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COX 1 , COX2 + inflammation

Hui Zhang, Shengdong He, Youping Hu, Hui Zheng
BACKGROUND: The anti-nociceptive effects of electroacupuncture (EA) in migraine have been documented in multiple randomised controlled trials. Neurogenic inflammation plays a key role in migraine attacks, and the anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture have been associated with the type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether CB1 receptors mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of EA on migraine attacks. METHODS: A migraine model was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by unilateral electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion (TGES)...
December 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Giuseppe Rovere, Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás, Paloma Sobrado-Calvo, David García-Bernal, Maria Paz Villegas-Pérez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso
Purpose: To study the effect of topical administration of bromfenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on retinal gliosis and levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) after complete optic nerve crush (ONC). Methods: Adult albino rats were divided into the following groups (n = 8 retinas/group): (1) intact, (2) intact and bromfenac treatment (twice a day during 7 days), (3) ONC (7 days), and (4) ONC (7 days) + bromfenac treatment (twice a day during 7 days)...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jason W Ashley, William D Hancock, Alexander J Nelson, Robert N Bone, Hubert M Tse, Mary Wohltmann, John Turk, Sasanka Ramanadham
Macrophages are important in innate and adaptive immunity. Macrophage participation in inflammation or tissue repair is directed by various extracellular signals and mediated by multiple intracellular pathways. Activation of group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) causes accumulation of arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and eicosanoids that can promote inflammation and pathologic states. We examined the role of iPLA2β in peritoneal macrophage immune function by comparing wild type (WT) and iPLA2β(-/-) mouse macrophages...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Patrícia Gonçalves Barbalho, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Claudia Vianna Maurer-Morelli
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that the zebrafish model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-evoked seizures and the well-established rodent models of epilepsy are similar pertaining to behavior, electrographic features, and c-fos expression. Although this zebrafish model is suitable for studying seizures, to date, inflammatory response after seizures has not been investigated using this model. Because a relationship between epilepsy and inflammation has been established, in the present study we investigated the transcript levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (il1b) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2a and cox2b) after PTZ-induced seizures in the brain of zebrafish 7 days post fertilization...
March 9, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
Shu-Hung Huang, Sheng-Hua Wu, Su-Shin Lee, Kao-Ping Chang, Chee-Yin Chai, Jwu-Lai Yeh, Sin-Daw Lin, Aij-Lie Kwan, Hui-Min David Wang, Chung-Sheng Lai
Burn-induced neuropathic pain is complex, and fat grafting has reportedly improved neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism of fat grafting in improving neuropathic pain is unclear. Previous investigations have found that neuroinflammation causes neuropathic pain, and anti-inflammatory targeting may provide potential therapeutic opportunities in neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that fat grafting in burn scars improves the neuropathic pain through anti-inflammation. Burn-induced scar pain was confirmed using a mechanical response test 4 weeks after burn injuries, and autologous fat grafting in the scar area was performed simultaneously...
2015: PloS One
Pengfeng Jin, Yunbo Chen, Longxian Lv, Jianzhuan Yang, Haifeng Lu, Lanjuan Li
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has essential role in the pathogenesis of D-galactosamine-sensitized animal models and alcoholic liver diseases of humans, by stimulating release of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause hepatic damage and intestinal barrier impairment. Oral pretreatment of probiotics has been shown to attenuate LPS-induced hepatic injury, but it is unclear whether the effect is direct or due to improvement in the intestinal barrier. The present study tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with probiotics enables the liver to withstand directly LPS-induced hepatic injury and inflammation...
2015: PloS One
J O Díaz-Rivas, E Herrera-Carrera, J A Gallegos-Infante, N E Rocha-Guzmán, R F González-Laredo, M R Moreno-Jiménez, M Ramos-Gómez, R Reynoso-Camacho, M Larrosa-Pérez, M A Gallegos-Corona
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A common plant used to treat several gastric disorders is Buddleja scordioides Kunth, commonly known as salvilla. AIM OF THE STUDY: To detect inflammatory markers, in order to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of salvilla infusions, as this could have beneficial impact on the population exposed to gastric ulcers and colitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present work attempted infusions were prepared with B...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Randi M Sommerfelt, Astrid J Feuerherm, Trine Skuland, Berit Johansen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic synovitis leading to destruction of cartilage and bone. PLA2 enzymes are key players in inflammation regulating the release of unsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA), a precursor of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Several lines of evidence point to toll-like receptors (TLRs) as drivers of synovitis and joint destruction in RA. However, few studies have addressed the implication of PLA2 activity downstream TLR activation in the synovium...
2015: PloS One
Mirko Pesce, Sara Franceschelli, Alessio Ferrone, Maria Anna De Lutiis, Antonia Patruno, Alfredo Grilli, Mario Felaco, Lorenza Speranza
Polyphenols are the major components of many traditional herbal remedies, which exhibit several beneficial effects including anti-inflammation and antioxidant properties. Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) is a redox sensitive protein tyrosine phosphatase that negatively influences downstream signalling molecules, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, thereby inhibiting inflammatory signalling induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Because a role of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) in the upstream regulation of JNK molecule has been well demonstrated, we conjectured that SHP-1 could mediate the anti-inflammatory effect of verbascoside through the regulation of TAK-1/JNK/AP-1 signalling in the U937 cell line...
July 2015: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Somasundaram Arumugam, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, Vigneshwaran Pitchaimani, Remya Sreedhar, Rejina Afrin, Meilei Harima, Hiroshi Suzuki, Mayumi Nomoto, Shizuka Miyashita, Kenji Suzuki, Masahiko Nakamura, Kenichi Watanabe
Quercetin, glycosylated form of flavonoid compound, has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we have investigated the effects of quercetin on skin lesion, high-mobility group box (HMGB)1 cascade signalling and inflammation in atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model. AD-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin of NC/Nga transgenic mouse. After AD induction, quercetin (50 mg/kg, p.o) was administered daily for 2 weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and changes in protein expression by Western blotting for HMGB1, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll-like receptor (TLR)4, nuclear factor (NF)κB, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf)2, kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap)1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, cyclooxygenase (COX)2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2Rα and other inflammatory markers in the skin of AD mice...
June 2015: Experimental Dermatology
Andreia Z Chignalia, Maria Aparecida Oliveira, Victor Debbas, Randal O Dull, Francisco R M Laurindo, Rhian M Touyz, Maria Helena C Carvalho, Zuleica B Fortes, Rita C Tostes
The mechanisms whereby testosterone increases cardiovascular risk are not clarified. However, oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be determinants. Herein, we sought to determine whether exogenous testosterone, at physiological levels, induces leucocyte migration, a central feature in immune and inflammatory responses and the mediating mechanisms. We hypothesized that testosterone induces leucocyte migration via NADPH oxidase (NADPHox)-driven reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent mechanisms...
July 2015: Clinical Science (1979-)
Jason Hellmann, Yunan Tang, Michael J Zhang, Tsonwin Hai, Aruni Bhatnagar, Sanjay Srivastava, Matthew Spite
By generating prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2/Ptgs2) plays a critical role in regulating inflammatory responses. While several inflammatory stimuli have been shown to increase Ptgs2 expression, less is known about how the transcription of this gene is terminated. Here we show that stimulation of macrophages with yeast zymosan, a TLR2/6 and dectin-1 agonist, causes a transient increase in the expression of Ptgs2 accompanied by a simultaneous increase in the expression of the transcriptional repressor, activating transcription factor-3 (Atf3)...
January 2015: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Vengadeshprabhu Karuppagounder, Somasundaram Arumugam, Rajarajan A Thandavarayan, Vigneshwaran Pitchaimani, Remya Sreedhar, Rejina Afrin, Meilei Harima, Hiroshi Suzuki, Mayumi Nomoto, Shizuka Miyashita, Kenji Suzuki, Kenichi Watanabe
Resveratrol is a polyphenol abundantly found in red grape skin and is effective against antiaging and anti-inflammation associated with immune responses. In this study, we have investigated the effect of resveratrol on skin lesion, high mobility group box (HMGB)1 and inflammation pathway in an atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model. AD-like lesion was induced by the application of house dust mite extract to the dorsal skin of NC/Nga mouse. After AD induction, resveratrol (20 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered daily for 2 weeks...
December 2014: International Immunopharmacology
Genki Hayashi, Yan Shen, Theresa L Pedersen, John W Newman, Mark Pook, Gino Cortopassi
An inherited deficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin causes Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA); the mechanism by which this deficiency triggers neuro- and cardio-degeneration is unclear. Microarrays of neural tissue of animal models of the disease showed decreases in antioxidant genes, and increases in inflammatory genes. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived oxylipins are important mediators of inflammation. We measured oxylipin levels using tandem mass spectrometry and ELISAs in multiple cell and animal models of FRDA...
December 20, 2014: Human Molecular Genetics
Ming-Horng Tsai, Zih-Chan Lin, Chan-Jung Liang, Feng-Lin Yen, Yao-Chang Chiang, Chiang-Wen Lee
Eupafolin, a major active component found in the methanol extracts of Phyla nodiflora, has been used to treat inflammation of skin. We examined its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production associated with increased COX-2 expression in Hs68 cells. This effect was blocked by eupafolin, TLR-4 antibody, antioxidants (APO and NAC), as well as inhibitors, including U0126 (ERK1/2), SB202190 (p38), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and Tanshinone IIA (AP-1)...
September 1, 2014: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Andrea Markkula, Maria Simonsson, Ann H Rosendahl, Alexander Gaber, Christian Ingvar, Carsten Rose, Helena Jernström
The COX2 rs5277 (306G>C) polymorphism has been associated with inflammation-associated cancers. In breast cancer, tumor COX-2 expression has been associated with increased estrogen levels in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and activated Akt-pathway in ER-negative tumors. Our study investigated the impact of COX2 genotypes on early breast cancer events and treatment response in relation to tumor ER status and body constitution. In Sweden, between 2002 and 2008, 634 primary breast cancer patients, aged 25-99 years, were included...
October 15, 2014: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Enrique Díaz De León González, Hugo Gutiérrez Hermosillo, Javier Armando Cedillo Rodrígez, Miguel Arturo Reyes Romero, Abelardo Camacho Luis, Rebeca Palacios Corona, Jorge Alberto Burciaga Nava, José Alejandro Ríos Valles, Hector Eloy Tamez Pérez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment and dementia are common geriatric syndromes in diabetic patients. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive impairment. Cyclooxygenases (COX) 1 and 2 participate in inflammation. The polymorphism c.1-765G>C of the COX2 gene might be protective against cognitive decline in Mexicans with diabetes mellitus through its reduced promotor activity. To determine the association between polymorphism c...
November 7, 2014: Medicina Clínica
Mario Allegra, Angela Ianaro, Mariaroberta Tersigni, Elisabetta Panza, Luisa Tesoriere, Maria Antonia Livrea
Nutritional research has shifted recently from alleviating nutrient deficiencies to chronic disease prevention. We investigated the activity of indicaxanthin, a bioavailable phytochemical of the betalain class from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Miller) in a rat model of acute inflammation. Rat pleurisy was achieved by injection of 0.2 mL of λ-carrageenin in the pleural cavity, and rats were killed 4, 24, and 48 h later; exudates were collected to analyze inflammatory parameters, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); cells recruited in pleura were analyzed for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation...
February 2014: Journal of Nutrition
Daniel H Lopez, Maria A Fiol-deRoque, Maria A Noguera-Salvà, Silvia Terés, Federica Campana, Stefano Piotto, José A Castro, Raheem J Mohaibes, Pablo V Escribá, Xavier Busquets
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a family of COX1 and COX2 inhibitors used to reduce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators. In addition, inflammation often leads to a harmful generation of nitric oxide. Efforts are being done in discovering safer NSAIDs molecules capable of inhibiting the synthesis of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators and nitric oxide to reduce the side effects associated with long term therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analogue of arachidonic acid (AA), 2-hydroxy-arachidonic acid (2OAA), was designed to inhibit the activities of COX1 and COX2 and it was predicted to have similar binding energies as AA for the catalytic sites of COX1 and COX2...
2013: PloS One
Yuh-Chiang Shen, Jiin-Cherng Yen, Kuo-Tong Liou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a phenolic compound isolated from propolis, displays a variety of biological activities. The aim is to examine the protective effect and mechanisms of CAPE on an eccentric exercise-induced muscle injury model. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: An intermittent downhill eccentric exercise protocol was used. The oxidative tissue injury and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were examined...
2013: Pharmacology
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