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Addiction; methadone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441714/time-dependent-regional-brain-distribution-of-methadone-and-naltrexone-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-addiction
#1
Belin G Teklezgi, Annapurna Pamreddy, Sooraj Baijnath, Hendrik G Kruger, Tricia Naicker, Nirmala D Gopal, Thavendran Govender
Opioid addiction is a serious public health concern with severe health and social implications; therefore, extensive therapeutic efforts are required to keep users drug free. The two main pharmacological interventions, in the treatment of addiction, involve management with methadone an mu (μ)-opioid agonist and treatment with naltrexone, μ-opioid, kappa (κ)-opioid and delta (δ)-opioid antagonist. MET and NAL are believed to help individuals to derive maximum benefit from treatment and undergo a full recovery...
February 14, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429442/heroin-detoxification-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-retrospective-study-of-the-management-of-heroin-addiction-in-pregnancy
#2
K V Gilfillan, L Dannatt, D J Stein, B Vythilingum
BACKGROUND: There is general consensus that methadone maintenance is the gold standard in the management of pregnant heroin users. However, in South African state hospitals, methadone withdrawal is the routine procedure offered to these patients, as methadone maintenance programmes are unavailable in the public sector. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the literature on heroin detoxification in pregnancy, and to document pregnancy outcomes in heroin users detoxified with methadone at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town, from 2006 to 2010...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426304/rationale-design-and-methodology-of-a-trial-evaluating-three-models-of-care-for-hcv-treatment-among-injection-drug-users-on-opioid-agonist-therapy
#3
Matthew J Akiyama, Linda Agyemang, Julia H Arnsten, Moonseong Heo, Brianna L Norton, Bruce R Schackman, Benjamin P Linas, Alain H Litwin
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) constitute 60% of the approximately 5 million people in the U.S. infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Treatment of PWID is complex due to addiction, mental illness, poverty, homelessness, lack of positive social support, poor adherence-related skills, low motivation and knowledge, and poor access to and trust in the health care system. New direct-acting antiviral medications are available for HCV with high cure rates and few side effects. The life expectancy and economic benefits of new HCV treatments will not be realized unless we determine optimal models of care for the majority of HCV-infected patients...
February 9, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415851/knowledge-about-nutrition-eating-habits-and-weight-reduction-intervention-among-methadone-maintenance-treatment-patients
#4
Anat Sason, Miriam Adelson, Sarit Herzman-Harari, Einat Peles
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients are often under-nourished and overweight. The impact of a nutrition intervention program to improve knowledge about healthy food habits and losing weight was studied. Patients were screened for knowledge about nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Those with a low knowledge score or a BMI ≥26 (n=89) were randomly divided into either intervention (two lectures on healthy nutrition followed by weight monitoring over 6weeks), or controls (weighed at baseline, post-lectures and at study closure)...
March 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413437/prenatal-exposure-to-methadone-or-buprenorphine-early-childhood-developmental-outcomes
#5
Karol Kaltenbach, Kevin E O'Grady, Sarah H Heil, Amy L Salisbury, Mara G Coyle, Gabriele Fischer, Peter R Martin, Susan Stine, Hendrée E Jones
BACKGROUND: Methadone and buprenorphine are recommended to treat opioid use disorders during pregnancy. However, the literature on the relationship between longer-term effects of prenatal exposure to these medications and childhood development is both spare and inconsistent. METHODS: Participants were 96 children and their mothers who participated in MOTHER, a randomized controlled trial of opioid-agonist pharmacotherapy during pregnancy. The present study examined child growth parameters, cognition, language abilities, sensory processing, and temperament from 0 to 36 months of the child's life...
February 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372946/self-harm-methadone-use-and-drug-related-deaths-amongst-those-registered-as-being-of-no-fixed-abode-or-homeless-in-ireland
#6
R W Glynn, E Lynn, E Griffin, M Fitzgerald, M Ward
This work aims to contribute to the evidence base regarding the health of those who experience homelessness in Ireland by collating data on methadone use, drug-related deaths and emergency department presentations due to self-harm. Data from the Central Methadone Treatment List (CTL), National Self-Harm Registry Ireland and the National Drug-Related Deaths Index were analysed. The percentage on the CTL registered as being of no fixed abode (NFA) or homeless increased from 2% to 7% from 2011-2014. The absolute number of presentations with deliberate self-harm from those of NFA increased by 49% from 2007-2014...
September 18, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333880/pharmacogenetic-analysis-of-opioid-dependence-treatment-dose-and-dropout-rate
#7
Richard C Crist, James Li, Glenn A Doyle, Alex Gilbert, Bryan M Dechairo, Wade H Berrettini
BACKGROUND: Currently, no pharmacogenetic tests for selecting an opioid-dependence pharmacotherapy have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effects of variants in 11 genes on dropout rate and dose in patients receiving methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00315341). METHODS: Variants in six pharmacokinetic genes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4) and five pharmacodynamic genes (HTR2A, OPRM1, ADRA2A, COMT, SLC6A4) were genotyped in samples from a 24-week, randomized, open-label trial of methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone for the treatment of opioid dependence (n = 764; 68...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326869/prenatal-methadone-exposure-is-associated-with-altered-neonatal-brain-development
#8
Victoria J Monnelly, Devasuda Anblagan, Alan Quigley, Manuel Blesa Cabez, E Sarah Cooper, Helen Mactier, Scott I Semple, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Methadone is used for medication-assisted treatment of heroin addiction during pregnancy. The neurodevelopmental outcome of children with prenatal methadone exposure can be sub-optimal. We tested the hypothesis that brain development is altered among newborn infants whose mothers were prescribed methadone. 20 methadone-exposed neonates born after 37 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and 20 non-exposed controls underwent diffusion MRI at mean PMA of 39+ 2 and 41+ 1 weeks, respectively. An age-optimized Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) pipeline was used to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data between exposed and non-exposed neonates...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325708/promising-roles-for-pharmacists-in-addressing-the-u-s-opioid-crisis
#9
Wilson M Compton, Christopher M Jones, Jack B Stein, Eric M Wargo
Overdoses of prescription or illicit opioids claimed the lives of 116 Americans each day in 2016, and the crisis continues to escalate. As healthcare systems evolve to address the crisis, the potential of pharmacists to make a positive difference is significant. In addition to utilizing available prescription drug monitoring programs to help prevent diversion of opioids, practicing pharmacists can be alert for signs of opioid misuse by patients (e.g., multiple prescriptions from different physicians) as well as inappropriate prescribing or hazardous drug combinations that physicians may not be aware of (e...
December 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302220/a-brief-review-of-the-genetics-and-pharmacogenetics-of-opioid-use-disorders
#10
Wade Berrettini
Increased physician prescribing of opioids to treat chronic nonprogressive pain has been accompanied by an increase in opioid addiction. Twin studies of opioid addiction are consistent with an inherited component of risk, approximately 50%. Several genome-wide association study (GWAS) reports indicate that genetic risk for opioid addiction is conveyed by many alleles of small effect (odds ratios <1.5). These reports have detected alleles in potassium-ion-channel genes (KCNC1 and KCNG2) and in a glutamate receptor auxiliary protein (CNIH3)...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282239/prescribing-opioid-replacement-therapy-in-u-s-correctional-settings
#11
Pantea Farahmand, Vania Modesto-Lowe, Margaret M Chaplin
Opioid addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder associated with criminality, unemployment, infectious diseases, and legal problems. Such addictions are typically over-represented in correctional populations. Inmates with untreated opioid addiction often relapse shortly after release into the community, thereby increasing the risk of overdose, serious illnesses (HIV, hepatitis C) and psychosocial problems (e.g., crimes, recidivism, and reincarceration). There are three U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for the treatment of opioid use disorder: methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247973/excess-mortality-in-children-born-to-opioid-addicted-parents-a-national-register-study-in-taiwan
#12
Shao-You Fang, Nicole Huang, Jen-Huoy Tsay, Su-Hui Chang, Chuan-Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: Young offspring of individuals with opioid use disorders have great exposure to a wide array of social disadvantages and stressors. This study aimed to investigate excess mortality before the age of six and predictors of premature death in children born to opioid-involved parents. METHODS: A total of 3210 children born between 2004 and 2009 to parents with opioid use disorders (roughly a quarter of whom were born after parental methadone treatment enrollment) were identified in Taiwan...
December 2, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238241/predictors-of-mortality-within-prison-and-after-release-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-indonesia
#13
Gabriel J Culbert, Forrest W Crawford, Astia Murni, Agung Waluyo, Alexander R Bazazi, Junaiti Sahar, Frederick L Altice
Objectives: HIV-related mortality is increasing in Indonesia, where prisons house many people living with HIV and addiction. We examined all-cause mortality in HIV-infected Indonesian prisoners within prison and up to 24 months post-release. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected HIV-infected male prisoners (n=102) from two prisons in Jakarta, Indonesia completed surveys in prison and were followed up for 2 years (until study completion) or until they died or were lost to follow-up...
2017: Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236562/from-narcotic-to-normalizer-the-misperception-of-methadone-treatment-and-the-persistence-of-prejudice-and-bias
#14
Joycelyn Sue Woods, Herman Joseph
This article concentrates on methadone maintenance as a normalizer for the impairments of opioid addiction, and the misunderstandings of it as a substitute for heroin that continues an opiate addiction. Methadone treatment was developed by Drs. Dole, Nyswander, and Kreek. Their cutting-edge theory transformed the way that opioid addiction is perceived and their work changed methadone from a narcotic to withdraw addicts to a medication that is a maintenance normalizer for a chronic condition. Their extensive research involved the physiological and sociological normalizing effects of methadone and medical safety of the medication (Dole & Nyswander, 1967)...
December 13, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231146/comparison-of-two-naloxone-regimens-in-addicted-methadone-overdosed-patients-a-clinical-trial-study
#15
Navid Khosravi, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Ali Ostadi, Mitra Rahimi, Ali Kabir
BACKGROUND: Methadone toxicity is one of the major causes of death in opioid dependent individuals. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare two different protocols for naloxone in terms of reversal of overdose and frequency of complications in opioid-dependent methadone-intoxicated patients. METHODS: One-hundred opioid-dependent patients with signs/symptoms of methadone overdose were included. The patients were consecutively assigned into Tintinalli (group 1) or Goldfrank regimen protocol (group 2) of naloxone administration...
December 11, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222992/inflammatory-chemokine-eotaxin-1-is-correlated-with-age-in-heroin-dependent-patients-under-methadone-maintenance-therapy
#16
Hsiang-Wei Kuo, Tung-Hsia Liu, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Ya-Ting Hsu, Sheng-Chang Wang, Chiu-Ping Fang, Chia-Chen Liu, Andrew C H Chen, Yu-Li Liu
BACKGROUND: Degeneration of central neurons and fibers has been observed in postmortem brains of heroin dependent patients. However, there are no biomarkers to predict the severity of neurodegeneration related to heroin dependence. A correlation has been reported between inflammatory C-C motif chemokine ligand 11 (CCL11, or eotaxin-1) and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Three-hundred-forty-four heroin dependent, Taiwanese patients under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) were included with clinical assessment and genomics information...
November 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220615/medication-assisted-treatment-mat-for-opioid-addiction-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#17
Karen McElrath, Herman Joseph
Several countries are experiencing public health crises as a result of opioid addiction. Fatal overdoses have reached record highs in many regions and Hepatitis C virus is the norm among people who inject drugs in several countries. Thus, providing for the global availability of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid addiction is more important than ever. In this article, we introduce readers to the collection of papers that appear in this special issue on MAT for opioid addiction. We describe the articles and commentaries thematically to include topics that address 1) the contemporary history of methadone maintenance, 2) the provision of and access and barriers to MAT, 3) compliance and outcomes of MAT, 4) health issues among MAT patients, 5) race, ethnicity, and social class backgrounds of MAT patients, 6) criminalization and stigma, and 7) challenges associated with the expansion of MAT...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207922/effect-of-steady-state-methadone-on-high-fructose-corn-syrup-consumption-in-rats
#18
Stephen Daniels, Mick Pratt, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment self-report enhanced preferences for, and excessive consumption of, foods rich in sugar. However, it is unclear whether these are direct pharmacological effects of methadone or the consequences of metabolic dysfunctions induced by addiction to illicit opiates. Hence, the current study in drug-naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats explored the effects of steady-state methadone delivered by osmotic mini-pumps (13 days; 0, 10, 30 mg/kg/day) on consumption of rat chow and a palatable, sweet, liquid high fructose corn syrup solution...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200050/a-call-for-compassionate-care
#19
Karen Alexander
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2014) reported that 1.1% of pregnant women used nonprescription opiates (either heroin or prescription pills) in the last 30 days. Methadone and buprenorphine are the most common treatments for opiate addiction in pregnant women. Reasons for seeking opiate maintenance treatment (OMT) include keeping custody of one's children and the hope of developing a healthy parenting relationship. Yet, healthcare organizations and professionals have mixed opinions regarding health promotion within the maternal OMT population...
October 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181552/-nephrotic-syndrome-and-microhematuria-in-a-patient-with-nutcracker-syndrome-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
N Schöffel, R-M Liehr, C Bünger, K Krüger, D Rubin
We report about a 43-year-old woman with polyvalent drug addiction (i.e. alcohol, nicotine, methadone maintenance program with parallel consumption of heroin) who presented to the emergency department with peripheral edema, generalized weakness, and arthralgia. Laboratory findings revealed, among others, proteinuria, hyperlipoproteinemia and hypoproteinemia defining nephrotic syndrome. Computed tomography of the abdomen and iliocavography further revealed compression of left renal vein between aorta and superior mesenteric artery with distention of left ovarian vein as a possible cause of nephrotic syndrome (i...
November 27, 2017: Der Internist
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