo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophage-like cells is induced as an antimicrobial defence against invading pathogens. In this study, we have explored how different stimuli and metabolic inhibitors affect the level of respiratory burst in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) head kidney macrophage-like cells. Cells stimulated in vitro by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ß-glucan showed increased production of ROS compared to unstimulated cells. Both stimulation and costimulation by curdlan (ß-glucan) induced a higher production of ROS compared to stimulation and costimulation by LPS...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600438/functionalization-of-plga-nanoparticles-with-1-3-%C3%AE-glucan-enhances-the-intracellular-pharmacokinetics-of-rifampicin-in-macrophages
#4
Matshawandile Tukulula, Luis Gouveia, Paulo Paixao, Rose Hayeshi, Brendon Naicker, Admire Dube
PURPOSE: Mycobacterium tuberculosis which causes tuberculosis, is primarily resident within macrophages. 1,3-β-glucan has been proposed as a ligand to target drug loaded nanoparticles (NPs) to macrophages. In this study we characterized the intracellular pharmacokinetics of the anti-tubercular drug rifampicin delivered by 1,3-β-glucan functionalized PLGA NPs (Glu-PLGA). We hypothesized that Glu-PLGA NPs would be taken up at a faster rate than PLGA NPs, and consequently deliver higher amounts of rifampicin into the macrophages...
March 29, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588627/zymosan-attenuates-melanoma-growth-progression-increases-splenocyte-proliferation-and-induces-tlr-2-4-and-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-in-mice
#5
Mehdi Taghavi, Esmaeil Mortaz, Alireza Khosravi, Ghasem Vahedi, Gert Folkerts, Mohammad Varahram, Mehdi Kazempour-Dizaji, Johan Garssen, Ian M Adcock
Background: Melanoma is one of the most common types of skin malignancies. Since current therapies are suboptimal, considerable interest has focused on novel natural-based treatments. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in evoking innate immunity against cancer cells. Zymosan, a known TLR-2 agonist, is a glucan derived from yeast cell walls with promising immunomodulatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae -derived zymosan-modulated skin melanoma progression by regulation of TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression in peritoneal macrophages and serum TNF-α level...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551572/flying-under-the-radar-histoplasma-capsulatum-avoidance-of-innate-immune-recognition
#6
REVIEW
Stephanie C Ray, Chad A Rappleye
The dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum takes advantage of the innate immune system, utilizing host macrophages as a proliferative niche while largely avoiding stimulation of signaling host receptors. As a result, innate immune cells are unable to control H. capsulatum on their own. Not all host phagocytes respond to H. capsulatum in the same way, with neutrophils and dendritic cells playing important roles in impeding fungal growth and initiating a protective TH 1 response, respectively. Dendritic cells prime T-cell differentiation after internalization of yeasts via VLA-5 receptors and subsequent degradation of the yeasts...
March 15, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548917/triple-helix-conformation-of-%C3%AE-d-glucan-from-ganoderma-lucidum-and-effect-of-molecular-weight-on-its-immunological-activity
#7
Yanfang Liu, Qingjiu Tang, Jingsong Zhang, Yongmei Xia, Yan Yang, Di Wu, Steve W Cui
β-D-glucan (GLP20) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies was successfully fractionated into five fractions with different weight-average molecular weights (Mw ) through ultrasonic irradiation. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ), hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) and intrinsic viscosity ([η]) of these fractions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) aqueous solution were determined using HPSEC-MALLS-RI-VS system. The results indicated that β-D-glucan displayed rigid chain conformations with ρ values lager than 2...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522522/cell-walls-of-the-dimorphic-fungal-pathogens-sporothrix-schenckii-and-sporothrix-brasiliensis-exhibit-bilaminate-structures-and-sloughing-of-extensive-and-intact-layers
#8
Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Louise A Walker, Gustavo Niño-Vega, Héctor M Mora-Montes, Gabriela W P Neves, Hector Villalobos-Duno, Laura Barreto, Karina Garcia, Bernardo Franco, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Carol A Munro, Neil A R Gow
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic species of the Sporothrix genus. A new emerging species, Sporothrix brasiliensis, is related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis and has severe clinical manifestations. The cell wall of pathogenic fungi is a unique structure and impacts directly on the host immune response. We reveal and compare the cell wall structures of Sporothrix schenckii and S. brasiliensis using high-pressure freezing electron microscopy to study the cell wall organization of both species...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491142/aspartyl-proteases-in-candida-glabrata-are-required-for-suppression-of-the-host-innate-immune-response
#9
Mubashshir Rasheed, Anamika Battu, Rupinder Kaur
A family of 11 cell surface-associated aspartyl proteases (CgYps1-11), also referred as yapsins, is a key virulence factor in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. However, the mechanism by which CgYapsins modulate immune response and facilitate survival in the mammalian host, remains to be identified. Here, using RNA-Seq analysis, we report that genes involved in cell wall metabolism are differentially regulated in the Cgyps1-11Δ mutant. Consistently, the mutant contained lower β-glucan and mannan levels and exhibited increased chitin content in the cell wall...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483123/micafungin-enhances-the-human-macrophage-response-to-candida-albicans-through-%C3%AE-glucan-exposure
#10
José Pedro Guirao-Abad, Ruth Sánchez-Fresneda, Francisco Machado, Juan Carlos Argüelles, María Martínez-Esparza
Micafungin belongs to the antifungal family of echinocandins, which act as non-competitive inhibitors of the fungal cell-wall β-1,3-D-glucan synthase. Since C. albicans is the most prevalent pathogenic fungus in humans, we study the involvement of Micafungin in the modulation of the inflammatory response developed by human tissue macrophages against C. albicans The MIC for Micafungin was 0.016 μg/ml on the C. albicans SC5314 standard strain. Micafungin induced a drastic reduction in the number of exponential SC5314 viable cells, the fungicidal effect being dependent on the cellular metabolic activity...
February 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475435/immune-enhancing-activity-of-c-militaris-fermented-with-pediococcus-pentosaceus-grc-on89a-in-cy-induced-immunosuppressed-model
#11
Ha-Kyoung Kwon, Woo-Ri Jo, Hye-Jin Park
BACKGROUND: Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) is reported to exert various immune-activities. To enhance its activity, we fermented C.militaris with Pediococcus pentosaceus ON89A (GRC-ON89A). In this study, we investigated the immune-enhancing activity GRC-ON89A, using immunosuppressed model. METHODS: Immunosuppression was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CY). Each group was orally administered distilled water, GRC-ON89A or GRC, respectively...
February 23, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471090/structure-characterization-of-two-functional-polysaccharides-from-polygonum-multiflorum-and-its-immunomodulatory
#12
Qing Zhang, Yi Xu, Junjiang Lv, Mengxia Cheng, Ying Wu, Kun Cao, Xiaofeng Zhang, Xiuni Mou, Qi Fan
Two purified polysaccharides named WPMP-1 and WPMP-2 were obtained from Polygonum multiflorum with an average molecular weight of 2.04 kDa and 92.13 kDa, respectively. Structural characterization revealed that WPMP-1was supposed to be a glucan composed of 1,4-linked α-d-Glcp, 1,4,6-linked α-d-Glcp, and terminal α-d-Glcp. WPMP-2 contained a complex branched structre formed by 1,2-linked α-d-Rhap, 1,2,4-linked α-d-Rhap, 1,3,5-linked α-l-Ara, 1,5- linked α-l-Araf, terminal α-l-Araf, 1,4-linked β-d-Galp, 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA, and 4-linked α-d-GalpA...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443874/dental-application-of-natural-products
#13
REVIEW
Hiroshi Sakagami, Mineko Tomomura
This review article summarizes the recent progress in dental applications of natural products. Catechin gel showed selective antimicrobial activity, whereas the alkaline extract of various plant species rich in lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) showed much higher antiviral activity than lower molecular weight polyphenols. Mouthwash with the alkaline extract of a plant classified as OTC effectively reduced halitosis. Unexpectedly, many polyphenolic compounds purified from the natural kingdom showed much lower tumor-specificity against human oral squamous cell lines as compared with antitumor agents, although they showed apoptosis-inducing activity...
February 14, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401667/infectious-agents-as-stimuli-of-trained-innate-immunity
#14
REVIEW
Paulina Rusek, Mateusz Wala, Magdalena Druszczyńska, Marek Fol
The discoveries made over the past few years have modified the current immunological paradigm. It turns out that innate immunity cells can mount some kind of immunological memory, similar to that observed in the acquired immunity and corresponding to the defense mechanisms of lower organisms, which increases their resistance to reinfection. This phenomenon is termed trained innate immunity. It is based on epigenetic changes in innate immune cells (monocytes/macrophages, NK cells) after their stimulation with various infectious or non-infectious agents...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393221/the-synergy-of-endotoxin-and-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-from-gut-translocation-worsens-sepsis-severity-in-a-lupus-model-of-fc-gamma-receptor-iib-deficient-mice
#15
Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Saowapha Surawut, Navaporn Worasilchai, Arthid Thim-Uam, Malcolm Finkelman, Ariya Chindamporn, Tanapat Palaga, Nattiya Hirankarn, Prapaporn Pisitkun, Asada Leelahavanichkul
We investigated the influence of spontaneous gut leakage upon polymicrobial sepsis in a lupus model with Fc gamma receptor IIb-deficient (FcGRIIb-/-) mice aged 8 and 40 weeks, as representing asymptomatic and symptomatic lupus, respectively. Spontaneous gut leakage, determined by (i) the presence of FITC-dextran, (ii) elevated serum endotoxin, and (iii) elevated serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG), was demonstrated in symptomatic lupus but not in the asymptomatic group. In parallel, spontaneous gut leakage, detected by elevated serum BG without fungal infection, was demonstrated in patients with active lupus nephritis...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366884/%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-d-glucans-from-the-edible-mushroom-pleurotus-albidus-differentially-regulate-lipid-induced-inflammation-and-foam-cell-formation-in-human-macrophage-like-thp-1-cells
#16
Victor Costa Castro-Alves, João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento
Macrophages play an essential role in lipid metabolism; however, the excessive uptake of modified lipids and cholesterol crystals (CC) leads to the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid-laden macrophages called foam cells. Since the α-1,6- and β-1,3-d-glucans from the basidiome and the mycelium of the edible mushroom Pleurotus albidus have previously been shown to regulate macrophage function, these glucans were tested in macrophage-like THP-1 cells previously exposed to acetylated low-density lipoproteins (acLDL) or CC...
January 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328910/modulation-of-myelopoiesis-progenitors-is-an-integral-component-of-trained-immunity
#17
Ioannis Mitroulis, Klara Ruppova, Baomei Wang, Lan-Sun Chen, Michal Grzybek, Tatyana Grinenko, Anne Eugster, Maria Troullinaki, Alessandra Palladini, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Andreas Schlitzer, Marc Beyer, Leo A B Joosten, Berend Isermann, Mathias Lesche, Andreas Petzold, Kai Simons, Ian Henry, Andreas Dahl, Joachim L Schultze, Ben Wielockx, Nicola Zamboni, Peter Mirtschink, Ünal Coskun, George Hajishengallis, Mihai G Netea, Triantafyllos Chavakis
Trained innate immunity fosters a sustained favorable response of myeloid cells to a secondary challenge, despite their short lifespan in circulation. We thus hypothesized that trained immunity acts via modulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Administration of β-glucan (prototypical trained-immunity-inducing agonist) to mice induced expansion of progenitors of the myeloid lineage, which was associated with elevated signaling by innate immune mediators, such as IL-1β and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and with adaptations in glucose metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295913/o-mannosylation-of-proteins-enables-histoplasma-yeast-survival-at-mammalian-body-temperatures
#18
Andrew L Garfoot, Kristie D Goughenour, Marcel Wüthrich, Murugesan V S Rajaram, Larry S Schlesinger, Bruce S Klein, Chad A Rappleye
The ability to grow at mammalian body temperatures is critical for pathogen infection of humans. For the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum , elevated temperature is required for differentiation of mycelia or conidia into yeast cells, a step critical for invasion and replication within phagocytic immune cells. Posttranslational glycosylation of extracellular proteins characterizes factors produced by the pathogenic yeast cells but not those of avirulent mycelia, correlating glycosylation with infection...
January 2, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285925/yeast-%C3%AE-glucan-suppresses-the-chronic-inflammation-and-improves-the-microenvironment-in-adipose-tissues-of-ob-ob-mice
#19
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Bingchao Duan, Mengying Sun, Xiaojuan Xu
Inflammation in visceral adipose tissues (VATs) contributes to the pathology of diabetes. This study focused on the inflammatory regulation in VATs by a yeast β-1,3-glucan (BYG) orally administered to ob/ob mice. BYG decreased pro-inflammatory modulators of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, CCL2, and SAA3, and increased anti-inflammatory factors of Azgp1 (2.53 ± 0.02-fold change) at protein and/or mRNA levels (p < 0.05). Remarkably, BYG decreased the degree of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltration to 82.5 ± 8...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249921/lentinula-edodes-%C3%AE-glucan-enriched-diet-induces-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-macrophages-in-rabbit
#20
Helena Crespo, Hugo Guillén, Lorena de Pablo-Maiso, Carmen Gómez-Arrebola, Gregorio Rodríguez, Idoia Glaria, Damián de Andrés, Ramsés Reina
β-glucans exhibited in cell walls of several pathogens as bacteria or fungi are sensed by pathogen recognition receptors such as scavenger receptors present in antigen presenting cells, i.e., macrophages. β-glucans obtained from Shiitake mushrooms were chemically characterized. A β-glucan supplemented diet was assayed for 30 days in rabbits aiming to characterize the immune response elicited in blood-derived macrophages. M1 and M2 profiles of macrophage differentiation were confirmed in rabbits by in vitro stimulation with IFN-γ and IL-4 and marker quantification of each differentiation pathway...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
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