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Social distance

A R Rasulov
AIM: To determine the factors that shape attitudes towards people with severe mental disorders as well as to establish correlations between these factors and socio-demographic variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 1000 respondents in five regions of the country. The questionnaire included different aspects concerning the relation of society towards people with mental disorders. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The study established three-factor structure of attitudes towards people with mental illness: social distance, perseption of social threat, tolerant attitude Older age and a personal acquaintance with the patient were associated with lower ratings of social distance, while female gender was associated with a greater level of perception of social threat...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Deybson Borba de Almeida, Gilberto Tadeu Reis da Silva, Genival Fernandes de Freitas, Maria Itayra Padilha, Igor Ferreira Borba de Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the constituting knowledge of militant nurses in trade associations. METHOD: Historical research, based on the oral history method, with a qualitative approach carried out with 11 nurses who are/were militants for professional issues since the 1980s in the state of Bahia. The data collected through semi-structured interviews were organized in the software n-vivo 10 and analyzed based on dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS: We identified pedagogical, administrative, public health, sociological, and trade union background knowledge as constituent of militant individuals...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Deborah Theodoros, Danielle Aldridge, Anne J Hill, Trevor Russell
BACKGROUND: Communication and swallowing disorders are highly prevalent in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Maintenance of functional communication and swallowing over time is challenging for the person with PD and their families and may lead to social isolation and reduced quality of life if not addressed. Speech and language therapists (SLTs) face the conundrum of providing sustainable and flexible services to meet the changing needs of people with PD. Motor, cognitive and psychological issues associated with PD, medication regimens and dependency on others often impede attendance at a centre-based service...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Robert D Ashford, Austin M Brown, Brenda Curtis
BACKGROUND: The general public, treatment professionals, and healthcare professionals have been found to exhibit an explicit negative bias towards substance use and individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD). Terms such as "substance abuser" and "opioid addict" have shown to elicit greater negative explicit bias. However, other common terms have yet to be empirically studied. METHODS: 1,288 participants were recruited from ResearchMatch...
June 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Eulogia Kairiyama, Maria Esther Martínez Pardo, Eddy Sánchez Noda, Isabel Otero
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) played an important role in the establishment of new tissue banks and the improvement of already existing ones in Latin America. The Agency strongly supported, through regional, interregional and national technical cooperation projects, providing equipment, expert missions and training for the production and application of human tissues for transplantation. From 1999 to 2005 five regional courses were given in Buenos Aires under the modality of 1-year distance learning training courses and 1-week face to face courses...
June 18, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
Stine Schramm, Jannie Nielsen, Felix O Kaducu, Ceaser L Okumu, Emilio Ovuga, Morten Sodemann
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between household-level characteristics and underweight in a post-conflict population. DESIGN: Nutritional status of residents in the Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance Site was obtained during a community-based cross-sectional study, ~6 years after the civil war. Household-level factors included headship, polygamy, household size, child-to-adult ratio, child crowding, living with a stunted or overweight person, deprived area, distance to health centre and socio-economic status...
June 18, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Ana Nadal, Oriol Pons, Eva Cuerva, Joan Rieradevall, Alejandro Josa
Today, urban agriculture is one of the most widely used sustainability strategies to improve the metabolism of a city. Schools can play an important role in the implementation of sustainability master plans, due their socio-educational activities and their cohesive links with families; all key elements in the development of urban agriculture. Thus, the main objective of this research is to develop a procedure, in compact cities, to assess the potential installation of rooftop greenhouses (RTGs) in schools. The generation of a dynamic assessment tool capable of identifying and prioritizing schools with a high potential for RTGs and their eventual implementation would also represent a significant factor in the environmental, social, and nutritional education of younger generations...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Martin Worm, Tim Landgraf, Julia Prume, Hai Nguyen, Frank Kirschbaum, Gerhard von der Emde
Mormyrid weakly electric fish produce electric organ discharges (EODs) for active electrolocation and electrocommunication. These pulses are emitted with variable interdischarge intervals (IDIs) resulting in temporal discharge patterns and interactive signaling episodes with nearby conspecifics. However, unequivocal assignment of interactive signaling to a specific behavioral context has proven to be challenging. Using an ethorobotical approach, we confronted single individuals of weakly electric Mormyrus rume proboscirostris with a mobile fish robot capable of interacting both physically, on arbitrary trajectories, as well as electrically, by generating echo responses through playback of species-specific EODs, thus synchronizing signals with the fish...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Angel M Dzhambov, Iana Markevych, Terry Hartig, Boris Tilov, Zlatoslav Arabadzhiev, Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Penka Gatseva, Donka D Dimitrova
BACKGROUND: A growing body of scientific literature indicates that urban green- and bluespace support mental health; however, little research has attempted to address the complexities in likely interrelations among the pathways through which benefits plausibly are realized. OBJECTIVES: The present study examines how different plausible pathways between green/bluespace and mental health can work together. Both objective and perceived measures of green- and bluespace are used in these models...
June 8, 2018: Environmental Research
Amelia Fiske
In September 2013, President Correa balanced himself on a felled log over an oil waste pit in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Extending a bare hand dripping with crude, he launched La Mano Sucia de Chevron campaign, demanding accountability for decades of contamination. This article explores the role of bodily knowledge in witnessing industrial contamination and struggles for environmental justice. Situating the mano sucia in the history of activism in the region, I show how the juxtaposition of different hands within the same motif reveals profoundly asymmetric relationships to the toxic entanglements that oil produces...
June 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
C Ayyad, J Mateu, I Tamayo-Uria
The brown rat has been living with humans in a wide variety of environmental contexts; it adversely affects public health by transmission of pathogens that can cause human diseases and allergies. Understanding behavioral aspects and environmental factors of pest species can contribute to their effective management and control. This aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of rats in Latina district of Madrid (Spain), and its relationship with several potential multi-source foci. A focus is any particular social and environmental urban scenario that favors the clustering and proliferation of rats...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Alberto M Ortega Hinojosa, Kara E MacLeod, John Balmes, Michael Jerrett
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a state-wide examination of public schools and the school neighborhood as potential targets for environmental public health tracking to address childhood obesity. METHODS: We examined the relationship of social and physical environmental attributes of the school environment (within school and neighborhood) and childhood obesity in California with machine learning (Random Forest) and multilevel methods. We used data compiled from the California Department of Education, the U...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Benjamin G Farrar, Ljerka Ostojić
When given privileged information of an object's true location, adults often overestimate the likelihood that a protagonist holding a false belief will search in the correct location for that object. This type of egocentric bias is often labelled the 'curse of knowledge'. Interestingly, the magnitude of this bias may be modulated by the social distance between the perspective taker and target. However, this social distance effect has yet to be fully demonstrated when adults reason about false beliefs. Using a continuous false belief task, we investigated i) whether adults were biased by their own knowledge when reasoning about another's false belief, ii) whether the magnitude of this egocentric bias was modulated by social distance, and iii) whether this social distance effect extended to a heterospecific out-group, namely a dog...
2018: PloS One
Narjis Kraimi, Ludovic Calandreau, Manon Biesse, Sylvie Rabot, Edouard Guitton, Philippe Velge, Christine Leterrier
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated an effect of the gut microbiota on brain development and behavior leading to the concept of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, its effect on behavior in birds is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the absence of gut microbiota on emotional reactivity in birds by comparing germ-free (GF) quails to those colonized (COL) with gut microbiota. Material and Methods: From hatching, the quails of both groups GF ( n = 36) and COL ( n = 36) were reared in sterile isolators...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Heloysa Araujo-Silva, Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Priscila F Silva, Ana C Luchiari
Personality traits are related to many aspects of one's life, including risk taking, sociability, and behavioral changes caused by psychoactive substances. This study aimed to investigate individual differences and behavioral changes due to alcohol exposure in zebrafish (Danio rerio). To that end, adult animals were separated into two behavioral profiles: bold and shy, according to their risk taking behavior in an emergence test. Bold and shy fish were allowed to explore a 5-chamber tank and were tested for exploration and sociability (shoaling behavior) following alcohol exposure...
2018: PloS One
Ryoko Kawasaki, Rieko Nakao, Mayumi Ohnishi
Objective: Participation in social activities is associated with physical and psychological health in the community-dwelling elderly population. We examined the two factors of social relations and community health resources, associated with higher self-rated health levels in the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: A total of 145 community-dwelling elderly people ≥ 65 years old from two neighborhood associations in Nagasaki City were recruited for this study, representing 85% of the officially registered ≥ 65-year-old population in the target area...
May 2018: Journal of Rural Medicine: JRM
Lakshminarayana Chekuri, Dinesh Mittal, Songthip Ounpraseuth
Objective: To explore the mediational effects of prejudice on the relationship between negative stereotypes and social distance (discrimination) in a sample of Veterans Administration health care providers. Methods: Data for this study were collected between August 2011 and April 2012 as part of a larger study examining provider attitudes and clinical expectations toward 2 hypothetical vignette patients: 1 with schizophrenia and 1 without schizophrenia. Survey responses from health care providers were gathered using 3 well-recognized measures: the 9-item Semantic Differential Scale, 9-item Attribution Questionnaire, and Social Distance Scale...
May 24, 2018: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Benjamin W Chrisinger, Abby C King
BACKGROUND: Identifying elements of one's environment-observable and unobservable-that contribute to chronic stress including the perception of comfort and discomfort associated with different settings, presents many methodological and analytical challenges. However, it also presents an opportunity to engage the public in collecting and analyzing their own geospatial and biometric data to increase community member understanding of their local environments and activate potential environmental improvements...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Julie B Kaplow, Britney M Wardecker, Christopher M Layne, Ethan Kross, Amanda Burnside, Robin S Edelstein, Alan R Prossin
This study examined links between the language bereaved children use to describe the death of their caregiver and children's psychological/behavioral functioning and coping strategies. Participants included 44 children (54.5% male) aged 7 to 12 (M = 9.05) years who were bereaved by the death of a caregiver. Children were assessed via self- and caregiver-report measures and an in-person interview regarding the loss of their caregiver. Children's loss narratives gathered through in-person interviews were transcribed and subjected to textual analysis...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Raquel Torres, Ruth M DeBar, Sharon A Reeve, Linda S Meyer, Tina M Covington
Research focusing on physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited. Activity- and video-enhanced schedules have successfully increased leisure, academic, social, and daily living skills for individuals with ASD and may be effective in increasing exercise. We evaluated the effects of a video-enhanced schedule presented on an iPad® on exercise behavior with adolescents with ASD using a multiple probe across participants design. Specifically, the effects of a video-enhanced exercise schedule with graduated guidance on independent schedule-following behavior and on-task behavior was evaluated...
June 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
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