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COX 1 , COX2 + inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221664/mechanisms-of-damage-to-the-gastrointestinal-tract-from-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Ingvar Bjarnason, Carmelo Scarpignato, Erik Holmgren, Michael Olszewski, Kim D Rainsford, Angel Lanas
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can damage the gastrointestinal tract, causing widespread morbidity and mortality. Although mechanisms of damage involve the activities of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1 or COX1) and PTGS1 (COX2), other factors are involved. We review mechanisms of gastrointestinal damage induction by NSAIDs, via COX-mediated and COX-independent processes. NSAIDs interact with phospholipids and uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which initiates biochemical changes that impair function of the gastrointestinal barrier...
December 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163789/prostaglandin-e2-and-pd-1-mediated-inhibition-of-antitumor-ctl-responses-in-the-human-tumor-microenvironment
#2
Jie Miao, Xu Lu, Yuefeng Hu, Chunmei Piao, Xuan Wu, Xuesong Liu, Caiting Huang, Yue Wang, Dan Li, Jingwei Liu
Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation plays a critical role in cancer development; however, mechanisms of immunosuppression hinder productive anti-tumor immunity to limit immunopathology. Tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) dysfunction or exhaustion by upregulating inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) in tumor-bearing hosts is one such mechanism. Identification and blockade of the pathways that induce CTL dysfunction has been shown to partially restore CTL function in tumor-bearing hosts...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972959/role-of-paeonol-in-an-astrocyte-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Maosheng Ye, Yuxin Yi, Shixing Wu, Yong Zhou, Dongjie Zhao
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Inflammation and neural degeneration are implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Paeonol has been verified to attenuate inflammation. MATERIAL AND METHODS 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridnium ion (MPP+, 100 μM) was used to induce the cell model of PD in primary cultured astrocytes. Astrocyte cell viability and apoptosis were determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry (FCM), respectively...
October 3, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933223/genetic-and-histological-alterations-reveal-key-role-of-prostaglandin-synthase-and-cyclooxygenase-1-and-2-in-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-neuroinflammation-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-rats-exposed-to-moderate-fluid-percussion-injury
#4
Hideki Shojo, Cesario V Borlongan, Tadashi Mabuchi
After the initial insult in traumatic brain injury (TBI), secondary neurodegeneration occurs that is intimately associated with neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin (PG) synthases and cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 may contribute to inflammation in the brain. Temporal and spatial expression features of PG and COX1 and 2 following trauma may guide the development of antineuroinflammation strategies. Here, we examined PG synthase signaling and COX1 and 2 gene expression levels and COX-1- and 2-positive cell types and their temporal localization in TBI-induced brain in an effort to reveal their participation in the disease's evolving neuroinflammation...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819782/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-d-mannuronic-acid-m2000-as-a-novel-nsaid-on-cox1-and-cox2-activities-and-gene-expression-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-patients-and-the-murine-monocyte-macrophage-j774-cell-line
#5
Fahimeh Jafarnezhad-Ansariha, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Ahmad-Reza Jamshidi, Reza Mansouri, Mahdi Vojdanian, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Mohammad Javad Fattahi, Seyed Naser Hashemi, Bernd H A Rehm, Hidenori Matsuo, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Abbas Mirshafiey
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a debilitating chronic inflammatory disease with genetic predisposition, which is characterized by the involvement of spine and sacroiliac joints. Due to the relatively unsuccessful treatments, we designed β-D-mannuronic (M2000) with the beneficial effects in various experimental models as a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The aims of our present study were: first, to compare the therapeutic effects of M2000, as a novel designed NSAID, with naproxen and placebo in Iranian patients with AS during 12 weeks; second, to evaluate the effect of M2000 on gene expression of cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX-1/COX-2), a key enzyme in the initiation of inflammatory pathways in AS patients; and third, to assess the activity of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes in the presence/absence of M2000 at the different doses in the murine macrophage, J774 cell line...
August 17, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495615/a-novel-function-of-tlr4-in-mediating-the-immunomodulatory-effect-of-benzanthrone-an-environmental-pollutant
#6
Prachi Tewari, Payal Mandal, Ruchi Roy, Somya Asthana, Premendra D Dwivedi, Mukul Das, Anurag Tripathi
Our prior studies have reported that Benzanthrone (BA) manifests inflammatory responses in the spleen of Balb/c mice. The present investigation was carried out to study the impact of BA on macrophages, which are the primary scavenger cells in the body that act as a connecting link between innate and adaptive immunity. Parenteral administration of BA (daily for one week) to mice resulted in enhanced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and overexpression of inflammatory markers (COX-2, MMP-9 and PGE-2) in macrophages; however the level of MHC class-I and MHC class-II receptors were down regulated...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456844/preclinical-evaluation-of-the-urokinase-receptor-derived-peptide-uparant-as-an-anti-inflammatory-drug
#7
Serena Boccella, Elisabetta Panza, Liliana Lista, Carmela Belardo, Angela Ianaro, Mario De Rosa, Vito de Novellis, Vincenzo Pavone
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) exerts a plethora of functions in both physiological and pathological processes, including inflammation. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of a novel peptide ligand of uPAR, UPARANT, in different animal models of inflammation. SUBJECTS AND TREATMENT: Rats and mice were divided in different groups (n = 5) for single or repeated administration of vehicle (9% DMSO in 0...
August 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834685/antagonism-of-cannabinoid-receptor-1-attenuates-the-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-electroacupuncture-in-a-rodent-model-of-migraine
#8
Hui Zhang, Shengdong He, Youping Hu, Hui Zheng
BACKGROUND: The anti-nociceptive effects of electroacupuncture (EA) in migraine have been documented in multiple randomised controlled trials. Neurogenic inflammation plays a key role in migraine attacks, and the anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture have been associated with the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether CB1 receptors mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of EA on migraine attacks. METHODS: A migraine model was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by unilateral electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion (TGES)...
December 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832276/topical-treatment-with-bromfenac-reduces-retinal-gliosis-and-inflammation-after-optic-nerve-crush
#9
Giuseppe Rovere, Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás, Paloma Sobrado-Calvo, David García-Bernal, Maria Paz Villegas-Pérez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso
Purpose: To study the effect of topical administration of bromfenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on retinal gliosis and levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) after complete optic nerve crush (ONC). Methods: Adult albino rats were divided into the following groups (n = 8 retinas/group): (1) intact, (2) intact and bromfenac treatment (twice a day during 7 days), (3) ONC (7 days), and (4) ONC (7 days) + bromfenac treatment (twice a day during 7 days)...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650501/polarization-of-macrophages-toward-m2-phenotype-is-favored-by-reduction-in-ipla2%C3%AE-group-via-phospholipase-a2
#10
Jason W Ashley, William D Hancock, Alexander J Nelson, Robert N Bone, Hubert M Tse, Mary Wohltmann, John Turk, Sasanka Ramanadham
Macrophages are important in innate and adaptive immunity. Macrophage participation in inflammation or tissue repair is directed by various extracellular signals and mediated by multiple intracellular pathways. Activation of group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) causes accumulation of arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and eicosanoids that can promote inflammation and pathologic states. We examined the role of iPLA2β in peritoneal macrophage immune function by comparing wild type (WT) and iPLA2β(-/-) mouse macrophages...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961169/indomethacin-treatment-prior-to-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-downregulates-the-expression-of-il1b-and-cox2-and-decreases-seizure-like-behavior-in-zebrafish-larvae
#11
Patrícia Gonçalves Barbalho, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Claudia Vianna Maurer-Morelli
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that the zebrafish model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-evoked seizures and the well-established rodent models of epilepsy are similar pertaining to behavior, electrographic features, and c-fos expression. Although this zebrafish model is suitable for studying seizures, to date, inflammatory response after seizures has not been investigated using this model. Because a relationship between epilepsy and inflammation has been established, in the present study we investigated the transcript levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (il1b) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2a and cox2b) after PTZ-induced seizures in the brain of zebrafish 7 days post fertilization...
March 9, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26368011/fat-grafting-in-burn-scar-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-via-anti-inflammation-effect-in-scar-and-spinal-cord
#12
Shu-Hung Huang, Sheng-Hua Wu, Su-Shin Lee, Kao-Ping Chang, Chee-Yin Chai, Jwu-Lai Yeh, Sin-Daw Lin, Aij-Lie Kwan, Hui-Min David Wang, Chung-Sheng Lai
Burn-induced neuropathic pain is complex, and fat grafting has reportedly improved neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism of fat grafting in improving neuropathic pain is unclear. Previous investigations have found that neuroinflammation causes neuropathic pain, and anti-inflammatory targeting may provide potential therapeutic opportunities in neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that fat grafting in burn scars improves the neuropathic pain through anti-inflammation. Burn-induced scar pain was confirmed using a mechanical response test 4 weeks after burn injuries, and autologous fat grafting in the scar area was performed simultaneously...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25978374/lactobacillus-fermentum-zyl0401-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepatic-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-and-liver-injury-via-an-il-10-and-pge2-ep4-dependent-mechanism
#13
Pengfeng Jin, Yunbo Chen, Longxian Lv, Jianzhuan Yang, Haifeng Lu, Lanjuan Li
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has essential role in the pathogenesis of D-galactosamine-sensitized animal models and alcoholic liver diseases of humans, by stimulating release of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause hepatic damage and intestinal barrier impairment. Oral pretreatment of probiotics has been shown to attenuate LPS-induced hepatic injury, but it is unclear whether the effect is direct or due to improvement in the intestinal barrier. The present study tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with probiotics enables the liver to withstand directly LPS-induced hepatic injury and inflammation...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25916596/gastroprotective-potential-of-buddleja-scordioides-kunth-scrophulariaceae-infusions-effects-into-the-modulation-of-antioxidant-enzymes-and-inflammation-markers-in-an-in-vivo-model
#14
J O Díaz-Rivas, E Herrera-Carrera, J A Gallegos-Infante, N E Rocha-Guzmán, R F González-Laredo, M R Moreno-Jiménez, M Ramos-Gómez, R Reynoso-Camacho, M Larrosa-Pérez, M A Gallegos-Corona
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A common plant used to treat several gastric disorders is Buddleja scordioides Kunth, commonly known as salvilla. AIM OF THE STUDY: To detect inflammatory markers, in order to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of salvilla infusions, as this could have beneficial impact on the population exposed to gastric ulcers and colitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present work attempted infusions were prepared with B...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25893499/cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-modulates-tlr2-signaling-in-synoviocytes
#15
Randi M Sommerfelt, Astrid J Feuerherm, Trine Skuland, Berit Johansen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic synovitis leading to destruction of cartilage and bone. PLA2 enzymes are key players in inflammation regulating the release of unsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA), a precursor of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Several lines of evidence point to toll-like receptors (TLRs) as drivers of synovitis and joint destruction in RA. However, few studies have addressed the implication of PLA2 activity downstream TLR activation in the synovium...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25807993/verbascoside-down-regulates-some-pro-inflammatory-signal-transduction-pathways-by-increasing-the-activity-of-tyrosine-phosphatase-shp-1-in-the-u937-cell-line
#16
Mirko Pesce, Sara Franceschelli, Alessio Ferrone, Maria Anna De Lutiis, Antonia Patruno, Alfredo Grilli, Mario Felaco, Lorenza Speranza
Polyphenols are the major components of many traditional herbal remedies, which exhibit several beneficial effects including anti-inflammation and antioxidant properties. Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) is a redox sensitive protein tyrosine phosphatase that negatively influences downstream signalling molecules, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, thereby inhibiting inflammatory signalling induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because a role of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) in the upstream regulation of JNK molecule has been well demonstrated, we conjectured that SHP-1 could mediate the anti-inflammatory effect of verbascoside through the regulation of TAK-1/JNK/AP-1 signalling in the U937 cell line...
July 2015: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25739980/modulation-of-hmgb1-translocation-and-rage-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-cascade-by-quercetin-treatment-mitigates-atopic-dermatitis-in-nc-nga-transgenic-mice
#17
Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Somasundaram Arumugam, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, Vigneshwaran Pitchaimani, Remya Sreedhar, Rejina Afrin, Meilei Harima, Hiroshi Suzuki, Mayumi Nomoto, Shizuka Miyashita, Kenji Suzuki, Masahiko Nakamura, Kenichi Watanabe
Quercetin, glycosylated form of flavonoid compound, has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we have investigated the effects of quercetin on skin lesion, high-mobility group box (HMGB)1 cascade signalling and inflammation in atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model. AD-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin of NC/Nga transgenic mouse. After AD induction, quercetin (50 mg/kg, p.o) was administered daily for 2 weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and changes in protein expression by Western blotting for HMGB1, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll-like receptor (TLR)4, nuclear factor (NF)κB, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf)2, kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap)1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, cyclooxygenase (COX)2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2Rα and other inflammatory markers in the skin of AD mice...
June 2015: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25700020/testosterone-induces-leucocyte-migration-by-nadph-oxidase-driven-ros-and-cox2-dependent-mechanisms
#18
Andreia Z Chignalia, Maria Aparecida Oliveira, Victor Debbas, Randal O Dull, Francisco R M Laurindo, Rhian M Touyz, Maria Helena C Carvalho, Zuleica B Fortes, Rita C Tostes
The mechanisms whereby testosterone increases cardiovascular risk are not clarified. However, oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be determinants. Herein, we sought to determine whether exogenous testosterone, at physiological levels, induces leucocyte migration, a central feature in immune and inflammatory responses and the mediating mechanisms. We hypothesized that testosterone induces leucocyte migration via NADPH oxidase (NADPHox)-driven reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent mechanisms...
July 2015: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25619459/atf3-negatively-regulates-ptgs2-cox2-expression-during-acute-inflammation
#19
Jason Hellmann, Yunan Tang, Michael J Zhang, Tsonwin Hai, Aruni Bhatnagar, Sanjay Srivastava, Matthew Spite
By generating prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2/Ptgs2) plays a critical role in regulating inflammatory responses. While several inflammatory stimuli have been shown to increase Ptgs2 expression, less is known about how the transcription of this gene is terminated. Here we show that stimulation of macrophages with yeast zymosan, a TLR2/6 and dectin-1 agonist, causes a transient increase in the expression of Ptgs2 accompanied by a simultaneous increase in the expression of the transcriptional repressor, activating transcription factor-3 (Atf3)...
January 2015: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25466270/resveratrol-attenuates-hmgb1-signaling-and-inflammation-in-house-dust-mite-induced-atopic-dermatitis-in-mice
#20
Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Somasundaram Arumugam, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, Vigneshwaran Pitchaimani, Remya Sreedhar, Rejina Afrin, Meilei Harima, Hiroshi Suzuki, Mayumi Nomoto, Shizuka Miyashita, Kenji Suzuki, Kenichi Watanabe
Resveratrol is a polyphenol abundantly found in red grape skin and is effective against antiaging and anti-inflammation associated with immune responses. In this study, we have investigated the effect of resveratrol on skin lesion, high mobility group box (HMGB)1 and inflammation pathway in an atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model. AD-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin of NC/Nga mouse. After AD induction, resveratrol (20 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 2 weeks...
December 2014: International Immunopharmacology
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