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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081043/the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-endemic-maintaining-disease-transmission-in-at-risk-urban-areas
#1
Richard B Rothenberg, Dajun Dai, Mary Anne Adams, John Wesley Heath
OBJECTIVES: A study of network relationships, geographic contiguity, and risk behavior was designed to test the hypothesis that all 3 are required to maintain endemicity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in at-risk urban communities. Specifically, a highly interactive network, close geographic proximity, and compound risk (multiple high-risk activities with multiple partners) would be required. METHODS: We enrolled 927 participants from two contiguous geographic areas in Atlanta, GA: a higher-risk area and lower-risk area, as measured by history of HIV reporting...
February 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068753/retrospective-matched-pair-cohort-study-on-effect-of-bisegmental-fenestration-versus-hemilaminectomy-for-bisegmental-spinal-canal-stenosis-at-l3-l4-and-l4-l5
#2
Julia Schüppel, Friedrich Weber
Background The main symptoms of degenerative lumbar spinal canal stenosis are progressive back pain, spinal claudication, and, occasionally, sensory and motor deficits. Impairments particularly occur during walking, standing, and sitting. Thus social and vocational activities are increasingly restricted, causing considerable suffering for patients. Surgical therapies are superior to conservative ones. This article studies the outcome of 2-level fenestration versus hemilaminectomy for bisegmental spinal stenosis decompression...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068531/forensic-data-and-microvariant-sequence-characterization-of-27-y-str-loci-analyzed-in-four-eastern-african-countries
#3
Giuseppe Iacovacci, Eugenia D'Atanasio, Ornella Marini, Alfredo Coppa, Daniele Sellitto, Beniamino Trombetta, Andrea Berti, Fulvio Cruciani
By using the recently introduced 6-dye Yfiler(®) Plus multiplex, we analyzed 462 males belonging to 20 ethnic groups from four eastern African countries (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya). Through a Y-STR sequence analysis, combined with 62 SNP-based haplogroup information, we were able to classify observed microvariant alleles at four Y-STR loci as either monophyletic (DYF387S1 and DYS458) or recurrent (DYS449 and DYS627). We found evidence of non-allelic gene conversion among paralogous STRs of the two-copy locus DYF387S1...
December 29, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068413/social-and-genetic-networks-of-hiv-1-transmission-in-new-york-city
#4
Joel O Wertheim, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Lisa A Forgione, Sanjay R Mehta, Ben Murrell, Sharmila Shah, Davey M Smith, Konrad Scheffler, Lucia V Torian
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections spread across contact networks. Partner elicitation and notification are commonly used public health tools to identify, notify, and offer testing to persons linked in these contact networks. For HIV-1, a rapidly evolving pathogen with low per-contact transmission rates, viral genetic sequences are an additional source of data that can be used to infer or refine transmission networks. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene interviews individuals newly diagnosed with HIV and elicits names of sexual and injection drug using partners...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063604/-next-to-you-young-children-sit-closer-to-a-person-following-vicarious-ostracism
#5
Vesna Marinović, Sebastian Wahl, Birgit Träuble
Seeking proximity to another person immediately expresses affiliative intentions. These are highly relevant after experiencing social exclusion. Through a novel task, the current study investigated the relation between proximity and observed ostracism during early childhood. A sample of 64 children (Mage=58months) first watched priming videos either depicting ostracism or not. Subsequently, children saw four seats of varying distances from an interactant's seat and chose where to sit. Children who observed social exclusion selected seats with higher proximity...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054427/social-and-biophysical-variation-in-regional-timber-harvest-regimes
#6
Jonathan R Thompson, Charles D Canham, Luca Morreale, David B Kittredge, Brett Butler
In terms of adult tree mortality, harvesting is the most prevalent disturbance in northeastern United States forests. Previous studies have demonstrated that stand structure and tree species composition are important predictors of harvest. We extend this work to investigate how social factors further influence harvest regimes. By coupling the Forest Inventory and Analysis database to U.S. Census and National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) data, we quantify social and biophysical variation in the frequency and intensity of harvesting throughout a twenty-state region in the northeastern U...
January 5, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051248/movardol%C3%A2-n-acetylglucosamine-boswellia-serrata-ginger-supplementation-in-the-management-of-knee-osteoarthritis-preliminary-results-from-a-6-month-registry-study
#7
G Bolognesi, G Belcaro, B Feragalli, U Cornelli, R Cotellese, S Hu, M Dugall
OBJECTIVE: Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease caused by the deterioration of cartilage in joints, which results in activation of the inflammatory response, pain, and impaired movement. Complementary therapies, particularly supplementation, in the management of moderate/severe knee OA have been gaining attention. This registry study aimed at evaluating the synergistic effect of Movardol®, a supplementation containing active ingredients with recognized anti-inflammatory activities on symptoms and levels of circulating biomarkers of knee OA...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050150/risk-stratification-treatment-selection-and-transplant-eligibility-in-multiple-myeloma-a-qualitative-study-of-the-perspectives-and-self-reported-practices-of-oncologists
#8
T W LeBlanc, A Howson, W Turell, P Sheldon, S C Locke, S A Tuchman, C Gasparetto, S Kaura, Z M Khan, A P Abernethy
BACKGROUND: Since the early 2000s, treatment options for multiple myeloma have rapidly expanded, adding significant complexity to the management of this disease. To our knowledge, no systematic qualitative research on clinical decision-making in multiple myeloma has been published. We sought to characterize how physicians view and implement guidelines and incorporate novel approaches into patient care. METHODS: We designed a semi-structured qualitative interview guide informed by literature review and an expert advisory panel...
December 2016: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041874/economic-and-social-activities-on-ancient-cypriot-terraced-landscapes
#9
Elizabeth Ridder, Christopher S Galletti, Patricia L Fall, Steven E Falconer
We investigate ancient agricultural terraces and their associated social and economic activities across the site complex consisting of the village at Politiko-Troullia and its more extensive associated taskscape. Surface artifact distributions mapped over 12 ha are integrated with evidence excavated from this Bronze Age settlement in central Cyprus. Contrary to expectations, artifact densities do not diminish with distance from the village architecture. In particular, concentrations of Prehistoric Bronze Age ceramics and ground stone artifacts are most pronounced on nearby terraced hillsides...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040575/stigma-toward-psychosis-and-its-formulation-process-prejudice-and-discrimination-against-early-stages-of-schizophrenia
#10
Yoko Baba, Takahiro Nemoto, Naohisa Tsujino, Taiju Yamaguchi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Masafumi Mizuno
BACKGROUND: Stigma toward psychosis can prevent social attendance and help-seeking behavior. Early detection and intervention has been shown to improve patient outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to reveal the characteristics and formulation process of stigma toward each clinical stage of schizophrenia, taking people's backgrounds into consideration. METHODS: The participants consisted of three groups: general public, patients with mental illness, and psychiatric professionals...
November 17, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039114/model-based-calculating-tool-for-pollen-mediated-gene-flow-frequencies-in-plants
#11
Wang Lei, Lu Bao-Rong
The potential social-economic and environmental impacts caused by transgene flow from genetically engineered (GE) crops have stimulated worldwide biosafety concerns. To determine transgene flow frequencies resulted from pollination is the first critical step for assessing such impacts, in addition to the determination of transgene expression and fitness in crop-wild hybrid descendants. Two methods are commonly used to estimate pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) frequencies: field experimenting and mathematical modeling...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032255/treatment-recommendations-for-schizophrenia-major-depression-and-alcohol-dependence-and-stigmatizing-attitudes-of-the-public-results-from-a-german-population-survey
#12
Sven Speerforck, Georg Schomerus, Herbert Matschinger, Matthias C Angermeyer
In addition to mental health literacy, several potentially conflicting emotions and attitudes among the public are hypothesized to guide their recommendations for specific mental health treatments. It is unclear whether evidence-based treatment strategies are guided by pro-social or stigmatizing attitudes and emotions. In a representative population survey in Germany (n = 3642), we asked respondents to what extent they would recommend psychotropic medication, psychotherapy and relaxation techniques for a person with mental illness described in an unlabelled vignette...
December 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018257/expectations-and-decisions-in-the-volunteer-s-dilemma-effects-of-social-distance-and-social-projection
#13
Joachim I Krueger, Johannes Ullrich, Leonard J Chen
In a Volunteer's Dilemma (VoD) one individual needs to bear a cost so that a public good can be provided. Expectations regarding what others will do play a critical role because they would ideally be negatively correlated with own decisions; yet, a social-projection heuristic generates positive correlations. In a series of 2-person-dilemma studies with over 1,000 participants, we find that expectations are indeed correlated with own choice, and that people tend to volunteer more than game-theoretic benchmarks and their own expectations would allow...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018121/adaptive-behaviors-in-multi-agent-source-localization-using-passive-sensing
#14
Mansoor Shaukat, Mandar Chitre
In this paper, the role of adaptive group cohesion in a cooperative multi-agent source localization problem is investigated. A distributed source localization algorithm is presented for a homogeneous team of simple agents. An agent uses a single sensor to sense the gradient and two sensors to sense its neighbors. The algorithm is a set of individualistic and social behaviors where the individualistic behavior is as simple as an agent keeping its previous heading and is not self-sufficient in localizing the source...
December 2016: Adaptive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018119/demystifying-the-victimized-state-a-civil-military-crisis-in-waiting
#15
Ross McGarry
The purpose of this article is to illustrate prescient issues relating to current and ex-military communities in the United Kingdom who have featured heavily within the policy arena over the past decade in relation to several key areas of importance. It will be illustrated how this population becomes visible within the public imagination (via military losses), how discourses relating to the harms they experience are structured and articulated within political and policy domains (particularly in relation to mental health) via "state talk" (qua Sim), and what the potential social consequences are for politically rendering an unproblematized populist view of current and ex-military communities (i...
January 2017: Illness, Crises, and Loss
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013441/pragmatic-competency-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-comparative-assessment-with-normal-controls
#16
Shima Ghahari, Hamidreza Hassani, Maryam Purmofrad
Unlike such cognitive impairments as autism and schizophrenia, the speech pattern in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has largely remained underrepresented. We examined the pragmatic competence of OCD-affected individuals under two variant modes: pragmatic recognition and pragmatic production. In the recognition phase, the informants completed a discourse completion test around two speech acts of request and apology (20 high power distance situations). The production phase was carried out through an interview during which the informants' communication behaviors were rated on the basis of the Orion's pragmatic language skills checklist (OPLS) subscales...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011182/dynamic-facial-asymmetry-in-patients-with-repaired-cleft-lip-using-4d-imaging-video-stereophotogrammetry
#17
Rami R Hallac, Jennifer Feng, Alex A Kane, James R Seaward
BACKGROUND: Unilateral cleft lip is a profoundly asymmetrical condition affecting all hard and soft tissue layers from the nose to the upper lip. Although the asymmetry is minimized through cleft lip repair, a degree of asymmetry inevitably persists. Studies investigating asymmetry in patients with cleft lip have used facial measurements, and static 2D and 3D photography. The nose/lip/mouth area, however, is rarely static in our day to day social interactions. METHODS: Non-syndromic patients with cleft lip and palate, and a control group without orofacial clefts underwent 50 frames per second 4D imaging while generating facial expressions including smiling and pouting...
January 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007293/centripetal-and-centrifugal-forces-in-the-moral-circle-competing-constraints-on-moral-learning
#18
Jesse Graham, Adam Waytz, Peter Meindl, Ravi Iyer, Liane Young
The idea of the moral circle pictures the self in the center, surrounded by concentric circles encompassing increasingly distant possible targets of moral concern, including family, local community, nation, all humans, all mammals, all living things including plants, and all things including inanimate objects. The authors develop the idea of two opposing forces in people's moral circles, with centripetal forces pulling inward, urging greater concern for close others than for distant others, and centrifugal forces pushing outward, resisting "drawing the line" anywhere as a form of prejudice and urging egalitarian concern for all regardless of social distance...
December 19, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995048/proposal-for-optimal-placement-platform-of-bikes-using-queueing-networks
#19
Shinya Mizuno, Shogo Iwamoto, Mutsumi Seki, Naokazu Yamaki
In recent social experiments, rental motorbikes and rental bicycles have been arranged at nodes, and environments where users can ride these bikes have been improved. When people borrow bikes, they return them to nearby nodes. Some experiments have been conducted using the models of Hamachari of Yokohama, the Niigata Rental Cycle, and Bicing. However, from these experiments, the effectiveness of distributing bikes was unclear, and many models were discontinued midway. Thus, we need to consider whether these models are effectively designed to represent the distribution system...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991827/bragging-on-facebook-the-interaction-of-content-source-and-focus-in-online-impression-formation
#20
Graham G Scott, Kirsty Ravenscroft
Warranting Theory proposes that third-party testimonials are more influential in online impression formation than target-authored statements. Individuals posting content on social media accurately convey their offline personality while endeavoring to present themselves in a positive light. In doing so, they may misjudge the psychological distance of the majority of viewers, who could view this positive self-presentation as bragging and form resultant negative impressions. In this study, we asked 136 participants to view the Facebook timelines of four female targets...
January 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
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