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Addiction; methadone

Miguel Garrido-Fernández, Juan A Marcos-Sierra, Ana López-Jiménez, Iñigo Ochoa de Alda
In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of multi-family therapy at reducing the addiction severity and at improving the psychological and family dynamics of opiate addicts receiving methadone treatment at a public treatment center. The study compares multi-family therapy with a reflecting team (MFT-RT) and a standard treatment following a methadone maintenance treatment program. The results show that multi-family therapy with a reflecting team effectively reduces the addiction severity in several of the areas evaluated and noted that this effect is superior to standard treatment...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Michel Landry, Nadia Veilleux, Julie-Eve Arseneault, Saneea Abboud, André Barrieau, Mathieu Bélanger
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment programs implemented in Aboriginal communities have proven to be beneficial for the control of opioid addiction and its associated consequences, but the perceptions and opinions of different community members about these programs remain elusive. The goal of this study was to determine the perceptions of members of a First Nation community in New Brunswick, Canada, on the implementation of a methadone maintenance treatment program and its effects on the community...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
S Mücke, M Nagel, J P Siedentopf, C Bührer, D Hüseman
Background: Infants exposed to opiates antenatally display withdrawal symptoms after birth referred to as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Patients: A total of 366 newborns (166 females, 10 twins) from 361 mothers were diagnosed with NAS from 2000 to 2011 at a single large metropolitan referral center. Methods: Retrospective chart review of all newborn infants exposed to opiates in utero. Results: 20% were premature (gestational age<37 weeks), 32% were small-for-gestational-age (<10(th) percentile)...
October 10, 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
Yafei Wu, Shiyan Yan, Yanping Bao, Zhi Lian, Zhi Qu, Zhimin Liu
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is widely recognized as an effective method of combatting narcotic addiction. MMT reduces heroin withdrawal symptoms and, thus, makes it possible to provide the psychological and social support that is essential to the rehabilitation of drug users. AIM: Compare the severity of depressive symptoms in heroin users who are currently receiving MMT to that of heroin users who are not receiving MMT. METHODS: We administered the 13-item version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) and a demographic history form to 929 heroin users who had been receiving MMT at nine methadone treatment clinics in three Chinese cities for an average of 9 months and to 238 heroin users who had enrolled in a MMT program at the centers but had not yet begun MMT...
February 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
Xavier Castells, Ruth Cunill, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Xavier Vidal, Dolors Capellà
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence is a severe disorder for which no medication has been approved. Like opioids for heroin dependence, replacement therapy with psychostimulants could be an effective therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychostimulants for cocaine abuse and dependence. Specific outcomes include sustained cocaine abstinence and retention in treatment. We also studied the influence of type of drug and comorbid disorders on psychostimulant efficacy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Matthew Randesi, Wim van den Brink, Orna Levran, Peter Blanken, Eduardo R Butelman, Vadim Yuferov, Joel Correa da Rosa, Jurg Ott, Jan M van Ree, Mary Jeanne Kreek
BACKGROUND: Heroin addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease. Genetic factors are involved in the development of drug addiction. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific variants in genes of the opioid system are associated with non-dependent opioid use and heroin dependence. METHODS: Genetic information from four subject groups was collected: non-dependent opioid users (NOD) [n=163]; opioid-dependent (OD) patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) [n=143]; opioid-dependent MMT-resistant patients in heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) [n=138]; and healthy controls with no history of opioid use (HC) [n=153]...
September 5, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Catherine E Myers, Janice Rego, Paul Haber, Kirsten Morley, Kevin D Beck, Lee Hogarth, Ahmed A Moustafa
This study adapts a widely-used acquired equivalence paradigm to investigate how opioid-addicted individuals learn from positive and negative feedback, and how they generalize this learning. The opioid-addicted group consisted of 33 participants with a history of heroin dependency currently in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 32 healthy participants without a history of drug addiction. All participants performed a novel variant of the acquired equivalence task, where they learned to map some stimuli to correct outcomes in order to obtain reward, and to map other stimuli to correct outcomes in order to avoid punishment; some stimuli were implicitly "equivalent" in the sense of being paired with the same outcome...
September 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Lia Shidlansik, Miriam Adelson, Einat Peles
BACKGROUND: Stigma attached to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is very common. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of stigma and its relation to the extent of knowledge about MMT Methods: We conducted a survey among MMT and non-MMT addiction therapists from different treatment centers in Israel, including MMT clinics (Ministry of Health) and non MMT addiction facilities (Ministry of Social Services), using an anonymous questionnaire about MMT stigma and knowledge...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
Eline R Zaaijer, Anna E Goudriaan, Maarten W J Koeter, Jan Booij, Wim van den Brink
BACKGROUND: Extended-release naltrexone (XRNT) was developed to overcome poor treatment compliance with oral naltrexone in alcohol and opioid-dependent patients. XRNT injections are registered in the United States and Russia, but not in The Netherlands. However, XRNT can be obtained for individual patients, but it is expensive and not reimbursed by the health insurance. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the support for abstinence oriented treatment among heroin-dependent patients and the acceptability of XRNT injections by heroin-dependent patients and treatment providers in The Netherlands...
December 5, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Fabio Lugoboni, Antonio Mirijello, Chiara Resentera, Lorenzo Zamboni, Marco Faccini, Rebecca Casari, Anthony Cossari, Gessica Musi, Giorgia Bissoli, Antonio Gasbarrini, Gianluca Quaglio, Giovanni Addolorato
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prevalence and severity of constipation and quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of opioid-addicted patients treated with opioid substitution treatments. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Multicenter observational study. A total of 1057 heroin-dependent patients treated with methadone or buprenorphine were enrolled. Constipation was assessed by Wexner Constipation Scoring System, QoL by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). RESULTS: 38...
September 7, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Min-Wei Huang, Tai-An Chiang, Pei-Yu Lo, Ching-Shan Huang
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether variation in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and tri-dimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) scores could be used to aid adjustment of daily methadone requirements of heroin addicts. DRD2 TaqI B polymorphisms and TPQ scores were determined in 138 male Taiwanese heroin addicts who were receiving methadone treatment. Borderline index (harm avoidance + novelty seeking-reward dependence) was calculated for each subject, and three groups were defined: high (mean from all subjects plus 1 standard deviation, or greater), low (half of the calculated high score, or lower) and medium (all values between the high and low scores)...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Carla Marienfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Mel Clark Taveros, Elizabeth J Chuang
CONTEXT: Prescription opioid and heroin abuse has increased substantially in recent years. Enrolment on opioid agonist therapy programmes is consequently increasing as well. As a result of these trends, more patients who present with acute pain secondary to a malignancy are also on chronic methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for substance abuse. This combination of diagnoses presents a pain management challenge for palliative care providers. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to gather and review the available medical literature pertaining to the use of opioid analgesia in methadone-maintained patients...
August 26, 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Sava V Petrov, Maria M Orbetzova, Yanko T Iliev, Doychin T Boyadzhiev
INTRODUCTION: Drug addictions to psychoactive substances are disorders with a complex bio-psycho-social genesis, which are characterized with chronic relapses. Substance addiction causes multifactorial damage to the normal functioning of individuals and requires a multicenter approach for the treatment process. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life of patients undergoing chronic treatment with the opiate agonist methadone using a standardized questionnaire method in Bulgarian...
April 2016: Folia Medica
U Barahmand, E Tavakolian, A Khazaee, K Mohammadi
CONTEXT: Methadone maintenance is a standard treatment for opiate-dependent individuals. However, deficits in cognitive functioning have been associated with this treatment. AIM: This study aimed to determine the dose and treatment duration-related effects of methadone on executive functions. SETTING AND DESIGN: Pure male opioid users with no considerable history of other drug abuse, undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) were recruited from a major government-run de-addiction center...
September 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Haifeng Chang, Wei Li, Qiang Li, Jiajie Chen, Jia Zhu, Jianjun Ye, Jierong Liu, Zhe Li, Yongbin Li, Ming Shi, Yarong Wang, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is recognized as one of the most effective treatments for heroin addiction but its effect is dimmed by the high incidence of heroin relapse. However, underlying neurobiology mechanism of heroin relapse under MMT is still largely unknown. Here, we took advantage of a resting-state fMRI technique by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo), and tried to explore the difference of brain function between heroin relapsers and non-relapsers in MMT...
2016: BMC Neurology
Ahmad Abdulrahman Almeman, R Ismail, Markus Perola
INTRODUCTION: Methadone is accepted as an alternative therapy in opioid use disorders worldwide. Methadone responsiveness , however, is affected by a range of CYP450 enzymes and OPRM1 polymorphisms. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to detect CYP2B6 and OPRM1 variants and their genotypes, as major contributors to inter-variability in methadone responsiveness and methadone dose requirements. METHODS: We carried out a prospective experimental one-phase pharmacogenetic study in four addiction clinics in Malaysia...
August 10, 2016: Drug Metabolism Letters
Christopher J Evans, Catherine M Cahill
Opioid drugs are potent modulators of many physiological and psychological processes. When given acutely, they can elicit the signature responses of euphoria and analgesia that societies have coveted for centuries. Repeated, or chronic, use of opioids induces adaptive or allostatic changes that modify neuronal circuitry and create an altered normality - the "drug-dependent" state. This state, at least that exhibited by those maintained continuously on long-acting opioid drugs such as methadone or buprenorphine, is generally indistinguishable from the drug-naïve state for most overt behaviors...
2016: F1000Research
Catherine M Comiskey, John Hyland, Pauline Hyland
BACKGROUND: Internationally there is a lack of measurement on the impact of childcare on people who use drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to longitudinally measure drug use, familial and social status and criminal involvement between parents and nonparents who use heroin and have children in their care. METHODS: From 2003 to 2006, 404 participants were recruited to the Research Outcome Study in Ireland Evaluating Drug Treatment Effectiveness (ROSIE) as part of a longitudinal cohort study design...
October 14, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Kamyar Mansori, Hamid Soori, Fariba Farnaghi, Sohila Khodakarim, Shiva Mansouri Hanis, Mahmoud Khodadost
BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a major public health problem and is one of the most frequent causes of emergency hospital admissions. The aim of this study was to identify the main risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning in Tehran, Iran and to suggest possible causes and preventative measures. METHODS: In this case-control study (case, n=140; control, n=280), two controls were selected for every case. Controls were matched by age, sex, and date of hospital attendance...
2016: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
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