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Glucan macrophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876596/characterization-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-glucans-from-pleurotus-albidus-a-promising-species-of-mushroom-for-farming-and-biomass-production
#1
Victor Costa Castro-Alves, Daniel Gomes, Nelson Menolli, Maurício Luís Sforça, João Roberto Oliveira do Nascimento
Polysaccharides from a number of mushroom species are recognized as functional food ingredients with potential health benefits, including immunomodulatory effects. In this study, polysaccharides extracted from the basidiome with cold water (BaCW), hot water (BaHW), and hot alkali (BaHA) solution, and exo- (MyEX) and endopolysaccharides (MyEN) from the submerged culture of Pleurotus albidus, a promising species for farming and biomass production, were analyzed for their chemical composition and structure and immunomodulatory effects on macrophages...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863248/%C3%AE-glucan-reverses-the-epigenetic-state-of-lps-induced-immunological-tolerance
#2
Boris Novakovic, Ehsan Habibi, Shuang-Yin Wang, Rob J W Arts, Robab Davar, Wout Megchelenbrink, Bowon Kim, Tatyana Kuznetsova, Matthijs Kox, Jelle Zwaag, Filomena Matarese, Simon J van Heeringen, Eva M Janssen-Megens, Nilofar Sharifi, Cheng Wang, Farid Keramati, Vivien Schoonenberg, Paul Flicek, Laura Clarke, Peter Pickkers, Simon Heath, Ivo Gut, Mihai G Netea, Joost H A Martens, Colin Logie, Hendrik G Stunnenberg
Innate immune memory is the phenomenon whereby innate immune cells such as monocytes or macrophages undergo functional reprogramming after exposure to microbial components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We apply an integrated epigenomic approach to characterize the molecular events involved in LPS-induced tolerance in a time-dependent manner. Mechanistically, LPS-treated monocytes fail to accumulate active histone marks at promoter and enhancers of genes in the lipid metabolism and phagocytic pathways. Transcriptional inactivity in response to a second LPS exposure in tolerized macrophages is accompanied by failure to deposit active histone marks at promoters of tolerized genes...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855917/effects-of-different-extraction-temperatures-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-bioactive-polysaccharides-from-grifola-frondosa
#3
Chun-Han Su, Min-Nan Lai, Lean-Teik Ng
This study examined the effects of different extraction temperatures (70°C, 100°C and 121°C) on the physicochemical properties of water soluble polysaccharides (WSP; GF70, GF100 and GF121, respectively) from Grifola frondosa (GF) fruiting bodies, and evaluating their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Results showed that GF121 had the highest yield. GF70, GF100 and GF121 contained a similar monosaccharide composition and the predominant monosaccharide was glucose...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853145/marco-variants-are-associated-with-phagocytosis-pulmonary-tuberculosis-susceptibility-and-beijing-lineage
#4
N T T Thuong, T T B Tram, T D Dinh, P V K Thai, D Heemskerk, N D Bang, T T H Chau, D G Russell, G E Thwaites, T R Hawn, M Caws, S J Dunstan
Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) has an important role in the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). We hypothesized that MARCO polymorphisms are associated with phagocytosis, tuberculosis (TB) disease susceptibility and presentation, and infecting lineage. We used a human cellular model to examine how MARCO genotype mediates the immune response; a case-control study to investigate tuberculosis host genetic susceptibility; and a host-pathogen genetic analysis to study host-pathogen interactions...
December 2016: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815472/in-vitro-proinflammatory-polarization-of-macrophages-isolated-from-hepatocarcinogenic-stage-in-humans-and-rats
#5
Marta Wójcik, Joanna Wessely-Szponder, Halina Cichoż-Lach, Krzysztof Celiński, Ryszard Bobowiec
Macrophages have multiple functions in both inhibiting and promoting hepatocarcinogenesis, which are dependent on their phenotypes. Thus, we were interested in clarifying the 'training' proinflammatory effects exerted by barley β-glucan (BBG) on monocyte-derived macrophages from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC-Mfs). After isolation and differentiation HCC-Mfs were treated with different concentrations of BBG and functional assays were then conducted after 24 h, and 3 and 5 days of incubation. The release of reactive oxygen species, arginase concentration and cell morphology were analyzed...
November 2016: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814595/particulate-beta-glucan-induces-early-and-late-phagosomal-maturation-in-murine-macrophages
#6
Nida Fatima, Tarun Upadhyay, Deepak Sharma, Rolee Sharma
Beta-glucans are carbohydrates (glucose polymers) found in the cell walls of fungi, yeast, algae, lichens, and plants such as oats and barley. Beta-glucans bind to glucan receptor on phagocytic cells and modify these cells to become "immunologically active" by generating a variety of innate immune responses. Particulate beta-glucan has been specifically shown to engage dectin-1 receptor, which leads to the recruitment and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (NOX-2) and release of antimicrobial reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793997/age-specific-adjuvant-synergy-dual-tlr7-8-and-mincle-activation-of-human-newborn-dendritic-cells-enables-th1-polarization
#7
Simon D van Haren, David J Dowling, Willemina Foppen, Dennis Christensen, Peter Andersen, Steven G Reed, Robert M Hershberg, Lindsey R Baden, Ofer Levy
Due to functionally distinct cell-mediated immunity, newborns and infants are highly susceptible to infection with intracellular pathogens. Indeed, neonatal Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) demonstrate impaired Th1 responses to many candidate adjuvants, including most TLR agonists (TLRAs). Combination adjuvantation systems may provide enhanced immune activation but have typically been developed without regard to the age of the target population. We posited that distinct combinations of TLRAs and C-type lectin receptor agonists may enhance Th1 responses of newborn DCs...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756305/bcsz-inhibits-biofilm-phenotypes-and-promotes-virulence-by-blocking-cellulose-production-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#8
Irfan Ahmad, Syed Fazle Rouf, Lei Sun, Annika Cimdins, Sulman Shafeeq, Soazig Le Guyon, Marco Schottkowski, Mikael Rhen, Ute Römling
BACKGROUND: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
October 19, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704584/a-comparative-study-of-the-hypolipidaemic-effects-of-a-new-polysaccharide-mannan-candida-albicans-serotype-a-and-atorvastatin-in-mice-with-poloxamer-407-induced-hyperlipidaemia
#9
Tatyana Korolenko, Thomas P Johnston, Alexander P Lykov, Alexandra B Shintyapina, Marina V Khrapova, Natalya V Goncharova, Erik Korolenko, Nataliya P Bgatova, Eva Machova, Zuzana Nescakova, Ludmila V Sakhno
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the hypolipidaemic effect of mannan Candida albicans serotype A, relative to atorvastatin, in a mouse model of hyperlipidaemia. METHODS: Mannan serotype A was investigated in vitro and in vivo to determine its effects on macrophage proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production by cultured macrophages, serum and liver lipids, changes in liver morphology and serum chitotriosidase activity and its expression in the liver. KEY FINDINGS: Mannan serotype A stimulates the macrophage proliferation and NO production in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677198/effects-of-beta-glucan-on-protection-of-young-and-aged-rats-from-renal-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#10
M Esrefoglu, O E Tok, M S Aydin, M Iraz, O F Ozer, S Selek, M Iraz
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the leading causes of acute renal failure which is a common clinical event leading to development of chronic kidney disease and a high mortality; especially in elderly people. β-glucans are glucose polymer groups with free-radical scavenger, macrophage activator, and immune defense inducer functions. We designed this study to determine the possible protective effects of β-glucan against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury comparatively in young and aged rats...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573235/evaluation-of-gastrointestinal-leakage-using-serum-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-in-a-clostridium-difficile-murine-model
#11
Asada Leelahavanichkul, Wimonrat Panpetch, Navaporn Worasilchai, Poorichaya Somparn, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Sumanee Nilgate, Malcolm Finkelman, Ariya Chindamporn, Somying Tumwasorn
Gastrointestinal (GI) leakage in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is well known but is not routinely assessed in clinical practice. Serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG), a fungal cell wall component used as a biomarker for invasive fungal disease, was tested in a CDAD mouse model with and without probiotics. Higher serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran) and spontaneous gram-negative bacteremia, GI leakage indicators, were frequently found in CDAD mice, which died compared with those which survived...
September 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572330/the-life-cycle-stages-of-pneumocystis-murina-have-opposing-effects-on-the-immune-response-to-this-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen
#12
Heather M Evans, Grady L Bryant, Beth A Garvy
The cyst cell wall β-glucans of Pneumocystis have been shown to stimulate immune responses in lung epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and alveolar macrophages. Little is known about how the trophic life forms, which do not have a fungal cell wall, interact with these innate immune cells. Here, we report differences in the responses of both neonatal and adult mice to the trophic and cystic life cycle stages of Pneumocystis murina The adult and neonatal immune responses to infection with Pneumocystis murina trophic forms were less robust than the response to infection with a physiologically normal mixture of cysts and trophic forms...
August 29, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551682/distinctly-perturbed-metabolic-networks-underlie-differential-tumor-tissue-damages-induced-by-immune-modulator-%C3%AE-glucan-in-a-two-case-ex-vivo-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-study
#13
Teresa W-M Fan, Marc O Warmoes, Qiushi Sun, Huan Song, Jadwiga Turchan-Cholewo, Jeremiah T Martin, Angela Mahan, Richard M Higashi, Andrew N Lane
Cancer and stromal cell metabolism is important for understanding tumor development, which highly depends on the tumor microenvironment (TME). Cell or animal models cannot recapitulate the human TME. We have developed an ex vivo paired cancerous (CA) and noncancerous (NC) human lung tissue approach to explore cancer and stromal cell metabolism in the native human TME. This approach enabled full control of experimental parameters and acquisition of individual patient's target tissue response to therapeutic agents while eliminating interferences from genetic and physiological variations...
July 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548151/dextran-influence-of-molecular-weight-in-antioxidant-properties-and-immunomodulatory-potential
#14
Vinicius C Soeiro, Karoline R T Melo, Monique G C F Alves, Mayara J C Medeiros, Maria L P M Grilo, Jailma Almeida-Lima, Daniel L Pontes, Leandro S Costa, Hugo A O Rocha
Dextrans (α-d-glucans) extracted from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, with molecular weights (MW) of 10 (D10), 40 (D40) and 147 (D147) kDa, were evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory drugs for the first time. None presented anticoagulant activity. As for the antioxidant and immunomodulatory tests, a specific test showed an increase in the dextran activity that was proportional to the increase in molecular weight. In a different assay, however, activity decreased or showed no correlation to the MW...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488844/effects-of-%C3%AE-glucan-on-the-release-of-nitric-oxide-by-macrophages-stimulated-with-lipopolysaccharide
#15
Eun Young Choi, Jin Yi Hyeon, So Hui Choe, Bo Ram Keum, Jong Min Lim, Dong Chan Park, In Soon Choi, Kwang Keun Cho
This research analyzed the effect of β-glucan that is expected to alleviate the production of the inflammatory mediator in a macrophagocyte, which was processed by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia. The incubated layer was used for a nitric oxide (NO) analysis. The DNA-binding activation of the small unit of NF-κB was measured using the ELISA-based kit. In the RAW264.7 cells that were vitalized by E.coli LPS, the β-glucan inhibited both the combatant and rendering phases of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO...
July 29, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27481297/%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-3-glucan-of-the-southern-bracket-mushroom-ganoderma-australe-agaricomycetes-stimulates-phagocytosis-and-interleukin-6-production-in-mouse-peritoneal-macrophages
#16
Renan Henrique de Melo, Alex Evangelista do Amaral, Rafael Andrade Menolli, Thais Soprani Ayala, Rita de Cassia Garcia Simao, Arquimedes Paixao de Santana-Filho, Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki, Marina Kimiko Kadowaki, Jose Luis da Conceicao Silva
Ganoderma australe was studied to determine the composition of the cell wall, and polysaccharide fraction SK5 was obtained after freeze-thawing an aqueous 5% potassium hydroxide extraction. The monosaccharide composition of the SK5 fraction revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed 81.3% glucose, and analyses by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed a β-glucan with glycosidic links of the (1→3)-β type and most likely 4-O substituted. In addition, the biological effect of the β-glucan from G...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477244/preparation-and-sulfation-of-an-%C3%AE-glucan-from-actinidia-chinensis-roots-and-their-potential-activities
#17
Hong Niu, Dan Song, Yuelin Sun, Wuxia Zhang, Haibo Mu, Jinyou Duan
In this study, one homopolysaccharide (ACPA1) with a molecular weight (Mw) of 5.5×10(3)g/mol was prepared from the roots of Actinidia chinensis. It was characterized as an α-d-glucan consisting of predominant 4-linked α-d-Glcp residues branched at O-6. Three sulfated derivatives of ACPA1 (SA1, SA2 and SA3) with different degrees of sulfation (DS) were obtained by SO3-pyridine procedure. Moisture-preserving tests demonstrated that the sulfated derivatives with the highest DS values, SA1 and SA2, exhibited better moisture-preserving abilities than ACPA1 and SA3...
November 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430908/immune-enhancing-activity-of-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-isolated-from-genus-agrobacterium-in-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-and-mice-splenocytes
#18
Eui-Baek Byun, Beom-Su Jang, Eui-Hong Byun, Nak-Yun Sung
An effective method for activating macrophages and deriving a Th1 immune response could be used to improve the defenses of hosts. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulation effect and the related signaling mechanism of [Formula: see text]-(1,3)-glucan, isolated from the Agrobacterium species. Here, we found that [Formula: see text]-(1,3)-glucan predominantly induced the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interleukin (IL)-1[Formula: see text], IL-6, IL-12p70, and nitric oxide, which was dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-[Formula: see text]B signaling...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396408/hypoglycemic-activity-of-the-baker-s-yeast-%C3%AE-glucan-in-obese-type-2-diabetic-mice-and-the-underlying-mechanism
#19
Yan Cao, Siwei Zou, Hui Xu, Mengxia Li, Zan Tong, Min Xu, Xiaojuan Xu
SCOPE: β-Glucans have been shown to reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes. However, they often contain diverse polysaccharides and other ingredients, leading to elusive experimental data and mechanisms. In this study, a pure β-glucan was obtained from the crude Baker's yeast polysaccharides for investigating its effect on the metabolic disorders in high-fat diet induced obese (DIO)/type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice and the underlying mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data indicated that the pure β-glucan (BYGlc) was a linear β-(1→3)-glucan...
July 10, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387601/immunoprotective-effect-of-lentinan-in-combination-with-miltefosine-on-leishmania-infected-j-774a-1-macrophages
#20
R Shivahare, W Ali, U S Singh, S M Natu, S Khattri, S K Puri, S Gupta
Rejuvenation of deteriorated host immune functions is imperative for successful annihilation of Leishmania parasites. The use of immunomodulatory agents may have several advantages as they conquer immunosuppression and, when given in combination, improve current therapeutic regimens. We herein investigated the immunostimulatory potency of a β-glucan, lentinan either alone or in combination with short dose of standard drug, miltefosine on Leishmania-infected J-774A.1 macrophages. Our study shows that infected macrophages when stimulated with 2...
October 2016: Parasite Immunology
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