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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036651/aureobasidium-pullulans-cultured-fluid-induces-il-18-production-leading-to-th1-polarization-during-influenza-a-virus-infection
#1
Daisuke Fujikura, Daisuke Muramatsu, Kochi Toyomane, Satoko Chiba, Takuji Daito, Atsushi Iwai, Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hideaki Higashi, Hiroshi Kida, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
Several microbial molecules with pathogen-associated molecular patterns stimulate host innate immune responses. The innate immune system plays a crucial role in activating acquired immune response via cytokine production and antigen presentation. Previous studies have shown that Aureobasidium pullulans-cultured fluid (AP-CF), which contains β-glucan, exhibits adjuvant activity and renders mice resistance to influenza A virus infection; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the innate immune response to AP-CF...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969561/pharmaceutical-production-of-anti-tumor-and-immune-potentiating-enterococcus-faecalis-2001-%C3%AE-glucans-enhanced-activity-of-macrophage-and-lymphocytes-in-tumor-implanted-mice
#2
Yeun-Hwa Gu, Hyunju Choi, Takenori Yamashita, Ki-Mun Kang, Masahiro Iwasa, Moon-Jo Lee, Kyoung Hae Lee, Cheorl-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis 2001 is a probiotic lactic acid bacterium and has been used as a biological response modifier (BRM). From physiological limitation of bacterial preservation in storage and safety, the live E. faecalis 2001 has been heat-treated and the BRM components containing high level of β-glucan, named EF-2001, has been prepared. METHOD: The heat-treated EF-2001 has been examined for the antioxidative potential for radical scavenging and anti-tumor activities as well as immune-enhancing response in mice...
October 2, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955331/molecular-analysis-of-a-short-term-model-of-%C3%AE-glucans-trained-immunity-highlights-the-accessory-contribution-of-gm-csf-in-priming-mouse-macrophages-response
#3
Sarah Walachowski, Guillaume Tabouret, Marion Fabre, Gilles Foucras
β-Glucans (BGs) are glucose polymers present in the fungal cell wall (CW) and, as such, are recognized by innate immune cells as microbial-associated pattern through Dectin-1 receptor. Recent studies have highlighted the ability of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans or its CW-derived β(1,3) (1,6)-glucans to increase human monocytes cytokine secretion upon secondary stimulation, a phenomenon now referred as immune training. This ability of monocytes programming confers BGs an undeniable immunotherapeutic potential...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946308/structure-elucidation-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-a-%C3%AE-glucan-derived-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-amillariella-mellea
#4
Jingmin Yan, Zhen Han, Yunhe Qu, Ci Yao, Danyang Shen, Guihua Tai, Hairong Cheng, Yifa Zhou
A novel polysaccharide AAMP-A70 (5.6kDa) has been purified from the fruiting bodies of Amillariella mellea. Compositional analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectra indicate that AAMP-A70 is a branched β-glucan with a main chain that consists of β-d-(1→6) linked Glcρ residues substituted at O-3 by β-Glcρ or α-d-(1→6)-linked Galρ side chains. AAMP-A70 increases macrophage phagocytosis and secretion of NO, ROS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Mechanistically, AAMP-A70 promotes degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit, and enhances phosphorylation of MAPKs...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930149/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-a-mytilus-coruscus-%C3%AE-d-glucan-mp-a-in-activated-macrophage-cells-via-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-pathway-inhibition
#5
Fuyan Liu, Xiaofeng Zhang, Yuqiu Li, Qixin Chen, Fei Liu, Xiqiang Zhu, Li Mei, Xinlei Song, Xia Liu, Zhigang Song, Jinhua Zhang, Wen Zhang, Peixue Ling, Fengshan Wang
The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) has been used as Chinese traditional medicine for thousands of years; however, to date the ingredients responsible for the various beneficial health outcomes attributed to Mytilus coruscus are still unclear. An α-d-Glucan, called MP-A, was isolated from Mytilus coruscus, and observed to exert anti-inflammatory activity in THP-1 human macrophage cells. Specifically, we showed that MP-A treatment inhibited the production of inflammatory markers, including TNF-α, NO, and PGE2, inducible NOS (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in LPS-activated THP-1 cells...
September 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922584/characterization-and-pro-inflammatory-responses-of-spore-and-hyphae-samples-from-various-mold-species
#6
E Øya, Akj Afanou, N Malla, S Uhlig, E Rolen, I Skaar, A Straumfors, J O Winberg, B E Bang, P E Schwarze, W Eduard, J A Holme
Mold particles from Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum have been linked to respiratory-related diseases. Here we characterized X-ray-inactivated spores and hyphae fragments from these species by number of particles, morphology, and mycotoxin, β-glucan and protease content/activity. The pro-inflammatory properties of mold particles were examined in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and THP-1 monocytes and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1...
September 18, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910320/differential-gene-expression-following-tlr-stimulation-in-rag1-mutant-zebrafish-tissues-and-morphological-descriptions-of-lymphocyte-like-cell-populations
#7
Preeti J Muire, Larry A Hanson, Robert Wills, Lora Petrie-Hanson
In the absence of lymphocytes, rag1-/- mutant zebrafish develop protective immunity to bacteria. In mammals, induction of protection by innate immunity can be mediated by macrophages or natural killer (NK) cells. To elucidate potential responsive cell populations, we morphologically characterized lymphocyte-like cells (LLCs) from liver, spleen and kidney hematopoietic tissues. In fish, these cells include NK cells and Non-specific cytotoxic cells (NCCs). We also evaluated the transcriptional expression response of select genes that are important indicators of NK and macrophage activation after exposure to specific TLR ligands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872694/alkaline-extractive-crude-polysaccharide-from-russula-senecis-possesses-antioxidant-potential-and-stimulates-innate-immunity-response
#8
Somanjana Khatua, Krishnendu Acharya
OBJECTIVES: Over past decades, investigation on bioactive polysaccharides extracted from mushroom by heated water reflux has been an emerging field of biomedicine especially in the area of immune stimulation. While studies with macromolecules isolated from remainder residue of aqueous extraction are scarce. In this context, crude polysaccharide from a traditionally edible macrofungus, Russula senecis, was prepared (RuseCap) by alkaline solvent using leftover residue of that conventional process and its structural along with therapeutic properties were evaluated...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806274/transfusion-related-immunomodulation-a-reappraisal
#9
Lyla A Youssef, Steven L Spitalnik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes current and prior observations regarding transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) and puts these ideas into a modern immunological context, incorporating concepts from innate, adaptive, and nutritional immunity. We propose that TRIM research focus on determining whether there are specific, well-defined immunosuppressive effects from transfusing 'pure' red blood cells (RBCs) themselves, along with the by-products produced by the stored RBCs as a result of the 'storage lesion...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750040/oral-administration-of-live-or-heat-killed-candida-albicans-worsened-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-sepsis-in-a-murine-model-possibly-due-to-an-increased-serum-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan
#10
Wimonrat Panpetch, Naraporn Somboonna, Dewi Embong Bulan, Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Malcolm Finkelman, Navaporn Worasilchai, Ariya Chindamporn, Tanapat Palaga, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Candida albicans is the most common fungus in the human intestinal microbiota but not in mice. To make a murine sepsis model more closely resemble human sepsis and to explore the role of intestinal C. albicans, in the absence of candidemia, in bacterial sepsis, live- or heat-killed C. albicans was orally administered to mice at 3h prior to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A higher mortality rate of CLP was demonstrated with Candida-administration (live- or heat-killed) prior to CLP. Fecal Candida presented only in experiments with live-Candida administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738674/complex-consisting-of-%C3%AE-glucan-and-antigenic-peptides-with-cleavage-site-for-glutathione-and-aminopeptidases-induces-potent-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes
#11
Shinichi Mochizuki, Hiromi Morishita, Kazuo Sakurai
The efficient induction of antigen-specific immune responses requires not only promotion of the uptake of antigens and adjuvant molecules into antigen-presenting cells but also control of their intracellular behavior. We previously demonstrated that the β-glucan schizophyllan (SPG) can form complexes with CpG oligonucleotides with attached dA40 (CpG-dA/SPG), which can accumulate in macrophages in the draining inguinal lymph nodes and induce strong immune responses. In this study, we prepared various conjugates composed of antigenic peptide (OVA257-264) and dA40 and made complexes with SPG...
September 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715863/structural-elucidation-of-a-pectin-type-polysaccharide-from-hovenia-dulcis-peduncles-and-its-proliferative-activity-on-raw264-7-cells
#12
Miaomiao Wang, Yong Liu, Mingliang Qiang, Junhui Wang
In this paper, an acidic polysaccharide HDP3A was isolated from Hovenia dulcis peduncles with 45.9% of uronic acid content. Structure of HDP3A was elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic analysis. HDP3A was mainly contained of galacturonic acid, galactose, rhamnose and arabinose with a small quantity of xylose, fucose, mannose, glucose. The structural analysis indicated that HDP3A was a pectin-type polysaccharide with HG and RG-I regions and hairy regions. HG was linear homopolymer with repeating units of (1→4)-α-d-galactopyranosyl uronic (GalA) residues...
November 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645771/dectin-1-expression-by-macrophages-and-related-antifungal-mechanisms-in-a-murine-model-of-sporothrix-schenckii-sensu-stricto-systemic-infection
#13
Juliana Aparecida Jellmayer, Lucas Souza Ferreira, Francine Alessandra Manente, Amanda Costa Gonçalves, Marisa Campos Polesi, Alexander Batista-Duharte, Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
The available information about the role of Dectin-1 in sporotrichosis is scarce. Hence, we aimed to assess Dectin-1 expression by macrophages and the activation of some related antifungal mechanisms during the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto infection as a first attempt to elucidate the role of this receptor in sporotrichosis. Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally infected with S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast ATCC 16345 and euthanized on days 5, 10 and 15 post-infection, when the following parameters were evaluated: fungal burden in spleen, Dectin-1 expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal macrophages, as well as IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 ex vivo secretion by these same cells...
June 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611507/a-proinflammatory-effect-of-the-%C3%AE-glucan-from-pleurotus-cornucopiae-mushroom-on-macrophage-action
#14
Ken-Ichiro Minato, Akihiro Ohara, Masashi Mizuno
PCPS from P. citrinopileatus mushroom extract is a β-1,6-glucan possessing a proinflammatory effect on innate immune cells. The PCPS stimulated THP-1 macrophages to secrete significant levels of TNF. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of TNF and IL-1β were significantly enhanced by PCPS treatment. However, the PCPS did not induce to express both IL-12 and IL-10 mRNA in the macrophages. Next, the P. cornucopiae extract (containing mainly PCPS) treatment against mice showed significant increases in TNF and IL-1β mRNA expressions in the peritoneal macrophages of them...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602993/modulation-of-an-innate-immune-response-by-soluble-yeast-%C3%AE-glucan-prepared-by-a-heat-degradation-method
#15
Yuina Ishimoto, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Ken Kanzaki, Kumiko Okita, Yoichiro Iwakura, Naohito Ohno
β-glucan is widely distributed in nature as water soluble and insoluble forms. Both forms of β-glucan are applied in several fields, especially for functional foods. Yeast β-glucan is a medically important insoluble particle. Solubilization of yeast β-glucan may be a valuable approach to increase functional foods and medicinal fields. We have applied a heat degradation method to solubilize yeast β-glucan and found that it was effectively solubilized by treatment with an aqueous suspension at 135°C for several hours...
November 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584989/beta-glucan-particles-as-vaccine-adjuvant-carriers
#16
Zeynep Mirza, Ernesto R Soto, Fusun Dikengil, Stuart M Levitz, Gary R Ostroff
Glucan particles (GPs) are spherical hollow particles derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls and mainly consist of β-1, 3-D-glucans. The inner hollow cavity of glucan particles can be loaded with different compounds, including protein antigens, and delivered to macrophages and dendritic cells. Moreover, the GP delivery system possesses β-glucan's intrinsic immunostimulatory properties. Therefore, GPs serve as both an antigen-presenting cell-targeted delivery system and an adjuvant.Here, we describe the production of GPs from S...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542528/adaptation-of-candida-albicans-to-environmental-ph-induces-cell-wall-remodelling-and-enhances-innate-immune-recognition
#17
Sarah L Sherrington, Eleanor Sorsby, Nabeel Mahtey, Pizga Kumwenda, Megan D Lenardon, Ian Brown, Elizabeth R Ballou, Donna M MacCallum, Rebecca A Hall
Candida albicans is able to proliferate in environments that vary dramatically in ambient pH, a trait required for colonising niches such as the stomach, vaginal mucosal and the GI tract. Here we show that growth in acidic environments involves cell wall remodelling which results in enhanced chitin and β-glucan exposure at the cell wall periphery. Unmasking of the underlying immuno-stimulatory β-glucan in acidic environments enhanced innate immune recognition of C. albicans by macrophages and neutrophils, and induced a stronger proinflammatory cytokine response, driven through the C-type lectin-like receptor, Dectin-1...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535995/inflammation-associated-gene-expression-in-raw-264-7-macrophages-induced-by-toxins-from-fungi-common-on-damp-building-materials
#18
Thomas G Rand, Carolyn T Chang, David R McMullin, J David Miller
Most fungi that grow on damp building materials produce low molecular weight compounds, some of which are known to be toxic. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to some metabolites of fungi common on damp building materials would result in time-, dose-, and compound-specific responses in the production of various chemokines by RAW 264.7 cells. Cell cultures were exposed to a 10(-7)M or 10(-8)M metabolite dose for 2, 4, 8 or 24h. Metabolite concentrations used were based on those that might be expected in alveolar macrophages due to inhalation exposure from living or working in a damp building...
May 20, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507467/preparation-and-characterization-of-beta-glucan-particles-containing-a-payload-of-nanoembedded-rifabutin-for-enhanced-targeted-delivery-to-macrophages
#19
Tarun K Upadhyay, Nida Fatima, Deepak Sharma, V Saravanakumar, Rolee Sharma
β-glucan particles (GP) are polymeric carbohydrates, mainly found as components of cell wall fungi, yeast, bacteria and also in cereals such as barley and oat, and have been recently shown to have application in macrophage-targeted drug delivery. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize GP containing a large payload of Rifabutin (RB), an anti-tuberculosis drug effective against MDR-TB at lower MIC than Rifampicin. GP were prepared from yeast cells by acidic and alkaline extraction were either spray dried or lyophilized, prior to RB loading and alginate sealing...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498297/gastrointestinal-colonization-of-candida-albicans-increases-serum-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-without-candidemia-and-worsens-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-sepsis-in-murine-model
#20
Wimonrat Panpetch, Naraporn Somboonna, Dewi Embong Bulan, Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Navaporn Worasilchai, Malcolm Finkelman, Ariya Chindamporn, Tanapat Palaga, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
The role of intestinal Candida albicans in bacterial sepsis, in the absence of candidemia, was investigated in murine models. Live C. albicans or normal saline solution (NSS) was administered orally once, followed by 5 days of daily oral antibiotic-mixtures (ATB). Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was then performed to induce sepsis.Fecal Candida was detected by culture only in models with Candida administration. Oral Candida administration with/without ATB enhanced gut-pathogenic bacteria as determined by microbiome analysis...
May 11, 2017: Shock
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