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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535162/examining-the-social-context-of-injection-drug-use-social-proximity-vs-geographic-proximity-to-others-who-inject-drugs
#1
Abby E Rudolph, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens
This analysis uses social network and spatial data to examine associations between one's injection status and social and/or spatial proximity to others who inject. 503 rural persons who use drugs were recruited to participate in the Social Networks among Appalachian People (SNAP) Study (2008-2010). Interviewer-administered surveys collected information on recent sex, drug use, and social support network members (n = 897 ties). Using network simulations, we determined a threshold for the association between social proximity to others who inject and recent injection status ('socially proximal' defined by shortest path≤2)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527374/talking-about-sunbed-tanning-social-representations-and-identity-work
#2
Jennifer Taylor, Michael Murray, Alexandra Lamont
RATIONALE: Despite the publicised health risks associated with its usage, sunbed tanning remains popular in many Western countries. Previous research indicates that knowledge of the harmful effects does not necessarily lead to a reduction in sunbed use. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a more extensive social psychological understanding of sunbed use, in the United Kingdom, by exploring the social representations of sunbed tanning held by both those who use and who have never used sunbeds...
May 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526822/shortest-paths-in-multiplex-networks
#3
Saeed Ghariblou, Mostafa Salehi, Matteo Magnani, Mahdi Jalili
The shortest path problem is one of the most fundamental networks optimization problems. Nowadays, individuals interact in extraordinarily numerous ways through their offline and online life (e.g., co-authorship, co-workership, or retweet relation in Twitter). These interactions have two key features. First, they have a heterogeneous nature, and second, they have different strengths that are weighted based on their degree of intimacy, trustworthiness, service exchange or influence among individuals. These networks are known as multiplex networks...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520929/laughing-off-the-stereotypes-age-and-aging-in-seniors-online-sex-related-humor
#4
Galit Nimrod, Liza Berdychevsky
Background and Objectives: Focusing on sex, the most salient topic featured in ageist jokes, this study aims at exploring the extent to which seniors' own humor reflects common ageist stereotypes or rather echoes contemporary consumer society representations of seniors' sexuality. Research Design and Methods: The study was based on a quantitative content analysis of 300 humorous sex-related messages posted during one full year by members of 14 leading online communities for seniors...
May 17, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515573/problematisations-of-complexity-on-the-notion-and-production-of-diverse-complexities-in-healthcare-interventions-and-evaluations
#5
Tineke Broer, Roland Bal, Martyn Pickersgill
Within the literature on the evaluation of health (policy) interventions, complexity is a much-debated issue. In particular, many claim that so-called 'complex interventions' pose different challenges to evaluation studies than apparently 'simple interventions' do. Distinct ways of doing evaluation entail particular ontologies and epistemologies of complexity. They differ in terms of whether they define complexity as a quantitative trait of interventions, whether they see evaluation as part of or outside the intervention, and whether complexity can be regarded as an emergent property of the intervention and its evaluation...
April 3, 2017: Science As Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513321/active-travel-to-and-from-school-among-school-age-children-during-1997-2011-and-associated-factors-in-china
#6
Yong Yang, Xue Hong, James G Gurney, Youfa Wang
BACKGROUND: Active travel to school (ATS) is positively associated with various health indicators. The rapid social, economic and environmental changes in China provide a unique setting to study changes and predictors of ATS over time. METHODS: Using logistic regression modeling, we analyzed data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey during 1997-2011 (N=9487, ages 6-17 years) to estimate the change over time in ATS and to identify associated factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported ATS among children dropped from 95...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512035/the-predatory-behavior-of-the-neotropical-social-wasp-polybia-rejecta
#7
Alain Dejean, Héctor Rodríguez-Pérez, James M Carpenter, Frédéric Azémar, Bruno Corbara
We experimentally studied the predatory behavior of Polybia rejecta (Vespidae, Polistinae, Epiponini) towards 2-88 mm-long insects attracted to a UV light trap. Foragers, which began to hunt at 6:30, selected 4-14 mm-long prey insects. Prey detection by sight by hovering wasps was confirmed using decoys. After the wasps landed and walked along a sinuous path, prey were detected by contact or from a distance (1-3cm). This was followed by seizure, stinging (contrarily to most other known cases), prey manipulation and retrieval...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508452/mental-health-cost-of-terrorism-study-of-the-charlie-hebdo-attack-in-paris
#8
Dongyoung Kim, Young-I Albert Kim
This study examines whether a terrorist attack in a developed country, which does not cause major damage to its capital stocks, affects the mental health of its residents. By exploiting variations in survey dates of the European Social Survey, we use a difference-in-differences strategy to show that the attack adversely affects subjective well-being and mental health measures of French respondents. These negative effects are stronger for immigrants and low-income individuals. The impact is less dramatic for politically extreme right-wing supporters...
May 15, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503872/the-effect-of-brief-digital-interventions-on-attitudes-to-intellectual-disability-results-from-a-pilot-study
#9
Natalie Lindau, Tara Amin, Amy Zambon, Katrina Scior
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effects of contact and education based interventions on attitudes is limited in the intellectual disability field. This study compared the effects of brief interventions with different education, indirect and imagined contact components on lay people's attitudes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 401 adult participants were randomised to six digital brief interventions consisting of different combinations of education, indirect and imagined contact...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502987/early-social-isolation-impairs-development-mate-choice-and-grouping-behaviour-of-predatory-mites
#10
Peter Schausberger, Marian Gratzer, Markus A Strodl
The social environment early in life is a key determinant of developmental, physiological and behavioural trajectories across vertebrate and invertebrate animals. One crucial variable is the presence/absence of conspecifics. For animals usually reared in groups, social isolation after birth or hatching can be a highly stressful circumstance, with potentially long-lasting consequences. Here, we assessed the effects of social deprivation (isolation) early in life, that is, absence of conspecifics, versus social enrichment, that is, presence of conspecifics, on developmental time, body size at maturity, mating behaviour and group-living in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis...
May 2017: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501734/social-factors-affect-motor-and-anxiety-behaviors-in-the-animal-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorders-a-housing-style-factor
#11
Meng-Li Tsai, Anna Kozłowska, Yu-Sheng Li, Wen-Ling Shen, Andrew Chih Wei Huang
The present study examines whether housing style (e.g., single housing, same-strain-grouped housing, and different-strain-grouped housing) and rat strain (e.g., spontaneous hypertension rats [SHR] and Wistar-Kyoto rats [WKY]) mediate motor function and anxiety behavior in the open field task. From week 4 through week 10 following birth, the rats were measured 30min for locomotor activity and anxiety once per week in the open field task. The SHR rats exhibited hyperactivity in total distance traveled and movement time to form the animal model of ADHD...
May 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501018/geographic-mobility-and-potential-bridging-for-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-agbogbloshie-ghana
#12
Susan Cassels, Samuel M Jenness, Adriana A E Biney, F Nii-Amoo Dodoo
Short-term mobility can significantly influence the spread of infectious disease. In order for mobile individuals to geographically spread sexually transmitted infections (STIs), individuals must engage in sexual acts with different partners in two places within a short time. In this study, we considered the potential of mobile individuals as bridge populations - individuals who link otherwise disconnected sexual networks and contributed to ongoing STI transmission. Using monthly retrospective panel data, we examined associations between short-term mobility and sexual partner concurrency in Agbogbloshie, Ghana...
May 5, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493034/-a%C3%A2-japanese-in-marburg-excerpts-from-the-memories-jiden-of-the-japanese-bacteriologist-taichi-kitashima-1870-1956
#13
Ulrike Enke, Aeka Ishihara
The heart of this article is the transmission of selected chapters from the Japanese bacteriologist Taichi Kitashima's (1870-1956) autobiographical memoirs (in Japanese, Jiden) published in 1955, in which Kitashima reports on his stay in Marburg in a very personal and subjective way. Like other Japanese physicians of his generation, Kitashima spent several years in Germany in order to work with the serum researcher Emil von Behring and continued his education there. The contact came through Kitashima's teacher Shibasaburô Kitasato, who had worked with Behring in Berlin on questions of immunology...
May 10, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492869/effects-of-magnification-on-emotion-perception-in-patients-with-age-related-macular-degeneration
#14
Aaron P Johnson, Heather Woods-Fry, Walter Wittich
Purpose: Individuals with low vision often experience difficulties in performing tasks of daily living, such as face perception. This leads them to having difficulties with social interactions, as they can no longer correctly perceive the emotion of others. The present study investigated the effects of magnification on face perception in participants with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and their ability to detect and categorize emotions. It was hypothesized that patients with AMD would be less accurate in comparison to healthy controls, but that magnification would improve their performance to that of controls...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491465/the-potential-scientist-s-dilemma-how-the-masculinization-of-science-shapes-friendships-and-science-job-preferences
#15
G Robin Gauthier, Patricia Wonch Hill, Julia McQuillan, Amy N Spiegel, Judy Diamond
In the United States, girls and boys have similar science achievement, yet fewer girls aspire to science careers than boys. This paradox emerges in middle school, when peers begin to play a stronger role in shaping adolescent identities. We use complete network data from a single middle school and theories of gender, identity, and social distance to explore how friendship patterns might influence this gender and science paradox. Three patterns highlight the social dimensions of gendered science persistence: (1) boys and girls do not differ in self-perceived science potential and science career aspirations; (2) consistent with gender-based norms, both middle school boys and girls report that the majority of their female friends are not science kinds of people; and (3) youth with gender-inconsistent science aspirations are more likely to be friends with each other than youth with gender normative science aspirations...
March 2017: Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486031/use-of-telehealth-in-pediatric-palliative-care
#16
Billie Winegard, Elissa G Miller, Nicholas B Slamon
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric subspecialty care, including multidisciplinary palliative care, tends to be located in urban academic centers or children's hospitals. Telehealth provides the opportunity to care for patients who would otherwise not be able to access services. We present cases wherein telehealth was used to provide counseling services to patients who would not have been able to receive this service. METHODS: We discuss cases of telehealth use for patient and family counseling in the setting of palliative care and bereavement follow-up...
May 9, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485256/intra-and-interspecific-similarity-in-species-composition-of-helminth-communities-in-two-closely-related-rodents-from-south-africa
#17
Andrea Spickett, Kerstin Junker, Boris R Krasnov, Voitto Haukisalmi, Sonja Matthee
To reveal factors responsible for spatial variation in parasite community composition we studied patterns of similarity in helminth species composition in two closely-related rodents (Rhabdomys pumilio and Rhabdomys dilectus) that differ in their social and spatial behaviour and live under different environmental conditions across 20 localities in South Africa. We asked whether the two hosts harbour similar assemblages, whether these are more dissimilar between than within hosts and if host social structure, behaviour or environment affects similarity patterns in helminth infracommunities within and among localities...
May 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483722/combined-interventions-for-mitigation-of-an-influenza-a-h1n1-2009-outbreak-in-a-physical-training-camp-in-beijing-china
#18
Chen-Yi Chu, U Chandimal de Silva, Jin-Peng Guo, Yong Wang, Liang Wen, Vernon J Lee, Shen-Long Li, Liu-Yu Huang
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have suggested the effectiveness of single control measures in the containment and mitigation of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. The effects of combined interventions by multiple control measures in reducing the impact of an influenza A (H1N1) 2009 outbreak in a closed physical training camp in Beijing, China were evaluated. METHODS: Oseltamivir was prescribed for the treatment of confirmed cases and possible cases and as prophylaxis for all other participants in this training camp...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483718/the-impact-of-individuation-on-the-bases-of-human-empathic-responding
#19
John E Kiat, Jacob E Cheadle
While there is substantial overlap in the neural systems underlying empathy for people we know as opposed to strangers, social distance has been shown to significantly moderate empathic neural responses towards the negative experiences of others. Intriguingly however, variance in empathic neural responses towards known and unknown targets has not been reflected by behavioral differences as indexed by self-reported empathic ratings. One explanation for this disconnect is that empathic evaluations of known and unknown individuals draw on different bases (e...
May 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474920/diffusion-geometry-unravels-the-emergence-of-functional-clusters-in-collective-phenomena
#20
Manlio De Domenico
Collective phenomena emerge from the interaction of natural or artificial units with a complex organization. The interplay between structural patterns and dynamics might induce functional clusters that, in general, are different from topological ones. In biological systems, like the human brain, the overall functionality is often favored by the interplay between connectivity and synchronization dynamics, with functional clusters that do not coincide with anatomical modules in most cases. In social, sociotechnical, and engineering systems, the quest for consensus favors the emergence of clusters...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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