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Hypercholesterolemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921357/interrelationship-between-mini-mental-state-examination-scores-and-biochemical-parameters-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Ramasamy Vasantharekha, Hannah P Priyanka, Thangavel Swarnalingam, Avathvadi Venkatesan Srinivasan, Srinivasan ThyagaRajan
AIM: The aim of the present study was to provide first-hand information about the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Tamil Nadu, a southern state in India, and examine if there exists a relationship between cognitive functions and biochemical parameters in these patients. METHODS: Surveys were collected from adults, older men and women (n = 3126) from different regions of Tamil Nadu, which were followed up after 12 months for 1337 participants...
December 6, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920648/synchronous-adenocarcinoma-of-the-colon-and-rectal-carcinoid
#2
Vamshidhar Vootla, Rafeeq Ahmed, Masooma Niazi, Bhavna Balar, Suresh Nayudu
Primary colonic adenocarcinoma and synchronous rectal carcinoids are rare tumors. Whenever a synchronous tumor with a nonmetastatic carcinoid component is encountered, its prognosis is determined by the associate malignancy. The discovery of an asymptomatic gastrointestinal carcinoid during the operative treatment of another malignancy will usually only require resection without additional treatment and will have little effect on the prognosis of the individual. This article reports a synchronous rectal carcinoid in a patient with hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920219/the-proprotein-convertases-in-hypercholesterolemia-and-cardiovascular-diseases-emphasis-on-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-9
#3
REVIEW
Nabil G Seidah, Marianne Abifadel, Stefan Prost, Catherine Boileau, Annik Prat
The secretory proprotein convertase (PC) family comprises nine members, as follows: PC1/3, PC2, furin, PC4, PC5/6, paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme 4, PC7, subtilisin kexin isozyme 1/site 1 protease (SKI-1/S1P), and PC subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). The first seven PCs cleave their substrates at single/paired basic residues and exhibit specific and often essential functions during development and/or in adulthood. The essential SKI-1/S1P cleaves membrane-bound transcription factors at nonbasic residues...
January 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919366/ldl-apheresis-activates-the-complement-system-and-the-cytokine-network-whereas-pcsk9-inhibition-with-evolocumab-induces-no-inflammatory-response
#4
Knut Tore Lappegård, Terje Enebakk, Hilde Thunhaug, Judith Krey Ludviksen, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Anders Hovland
BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is an extracorporeal treatment modality used in high-risk coronary patients. It may, however, induce complement activation and downstream inflammation due to bio-incompatibility. OBJECTIVE: We explored changes in soluble inflammatory markers when changing from LDL apheresis to the novel PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab. METHODS: Three patients with familial hypercholesterolemia participated. Blood samples (EDTA plasma) for complement activation and markers of inflammation were obtained before (baseline) and after LDL apheresis week at 0 and before biweekly administration of evolocumab at weeks 1, 3, 5, and 7...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919365/longitudinal-treatment-patterns-among-us-patients-with-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-or-familial-hypercholesterolemia-initiating-lipid-lowering-pharmacotherapy
#5
James P Burke, Ross J Simpson, Carly J Paoli, Jeffrey T McPheeters, Shravanthi R Gandra
BACKGROUND: The most recent American College of Cardiology-American Heart Association guidelines recommend high-dose statin therapy for most patients with confirmed atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and patients with high cardiovascular risk. There is limited information regarding long-term treatment patterns among these patients. OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinal treatment modifications in patients with ASCVD or familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919364/double-heterozygous-autosomal-dominant-hypercholesterolemia-clinical-characterization-of-an-underreported-disease
#6
Barbara Sjouke, Joep C Defesche, Merel L Hartgers, Albert Wiegman, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep, John J Kastelein, G Kees Hovingh
INTRODUCTION: Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), characterized by high-plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, is caused by mutations in LDLR, APOB, and/or PCSK9. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of "double-heterozygous carriers," with 2 mutations in 2 different ADH causing genes, that is, LDLR and APOB or LDLR and PCSK9. METHODS: Double heterozygotes were identified in the database of the national referral laboratory for DNA diagnostics of inherited dyslipidemias...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919357/lipid-phenotype-and-heritage-pattern-in-families-with-genetic-hypercholesterolemia-not-related-to-ldlr-apob-pcsk9-or-apoe
#7
Estíbaliz Jarauta, María Rosario Pérez-Ruiz, Sofia Pérez-Calahorra, Rocio Mateo-Gallego, Ana Cenarro, Montserrat Cofán, Emilio Ros, Fernando Civeira, Maria Teresa Tejedor
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of individuals clinically diagnosed as familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) do not carry pathogenic mutations in candidate genes. Whether in them the high cholesterol trait is transmitted monogenically has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the inheritance pattern, penetrance, and expression of high low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDLc) in families with genetic hypercholesterolemia (GH) without known causative mutations (non-FH-GH)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919354/ldl-cholesterol-in-early-pregnancy-and-offspring-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors
#8
Jacob J Christensen, Kjetil Retterstøl, Kristin Godang, Marie Cecilie Paasche Roland, Elisabeth Qvigstad, Jens Bollerslev, Thor Ueland, Tore Henriksen, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND: Vast amounts of data show associations between maternal obesity, dysglycemia, diabetes, and undernutrition during pregnancy and increased cardiovascular disease risk in offspring. However, elevated maternal LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has scarcely been studied. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the associations between elevated maternal LDL-C in pregnancy and CVD risk factors in 6-to-13-year-old offspring...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919351/identification-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-patients-with-myocardial-infarction-a-chinese-cohort-study
#9
Sha Li, Yan Zhang, Cheng-Gang Zhu, Yuan-Lin Guo, Na-Qiong Wu, Ying Gao, Ping Qing, Xiao-Lin Li, Jing Sun, Geng Liu, Qian Dong, Rui-Xia Xu, Chuan-Jue Cui, Jian-Jun Li
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is marked by an elevated plasma cholesterol and risk of premature cardiovascular disease. An increased burden of FH is being realized. OBJECTIVE: To provide data on FH in Chinese patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and its potential contribution to early MI. METHODS: A total of 1843 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography with their first MI were recruited. The clinical FH was diagnosed using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919350/identification-and-characterization-of-severe-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-patients-presenting-for-cardiac-catheterization
#10
Barak Zafrir, Chen Shapira, Gil Lavie, David A Halon, Moshe Y Flugelman
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are often unrecognized despite typical presentation. The introduction of PCSK9 inhibitors opens new therapeutic options and emphasizes the need for identification of severe FH patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective was identification, characterization, and management of severe FH patients by screening of cardiac catheterization (CC) database. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of CC database from 2002 to mid-2015 was performed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL (n = 2383)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919349/familial-combined-hyperlipidemia-and-hyperlipoprotein-a-as-phenotypic-mimics-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-frequencies-associations-and-predictions
#11
Katrina L Ellis, Jing Pang, Dick C Chan, Amanda J Hooper, Damon A Bell, John R Burnett, Gerald F Watts
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of index cases presenting with phenotypic familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are not found to have a pathogenic mutation and may have other inherited conditions. OBJECTIVES: Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] may mimic FH, but the frequency and correlates of these disorders among mutation-negative FH patients have yet to be established. METHODS: The frequency of FCHL and elevated Lp(a) was investigated in 206 FH mutation-negative index cases attending a specialist lipid clinic...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919346/disease-control-via-intensified-lipoprotein-apheresis-in-three-siblings-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#12
Christina Taylan, Andrea Schlune, Thomas Meissner, Karolis Ažukaitis, Floris E A Udink Ten Cate, Lutz T Weber
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the prevalent monogenic form of hypercholesterolemia, carries the risk of premature coronary heart disease. Lipoprotein-apheresis is established in children with severe dyslipidemia. We present 3 siblings with a negative/negative residual low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mutation (p.Trp577Arg), unresponsive to drug treatment. OBJECTIVE: Intensified lipoprotein-apheresis is well tolerated and results in permanently low lipid values without harming the health-related quality of life in children...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919345/familial-defective-apolipoprotein-b-100-a%C3%A2-review
#13
REVIEW
Lars H Andersen, André R Miserez, Zahid Ahmad, Rolf L Andersen
Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of lipid metabolism associated with hyperlipidemia and elevated risk for atherosclerosis. FDB is caused by mutations in APOB reducing the binding affinity between apolipoprotein B-100 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Population studies suggest that approximately 0.1% of Northern Europeans and US Caucasians carries the R3500Q variant in APOB most commonly associated with FDB; in addition, the APOB R3500 W variant is known to make a significant contribution to familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) among East Asians...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919240/urban-rural-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-non-communicable-diseases-risk-factors-among-25-74-years-old-citizens-in-yangon-region-myanmar-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Aung Soe Htet, Marius B Bjertness, Lhamo Y Sherpa, Marte Karoline Kjøllesdal, Win Myint Oo, Haakon E Meyer, Hein Stigum, Espen Bjertness
BACKGROUND: Recent societal and political reforms in Myanmar may upturn the socio-economy and, thus, contribute to the country's health transition. Baseline data on urban-rural disparities in non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors are not thoroughly described in this country which has been relatively closed for more than five decades. We aim to investigate urban-rural differences in mean values and the prevalence of selected behavioral and metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases and 10-years risk in development of coronary heart diseases (CHD)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918207/gemigliptin-ameliorates-western-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#15
Seung Hee Choi, Jaechan Leem, Sungmi Park, Chong-Kee Lee, Keun-Gyu Park, In-Kyu Lee
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks...
September 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916084/-epidemiological-characteristics-of-dyslipidemia-in-remote-rural-areas-of-xinjiang-2009-2010
#16
Y L Wang, Y Z Yan, J He, J L Ma, M Zhang, J Y Zhang, J M Liu, S G Li, Q Niu, D S Rui, R L Ma, H Guo, Y S Ding, S X Guo
Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in remote rural areas of Xinjiang and analyze these indicators' epidemiological characteristics. Methods: A survey of 13 000 individuals (aged ≥18 years) was conducted using a four-stage cluster random sampling method in Jiashi, Xinyuan, Aheqi, and Shawan Counties, Xinjiang, in 2009-2010...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913825/hypolipidemic-effect-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-to-treat-hyperlipidemic-rats
#17
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Thirssa H Grando, Pedro H Doleski, Aline A Boligon, Lenita M Stefani, Silvia G Monteiro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of β-caryophyllene on hypercholesterolemia using a model of hyperlipidemia induced by Triton WR-1339 in rats, as well as its possible effect on hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Thus, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were measured in serum, while reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutayl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in the hepatic tissue...
December 2, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913073/attainment-of-ldl-cholesterol-treatment-goals-in-children-and-adolescents-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-the-safeheart-follow-up-registry
#18
Adriana Saltijeral, Leopoldo Pérez de Isla, Rodrigo Alonso, Ovidio Muñiz, José Luis Díaz-Díaz, Francisco Fuentes, Nelva Mata, Raimundo de Andrés, Gonzalo Díaz-Soto, José Pastor, José Miguel Pinilla, Daniel Zambón, Xavier Pinto, Lina Badimón, Pedro Mata
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the characteristics of persons with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) younger than 18 years, the lipid-lowering therapy used in these patients, and the lipid goals reached in real life. Our aim was to evaluate the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals in FH patients younger than 18 years enrolled in a large national registry. METHODS: We analyzed patients younger than 18 years enrolled in a large ongoing registry of molecularly-defined patients with FH in Spain...
November 29, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912736/citrus-junos-tanaka-peel-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-and-in-mice-fed-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#19
Eun Ju Shin, Jae Ho Park, Mi Jeong Sung, Min-Yu Chung, Jin-Taek Hwang
BACKGROUND: Citrus junos Tanaka (yuja), a yellow-coloured citrus fruit has traditionally been consumed in Korea, Japan, and China and has been found effective in preventing certain diseases. However, the inhibitory effect of yuja on hepatic lipid accumulation has not been clearly elucidated thus far. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of yuja on hepatic lipid accumulation was investigated in both cell culture and mouse models. We investigated the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of yuja peel (YE) using HepG2 cells...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#20
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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