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Social distance

Katherine A Partrick, Benoit Chassaing, Linda Q Beach, Katharine E McCann, Andrew T Gewirtz, Kim L Huhman
Social stress can promote a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses, many of which have a high co-morbidity with gastrointestinal disorders. Recent data indicate that gastrointestinal microbiota can affect their host's brain and behavior. Syrian hamsters are ideal subjects for social stress research because they are territorial, aggressive, and rapidly form dominant/subordinate relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to social stress in hamsters alters gut microbiota in dominants and subordinates after an agonistic encounter and if pre-stress gut microbiota composition is correlated with the outcome of such a conflict...
April 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Francis F Ulmer, Rana Sharara-Chami, Zavi Lakissian, Martin Stocker, Ella Scott, Peter Dieckmann
INTRODUCTION: Culture is believed to play a role in education, safety, and patient outcome in healthcare. Hofstede's culture analysis permits a quantitative comparison between countries, along different culture dimensions, including power distance (PD). Power distance index (PDI) is a value reflecting social hierarchy in a country. We sought to explore the relation between PDI and self-reported behavior patterns of debriefers during simulation debriefings. We determined six culture-relevant debriefing characteristics and formulated six hypotheses on how these characteristics correlate with national PDIs...
April 18, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
Faruque Ahmed, Nicole Zviedrite, Amra Uzicanin
BACKGROUND: Social distancing is one of the community mitigation measures that may be recommended during influenza pandemics. Social distancing can reduce virus transmission by increasing physical distance or reducing frequency of congregation in socially dense community settings, such as schools or workplaces. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence that social distancing in non-healthcare workplaces reduces or slows influenza transmission. METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, CINAHL, NIOSHTIC-2, and EconLit to identify studies published in English from January 1, 2000, through May 3, 2017...
April 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Masahiko Okumura, Sebastien Kerisit, Ian C Bourg, Laura N Lammers, Takashi Ikeda, Michel Sassi, Kevin M Rosso, Masahiko Machida
Insights at the microscopic level of the process of radiocesium adsorption and interaction with clay mineral particles have improved substantially over the past several years, triggered by pressing social issues such as management of huge amounts of waste soil accumulated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. In particular, computer-based molecular modeling supported by advanced hardware and algorithms has proven to be a powerful approach. Its application can now generally encompass the full complexity of clay particle adsorption sites from basal surfaces to interlayers with inserted water molecules, to edges including fresh and weathered frayed ones...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Kirsten Emiko McAllister
This paper examines methodological challenges involved in conducting research on family photographs from persecuted communities, using Japanese Canadian photos as a case study. Approaching family photography as a social practice that instills dominant familial ideologies, the paper examines their "performative scripts" that arrange family members according to normative identities and roles. The paper argues that researchers are not immune to scripts that shape how and what we have been socialized to see (and not see) in family photos...
April 17, 2018: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
A A Ovchinnikov, A N Sultanova, T Yu Sycheva, T N Mamedov
AIM: To study the relationship between the family structure and characteristics of the response to stress in adolescent addicts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 65 patients who used psychoactive substances and 42 healthy controls. A set of psychological methods was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the group of adolescent addicts, a low result was revealed on the scale 'family cohesion'. A high level of development of such mechanisms of psychological defense as denial, suppression, repression, compensation, substitution, intellectualization and reactive education was diagnosed in both groups...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Anne Iten, Chantal Bonfillon, Claire-Anne Siegrist, Laurent Kaiser, Didier Pittet
Preventing an influenza outbreak in an acute care requires a multimodal intervention, taking into account the actors involved (influenza virus, staff, patients, visitors), and the stage of the epidemic. Different means are used for this purpose : immunization, use of alcohol-based hand rub, identification of influenza cases, wearing of medical masks, social distance, and antiviral treatment. In addition, an epidemiological surveillance of influenza cases, in the general population and within the health facilities, must be associated...
April 11, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Yung Keun Park, Je Ho Kim
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine prejudices and attitudes of students in the department of physical therapy, in order to suggest basic data for constructing an effective program to develop a positive attitude toward people with disabilities and lower social distance from them. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, students in the department of physical therapy participate in the survey examining prejudices and attitude towards people with disabilities. [Results] First, there were statistically significant differences in the prejudice against people with disabilities among student groups divided by whether they had contact on a frequent basis currently with those who have disabilities...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Deborah A Temkin, Scott D Gest, D Wayne Osgood, Mark Feinberg, James Moody
This article expands research on normative school transitions (NSTs) from elementary to middle school or middle to high school by examining the extent to which they disrupt structures of friendship networks. Social network analysis is used to quantify aspects of connectedness likely relevant to student experiences of social support. Data were drawn from 25 communities followed from sixth to ninth grades. Variability in timing of NSTs permitted multi-level longitudinal models to disentangle developmental effects from transition effects...
May 2018: Youth & Society
Samuel C Peter, Qian Li, Rory A Pfund, James P Whelan, Andrew W Meyers
The negative psychological effects of public stigma on disordered gamblers have been well documented. Public stigma deters treatment-seeking and other help-seeking behaviors, and negatively impacts individuals' view of themselves. Different types of disordered gambling activities may attract different degrees of stigma. One increasingly popular form of gambling involves placing bets on the outcomes of competitive video games, also called eSports gambling. This activity shares characteristics with Internet gaming and gambling...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Kenisha Russell Jonsson, Neli Demireva
Concerns about the diversification of Britain, and its impact on social capital and health are widely debated. The literature has however produced a fuzzy discourse, full of assumptions and claims that are rarely tested. We attempt to disentangle some of these assumptions by providing empirical evidence on the mediating and moderating influence of inter-ethnic conflict and contact, and examine whether they underlie the erosion of health among minorities and white British respondents residing in diverse local areas...
March 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
A Millard, L Baldassar, R Wilding
OBJECTIVES: To understand the increasingly important role of digital citizenship (the ability to participate in society online) in supporting the well-being of ageing migrants. STUDY DESIGN: Participant observation, social network mapping, ethnographic and life-history interviews. METHODS: Fifteen in-depth case studies examined the role of online participation in fostering the well-being and care of older migrants in Perth, Western Australia...
April 3, 2018: Public Health
E Ray Dorsey, Alistair M Glidden, Melissa R Holloway, Gretchen L Birbeck, Lee H Schwamm
Neurological disorders are the leading cause of global disability. However, for most people around the world, current neurological care is poor. In low-income countries, most individuals lack access to proper neurological care, and in high-income countries, distance and disability limit access. With the global proliferation of smartphones, teleneurology - the use of technology to provide neurological care and education remotely - has the potential to improve and increase access to care for billions of people...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Cheryl Kerfeld, Tracy Jirikowic, Katheryn J Allyn, Murray E Maitland
BACKGROUND: Through play, children develop motor, cognitive, social, and other life skills. Play barriers can impede physical and psychosocial benefits. OBJECTIVES: We describe participation in active play, fundamental movement skills, play environment characteristics, and potential play barriers for school-aged children (6-12 years) who use lower extremity prostheses. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire study. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed and administered online to parents of children 6-12 years who use lower extremity prostheses...
April 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Emily Haddad, Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar, Blake W Palmer, Christopher Aston, Bradley P Kropp
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with bladder and cloacal exstrophy are at increased risk for kidney disease, renal failure, and bladder complications. Given the social implications and sensitive nature of the disease, these patients are also at risk for psychosocial problems. Lack of regular medical follow-up visits may pose serious risks to their long-term health status. The aim of this study is determine what factors place an affected individual at risk for limited long term follow up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified all patients with bladder or cloacal exstrophy seen by the pediatric urology department at the Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center (OUHSC) between January 1996 and August 2016...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Tamara Nsubuga-Nyombi, Simon Sensalire, Esther Karamagi, Judith Aloyo, John Byabagambi, Mirwais Rahimzai, Linda Kisaakye Nabitaka, Jacqueline Calnan
BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to improve the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Northern Uganda, we explored reasons for poor viral suppression among 122 pregnant and lactating women who were in care, received viral load tests, but had not achieved viral suppression and had more than 1000 copies/mL. Understanding the patient factors associated with low viral suppression was of interest to the Ministry of Health to guide the development of tools and interventions to achieve viral suppression for pregnant and lactating women newly initiating on ART as well as those on ART with unsuppressed viral load...
March 31, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Fumio Someki, Miyuki Torii, Patricia J Brooks, Tatsuya Koeda, Kristen Gillespie-Lynch
Misconceptions and stigma associated with autism vary across cultures and may be influenced by various factors. Undergraduates in Japan (N = 212) and the United States (US) (N = 365) completed an online autism training, with pre- and posttest surveys assessing autism-related stigma (i.e., social distance) and knowledge. Aims were to examine differences in autism stigma and knowledge in Japan and the US, while extending prior research demonstrating benefits of an online autism training in the US and Lebanon to Japan...
March 27, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Daniela Cohen, Anat Perry, Naama Mayseless, Oded Kleinmintz, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
Personal space, defined as the distance individuals choose to maintain between themselves and others, is an indicator of affiliation and closeness. Most paradigms that measure personal space preferences involve explicit choice and therefore fail to examine the implicit aspects of such preferences. In the current study, we sought to investigate an implicit form of interpersonal space that is more closely related to real-life situations involving affiliation. We studied the effects of oxytocin (OT) on neural networks that involve affiliation and tested the impact on personal space preferences...
March 13, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mark C Pachucki, Andrew J Karter, Nancy E Adler, Howard H Moffet, E Margaret Warton, Dean Schillinger, Bethany Hendrickson O'Connell, Barbara Laraia
Though eating with others is often a social behavior, relationships between social contexts of eating and nutrient intake have been underexplored. This study evaluates how social aspects of eating - frequencies of eating meals with others, meals prepared at home, and meals outside the home - are associated with nutrient intake. Because diet improvement can reduce complications of diabetes mellitus, we surveyed a multi-ethnic cohort of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 770) about social aspects of diet (based on 24 h recalls)...
March 27, 2018: Appetite
Bianca Manago, Bernice A Pescosolido, Sigrun Olafsdottir
AIMS: Quantitative survey research findings reveal that Western countries have lower rates of public stigma surrounding mental illness than other nations. However, qualitative media research across selected Western countries reports differences in stigmatising messages. Here, we take an in-depth look at country-level data exploring both similarities and differences in this stigma across three countries. Specifically, we use previous findings on global differences in public stigma and media to examine whether there is a correspondence between themes in newspaper reporting and variations in attitudes across seven stigma dimensions...
March 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
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