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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821903/the-differential-effects-of-a-focus-on-symptoms-versus-recovery-in-reducing-stigma-of-schizophrenia
#1
Ross M G Norman, Yixian Li, Richard Sorrentino, Elizabeth Hampson, Yang Ye
PURPOSE: We extend investigations of the impact of the content of video contact with an individual with schizophrenia on stigma reduction. We examine whether differential impacts persist over a 2-week period and the extent to which they are mediated by perceived similarity and feelings of empathy and/or sympathy. METHOD: We used a randomized control trial wherein participants were exposed to a video in which an individual described his recovery from schizophrenia, or the same person described acute symptoms of schizophrenia, or a no-video control condition...
August 18, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819068/rural-emergency-care-360%C3%A2-mobilising-healthcare-professionals-decision-makers-patients-and-citizens-to-improve-rural-emergency-care-in-the-province-of-quebec-canada-a-qualitative-study-protocol
#2
Richard Fleet, Gilles Dupuis, Jean-Paul Fortin, Jocelyn Gravel, Mathieu Ouimet, Julien Poitras, France Légaré
INTRODUCTION: Emergency departments (EDs) are an important safety net for rural populations. Results of our earlier studies suggest that rural Canadian hospitals have limited access to advanced imaging services and intensive care units and that patients are transferred over large distances. They also revealed significant geographical variations in rural services. In the absence of national standards, our studies raise questions about inequities in rural access to emergency services and the risks for citizens...
August 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818079/which-physical-and-social-environmental-factors-are-most-important-for-adolescents-cycling-for-transport-an-experimental-study-using-manipulated-photographs
#3
Hannah Verhoeven, Ariane Ghekiere, Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Delfien Van Dyck, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Peter Clarys, Benedicte Deforche
BACKGROUND: Ecological models emphasize that cycling for transport is determined by an interplay between individual, physical and social environmental factors. The current study investigated (a) which physical and social environmental factors determine adolescents' preferences towards cycling for transport and (b) which individual, physical and social environmental factors are associated with their intention to actually cycle for transport. METHODS: An online questionnaire consisting of questions on individual and social environmental variables, and 15 choice-based conjoint tasks with manipulated photographs was completed by 882 adolescents (55...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817590/reconstructing-asian-faunal-introductions-to-eastern-africa-from-multi-proxy-biomolecular-and-archaeological-datasets
#4
Mary E Prendergast, Michael Buckley, Alison Crowther, Laurent Frantz, Heidi Eager, Ophélie Lebrasseur, Rainer Hutterer, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Wim Van Neer, Katerina Douka, Margaret-Ashley Veall, Eriéndira M Quintana Morales, Verena J Schuenemann, Ella Reiter, Richard Allen, Evangelos A Dimopoulos, Richard M Helm, Ceri Shipton, Ogeto Mwebi, Christiane Denys, Mark Horton, Stephanie Wynne-Jones, Jeffrey Fleisher, Chantal Radimilahy, Henry Wright, Jeremy B Searle, Johannes Krause, Greger Larson, Nicole L Boivin
Human-mediated biological exchange has had global social and ecological impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa, several domestic and commensal animals were introduced from Asia in the pre-modern period; however, the timing and nature of these introductions remain contentious. One model supports introduction to the eastern African coast after the mid-first millennium CE, while another posits introduction dating back to 3000 BCE. These distinct scenarios have implications for understanding the emergence of long-distance maritime connectivity, and the ecological and economic impacts of introduced species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814159/surviving-surveillance-how-pregnant-women-and-mothers-living-with-hiv-respond-to-medical-and-social-surveillance
#5
Saara Greene, Allyson Ion, Gladys Kwaramba, Lisa Lazarus, Mona Loutfy
Pregnant women and mothers living with HIV are under surveillance of service providers, family members, and the community at large. Surveillance occurs throughout the medical management of their HIV during pregnancy, preventing HIV transmission to their baby, infant feeding practices, and as part of assessments related to their ability to mother. Enacted and anticipatory HIV-related stigma can exacerbate the negative impact that being under surveillance has on mothers living with HIV as they move through their pregnancy, birthing, and mothering experiences...
August 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803131/do-continuum-beliefs-reduce-schizophrenia-stigma-effects-of-a-laboratory-intervention-on-behavioral-and-self-reported-stigma
#6
Ryan Thibodeau, Lindsay N Shanks, Brian P Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Correlational research shows that belief in a continuum of psychiatric problems predicts decreased public stigma. However, the correlational findings fail to inform the stigma reduction prospects of manipulating continuum beliefs. All extant experimental work has been executed online. This study examined effects of a laboratory-based continuum intervention on behavioral and self-report measures of psychiatric stigma. METHODS: Sixty-nine undergraduates believed that they would meet a man with schizophrenia...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802054/a-dyadic-typology-of-social-desires-in-couples
#7
Thomas Czikmantori, Birk Hagemeyer, Stefan Engeser
OBJECTIVE: Employing a couple-centered approach to social motivation in intimate relationships, we developed a dyadic typology based on the ABC model of communal and agentic social desires. METHOD: Using latent profile analysis, 631 heterosexual couples (age women: M = 39.7, SD = 13.6; age men: M = 42.0, SD = 14.1) were categorized regarding both partners' self-reported desires for closeness with partner, for affiliation with friends, and for being alone. Couple types were described using self-reported indicators of relationship functioning...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799890/country-wide-distance-training-for-delivery-of-screening-and-brief-intervention-for-problematic-substance-use-a-pilot-evaluation-of-participant-experiences-and-patient-outcomes
#8
Ana Paula Leal Carneiro, Maria Lucia Oliveira Souza-Formigoni
BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluated if the 120-hour distance-learning (DL) course SUPERA (an acronym in Portuguese meaning: System for detection of excessive use or dependence on psychoactive substances: brief Intervention, social reinsertion and follow-up) was an effective way to train health professionals and social workers to apply screening and brief intervention (SBI) for patients with substance use disorders. METHODS: In the first phase, 2,420 health professionals or social workers, who had completed the course, answered an online survey about their use of the SBI...
August 11, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796860/trends-in-visual-health-inequalities-in-childhood-through-associations-of-visual-function-with-sex-and-social-position-across-3-uk-birth-cohorts
#9
Vasiliki Bountziouka, Phillippa M Cumberland, Jugnoo S Rahi
Importance: Despite the existing country-specific strategies tackling social inequalities in visual health in adults, little is known about trends in visual function in childhood and its association with social position. Objective: To investigate the distribution of childhood visual function in the United Kingdom and associations with early-life social position between 1961 and 1986, a period of significant social change. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal cohort study using harmonized data sets from the British 1946, 1958, and 1970 national birth cohorts...
August 10, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794579/temporal-and-geographic-patterns-of-kinship-structure-in-common-dolphins-delphinus-delphis-suggest-site-fidelity-and-female-biased-long-distance-dispersal
#10
Laura Ball, Kypher Shreves, Małgorzata Pilot, André E Moura
ABSTRACT: Social structure plays a crucial role in determining a species' dispersal patterns and genetic structure. Cetaceans show a diversity of social and mating systems, but their effects on dispersal and genetic structure are not well known, in part because of technical difficulties in obtaining robust observational data. Here, we combine genetic profiling and GIS analysis to identify patterns of kin distribution over time and space, to infer mating structure and dispersal patterns in short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793838/sociodemographic-predictors-of-sex-offender-stigma-how-politics-impact-attitudes-social-distance-and-perceptions-of-sex-offender-recidivism
#11
Joseph S DeLuca, John Vaccaro, Amalia Rudnik, Nicole Graham, Anna Giannicchi, Philip T Yanos
Stigma toward general criminal offenders has been found to be particularly salient among community members who identify as politically conservative; however, less is known about how political identification relates to stigma toward sex offenders. This is a particularly important area of inquiry, given that criminal jurisprudence and politics legitimatize stigmatizing labels attributed to sex offenders through laws and policies that apply specifically to this group. A nonrandom sample ( N = 518) of participants living in the United States was recruited for this survey study...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791281/orthodontic-treatment-completion-and-discontinuation-in-a-rural-sample-from-north-central-appalachia-in-the-usa
#12
Chris A Martin, Breana M Dieringer, Daniel W McNeil
BACKGROUND: Orthodontics has inherent demands, requiring regular appointments and active patient engagement, but relatively little is established in regard to rates of completion of treatment and possible factors affecting successful completion. These factors may be particularly important for cultural minority groups, such as those in rural Appalachia, given the environmental, social, and economic complexities affecting access to and utilization of treatment. DESIGN AND METHODS: A naturalistic study design was employed, using retrospective data from a rural outpatient general dental office in July 2012...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791154/co2-induced-ocean-acidification-does-not-affect-individual-or-group-behaviour-in-a-temperate-damselfish
#13
Garfield Tsz Kwan, Trevor James Hamilton, Martin Tresguerres
Open ocean surface CO2 levels are projected to reach approximately 800 µatm, and ocean pH to decrease by approximately 0.3 units by the year 2100 due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the subsequent process of ocean acidification (OA). When exposed to these CO2/pH values, several fish species display abnormal behaviour in laboratory tests, an effect proposed to be linked to altered neuronal GABAA- receptor function. Juvenile blacksmith (Chromis punctipinnis) are social fish that regularly experience CO2/pH fluctuations through kelp forest diurnal primary production and upwelling events, so we hypothesized that they might be resilient to OA...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770649/the-happy-culture-a-theoretical-meta-analytic-and-empirical-review-of-the-relationship-between-culture-and-wealth-and-subjective-well-being
#14
Piers Steel, Vasyl Taras, Krista Uggerslev, Frank Bosco
Do cultural values enhance financial and subjective well-being (SWB)? Taking a multidisciplinary approach, we meta-analytically reviewed the field, found it thinly covered, and focused on individualism. In counter, we collected a broad array of individual-level data, specifically an Internet sample of 8,438 adult respondents. Individual SWB was most strongly associated with cultural values that foster relationships and social capital, which typically accounted for more unique variance in life satisfaction than an individual's salary...
August 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762894/how-patients-navigate-the-diagnostic-ecosystem-in-a-fragmented-health-system-a-qualitative-study-from-india
#15
Vijayashree Yellapa, Narayanan Devadasan, Anja Krumeich, Nitika Pant Pai, Caroline Vadnais, Madhukar Pai, Nora Engel
BACKGROUND: Depending on a country's diagnostic infrastructure, patients and providers play different roles in ensuring that correct and timely diagnosis is made. However, little is known about the work done by patients in accessing diagnostic services and completing the 'test and treat' loop. OBJECTIVE: To address this knowledge gap, we traced the diagnostic journeys of patients with tuberculosis, diabetes, hypertension and typhoid, and examined the work they had to do to arrive at a diagnosis...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760725/what-patients-can-tell-us-topic-analysis-for-social-media-on-breast-cancer
#16
Mike Donald Tapi Nzali, Sandra Bringay, Christian Lavergne, Caroline Mollevi, Thomas Opitz
BACKGROUND: Social media dedicated to health are increasingly used by patients and health professionals. They are rich textual resources with content generated through free exchange between patients. We are proposing a method to tackle the problem of retrieving clinically relevant information from such social media in order to analyze the quality of life of patients with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to detect the different topics discussed by patients on social media and to relate them to functional and symptomatic dimensions assessed in the internationally standardized self-administered questionnaires used in cancer clinical trials (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 [QLQ-C30] and breast cancer module [QLQ-BR23])...
July 31, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759947/paediatric-surgical-services-in-remote-northern-australia-an-integrated-model-of-care
#17
Liam Quinn, David Read
BACKGROUND: Surgical services for children in the Northern Territory of Australia are routinely performed by general surgeons with specific paediatric training, supported by paediatric surgeons. In Australasia, indications for appropriate transfer of elective routine surgery in children to tertiary paediatric surgical centres have been contentious. To transfer all elective paediatric cases from rural locations would have significant social and financial consequences for families and the health system...
July 31, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759575/barriers-to-sexual-and-reproductive-healthcare-services-as-experienced-by-female-sex-workers-and-service-providers-in-dhaka-city-bangladesh
#18
Tasnuva Wahed, Anadil Alam, Salima Sultana, Monjur Rahman, Nazmul Alam, Monika Martens, Ratana Somrongthong
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the barriers female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh face with regard to accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care, and assess the satisfaction with the healthcare received. METHODS: Data were collected from coverage areas of four community-based drop-in-centers (DICs) in Dhaka where sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunovirus (HIV) prevention interventions have been implemented for FSWs. A total of 731 FSWs aged 15-49 years were surveyed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757679/acoustic-ranging-in-poison-frogs-it-is-not-about-signal-amplitude-alone
#19
Max Ringler, Georgine Szipl, Walter Hödl, Leander Khil, Barbara Kofler, Michael Lonauer, Christina Provin, Eva Ringler
ABSTRACT: Acoustic ranging allows identifying the distance of a sound source and mediates inter-individual spacing and aggression in territorial species. Birds and mammals are known to use more complex cues than only sound pressure level (SPL), which can be influenced by the signaller and signal transmission in non-predictable ways and thus is not reliable by itself. For frogs, only SPL is currently known to mediate inter-individual distances, but we hypothesise that the strong territoriality of Dendrobatids could make the use of complex cues for ranging highly beneficial for this family...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757094/ddm-at-work-reply-to-comments-on-dependency-distance-a-new-perspective-on-syntactic-patterns-in-natural-languages
#20
Chunshan Xu, Junying Liang, Haitao Liu
We provide responses to the commentaries in this volume to evaluate, clarify and extend some of the arguments in Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages. Evidences show that DDM (dependency distance minimization) is an important linguistic universal, biologically or cognitively motivated, in shaping the language system. As a general tendency, DDM works quite well in theoretical argumentations as well as practical applications. However, this does not mean that DDM is the only linguistic universal that works: it is highly possible that other factors, which might be biologically, physically, socially or culturally motivated, work as well to jointly mold languages...
July 19, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
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