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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456591/gender-money-and-professional-identity-medical-social-work-and-the-coming-of-the-british-national-health-service
#1
George Campbell Gosling
The arrival of the British National Health Service (NHS) in 1948 heralded significant changes for all health workers, but the establishment of a 'free' health service was especially meaningful for the hospital almoners-or medical social workers, as they were starting to be known-who had previously been responsible for the assessment and collection of patient payments. It was on this basis they had gained a foothold in the hospital, capitalising on gendered assumptions of financial understanding and behaviour...
2018: Women's History Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456343/factors-influencing-institutional-based-pediatric-rehabilitation-services-among-caregivers-of-children-with-developmental-delay-in-southwestern-rajasthan
#2
Kriti Mishra, V Siddharth
Context: A limited number of caregivers of children with developmental delay access rehabilitation facilities in India. The study explored utilization of rehabilitation services at a tertiary care setup in southwestern Rajasthan and various factors influencing it. Aims: The aim of this study is to explore rehabilitation service utilization among children with developmental delay at a tertiary care setup and to ascertain factors that influence this pattern. Settings: This study was conducted at the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation at tertiary care setup...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453748/social-distance-in-lithuanian-psychology-and-social-work-students-and-professionals
#3
Aiste Pranckeviciene, Kristina Zardeckaite-Matulaitiene, Rasa Marksaityte, Aukse Endriulaitiene, Douglas R Tillman, David D Hof
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study aimed to compare desire for social distance from people with mental illness in the disciplines of social work and psychology, and among students and professionals having different professional experience. METHODS: 948 respondents (715 students and 233 professionals) from Lithuanian educational and mental health-care institutions participated in an anonymous survey. Social distance was measured using Lithuanian Social Distance Scale which was created for this study...
February 16, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449351/regional-variation-and-predictors-of-over-registration-in-english-primary-care-in-2014-a-spatial-analysis
#4
Patrick Burch, Tim Doran, Evangelos Kontopantelis
BACKGROUND: There are more people registered with a general practice in England than are estimated to be resident in the country. The reasons behind this are not fully understood. We investigated the levels of over-registration (or under-registration) in English primary care, their regional variability and their association with population and geographical characteristics. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using mid-year population estimates for 2014 and general practice populations for the same year...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446236/help-me-if-you-can-psychological-distance-and-help-seeking-intentions-in-employee-supervisor-relations
#5
Izhak Berkovich, Ori Eyal
Social support at work is considered useful in treating job-related stress, and supervisors' emotional support has been found to be the most effective source of support at work. But an understanding of what elements make employees use supervisors as a source of emotional support is lacking. The present qualitative study included in-depth interviews with 24 teachers and 12 principals and a focus group with 12 school counsellors. The findings pointed at 2 groups of determinants of subordinates' intentions of asking socioemotional help from supervisors...
February 15, 2018: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444674/the-gendered-experience-with-respect-to-health-seeking-behaviour-in-an-urban-slum-of-kolkata-india
#6
Moumita Das, Federica Angeli, Anja J S M Krumeich, Onno C P van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence shows that the relationship between health-seeking behaviour and diverse gender elements, such as gendered social status, social control, ideology, gender process, marital status and procreative status, changes across settings. Given the high relevance of social settings, this paper intends to explore how gender elements interact with health-seeking practices among men and women residing in an Indian urban slum, in consideration of the unique socio-cultural context that characterises India's slums...
February 14, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437984/differences-in-experiences-of-barriers-to-sti-testing-between-clients-of-the-internet-based-diagnostic-testing-service-getcheckedonline-com-and-an-sti-clinic-in-vancouver-canada
#7
Mark Gilbert, Kimberly Thomson, Travis Salway, Devon Haag, Troy Grennan, Christopher K Fairley, Chris Buchner, Mel Krajden, Perry Kendall, Jean Shoveller, Gina Ogilvie
OBJECTIVES: Internet-based STI testing programmes may overcome barriers posed by in-clinic testing, though uptake could reflect social gradients. The role these services play in comparison to clinical testing services is unknown. We compared experiences of testing barriers between STI clinic clients to clients of GetCheckedOnline.com (GCO; where clients take a printed lab form to a lab). METHODS: Our 10-month cross-sectional study was conducted after GCO was promoted to STI clinic clients and men who have sex with men (MSM)...
February 7, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435234/epizoochorous-dispersal-by-ungulates-depends-on-fur-grooming-and-social-interactions
#8
Océane Liehrmann, Flore Jégoux, Marie-Alice Guilbert, Francis Isselin-Nondedeu, Sonia Saïd, Yann Locatelli, Christophe Baltzinger
The transport phase of the animal-mediated plant dispersal process is critical to dispersal effectiveness as it determines the spatial distribution of the diaspores released and their chance for further recruitment. Assessing this specific phase of the dispersal process generally requires combining diaspore retention times with the associated distances covered. Here, we specifically tested the effect of grooming behavior, interindividual contacts and ungulate fur on diaspore retention times and associated dispersal distances for the hooked diaspores of Xanthium strumarium L...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432440/why-do-people-move-enhancing-human-mobility-prediction-using-local-functions-based-on-public-records-and-sns-data
#9
Jungmin Kim, Juyong Park, Wonjae Lee
The quality of life for people in urban regions can be improved by predicting urban human mobility and adjusting urban planning accordingly. In this study, we compared several possible variables to verify whether a gravity model (a human mobility prediction model borrowed from Newtonian mechanics) worked as well in inner-city regions as it did in intra-city regions. We reviewed the resident population, the number of employees, and the number of SNS posts as variables for generating mass values for an urban traffic gravity model...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422461/effect-of-green-tea-varnish-on-depth-of-root-caries
#10
Fahimeh Daneshyar, Zahra Khamverdi, Tayebeh Toliat, Mohammad Y Alikhani
AIM: Root caries is a common, debilitating condition particularly in the elderly population, which can lead to tooth loss. Evidence shows that green tea has cariostatic effects. Considering the gap of information on green tea varnish, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of green tea varnish in the prevention of root caries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This in vitro experimental study was performed on 42 sound premolars. Two layers of acid-resistant nail varnish were applied on root surfaces except for a window of 1 × 4 mm...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417991/nocturnal-behavior-by-a-diurnal-ape-the-west-african-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-verus-in-a-savanna-environment-at-fongoli-senegal
#11
Jill D Pruetz
OBJECTIVES: I report on the nocturnal behavior of Fongoli chimpanzees in a savanna mosaic during different seasons and lunar phases and test the hypothesis that hot daytime temperatures influence activity at night. I predicted that apes would be more active at night during periods of greater lunar illuminosity given diurnal primates' lack of visual specializations for low-light conditions and in dry season months when water scarcity exacerbated heat stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: I observed chimpanzees for 403 hrs on 40 nights between 2007 and 2013 and categorized their activity as social, movement, or vocalization...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408061/developing-robust-arsenic-awareness-prediction-models-using-machine-learning-algorithms
#12
Sushant K Singh, Robert W Taylor, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Biswajeet Pradhan
Arsenic awareness plays a vital role in ensuring the sustainability of arsenic mitigation technologies. Thus far, however, few studies have dealt with the sustainability of such technologies and its associated socioeconomic dimensions. As a result, arsenic awareness prediction has not yet been fully conceptualized. Accordingly, this study evaluated arsenic awareness among arsenic-affected communities in rural India, using a structured questionnaire to record socioeconomic, demographic, and other sociobehavioral factors with an eye to assessing their association with and influence on arsenic awareness...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407513/dissociable-roles-of-glucocorticoid-and-noradrenergic-activation-on-social-discounting
#13
Zsofia Margittai, Marijn van Wingerden, Alfons Schnitzler, Marian Joëls, Tobias Kalenscher
People often exhibit prosocial tendencies towards close kin and friends, but generosity decreases as a function of increasing social distance between donor and recipient, a phenomenon called social discounting. Evidence suggests that acute stress affects prosocial behaviour in general and social discounting in particular. We tested the causal role of the important stress neuromodulators cortisol (CORT) and noradrenaline (NA) in this effect by considering two competing hypotheses. On the one hand, it is possible that CORT and NA act in concert to increase generosity towards socially close others by reducing the aversiveness of the cost component in costly altruism and enhancing the emotional salience of vicarious reward...
January 31, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403650/reducing-stigma-among-healthcare-providers-to-improve-mental-health-services-reshape-protocol-for-a-pilot-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-stigma-reduction-intervention-for-training-primary-healthcare-workers-in-nepal
#14
Brandon A Kohrt, Mark J D Jordans, Elizabeth L Turner, Kathleen J Sikkema, Nagendra P Luitel, Sauharda Rai, Daisy R Singla, Jagannath Lamichhane, Crick Lund, Vikram Patel
Background: Non-specialist healthcare providers, including primary and community healthcare workers, in low- and middle-income countries can effectively treat mental illness. However, scaling-up mental health services within existing health systems has been limited by barriers such as stigma against people with mental illness. Therefore, interventions are needed to address attitudes and behaviors among non-specialists. Aimed at addressing this gap, REducing Stigma among HealthcAre Providers to ImprovE mental health services (RESHAPE) is an intervention in which social contact with mental health service users is added to training for non-specialist healthcare workers integrating mental health services into primary healthcare...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399780/generalized-procrustes-analysis-of-an-ontogenetic-series-of-modified-crania-evaluating-the-technique-of-modification-in-the-migration-period-of-europe-4th-7th-century-ad
#15
P Mayall, V Pilbrow
OBJECTIVES: The arrival of the Huns into Europe in the fourth century AD increased the occurrence of intentional cranial modification among European nomads. It has been postulated that the Huns used a two-bandage cranial binding technique to differentiate themselves from surrounding nomadic groups, including those from Georgia. This study examines this hypothesis by comparing Migration Period (4th to 7th century AD) juvenile crania, which retain strong impressions of bindings, with adult modified crania from Hungary and Georgia...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399779/archaeogenetics-of-late-iron-age-%C3%A3-emialo-s%C3%A4-rt%C3%A4-batman-investigating-maternal-genetic-continuity-in-north-mesopotamia-since-the-neolithic
#16
Reyhan Yaka, Ayşegül Birand, Yasemin Yılmaz, Ceren Caner, Sinan Can Açan, Sidar Gündüzalp, Poorya Parvizi, Aslı Erim Özdoğan, İnci Togan, Mehmet Somel
OBJECTIVES: North Mesopotamia has witnessed dramatic social change during the Holocene, but the impact of these events on its demographic history is poorly understood. Here, we study this question by analysing genetic data from the recently excavated Late Iron Age settlement of Çemialo Sırtı in Batman, southeast Turkey. Archaeological and radiocarbon evidence indicate that the site was inhabited during the second and first millennia BCE. Çemialo Sırtı reveals nomadic items of the Early Iron Age, as well as items associated with the Late Achaemenid and subsequent Hellenistic Periods...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396387/telehealth-interventions-delivering-home-based-support-group-videoconferencing-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Annie Banbury, Susan Nancarrow, Jared Dart, Leonard Gray, Lynne Parkinson
BACKGROUND: Group therapy and education and support sessions are used within health care across a range of disciplines such as chronic disease self-management and psychotherapy interventions. However, there are barriers that constrain group attendance, such as mobility, time, and distance. Using videoconferencing may overcome known barriers and improve the accessibility of group-based interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the literature to determine the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness, and implementation of health professional-led group videoconferencing to provide education or social support or both, into the home setting...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385781/the-external-performance-appraisal-of-china-energy-regulation-an-empirical-study-using-a-topsis-method-based-on-entropy-weight-and-mahalanobis-distance
#18
Zheng-Xin Wang, Dan-Dan Li, Hong-Hao Zheng
In China's industrialization process, the effective regulation of energy and environment can promote the positive externality of energy consumption while reducing negative externality, which is an important means for realizing the sustainable development of an economic society. The study puts forward an improved technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution based on entropy weight and Mahalanobis distance (briefly referred as E-M-TOPSIS). The performance of the approach was verified to be satisfactory...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382820/similar-neural-responses-predict-friendship
#19
Carolyn Parkinson, Adam M Kleinbaum, Thalia Wheatley
Human social networks are overwhelmingly homophilous: individuals tend to befriend others who are similar to them in terms of a range of physical attributes (e.g., age, gender). Do similarities among friends reflect deeper similarities in how we perceive, interpret, and respond to the world? To test whether friendship, and more generally, social network proximity, is associated with increased similarity of real-time mental responding, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan subjects' brains during free viewing of naturalistic movies...
January 30, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378424/anticipating-needs-at-end-of-life-in-narratives-related-by-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-appalachia
#20
Joanne Hall, Sadie P Hutson, Frankie West
As part of a mixed methods study determining end-of-life and advanced care planning needs in southern Appalachia, a narrative analysis was done of stories told in interviews of 8 selected participants using transcript data. Narratives were fraught with contradiction and paradox. Tensions were evident about living in Appalachia, the Bible Belt, and an area wherein distances are long and community rejection can occur as news travels quickly. The primary finding was that stigma, from several sources, and shrinking circles of social support for people living with HIV/AIDS, all of whom were in treatment, combined to create a sense of solitariness...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
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