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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443874/dental-application-of-natural-products
#1
REVIEW
Hiroshi Sakagami, Mineko Tomomura
This review article summarizes the recent progress in dental applications of natural products. Catechin gel showed selective antimicrobial activity, whereas the alkaline extract of various plant species rich in lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) showed much higher antiviral activity than lower molecular weight polyphenols. Mouthwash with the alkaline extract of a plant classified as OTC effectively reduced halitosis. Unexpectedly, many polyphenolic compounds purified from the natural kingdom showed much lower tumor-specificity against human oral squamous cell lines as compared with antitumor agents, although they showed apoptosis-inducing activity...
February 14, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401667/infectious-agents-as-stimuli-of-trained-innate-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Paulina Rusek, Mateusz Wala, Magdalena Druszczyńska, Marek Fol
The discoveries made over the past few years have modified the current immunological paradigm. It turns out that innate immunity cells can mount some kind of immunological memory, similar to that observed in the acquired immunity and corresponding to the defense mechanisms of lower organisms, which increases their resistance to reinfection. This phenomenon is termed trained innate immunity. It is based on epigenetic changes in innate immune cells (monocytes/macrophages, NK cells) after their stimulation with various infectious or non-infectious agents...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393221/the-synergy-of-endotoxin-and-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-from-gut-translocation-worsens-sepsis-severity-in-a-lupus-model-of-fc-gamma-receptor-iib-deficient-mice
#3
Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Saowapha Surawut, Navaporn Worasilchai, Arthid Thim-Uam, Malcolm Finkelman, Ariya Chindamporn, Tanapat Palaga, Nattiya Hirankarn, Prapaporn Pisitkun, Asada Leelahavanichkul
We investigated the influence of spontaneous gut leakage upon polymicrobial sepsis in a lupus model with Fc gamma receptor IIb-deficient (FcGRIIb-/-) mice aged 8 and 40 weeks, as representing asymptomatic and symptomatic lupus, respectively. Spontaneous gut leakage, determined by (i) the presence of FITC-dextran, (ii) elevated serum endotoxin, and (iii) elevated serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG), was demonstrated in symptomatic lupus but not in the asymptomatic group. In parallel, spontaneous gut leakage, detected by elevated serum BG without fungal infection, was demonstrated in patients with active lupus nephritis...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366884/%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-d-glucans-from-the-edible-mushroom-pleurotus-albidus-differentially-regulate-lipid-induced-inflammation-and-foam-cell-formation-in-human-macrophage-like-thp-1-cells
#4
Victor Costa Castro-Alves, João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento
Macrophages play an essential role in lipid metabolism; however, the excessive uptake of modified lipids and cholesterol crystals (CC) leads to the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid-laden macrophages called foam cells. Since the α-1,6- and β-1,3-d-glucans from the basidiome and the mycelium of the edible mushroom Pleurotus albidus have previously been shown to regulate macrophage function, these glucans were tested in macrophage-like THP-1 cells previously exposed to acetylated low-density lipoproteins (acLDL) or CC...
January 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328910/modulation-of-myelopoiesis-progenitors-is-an-integral-component-of-trained-immunity
#5
Ioannis Mitroulis, Klara Ruppova, Baomei Wang, Lan-Sun Chen, Michal Grzybek, Tatyana Grinenko, Anne Eugster, Maria Troullinaki, Alessandra Palladini, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Andreas Schlitzer, Marc Beyer, Leo A B Joosten, Berend Isermann, Mathias Lesche, Andreas Petzold, Kai Simons, Ian Henry, Andreas Dahl, Joachim L Schultze, Ben Wielockx, Nicola Zamboni, Peter Mirtschink, Ünal Coskun, George Hajishengallis, Mihai G Netea, Triantafyllos Chavakis
Trained innate immunity fosters a sustained favorable response of myeloid cells to a secondary challenge, despite their short lifespan in circulation. We thus hypothesized that trained immunity acts via modulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Administration of β-glucan (prototypical trained-immunity-inducing agonist) to mice induced expansion of progenitors of the myeloid lineage, which was associated with elevated signaling by innate immune mediators, such as IL-1β and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and with adaptations in glucose metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295913/o-mannosylation-of-proteins-enables-histoplasma-yeast-survival-at-mammalian-body-temperatures
#6
Andrew L Garfoot, Kristie D Goughenour, Marcel Wüthrich, Murugesan V S Rajaram, Larry S Schlesinger, Bruce S Klein, Chad A Rappleye
The ability to grow at mammalian body temperatures is critical for pathogen infection of humans. For the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum, elevated temperature is required for differentiation of mycelia or conidia into yeast cells, a step critical for invasion and replication within phagocytic immune cells. Posttranslational glycosylation of extracellular proteins characterizes factors produced by the pathogenic yeast cells but not those of avirulent mycelia, correlating glycosylation with infection...
January 2, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285925/yeast-%C3%AE-glucan-suppresses-the-chronic-inflammation-and-improves-the-microenvironment-in-adipose-tissues-of-ob-ob-mice
#7
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Bingchao Duan, Mengying Sun, Xiaojuan Xu
Inflammation in visceral adipose tissues (VATs) contributes to the pathology of diabetes. This study focused on the inflammatory regulation in VATs by a yeast β-1,3-glucan (BYG) orally administered to ob/ob mice. BYG decreased pro-inflammatory modulators of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, CCL2, and SAA3, and increased anti-inflammatory factors of Azgp1 (2.53±0.02 fold change) at protein and/or mRNA levels (p<0.05). Remarkably, BYG decreased the degree of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltration to 82.5±8...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249921/lentinula-edodes-%C3%AE-glucan-enriched-diet-induces-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-macrophages-in-rabbit
#8
Helena Crespo, Hugo Guillén, Lorena de Pablo-Maiso, Carmen Gómez-Arrebola, Gregorio Rodríguez, Idoia Glaria, Damián de Andrés, Ramsés Reina
β-glucans exhibited in cell walls of several pathogens as bacteria or fungi are sensed by pathogen recognition receptors such as scavenger receptors present in antigen presenting cells, i.e., macrophages. β-glucans obtained from Shiitake mushrooms were chemically characterized. A β-glucan supplemented diet was assayed for 30 days in rabbits aiming to characterize the immune response elicited in blood-derived macrophages. M1 and M2 profiles of macrophage differentiation were confirmed in rabbits by in vitro stimulation with IFN-γ and IL-4 and marker quantification of each differentiation pathway...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247123/taurine-chloramine-potentiates-phagocytic-activity-of-peritoneal-macrophages-through-up-regulation-of-dectin-1-mediated-by-heme-oxygenase-1-derived-carbon-monoxide
#9
Seung Hyeon Kim, Xiancai Zhong, Wonki Kim, Kyeojin Kim, Young-Ger Suh, Chaekyun Kim, Yeonsoo Joe, Hun Taeg Chung, Young-Nam Cha, Young-Joon Surh
Resolution of inflammation that occurs after microbial infection or tissue damage is an important physiologic process in maintaining or restoring host homeostasis. Taurine chloramine (TauCl) is formed by a reaction between taurine and hypochlorite in leukocytes, and it is especially abundant in activated neutrophils that encounter an oxidative burst. As neutrophils undergo apoptosis, TauCl is released to the extracellular matrix at the inflamed sites, thereby affecting coexisting macrophages in the inflammatory microenvironment...
December 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236232/%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-6-d-glucan-secreted-during-the-optimised-production-of-exopolysaccharides-by-paecilomyces-variotii-has-immunostimulatory-activity
#10
Erica F Osaku, Rafael A Menolli, Claudia R L de M Costa, Fernando Henrique G Tessaro, Renan H de Melo, Alex E do Amaral, Péricles A D Duarte, Arquimedes Paixão de Santana Filho, Andrea Caroline Ruthes, José Luis da C Silva, Rosiane G Mello
Paecilomyces variotii is a filamentous fungus that occurs worldwide in soil and decaying vegetation. Optimization of the fermentation process for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production from the fungus P. variotii, structure determination and immuno-stimulating activity of EPS were performed. Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the physical and chemical factors required to produce EPS in submerged fermentation. Preliminary investigations to choose the three factors for the present work were made using a factorial experimental design...
December 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199562/immunomodulatory-effects-of-extracellular-%C3%AE-glucan-isolated-from-the-king-oyster-mushroom-pleurotus-eryngii-agaricomycetes-and-its-sulfated-form-on-signaling-molecules-involved-in-innate-immunity
#11
Yong Hyun Kim, Eui-Gil Jung, Kook-Il Han, Bharat Bhusan Patnaik, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Hyoun-Su Lee, Wan Jong Kim, Man-Deuk Han
The aim of this study was to determine, using murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, the immunomodulatory effect of extracellular β-glucan isolated from Pleurotus eryngii (PEBG) and its sulfated derivative (PEBG-S) on signaling molecules implicated in host innate immunity. β-Glucan was extracted and purified from the mycelial culture using optimal medium concentrations. It was then chemically converted to its sulfated form. Monosaccharide composition of β-glucan was characterized with p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester-derivatized sugars through highperformance liquid chromatography analysis...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174675/designing-an-immunocyte-targeting-delivery-system-by-use-of-beta-glucan
#12
Noriko Miyamoto, Shinichi Mochizuki, Kazuo Sakurai
A β-1,3-d-glucan called Schizophyllan (SPG) can form a novel complex with homo oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) via the combination of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Dectin-1 is a major receptor involved in the recognition of β-1,3-d-glucans and expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs) including macrophages, dendritic cells, monocytes, neutrophils, and a subset of T cells. Therefore, the SPG/ODN complex can be used as APCs cell-specific delivery of functional ODNs including unmethylated CpG sequences (CpG-ODNs)...
November 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128588/curcumin-loaded-chitin-glucan-quercetin-conjugate-synthesis-characterization-antioxidant-in-vitro-release-study-and-anticancer-activity
#13
Anu Singh, Lavkush, Amit Kumar Kureel, P K Dutta, Sushil Kumar, Ambak Kumar Rai
In this study, we have synthesized chitin-glucan quercetin conjugate (ChGCQ) by an easy and facile free radical grafting reaction. The structure of ChGCQ was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Curcumin was loaded into ChGCQ to study its anti-cancer efficiency. The biocompatibility of ChGCQ and curcumin loaded ChGCQ (Cu-ChGCQ) were analysed by different assays in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cytotoxicity test was performed in a macrophage cancer cell line (J774)...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120001/correction-formation-of-%C3%AE-1-3-1-6-d-glucan-complexed-70-fullerene-and-its-photodynamic-activity-towards-macrophages
#14
Atsushi Ikeda, Motofusa Akiyama, Kouta Sugikawa, Kazuya Koumoto, Yuta Kagoshima, Jiawei Li, Toshio Suzuki, Takeshi Nagasaki
Correction for 'Formation of β-(1,3-1,6)-d-glucan-complexed [70]fullerene and its photodynamic activity towards macrophages' by Atsushi Ikeda et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2017, 15, 1990-1997.
November 22, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107297/decreasing-cb1-receptor-signaling-in-kupffer-cells-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-mice
#15
Tony Jourdan, Sarah M Nicoloro, Zhou Zhou, Yuefei Shen, Jie Liu, Nathan J Coffey, Resat Cinar, Grzegorz Godlewski, Bin Gao, Myriam Aouadi, Michael P Czech, George Kunos
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-induced accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance, and increased activity of hepatic CB1R has been shown to promote both processes. However, lipid accumulation in liver can be experimentally dissociated from insulin resistance under certain conditions, suggesting the involvement of additional mechanisms. Obesity is also associated with pro-inflammatory changes which, in turn, can promote insulin resistance...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096192/differentiation-of-the-fungus-histoplasma-capsulatum-into-a-pathogen-of-phagocytes
#16
REVIEW
Qian Shen, Chad A Rappleye
Mammalian body temperature triggers differentiation of the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum into yeast cells. The Drk1 regulatory kinase and an interdependent network of Ryp transcription factors establish the yeast state. Beyond morphology, the differentiation-dependent expression program equips yeasts for invasion and survival within phagosomes. Yeast cells produce α-glucan and the Eng1 endoglucanase which hide yeasts from immune detection. Secretion of yeast phase-specific Sod3 and CatB detoxify phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen molecules...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051097/production-of-low-molecular-weight-soluble-yeast-%C3%AE-glucan-by-an-acid-degradation-method
#17
Yuina Ishimoto, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Ken Kanzaki, Yoichiro Iwakura, Naohito Ohno
β-glucan is widely distributed in nature as water soluble and insoluble forms. Both forms of β-glucan are utilized in several fields, especially for functional foods. Yeast β-glucan is a medically important insoluble particle. Solubilization of yeast β-glucan may be valuable for improving functional foods and in medicinal industries. In the present study, we applied an acid degradation method to solubilize yeast β-glucan and found that β-glucan was effectively solubilized to low-molecular weight β-glucans by 45% sulfuric acid treatment at 20°C...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036651/aureobasidium-pullulans-cultured-fluid-induces-il-18-production-leading-to-th1-polarization-during-influenza-a-virus-infection
#18
Daisuke Fujikura, Daisuke Muramatsu, Kochi Toyomane, Satoko Chiba, Takuji Daito, Atsushi Iwai, Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hideaki Higashi, Hiroshi Kida, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
Several microbial molecules with pathogen-associated molecular patterns stimulate host innate immune responses. The innate immune system plays a crucial role in activating acquired immune response via cytokine production and antigen presentation. Previous studies have shown that Aureobasidium pullulans-cultured fluid (AP-CF), which contains β-glucan, exhibits adjuvant activity and renders mice resistance to influenza A virus infection; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the innate immune response to AP-CF...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969561/pharmaceutical-production-of-anti-tumor-and-immune-potentiating-enterococcus-faecalis-2001-%C3%AE-glucans-enhanced-activity-of-macrophage-and-lymphocytes-in-tumor-implanted-mice
#19
Yeun-Hwa Gu, Hyunju Choi, Takenori Yamashita, Ki-Mun Kang, Masahiro Iwasa, Moon-Jo Lee, Kyoung Hae Lee, Cheorl-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis 2001 is a probiotic lactic acid bacterium and has been used as a biological response modifier (BRM). From physiological limitation of bacterial preservation in storage and safety, the live E. faecalis 2001 has been heat-treated and the BRM components containing high level of β-glucan, named EF-2001, has been prepared. METHOD: The heat-treated EF-2001 has been examined for the antioxidative potential for radical scavenging and anti-tumor activities as well as immune-enhancing response in mice...
October 2, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955331/molecular-analysis-of-a-short-term-model-of-%C3%AE-glucans-trained-immunity-highlights-the-accessory-contribution-of-gm-csf-in-priming-mouse-macrophages-response
#20
Sarah Walachowski, Guillaume Tabouret, Marion Fabre, Gilles Foucras
β-Glucans (BGs) are glucose polymers present in the fungal cell wall (CW) and, as such, are recognized by innate immune cells as microbial-associated pattern through Dectin-1 receptor. Recent studies have highlighted the ability of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans or its CW-derived β(1,3) (1,6)-glucans to increase human monocytes cytokine secretion upon secondary stimulation, a phenomenon now referred as immune training. This ability of monocytes programming confers BGs an undeniable immunotherapeutic potential...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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