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Hypercholesterolemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543938/high-throughput-assay-for-enantiomeric-excess-determination-in-1-2-and-1-3-diols-and-direct-asymmetric-reaction-screening
#1
Elena G Shcherbakova, Valentina Brega, Vincent M Lynch, Tony D James, Pavel Anzenbacher
A simple and efficient method for determination of the yield, enantiomeric/diasteriomeric excess (ee/de), and absolute configuration of crude chiral diols without the need of work-up and product isolation in a high throughput setting is described. This approach utilizes a self-assembled iminoboronate ester formed as a product by dynamic covalent self-assembly of a chiral diol with an enantiopure fluorescent amine such as tryptophan methyl ester or tryptophanol and 2-formylphenylboronic acid. The resulting diastereomeric boronates display different photophysical properties and allow for fluorescence-based ee determination of molecules containing a 1,2- or 1,3-diol moiety...
May 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541356/food-and-plant-bioactives-for-reducing-cardiometabolic-disease-risk-an-evidence-based-approach
#2
REVIEW
Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Alessandro Colletti
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major causes of mortality and disability in Western countries. Prevention is known to be the cornerstone to lessen the incidence of CVDs and also to reduce the economic burden of both the citizen and the healthcare system. "Interventional medicine" certainly puts lifestyle modification as the first therapeutic step, including a healthy diet and physical activity. Secondly, a large body of research individuated a number of food and plant bioactives, which are potentially efficacious in preventing and reducing some highly prevalent CV risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, vascular inflammation and vascular compliance...
May 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540139/prevalence-of-high-risk-cardiovascular-patients-with-therapy-resistant-hypercholesterolemia
#3
Karel Kostev, Klaus G Parhofer, Franz-Werner Dippel
INTRODUCTION: Hypercholesterolemia is a causal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which is recommended to be treated at least in high-risk patients. Yet, currently there is a lack of epidemiological data on the number of high-risk patients in Germany who do not respond adequately to high-dose statin monotherapy or statin therapy in combination with other lipid-lowering agents. METHODS: Of a total of over 2.6 million patient records from general practitioners in the IMS Disease Analyzer database, all high-risk cardiovascular patients with hypercholesterolemia who did not reach target low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels despite at least 12 months of maximum lipid-lowering therapy and optimal medication supply (medication possession rate≥80%) were selected over a defined period...
June 2017: Cardiovascular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540066/cine-cmr-partial-voxel-segmentation-demonstrates-increased-aortic-stiffness-among-patients-with-marfan-syndrome
#4
Parmanand Singh, Zaid Almarzooq, Noel C F Codell, Yi Wang, Mary J Roman, Richard B Devereux, Jonathan W Weinsaft
BACKGROUND: Standard cine-cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is commonly used to evaluate cardiac structure, geometry and function. Prior studies have shown that automated segmentation via partial voxel interpolation (PVI) accurately quantifies phantom-based cardiac chamber volumes and necropsy left ventricular myocardial mass. Despite this, the applicability and usefulness of PVI in the determination of physiologic parameters of the aorta such as aortic stiffness has yet to be investigated...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539740/evaluation-of-antioxidant-hypolipidemic-and-antiatherogenic-property-of-lycopene-and-astaxanthin-in-atherosclerosis-induced-rats
#5
Rajesh Kumar, Kartik Janardan Salwe, Manimekalai Kumarappan
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Antioxidants play a major role in prophylaxis and prevention of progression and complications of atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we are evaluating the antiatherosclerotic effect of two antioxidants such as astaxanthin and lycopene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After acclimatization, 24 male SD rats, 8-10 weeks old, 150 ± 10 g, maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines were divided into four groups of six rats each...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536535/role-of-intestinal-lxr%C3%AE-in-regulating-post-prandial-lipid-excursion-and-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation
#6
Tibiábin Benítez-Santana, Sarah E Hugo, Amnon Schlegel
Post-prandial hyperlipidemia has emerged as a cardiovascular risk factor with limited therapeutic options. The Liver X receptors (Lxrs) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate cholesterol elimination. Knowledge of their role in regulating the absorption and handling of dietary fats is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of intestinal Lxrα in post-prandial intestinal lipid transport. Using Lxrα knockout (nr1h3(-/-)) and intestine-limited Lxrα over-expressing [Tg(fabp2a:EGFP-nr1h3)] zebrafish strains, we measured post-prandial lipid excursion with live imaging in larvae and physiological methods in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534160/micrornas-new-therapeutic-targets-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#7
REVIEW
Amir Abbas Momtazi, Maciej Banach, Matteo Pirro, Evan A Stein, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common inherited form of dyslipidemia and a major cause of premature cardiovascular disease. Management of FH mainly relies on the efficiency of treatments that reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been suggested as emerging regulators of plasma LDL-C concentrations. Notably, there is evidence showing that miRs can regulate the post-transcriptional expression of genes involved in the pathogenesis of FH, including LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, and LDLRAP1...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533932/metabolic-parameters-and-responsiveness-of-isolated-iliac-artery-in-ldlr-mice-role-of-aerobic-exercise-training
#8
Nádia F Garcia, Amanda Cs Sponton, Maria A Delbin, Juliana M Parente, Michele M Castro, Angelina Zanesco, Camila de Moraes
Physical inactivity and dyslipidemia are considered risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. There are few studies evaluating the effects of physical exercise in small-caliber artery in a model that mimics familial hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise training, at moderate intensity, on metabolic parameters and iliac artery responsiveness in LDL(-/-) mice. Sedentary (SD) and trained (TR) mice performed AET (5 days/week, 60 minutes/day at 60-70% of maximum speed) during 8 weeks...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533579/relationship-between-body-mass-index-waist-to-hip-ratio-and-serum-lipid-concentrations-and-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-in-the-euthyroid-adult-population
#9
Ali Reza Rahbar, Mohamadreza Kalantarhormozi, Fatemeh Izadi, Elham Arkia, Marzie Rashidi, Fatemeh Pourbehi, Farzaneh Daneshifard, Amin Rahbar
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and lipid parameters and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in healthy euthyroid individuals. This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 1(st) and July 20(th), 2013, at Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. One hundred forty euthyroid individuals were divided into 2 groups: a high-TSH group (TSH between 2.0 and 5.5 mIU/L, n=67) and a low-TSH group (TSH between 0...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532784/update-on-the-use-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-in-adults-recommendations-from-an-expert-panel-of-the-national-lipid-association
#10
Carl E Orringer, Terry A Jacobson, Joseph J Saseen, Alan S Brown, Antonio M Gotto, Joyce L Ross, James A Underberg
An Expert Panel convened by the National Lipid Association was charged with updating the recommendations on the use of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibody therapy that were provided by the 2015 National Lipid Association Recommendations for the Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia: Part 2. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of these agents in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and have confirmed their excellent safety profile...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531826/how-many-familial-hypercholesterolemia-patients-are-eligible-for-pcsk9-inhibition
#11
Luis Masana, Nuria Plana, Sofia Pérez-Calahorra, Daiana Ibarretxe, Itziar Lamiquiz-Moneo, Juan Pedro-Botet, Manuel Suárez-Tembra, Pedro Valdivielso, Emilio Ortega, Fernando Civeira
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a high cardiovascular risk condition. Less than 20% of patients achieve the LDL targets. Although PCSK9 inhibitors improve control and reduce cardiovascular events, official recommendations for their use are restrictive. We aim to assess the number of FH patients suitable for PCSK9 inhibition according to the European guidelines. METHODS: A total of 2685 FH patients, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months, included in the Dyslipidemia Registry of the Spanish Arteriosclerosis Society, were sorted according to the intensity of their lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) and LDL cholesterol levels achieved...
May 12, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530520/cardiovascular-disease-and-gout-real-world-experience-evaluating-patient-characteristics-treatment-patterns-and-health-care-utilization
#12
Michael H Pillinger, Sripal Bangalore, Alyssa B Klein, Scott Baumgartner, Robert Morlock
BACKGROUND: Gout, hyperuricemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are prevalent conditions in the United States, and while they share common risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, relatively little is known about what patient and disease characteristics may link CVD with hyperuricemia and gout and how the presence of both diseases affects management decisions differently than for patients with gout alone. OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in patient characteristics, patterns of urate-lowering therapy (ULT) use, and gout control in gout patients with and without cardiovascular comorbidity...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529921/mediterranean-lifestyle-and-cardiovascular-disease-prevention
#13
Ekavi N Georgousopoulou, Duane D Mellor, Nenad Naumovski, Evangelos Polychronopoulos, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Suzanne Piscopo, Giuseppe Valacchi, Foteini Anastasiou, Akis Zeimbekis, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Efthimios Gotsis, George Metallinos, Dimitra Tyrovola, Alexandra Foscolou, Josep-Antoni Tur, Antonia-Leda Matalas, Christos Lionis, Labros Sidossis, Demosthenes Panagiotakos
BACKGROUND: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is a well-established protective factor against cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, diet quality is only one aspect of the overall healthy lifestyle adopted by Mediterranean populations. The latter has never been evaluated as a multi-factorial composite lifestyle. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a broader picture of the Mediterranean lifestyle and its effects on CVD risk, among elderly individuals. METHODS: During 2005-2015, 2,749 older (aged 65-100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands (MEDIS) and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled onto the study...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529918/advances-in-dyslipidemia-management-for-prevention-of-atherosclerosis-pcsk9-monoclonal-antibody-therapy-and-beyond
#14
REVIEW
Nathan D Wong, Paul D Rosenblit, Robert S Greenfield
In 2003, select families with familial hypercholesterolemia were first identified to have gain-of-function mutations for proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) followed, in 2006, by the identification of those with lifelong low levels of LDL-C and lowered atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk who had loss-of-function PCSK9 mutations. These discoveries led to the rapid development of PSCK9-targeted monoclonal antibody (PCSK9 mAb) therapies and, in 2015, 2 'fully-humanized' PCSK9 mAbs (alirocumab and evolocumab) were marketed in the United States, Europe, and other countries...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529751/comparison-of-lifestyle-hormonal-and-medical-factors-in-women-with-sporadic-and-lynch-syndrome-associated-endometrial-cancer-a-retrospective-case-case-study
#15
Mari H Aaltonen, Synnöve Staff, Jukka-Pekka Mecklin, Kirsi Pylvänäinen, Johanna U Mäenpää
Data available on lifestyle-associated hormonal and medical factors among endometrial cancer (EC)-affected women who carry the Lynch Syndrome (LS) mutation is limited. The aim of the present retrospective case study was to compare the reproductive and medical history, as well as lifestyle-associated factors, among patients with LS and sporadic EC. The study population consisted of 50 verified germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation carriers diagnosed with EC, and 110 sporadic EC patients. Data were collected using postal questionnaires...
May 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528455/dyslipidemias-and-cardiovascular-prevention-tailoring-treatment-according-to-lipid-phenotype
#16
REVIEW
Veronika Sanin, Vanessa Pfetsch, Wolfgang Koenig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to present the current information on the genetic background of dyslipidemias and provide insights into the complex pathophysiological role of several plasma lipids/lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we aim to summarize established therapies and describe the scientific rationale for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from genetic studies suggests that besides lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, pharmacological reduction of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, or lipoprotein(a) will reduce risk for coronary heart disease...
July 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527325/dyslipidemia-management-update
#17
REVIEW
Yingzi Chang, Jacques Robidoux
Association of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is well established. Reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and raising high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) have been the therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of ASCVD. Cholesterol-lowering medications have been used to provide both primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD for many years by reducing the absorption and reabsorption, promoting excretion, or decreasing the synthesis of cholesterol. Within the past five years, several new classes of cholesterol-lowering drugs have been tested and approved for patients with hypercholesterolemia that are not well controlled by conventional therapy (ezetimibe, bile-acid sequestrants, and statins)...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527122/effects-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure-during-suckling-on-food-intake-fat-mass-hormones-and-biochemical-profile-of-young-and-adult-female-rats
#18
Patricia Cristina Lisboa, Patricia Novaes Soares, Thamara Cherem Peixoto, Janaine Cavalcanti Carvalho, Camila Calvino, Vanessa Silva Tavares Rodrigues, Dayse Nascimento Bernardino, Viviane Younes-Rapozo, Alex Christian Manhães, Elaine de Oliveira, Egberto Gaspar de Moura
PURPOSE: Children from smoking mothers have a higher risk of developing obesity and associated comorbidities later in life. Different experimental models have been used to assess the mechanisms involved with this increased risk. Using a rat model of neonatal nicotine exposure via implantation of osmotic minipumps in lactating dams, we have previously shown marked sexual dimorphisms regarding metabolic and endocrine outcomes in the adult progeny. Considering that more than four thousand substances are found in tobacco smoke besides nicotine, we then studied a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure: adult male offspring had hyperphagia, obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, secondary hyperthyroidism and lower adrenal hormones...
May 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526006/cardiometabolic-profile-of-obese-children-in-a-sub-saharan-african-setting-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Eunice Chedjou-Nono, Suzanne Sap, Simeon-Pierre Choukem, Issa Ngosso Tetanye, Daniel Nebongo, Olivier Koki Ndombo
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular and metabolic consequences of obesity in children, unlike adults, are still not well understood nor have they been subject to extensive research in Africa. We aimed to identify the cardio-metabolic complications associated with childhood obesity at the early phase of the management of obese children in a reference center in Cameroon. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study conducted from November 2013 to September 2014 and based on World Health Organization (WHO) classification of Obesity (BMI > 3SD under 5 years and BMI > 2SD from 5 and above), we included children aged 3 to 17 years who were being followed up for obesity at the pediatric endocrinology unit of the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal BIYA Foundation in Yaounde, Cameroon...
May 19, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525444/cardiovascular-disease-risk-profile-and-readiness-to-change-in-blue-and-white-collar-workers
#20
Kerith D Aginsky, Demitri Constantinou, Maretha Delport, Estelle D Watson
This study provides a health and risk profile of blue- (BCWs) and white-collar workers (WCWs). Health screening data (n = 603; age 38.2 ± 9.7 years) included cholesterol and glucose finger-prick test, blood pressure, body mass index, and self-reported stress levels and readiness to change. Blue-collar workers were significantly older and had higher blood pressure readings and were more likely to develop hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-2.81; P = .03), but less likely to present with hypercholesterolemia (OR: 0...
July 2017: Family & Community Health
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