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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434814/novel-protein-biomarkers-associated-with-coronary-artery-disease-in-statin-treated-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#2
Sven Bos, Michael Phillips, Gerald F Watts, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Eric J G Sijbrands, Natalie C Ward
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common and serious monogenic disorder of lipid metabolism. The incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) varies among both treated and untreated FH patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to utilize proteomics to identify novel protein biomarkers that differentiate genetically confirmed heterozygous patients with FH at high CAD risk from those at low CAD risk. METHODS: Sixty genetically confirmed FH patients were recruited and stratified into (1) asymptomatic FH with low atherosclerotic burden (FH, n = 20); (2) asymptomatic FH with high atherosclerotic burden (FH + Ca, n = 20); and (3) FH with previously confirmed symptomatic CAD (FH + CAD, n = 20)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432645/efficacy-of-lomitapide-in-the-treatment-of-familial-homozygous-hypercholesterolemia-results-of-a-real-world-clinical-experience-in-italy
#3
Laura D'Erasmo, Angelo Baldassare Cefalù, Davide Noto, Antonina Giammanco, Maurizio Averna, Paolo Pintus, Paolo Medde, Giovanni Battista Vigna, Cesare Sirtori, Laura Calabresi, Chiara Pavanello, Marco Bucci, Carlo Sabbà, Patrizia Suppressa, Francesco Natale, Paolo Calabrò, Tiziana Sampietro, Federico Bigazzi, Francesco Sbrana, Katia Bonomo, Fulvio Sileo, Marcello Arca
INTRODUCTION: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) is a rare form of inherited dyslipidemia resistant to conventional cholesterol-lowering medications so that lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is usually required. Lomitapide has been approved for the treatment of HoFH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of lomitapide in HoFH patients followed with the usual clinical care. METHODS: Clinical and biochemical data were retrospectively collected in 15 HoFH patients (10 with mutations in the LDLR gene and 5 in the LDLRAP1 gene) treated for at least 6 months with lomitapide in addition to lipid-lowering therapies (LLT) in different Lipid Clinics across Italy...
April 21, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432556/enzymes-that-hydrolyze-adenine-nucleotides-in-a-model-of-hypercholesterolemia-induced-by-triton-wr-1339-protective-effects-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene
#4
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Pedro H Doleski, Daniela B R Leal, Lenita M Stefani, Aline A Boligon, Silvia G Monteiro
Purinergic system has been proven to play a critical role in the inflammatory process and to represent an important therapeutic target to improve the immune response during hypercholesterolemia. β-caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid compound, has a powerful hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory actions. However, the effects of β-caryophyllene on seric enzymes of purinergic system have not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether β-caryophyllene is able to ameliorate the seric activities of NTPDase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in a model of hypercholesterolemia induced by Triton WR-1339...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432486/cholesterol-as-a-modifying-agent-of-the-neurovascular-unit-structure-and-function-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#5
REVIEW
Ewelina Czuba, Aleksandra Steliga, Grażyna Lietzau, Przemysław Kowiański
The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429694/the-rationale-and-design-of-the-national-familial-hypercholesterolemia-registries-in-turkey-a-hit1-and-a-hit2-studies
#6
Meral Kayıkçıoğlu, Lale Tokgözoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disease characterized by extremely high levels of cholesterol, leading to premature atherosclerosis. Although many countries have already addressed the burden of FH by means of national registries, Turkey has no national FH registry or national screening program to detect FH. Creation of a series of FH registries is planned as part of Turkish FH Initiative endorsed by the Turkish Society of Cardiology to meet this need. This article provides detailed information on the rationale and design of the first 2 FH registries (A-HIT1 and A-HIT2)...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429242/genetics-of-dyslipidemia-and-ischemic-heart-disease
#7
REVIEW
Kavita Sharma, Ragavendra R Baliga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic dyslipidemias contribute to the prevalence of ischemic heart disease. The field of genetic dyslipidemias and their influence on atherosclerotic heart disease is rapidly developing and accumulating increasing evidence. The purpose of this review is to describe the current state of knowledge in regard to inherited atherogenic dyslipidemias. The disorders of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and elevated lipoprotein(a) will be detailed. Genetic technology has made rapid advancements, leading to new discoveries in inherited atherogenic dyslipidemias, which will be explored in this review, as well as a description of possible future developments...
May 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428224/familial-hypercholesterolemia-and-type-2-diabetes-in-the-old-order-amish
#8
Huichun Xu, Kathleen A Ryan, Thomas J Jaworek, Lorraine Southam, Jeffrey G Reid, John D Overton, Aris Baras, Marja K Puurunen, Eleftheria Zeggini, Simeon I Taylor, Alan R Shuldiner, Braxton D Mitchell
Alleles associated with lower levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have recently been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), highlighting the complex relationship between LDL-C and diabetes. This observation begs the question whether LDL-C-raising alleles are associated with a decreased risk of T2D. This issue was recently addressed in a large familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) screening study, which reported a lower prevalence of self-reported diabetes in FH subjects than age-matched relatives without FH...
April 20, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427943/high-density-lipoprotein-from-coronary-artery-disease-patients-cause-abnormal-expression-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#9
Xiang Liu, Tian-Tian Wang, Yan Li, Mao-Mao Shi, Hua-Ming Li, Hao-Xiang Yuan, Zhi-Wei Mo, Jing Chen, Bin Zhang, Yang-Xin Chen, Jing-Feng Wang, Wei-Ping Dai, Ying-Qi Xu, Zhi-Ping Wang, Xi Zhang, Zhi-Jun Ou, Jing-Song Ou
Increased evidence showed that normal high density lipoprotein (HDL) can convert to dysfunction HDL in diseases states including coronary artery disease (CAD), which regulates vascular endothelial cell function differently. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an extensive role in various important biological processes including endothelial cell function. However, whether lncRNAs involved in the regulation of HDL metabolism and HDL-induced changes of vascular endothelial function remains unclear. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with HDL from healthy subjects and patients with CAD and hypercholesterolemia for 24 h, then the cells were collected for lncRNA-Seq and the expressions of lncRNAs, genes and mRNAs were identified...
April 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427397/hvc1-ameliorates-hyperlipidemia-and-inflammation-in-ldlr-mice
#10
Se-Yun Cheon, Kyung-Sook Chung, Kyung-Jin Lee, Ho-Young Choi, In-Hye Ham, Dong-Hoon Jung, Yun-Yeop Cha, Hyo-Jin An
BACKGROUND: HVC1 consists of Coptidis Rhizoma (dried rhizome of Coptischinensis), Scutellariae Radix (root of Scutellariabaicalensis), Rhei Rhizoma (rhizome of Rheum officinale), and Pruni Cortex (cortex of Prunusyedoensis Matsum). Although the components are known to be effective in various conditions such as inflammation, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, there are no reports of the molecular mechanism of its hypolipidemic effects. METHODS: We investigated the hypolipidemic effect of HVC1 in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet for 13 weeks...
April 20, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424622/pravastatin-chronic-treatment-sensitizes-hypercholesterolemic-mice-muscle-to-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-protection-by-creatine-or-coenzyme-q10
#11
Estela N B Busanello, Ana C Marques, Noelia Lander, Diogo N de Oliveira, Rodrigo R Catharino, Helena C F Oliveira, Anibal E Vercesi
Statins are efficient cholesterol-lowering medicines utilized worldwide. However, 10% of patients suffer from adverse effects specially related to skeletal muscle function. Pro- or anti-oxidant effects of statins have been reported. Here we hypothesized that statins induce muscle mitochondrial oxidative stress leading to mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) which may explain statin muscle toxicity. Thus, our aims were to investigate the effects of statin chronic treatment on muscle mitochondrial respiration rates, MPT and redox state indicators in the context of hypercholesterolemia...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420668/hypercholesterolemia-induces-differentiation-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-liver
#12
Reiner K Mailer, Anton Gisterå, Konstantinos A Polyzos, Daniel F Ketelhuth, Göran K Hansson
Rationale: The liver is the central organ that responds to dietary cholesterol intake and facilitates the release and clearance of lipoprotein particles. Persistent hypercholesterolemia leads to immune responses against lipoprotein particles that drive atherosclerosis. However, the effect of hypercholesterolemia on hepatic T cell differentiation remains unknown. Objective: To investigate hepatic T cell subsets upon hypercholesterolemia. Methods and Results: We observed that hypercholesterolemia elevated the intrahepatic regulatory T (Treg) cell population and increased the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in the liver...
April 18, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420489/mast-cells-emerge-as-mediators-of-atherosclerosis-special-emphasis-on-il-37-inhibition
#13
REVIEW
Pio Conti, Gianfranco Lessiani, Spyridon K Kritas, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Aessandro Caraffa, Theoharis C Theoharides
In atherosclerosis lipoproteins stimulate the innate immune response, leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Hypercholesterolemia may activate the synthesis and release of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, which induces TNF release in mast cells (MCs). IL-1 and IL-1 family members orchestrate a broadening list of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. MCs are implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases including allergy and inflammation. Activated MCs, located perivascularly, contribute to inflammation in atherosclerosis by producing inflammatory cytokines...
April 12, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420050/carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-arterial-stiffness-in-pediatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#14
N Su-Angka, A Khositseth, S Vilaiyuk, K Tangnararatchakit, W Prangwatanagul
Objectives The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and carotid arterial stiffness index (CASI) act as the surrogate markers of atherosclerosis. We aim to assess CIMT and CASI in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Patients ≤ 20 years old fulfilling diagnostic criteria for SLE were enrolled. Patients with active smoking, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, arterial thrombosis, family history of hypercholesterolemia, chronic liver disease, or other chronic severe diseases were excluded...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419940/cholesterol-concentrations-in-lipoprotein-fractions-separated-by-anion-exchange-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-in-healthy-dogs-and-dogs-with-hypercholesterolemia
#15
Hitomi Oda, Akihiro Mori, Yuji Hirowatari, Toshie Takoura, Daisuke Manita, Tomoya Takahashi, Saori Shono, Eri Onozawa, Hisashi Mizutani, Yohei Miki, Yukiko Itabashi, Toshinori Sako
Anion-exchange (AEX)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for measurement of cholesterol can be used to separate serum lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein (HDL); low-density lipoprotein (LDL); intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL); very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)) in humans. However, AEX-HPLC has not been applied in veterinary practice. We had three objectives: (i) the validation of AEX-HPLC methods including the correlation of serum cholesterol concentration in lipoprotein fraction measured by AEX-HPLC and gel permeation-HPLC (GP-HPLC) in healthy dogs and those with hypercholesterolemia was investigated; (ii) the reference intervals of lipoprotein fractions measured by AEX-HPLC from healthy dogs (n=40) was established; (iii) lipoprotein fractions from the serum of healthy dogs (n=12) and dogs with hypercholesterolemia (n=23) were compared...
April 8, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416300/pyrophosphate-supplementation-prevents-chronic-and-acute-calcification-in-abcc6-deficient-mice
#16
Viola Pomozi, Christopher Brampton, Koen van de Wetering, Janna Zoll, Bianca Calio, Kevin Pham, Jesse B Owens, Joel Marh, Stefan Moisyadi, András Váradi, Ludovic Martin, Carolin Bauer, Jeanette Erdmann, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Olivier Le Saux
Soft tissue calcification occurs in several common acquired pathologies, such as diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, or can result from genetic disorders. ABCC6, a transmembrane transporter primarily expressed in liver and kidneys, initiates a molecular pathway inhibiting ectopic calcification. ABCC6 facilitates the cellular efflux of ATP, which is rapidly converted into pyrophosphate (PPi), a major calcification inhibitor. Heritable mutations in ABCC6 underlie the incurable calcification disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum and some cases of generalized arterial calcification of infancy...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413795/opisthorchiasis-hypercholesterolemia-and-cholangiocarcinoma-a-reappraisal
#17
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: South Asian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412198/potential-role-of-lycopene-in-targeting-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-to-combat-hypercholesterolemia
#18
Sahir Sultan Alvi, Irfan A Ansari, Imran Khan, Johar Iqbal, M Salman Khan
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK-9) is a serine protease of the proprotien convertase (PC) family that has profound effects on plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, the major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), through its ability to mediate LDL receptor (LDL-R) protein degradation and reduced recycling to the surface of hepatocytes. Thus, the current study was premeditated not only to evaluate the role of lycopene in targeting the inhibition of PCSK-9 via modulation of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in HFD rats but also to examine a correlation between HFD induced inflammatory cascades and subsequent regulation of PCSK-9 expression...
April 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411073/arterial-stiffness-and-elevated-left-ventricular-filling-pressure-in-patients-at-risk-for-the-development-or-a-previous-diagnosis-of-hf-a-subgroup-analysis-from-the-diast-chf-study
#19
Claus Lüers, Tobias Daniel Trippel, Sebastian Seeländer, Rolf Wachter, Gerd Hasenfuss, Ruhdja Lindhorst, Anna Bobenko, Kathleen Nolte, Burkert Pieske, Frank Edelmann
Left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) is a marker for diastolic dysfunction and heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (pEF). The interaction between arterial stiffness (AS) and elevated LVFP has not been sufficiently investigated. In 257 patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (mean age: 66 years, 53% female, mean left ventricular ejection fraction: 61%) and at least one cardiovascular risk factor (eg, hypertension and diabetes) for the development of HF or a previous diagnosis of HF, LVFP was estimated in accordance with the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography (elevated when E/e' ≥ 13, left atrial volume index ≥ 34 mL/m(2))...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411027/%C3%AE-caryophyllene-reduces-atherogenic-index-and-coronary-risk-index-in-hypercholesterolemic-rats-the-involvement-of-cardiac-oxidative-damage
#20
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Thirssa H Grando, Lenita M Stefani, Silvia G Monteiro
Hypercholesterolemia and cardiac oxidative damage have been implicated in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. In earlier studies, treatment using natural phytocannabinoid β-caryophyllene caused a hypolipemic effect, as well as ameliorated hepatic oxidative damage. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate whether β-caryophyllene treatment was able to protect the cardiac tissue against hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, and to investigate the involvement of antioxidant mechanisms in this effect using a model of hypercholesterolemia induced by Triton WR-1339...
April 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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