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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437525/visual-impairment-undercorrected-refractive-errors-and-activity-limitations-in-older-adults-findings-from-the-three-city-alienor-study
#1
Virginie Naël, Karine Pérès, Isabelle Carrière, Vincent Daien, Anne-Catherine Scherlen, Angelo Arleo, Jean-Francois Korobelnik, Cécile Delcourt, Catherine Helmer
Purpose: As vision is required in almost all activities of daily living, visual impairment (VI) may be one of the major treatable factors for preventing activity limitations. We aimed to evaluate the attributable risk of VI associated with activity limitations and the extent to which limitations are avoidable with optimal optical correction of undercorrected refractive errors. Methods: We analyzed 709 older adults from the Three-City-Alienor population-based study...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433926/discredited-legacy-stigma-and-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-in-northwestern-portugal
#2
Álvaro Mendes, Liliana Sousa, Jorge Sequeiros, Angus Clarke
RATIONALE: Genetic inherited conditions may result in feelings of stigmatisation, mainly because of visible physical appearance and its transmissibility to offspring. OBJECTIVE: This article reports accounts of stigmatisation from Portuguese patients affected by the inherited neurodegenerative disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), living in the largest cluster of patients worldwide. METHOD: We draw on semi-structured interviews conducted with individuals at-risk or affected by FAP, recruited through the national patients' association, about their experiences of stigmatisation related to the illness...
April 15, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432104/dancing-attraction-followers-of-honey-bee-tremble-and-waggle-dances-exhibit-similar-behaviors
#3
Calvin Lam, Yanlei Li, Tim Landgraf, James Nieh
The function of the honey bee tremble dance and how it attracts signal receivers is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that tremble followers and waggle followers exhibit the same dance following behavior. If correct, this would unify our understanding of dance following, provide insight into dance information transfer, and offer a way to identify the signal receivers of tremble dance information. Followers showed similar initial attraction to and tracking of dancers. However, waggle dancers were faster than tremble dancers, and follower forward, sideways, and angular velocities were generally similar to the velocities of their respective dancers...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427389/defining-micro-epidemiology-for-malaria-elimination-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Kristien Verdonck, Susanna Hausmann-Muela, Charlotte Gryseels, Joan Muela Ribera, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Malaria risk can vary markedly between households in the same village, or between villages, but the determinants of this "micro-epidemiological" variation in malaria risk remain poorly understood. This study aimed to identify factors that explain fine-scale variation in malaria risk across settings and improve definitions and methods for malaria micro-epidemiology. METHODS: A systematic review of studies that examined risk factors for variation in malaria infection between individuals, households, clusters, hotspots, or villages in any malaria-endemic setting was conducted...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426826/link-prediction-to-tackle-the-boundary-specification-problem-in-social-network-surveys
#5
Tobias Jordan, Oto Costa Pinho Alves, Philippe De Wilde, Fernando Buarque de Lima-Neto
Diffusion processes in social networks often cause the emergence of global phenomena from individual behavior within a society. The study of those global phenomena and the simulation of those diffusion processes frequently require a good model of the global network. However, survey data and data from online sources are often restricted to single social groups or features, such as age groups, single schools, companies, or interest groups. Hence, a modeling approach is required that extrapolates the locally restricted data to a global network model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426646/community-mitigation-guidelines-to-prevent-pandemic-influenza-united-states-2017
#6
Noreen Qualls, Alexandra Levitt, Neha Kanade, Narue Wright-Jegede, Stephanie Dopson, Matthew Biggerstaff, Carrie Reed, Amra Uzicanin
When a novel influenza A virus with pandemic potential emerges, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) often are the most readily available interventions to help slow transmission of the virus in communities, which is especially important before a pandemic vaccine becomes widely available. NPIs, also known as community mitigation measures, are actions that persons and communities can take to help slow the spread of respiratory virus infections, including seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.These guidelines replace the 2007 Interim Pre-pandemic Planning Guidance: Community Strategy for Pandemic Influenza Mitigation in the United States - Early, Targeted, Layered Use of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (https://stacks...
April 21, 2017: MMWR. Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425900/mobiliser-des-repr%C3%A3-sentations-ethnoculturelles-pour-expliquer-les-disparit%C3%A3-s-d%C3%A2-acc%C3%A3-s-aux-soins-de-sant%C3%A3-au-burkina-faso
#7
Loubna Belaid, Patrick Cloos, Valéry Ridde
OBJECTIFS: Cette étude vise à décrire la mobilisation des représentations ethnoculturelles par des agents et des gestionnaires de santé pour expliquer l'échec partiel d'une politique de santé maternelle et discuter des conséquences potentielles de ces représentations sur l'accès aux soins de santé des populations.MÉTHODES : Il s'agit d'une recherche qualitative de type socio-anthropologique mobilisant des entretiens approfondis, des discussions informelles, des observations non participantes menées dans les centres de santé et une analyse documentaire...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425235/a-study-on-the-validity-and-reliability-of-the-amblyopia-andstrabismus-questionnaire-a-sq-in-turkish
#8
Halise Çoşkun, Sevinç Taştan, Emine Iyigün, Fatih Mehmet Mutlu, Osman Melih Ceylan, Halil İbrahim Altinsoy
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (AandSQ) that is translated into Turkish. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a methodological study. A total of 149 patients took part in the survey research between December 2012 and June 2014 in an university hospital, and 37 were retested. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used for the questionnaire's reliability analysis. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the subscales of fear of losing the better eye, distance estimation, visual disorientation, double vision, and social contact and appearance were found to be 0...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424267/using-a-novel-data-resource-to-explore-heart-rate-during-mountain-and-road-running
#9
Andrew Best, Barry Braun
Online, accessible performance and heart rate data from running competitions are posted publicly or semi-publicly to social media. We tested the efficacy of one such data resource- Strava- as a tool in exercise physiology investigations by exploring heart rate differences in mountain racing and road racing running events. Heart rate and GPS pace data were gathered from Strava activities posted by 111 males aged 21-49, from two mountain races (Mt. Washington Road Race and Pike's Peak Ascent) and two road race distances (half marathon and marathon)...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422986/a-critical-like-collective-state-leads-to-long-range-cell-communication-in-dictyostelium-discoideum-aggregation
#10
Giovanna De Palo, Darvin Yi, Robert G Endres
The transition from single-cell to multicellular behavior is important in early development but rarely studied. The starvation-induced aggregation of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum into a multicellular slug is known to result from single-cell chemotaxis towards emitted pulses of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). However, how exactly do transient, short-range chemical gradients lead to coherent collective movement at a macroscopic scale? Here, we developed a multiscale model verified by quantitative microscopy to describe behaviors ranging widely from chemotaxis and excitability of individual cells to aggregation of thousands of cells...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422613/the-impact-of-prospective-telemedicine-implementation-in-the-management-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-recife-brazil
#11
Francisco Pedrosa, Faisal Shaikh, Gaston Rivera, Raul Ribeiro, Ibrahim Qaddoumi
BACKGROUND: A gap in childhood cancer outcomes remains between developed and developing countries. Persistence of this gap may be caused by financial, social, or educational disparities. Twinning and distance learning initiatives may improve such disparities. Integrating telemedicine into pediatric oncology twinning programs enhances education and facilitates patient-centered capacity building. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an analysis of Web-based meetings held from August 2005 through July 2009 between the International Outreach Program at St...
April 19, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422091/male-african-elephants-discriminate-and-prefer-vocalizations-of-unfamiliar-females
#12
Angela S Stoeger, Anton Baotic
Gaining information about conspecifics via long-distance vocalizations is crucial for social and spatially flexible species such as the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Female elephants are known to discriminate individuals and kin based on acoustic cues. Specifically, females approached the loudspeaker exclusively with playbacks of familiar individuals with high association indexes, intentionally fusing with their affiliates. For males, which are less bonded, gathering social information via vocalizations could still have important implications, but little is known about their vocal discrimination skills...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416001/assessing-environmental-factors-associated-with-regional-schistosomiasis-prevalence-in-anhui-province-peoples-republic-of-china-using-a-geographical-detector-method
#13
Yi Hu, Congcong Xia, Shizhu Li, Michael P Ward, Can Luo, Fenghua Gao, Qizhi Wang, Shiqing Zhang, Zhijie Zhang
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-borne disease caused by trematode worms belonging to genus Schistosoma, which is prevalent most of the developing world. Transmission of the disease is usually associated with multiple biological characteristics and social factors but also factors can play a role. Few studies have assessed the exact and interactive influence of each factor promoting schistosomiasis transmission. METHODS: We used a series of different detectors (i...
April 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413218/understanding-how-low-socioeconomic-status-households-cope-with-health-shocks-an-analysis-of-multi-sector-linked-data
#14
Tammy Leonard, Amy E Hughes, Sandi L Pruitt
Low-socioeconomic status (SES) households have little income or wealth to buffer against the negative impacts of an adverse health event (health shock) among adult household members. However, these households may employ a variety of other coping strategies such as receiving help from family, friends, and social services. Administrative data from a non-profit food distribution center, electronic medical record (EMR) data from a safety-net healthcare system, and publicly available residential appraisal data were linked to provide insight into these coping strategies...
January 2017: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409186/social-and-spatial-relationships-driving-landowner-attitudes-towards-aquatic-conservation-in-a-piedmont-blue-ridge-landscape
#15
Samuel N Chambers, Robert F Baldwin, Elizabeth Dennis Baldwin, William C Bridges, Nakisha Fouch
More than half of land in the U.S. is privately owned and covers most of known endangered species habitat. An understanding of private landowners' attitudes towards conservation may help to bridge the science-practice gap in regards to conservation initiatives. Aquatic biodiversity is particularly imperiled; in the United States headwaters and isolated wetlands receive little protection through regulations, becoming a focus of conservation planning. In an effort to assess how landowners view such efforts, a 27-question mixed methods survey was mailed to 409 landowners in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont ecoregions of South Carolina with wetland areas and where land was owned by a family or individual, not a corporation...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408896/the-role-of-indian-caste-identity-and-caste-inconsistent-norms-on-status-representation
#16
Sindhuja Sankaran, Maciek Sekerdej, Ulrich von Hecker
The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one's profession became 'hereditary,' resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one's caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violation and how an individual's status is mentally represented...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408217/could-mobile-mammography-reduce-social-and-geographic-inequalities-in-breast-cancer-screening-participation
#17
Elodie Guillaume, Ludivine Launay, Olivier Dejardin, Véronique Bouvier, Lydia Guittet, Pauline Déan, Annick Notari, Rémy De Mil, Guy Launoy
Evaluation of mobile mammography for reducing social and geographic inequalities in breast cancer screening participation. We examined the responses to first invitations to undergo breast cancer screening from 2003 to 2012 in Orne, a French department. Half of the participants could choose between screening in a radiologist's office or a mobile mammography (MM) unit. We calculated the participation rate and individual participation model according to age group, deprivation quintile and distance. Among participants receiving an MM invitation, the preference was for MM...
April 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407189/molecular-analysis-of-genetic-diversity-among-vine-accessions-using-dna-markers
#18
A F da Costa, P E Teodoro, L L Bhering, F D Tardin, R F Daher, W F Campos, A P Viana, M G Pereira
Viticulture presents a number of economic and social advantages, such as increasing employment levels and fixing the labor force in rural areas. With the aim of initiating a program of genetic improvement in grapevine from the State University of the state of Rio de Janeiro North Darcy Ribeiro, genetic diversity between 40 genotypes (varieties, rootstock, and species of different subgenera) was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers. We built a matrix of binary data, whereby the presence of a band was assigned as "1" and the absence of a band was assigned as "0...
April 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406680/happier-than-thou-a-self-enhancement-bias-in-emotion-attribution
#19
Desmond C Ong, Noah D Goodman, Jamil Zaki
People tend to judge themselves as exhibiting above average levels of desirable traits-including competence, kindness, and life satisfaction-but does this self-enhancement extend to emotional responses? Here, we explore this question by having people attribute emotions to themselves and others following simple gambles. We demonstrate that people display an emotional self-enhancement bias that varies with the context of the emotion-eliciting situation. People judge themselves as experiencing more positive emotional reactions on average, and they also believed that others' emotions are more sensitive to gamble outcomes, such that people judge others to experience stronger negative affect in response to negative outcomes (Study 1)...
April 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406176/male-alliance-behaviour-and-mating-access-varies-with-habitat-in-a-dolphin-social-network
#20
Richard C Connor, William R Cioffi, Srđan Randić, Simon J Allen, Jana Watson-Capps, Michael Krützen
Within-species variation in social structure has attracted interest recently because of the potential to explore phenotypic plasticity and, specifically, how demographic and ecological variation influence social structure. Populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) vary in male alliance formation, from no alliances to simple pairs to, in Shark Bay, Western Australia, the most complex nested alliances known outside of humans. Examination of ecological contributions to this variation is complicated by differences among populations in other potentially explanatory traits, such as phylogenetic distance, as well as female reproductive schedules, sexual size dimorphism, and body size...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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