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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209467/socio-economic-factors-cultural-values-national-personality-and-antibiotics-use-a-cross-cultural-study-among-european-countries
#1
Ümmügülsüm Gaygısız, Timo Lajunen, Esma Gaygısız
There are considerable cross-national differences in public attitudes towards antibiotics use, use of prescribed antibiotics, and self-medication with antibiotics even within Europe. This study was aimed at investigating the relationships between socio-economic factors, cultural values, national personality characteristics and the antibiotic use in Europe. Data included scores from 27 European countries (14 countries for personality analysis). Correlations between socio-economic variables (Gross National Income per capita, governance quality, life expectancy, mean years of schooling, number of physicians), Hofstede's cultural value dimensions (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation, indulgence), national personality characteristic (extraversion, neuroticism, social desirability) and antibiotic use were calculated and three regression models were constructed...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208671/a-passive-learning-sensor-architecture-for-multimodal-image-labeling-an-application-for-social-robots
#2
Marco A Gutiérrez, Luis J Manso, Harit Pandya, Pedro Núñez
Object detection and classification have countless applications in human-robot interacting systems. It is a necessary skill for autonomous robots that perform tasks in household scenarios. Despite the great advances in deep learning and computer vision, social robots performing non-trivial tasks usually spend most of their time finding and modeling objects. Working in real scenarios means dealing with constant environment changes and relatively low-quality sensor data due to the distance at which objects are often found...
February 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199414/direct-and-transgenerational-effects-of-low-doses-of-perinatal-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-on-social-behaviors-in-mice
#3
Kayla M Quinnies, Erin P Harris, Rodney W Snyder, Susan S Sumner, Emilie F Rissman
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disrupting chemical commonly used as a plasticizer in medical equipment, food packaging, flooring, and children's toys. DEHP exposure during early development has been associated with adverse neurobehavioral outcomes in children. In animal models, early exposure to DEHP results in abnormal development of the reproductive system as well as altered behavior and neurodevelopment. Based on these data, we hypothesized that developmental exposure to DEHP would decrease social interactions and increase anxiety-like behaviors in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and that the effects would persist over generations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198816/low-genetic-diversity-and-strong-population-structure-shaped-by-anthropogenic-habitat-fragmentation-in-a-critically-endangered-primate-trachypithecus-leucocephalus
#4
W Wang, Y Qiao, S Li, W Pan, M Yao
Habitat fragmentation may strongly impact population genetic structure and reduce the genetic diversity and viability of small and isolated populations. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a critically endangered primate species living in a highly fragmented and human-modified habitat in southern China. We examined the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of the species and investigated the environmental and anthropogenic factors that may have shaped its population structure...
February 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196372/resilience-through-adaptation
#5
Guus A Ten Broeke, George A K van Voorn, Arend Ligtenberg, Jaap Molenaar
Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196125/delaying-rewards-has-greater-effect-on-altruism-when-the-beneficiary-is-socially-distant
#6
Jerzy Osiński, Adam Karbowski
Based on the assumption that social distance and time are dimensions of psychological distance important for altruistic choices it was predicted that enhancement of altruism due to delaying rewards when choosing between a reward for oneself and for another person would be more pronounced the greater the social distance between the subject and another person. In order to test this hypothesis, social discounting using hypothetical monetary rewards and manipulation of social distance and reward delay was measured in a group of 161 college students...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195218/humans-expect-generosity
#7
Pablo Brañas-Garza, Ismael Rodríguez-Lara, Angel Sánchez
Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people's expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193368/-becoming-another-transformations-in-the-therapist-who-works-with-gay-and-lesbian-couples
#8
María Victoria Builes Correa, María Teresa Anderson Gómez, Beatriz Helena Arango Arbeláez
OBJECTIVE: To recognise the changes experienced by the therapist who works with gay and lesbian couples. METHOD: Qualitative with biographical-narrative method. Seven therapists were interviewed in Medellin. RESULTS: Three moments in the life trajectory of the participants were identified: Before: closeness and distances between families and the school were found (distances, makes reference, among others, to discourses about homosexuality...
January 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192745/accepted-monitoring-or-endured-quarantine-ebola-contacts-perceptions-in-senegal
#9
Alice Desclaux, Dioumel Badji, Albert Gautier Ndione, Khoudia Sow
During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic, transmission chains were controlled through contact tracing, i.e., identification and follow-up of people exposed to Ebola cases. WHO recommendations for daily check-ups of physical symptoms with social distancing for 21 days were unevenly applied and sometimes interpreted as quarantine. Criticisms arose regarding the use of coercion and questioned contact tracing on ethical grounds. This article aims to analyze contact cases' perceptions and acceptance of contact monitoring at the field level...
February 7, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188389/beliefs-and-prejudices-versus-knowledge-and-awareness-how-to-cope-stigma-against-mental-illness-a-college-staff-e-survey
#10
Chiara Buizza, Alberto Ghilardi, Clarissa Ferrari
The aims of this study were to collect information about attitudes toward mental illness from the staff of Brescia University, and to detect predictors of issues regarding mental disorders and evaluate their relationship with public stigma. The study involved 1079 people and each participant received a letter explaining the purpose of the e-research. Four hundred and eighty-six people completed the questionnaires. The results showed that those who had a higher level of education, a personal life experience with mental disorders and a higher professional role were more likely to develop behaviours of acceptance toward the mentally ill...
February 10, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186194/control-of-finite-critical-behaviour-in-a-small-scale-social-system
#11
Bryan C Daniels, David C Krakauer, Jessica C Flack
Many adaptive systems sit near a tipping or critical point. For systems near a critical point small changes to component behaviour can induce large-scale changes in aggregate structure and function. Criticality can be adaptive when the environment is changing, but entails reduced robustness through sensitivity. This tradeoff can be resolved when criticality can be tuned. We address the control of finite measures of criticality using data on fight sizes from an animal society model system (Macaca nemestrina, n=48)...
February 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185601/identifying-community-healthcare-supports-for-the-elderly-and-the-factors-affecting-their-aging-care-model-preference-evidence-from-three-districts-of-beijing
#12
Tianyang Liu, Xiaoning Hao, Zhenzhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The Chinese tradition of filial piety, which prioritized family-based care for the elderly, is transitioning and elders can no longer necessarily rely on their children. The purpose of this study was to identify community support for the elderly, and analyze the factors that affect which model of old-age care elderly people dwelling in communities prefer. METHODS: We used the database "Health and Social Support of Elderly Population in Community". Questionnaires were issued in 2013, covering 3 districts in Beijing...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182714/individual-employment-and-psychosocial-factors-influencing-walking-to-work-implications-for-intervention-design
#13
Emma J Adams, Dale W Esliger, Ian M Taylor, Lauren B Sherar
BACKGROUND: Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking) is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions. METHODS: 1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178335/orthopedic-workforce-planning-in-germany-an-analysis-of-orthopedic-accessibility
#14
Jan Bauer, Peter Müller, Werner Maier, David A Groneberg
In Germany, orthopedic workforce planning relies on population-to-provider-ratios represented by the 'official degree of care provision'. However, with geographic information systems (GIS), more sophisticated measurements are available. By utilizing GIS-based technologies we analyzed the current state of demand and supply of the orthopedic workforce in Germany (orthopedic accessibility) with the integrated Floating Catchment Area method. The analysis of n = 153,352,220 distances revealed significant geographical variations on national scale: 5,617,595 people (6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174308/bacillus-subtilis-swarmer-cells-lead-the-swarm-multiply-and-generate-a-trail-of-quiescent-descendants
#15
Lina Hamouche, Soumaya Laalami, Adrian Daerr, Solène Song, I Barry Holland, Simone J Séror, Kassem Hamze, Harald Putzer
: Bacteria adopt social behavior to expand into new territory, led by specialized swarmers, before forming a biofilm. Such mass migration of Bacillus subtilis on a synthetic medium produces hyperbranching dendrites that transiently (equivalent to 4 to 5 generations of growth) maintain a cellular monolayer over long distances, greatly facilitating single-cell gene expression analysis. Paradoxically, while cells in the dendrites (nonswarmers) might be expected to grow exponentially, the rate of swarm expansion is constant, suggesting that some cells are not multiplying...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160424/social-network-analysis-of-the-movement-of-poultry-to-and-from-live-bird-markets-in-bali-and-lombok-indonesia
#16
J Kurscheid, M Stevenson, P A Durr, J-A L M L Toribio, S Kurscheid, I G A A Ambarawati, M Abdurrahman, S Fenwick
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has resulted in large losses to the Indonesian poultry sector. Evidence suggests that live bird markets (LBMs) play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Knowledge of the frequency and type of contact between the various poultry market players should allow animal health authorities to develop a better understanding of factors influencing virus transmission between Indonesian villages. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 17 LBMs on the neighbouring Indonesian islands of Bali and Lombok to investigate the movement patterns of poultry to and from markets...
February 4, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153405/backtracking-search-algorithm-in-cvrp-models-for-efficient-solid-waste-collection-and-route-optimization
#17
Mahmuda Akhtar, M A Hannan, R A Begum, Hassan Basri, Edgar Scavino
Waste collection is an important part of waste management that involves different issues, including environmental, economic, and social, among others. Waste collection optimization can reduce the waste collection budget and environmental emissions by reducing the collection route distance. This paper presents a modified Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA) in capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) models with the smart bin concept to find the best optimized waste collection route solutions. The objective function minimizes the sum of the waste collection route distances...
January 30, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152420/barriers-to-accessing-adequate-maternal-care-in-central-and-eastern-european-countries-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
Elina Miteniece, Milena Pavlova, Bernd Rechel, Wim Groot
Maternal health outcomes in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) compare unfavorable with those in Western Europe, despite macro-indicators that suggest well-designed maternal care systems. However, macro-indicators at the system level only capture capacity, funding and utilization of care and not the actual allocation of financial and human resources, the quality of care and access to it. It is these latter which are problematic in the CEE region. In this study service-related indicators of access to maternal care in CEE are examined...
January 24, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144225/the-selfie-paradox-nobody-seems-to-like-them-yet-everyone-has-reasons-to-take-them-an-exploration-of-psychological-functions-of-selfies-in-self-presentation
#19
Sarah Diefenbach, Lara Christoforakos
Selfies appear as a double-edged phenomenon. Taking, posting, and viewing selfies has become a daily habit for many. At the same time, research revealed that selfies often evoke criticism and disrespect, and are associated with non-authenticity and narcissism. The present study (N = 238) sheds further light on the somewhat contradictory phenomenon of selfies and their psychological value. In addition to previous studies on selfies and personality traits, the present research explores relations to popular, habitual self-presentation strategies, self-reflections on own and others' selfie-taking behavior, selfie-related affect, and perceived consequences of selfies, by applying a combination of self-constructed and existing scales [e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142061/establishment-of-a-schizophrenic-animal-model-through-chronic-administration-of-mk-801-in-infancy-and-social-isolation-in-childhood
#20
Weiqing Liu, Xiuyan Wang, Wenjuan Hong, Dong Wang, Xiaogang Chen
BACKGROUND: Although an increasing amount of evidence supports a "two-hit" hypothesis for the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, there has been no development in animal models to test this hypothesis. METHODS: An animal model was established by chronic administration of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5mg/kg MK-801 in P7-P21 rats followed by four weeks of social isolation in childhood and then five days of social housing. Animal behaviors were measured by the open field (OF) test, the novel object recognition (NOR) test, the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test, and the elevated plus maze (EPM) test...
January 28, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
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