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Glucan macrophage

Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Tatyana Korolenko, Thomas P Johnston, Alexander P Lykov, Alexandra B Shintyapina, Marina V Khrapova, Natalya V Goncharova, Erik Korolenko, Nataliya P Bgatova, Eva Machova, Zuzana Nescakova, Ludmila V Sakhno
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the hypolipidaemic effect of mannan Candida albicans serotype A, relative to atorvastatin, in a mouse model of hyperlipidaemia. METHODS: Mannan serotype A was investigated in vitro and in vivo to determine its effects on macrophage proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production by cultured macrophages, serum and liver lipids, changes in liver morphology and serum chitotriosidase activity and its expression in the liver. KEY FINDINGS: Mannan serotype A stimulates the macrophage proliferation and NO production in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
M Esrefoglu, O E Tok, M S Aydin, M Iraz, O F Ozer, S Selek, M Iraz
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the leading causes of acute renal failure which is a common clinical event leading to development of chronic kidney disease and a high mortality; especially in elderly people. β-glucans are glucose polymer groups with free-radical scavenger, macrophage activator, and immune defense inducer functions. We designed this study to determine the possible protective effects of β-glucan against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury comparatively in young and aged rats...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Asada Leelahavanichkul, Wimonrat Panpetch, Navaporn Worasilchai, Poorichaya Somparn, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Sumanee Nilgate, Malcolm Finkelman, Ariya Chindamporn, Somying Tumwasorn
Gastrointestinal (GI) leakage in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is well known but is not routinely assessed in clinical practice. Serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG), a fungal cell wall component used as a biomarker for invasive fungal disease, was tested in a CDAD mouse model with and without probiotics. Higher serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran) and spontaneous gram-negative bacteremia, GI leakage indicators, were frequently found in CDAD mice, which died compared with those which survived...
September 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Heather M Evans, Grady L Bryant, Beth A Garvy
The cyst cell wall β-glucans of Pneumocystis have been shown to stimulate immune responses in lung epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and alveolar macrophages. Little is known about how the trophic life forms, which do not have a fungal cell wall, interact with these innate immune cells. Here, we report differences in the responses of both neonatal and adult mice to the trophic and cystic life cycle stages of Pneumocystis murina The adult and neonatal immune responses to infection with Pneumocystis murina trophic forms were less robust than the response to infection with a physiologically normal mixture of cysts and trophic forms...
August 29, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Teresa W-M Fan, Marc O Warmoes, Qiushi Sun, Huan Song, Jadwiga Turchan-Cholewo, Jeremiah T Martin, Angela Mahan, Richard M Higashi, Andrew N Lane
Cancer and stromal cell metabolism is important for understanding tumor development, which highly depends on the tumor microenvironment (TME). Cell or animal models cannot recapitulate the human TME. We have developed an ex vivo paired cancerous (CA) and noncancerous (NC) human lung tissue approach to explore cancer and stromal cell metabolism in the native human TME. This approach enabled full control of experimental parameters and acquisition of individual patient's target tissue response to therapeutic agents while eliminating interferences from genetic and physiological variations...
July 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Vinicius C Soeiro, Karoline R T Melo, Monique G C F Alves, Mayara J C Medeiros, Maria L P M Grilo, Jailma Almeida-Lima, Daniel L Pontes, Leandro S Costa, Hugo A O Rocha
Dextrans (α-d-glucans) extracted from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, with molecular weights (MW) of 10 (D10), 40 (D40) and 147 (D147) kDa, were evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory drugs for the first time. None presented anticoagulant activity. As for the antioxidant and immunomodulatory tests, a specific test showed an increase in the dextran activity that was proportional to the increase in molecular weight. In a different assay, however, activity decreased or showed no correlation to the MW...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eun Young Choi, Jin Yi Hyeon, So Hui Choe, Bo Ram Keum, Jong Min Lim, Dong Chan Park, In Soon Choi, Kwang Keun Cho
This research analyzed the effect of β-glucan that is expected to alleviate the production of the inflammatory mediator in a macrophagocyte, which was processed by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia. The incubated layer was used for a nitric oxide (NO) analysis. The DNA-binding activation of the small unit of NF-κB was measured using the ELISA-based kit. In the RAW264.7 cells that were vitalized by E.coli LPS, the β-glucan inhibited both the combatant and rendering phases of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO...
July 29, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Renan Henrique de Melo, Alex Evangelista do Amaral, Rafael Andrade Menolli, Thais Soprani Ayala, Rita de Cassia Garcia Simao, Arquimedes Paixao de Santana-Filho, Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki, Marina Kimiko Kadowaki, Jose Luis da Conceicao Silva
Ganoderma australe was studied to determine the composition of the cell wall, and polysaccharide fraction SK5 was obtained after freeze-thawing an aqueous 5% potassium hydroxide extraction. The monosaccharide composition of the SK5 fraction revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed 81.3% glucose, and analyses by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed a β-glucan with glycosidic links of the (1→3)-β type and most likely 4-O substituted. In addition, the biological effect of the β-glucan from G...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Hong Niu, Dan Song, Yuelin Sun, Wuxia Zhang, Haibo Mu, Jinyou Duan
In this study, one homopolysaccharide (ACPA1) with a molecular weight (Mw) of 5.5×10(3)g/mol was prepared from the roots of Actinidia chinensis. It was characterized as an α-d-glucan consisting of predominant 4-linked α-d-Glcp residues branched at O-6. Three sulfated derivatives of ACPA1 (SA1, SA2 and SA3) with different degrees of sulfation (DS) were obtained by SO3-pyridine procedure. Moisture-preserving tests demonstrated that the sulfated derivatives with the highest DS values, SA1 and SA2, exhibited better moisture-preserving abilities than ACPA1 and SA3...
November 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Eui-Baek Byun, Beom-Su Jang, Eui-Hong Byun, Nak-Yun Sung
An effective method for activating macrophages and deriving a Th1 immune response could be used to improve the defenses of hosts. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulation effect and the related signaling mechanism of [Formula: see text]-(1,3)-glucan, isolated from the Agrobacterium species. Here, we found that [Formula: see text]-(1,3)-glucan predominantly induced the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interleukin (IL)-1[Formula: see text], IL-6, IL-12p70, and nitric oxide, which was dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-[Formula: see text]B signaling...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Yan Cao, Siwei Zou, Hui Xu, Mengxia Li, Zan Tong, Min Xu, Xiaojuan Xu
SCOPE: β-Glucans have been shown to reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes. However, they often contain diverse polysaccharides and other ingredients, leading to elusive experimental data and mechanisms. In this study, a pure β-glucan was obtained from the crude Baker's yeast polysaccharides for investigating its effect on the metabolic disorders in DIO/T2D mice and the underlying mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: The FTIR and NMR data indicated that the pure β-glucan (BYGlc) was a linear β-(1→3)-glucan...
July 10, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
R Shivahare, W Ali, U S Singh, S M Natu, S Khattri, S K Puri, S Gupta
Rejuvenation of deteriorated host immune functions is imperative for successful annihilation of Leishmania parasites. The use of immunomodulatory agents may have several advantages as they conquer immunosuppression and, when given in combination, improve current therapeutic regimens. We herein investigated the immunostimulatory potency of a β-glucan, lentinan either alone or in combination with short dose of standard drug, miltefosine on Leishmania-infected J-774A.1 macrophages. Our study shows that infected macrophages when stimulated with 2...
October 2016: Parasite Immunology
Xiao-Jun Li, Wan-Rong Bao, Chung-Hang Leung, Dik-Lung Ma, Ge Zhang, Ai-Ping Lu, Shun-Chun Wang, Quan-Bin Han
A neutral α-glucan, named BP1, with a molecular mass of approximately 9.45 kDa, was isolated from Lobelia chinensis by hot-water extraction, a Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Superdex-75 column chromatography. Its chemical structure was characterized by monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis and analysis of its FT-IR, high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and 1D/2D-NMR spectra data. The backbone of BP1 consists of →₆α-d-Glcp¹→6,3α-d-Glcp¹→(₆α-d-Glcp¹)x-6,3α-d-Glcp¹-(₆α-d-Glcp¹)y→...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wei Liu, Hong Wang, Juping Yu, Yameng Liu, Weisheng Lu, Yin Chai, Chao Liu, Chun Pan, Wenbing Yao, Xiangdong Gao
A polysaccharide, coded as BDP, purified from the injection powder of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) polysaccharide and nucleic acid, was composed mainly of α-D-(1→4)-linked glucan with (1→6)-linked branches and trace amounts of fucose and mannose from the results of FT-IR, HPAEC-PAD and NMR spectrum. The Mw, Mn, Mz, and [Formula: see text] were determined to be 1.320×10(5)g/mol, 1.012×10(5)g/mol, 2.139×10(5)g/mol, and 21.8±3.2%nm by using HPSEC-MALLS, respectively. The ν value from [Formula: see text] was calculated to be 0...
October 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ema Paulovičová, Lucia Paulovičová, Ružena Pilišiová, Viera Jančinová, Dmitry V Yashunsky, Alexander A Karelin, Yury E Tsvetkov, Nikolay E Nifantiev
Synthetically prepared bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate of linear β-(1 → 3)-nonaglucoside ligand (G9) has been applied as a biological response immunomodulator in vivo and ex vivo. Active immunization of Balb/c mice revealed effective induction of specific humoral responses in comparison with Candida β-D-glucan and Candida whole cells. Induced post-vaccination serum exhibited a growth-inhibition effect on the multi-azole-resistant clinical strain Candida albicans CCY 29-3-164 in experimental mucocutaneous infection ex vivo...
September 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Alex Hopke, Nadine Nicke, Erica E Hidu, Genny Degani, Laura Popolo, Robert T Wheeler
Pathogens hide immunogenic epitopes from the host to evade immunity, persist and cause infection. The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which can cause fatal disease in immunocompromised patient populations, offers a good example as it masks the inflammatory epitope β-glucan in its cell wall from host recognition. It has been demonstrated previously that β-glucan becomes exposed during infection in vivo but the mechanism behind this exposure was unknown. Here, we show that this unmasking involves neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) mediated attack, which triggers changes in fungal cell wall architecture that enhance immune recognition by the Dectin-1 β-glucan receptor in vitro...
May 2016: PLoS Pathogens
E Román, I Correia, A Salazin, C Fradin, T Jouault, D Poulain, F-T Liu, J Pla
The Cek1 MAP kinase (MAPK) mediates vegetative growth and cell wall biogenesis in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Alterations in the fungal cell wall caused by a defective Cek1‑mediated signaling pathway leads to increased β‑1,3‑glucan exposure influencing dectin‑1 fungal recognition by immune cells. We show here that cek1 cells also display an increased exposure of α‑1,2 and β‑1,2‑mannosides (α‑M and β‑M), a phenotype shared by strains defective in the activating MAPKK Hst7, suggesting a general defect in cell wall assembly...
July 3, 2016: Virulence
Xing Zheng, Siwei Zou, Hui Xu, Qingye Liu, Jianhui Song, Min Xu, Xiaojuan Xu, Lina Zhang
Yeast β-glucan has many formulations with different chemical structures, water solubility and purity. In particular, the purity of β-glucan in these formulations is variable and relatively low, contributing to different data on its biological activity. In this study, the major polysaccharide component in the crude Baker's yeast polysaccharides coded as BBG with high purity of 99% was obtained, and its chemical structure was determined to be a linear β-(1,3)-glucan. It was found that BBG interacted with complement receptor 3 (CR3) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on the surface of macrophage-like RAW264...
September 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Min Liu, Fengling Luo, Chuanlin Ding, Sabrin Albeituni, Xiaoling Hu, Yunfeng Ma, Yihua Cai, Lacey McNally, Mary Ann Sanders, Dharamvir Jain, Goetz Kloecker, Michael Bousamra, Huang-Ge Zhang, Richard M Higashi, Andrew N Lane, Teresa W-M Fan, Jun Yan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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