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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244556/seasonal-food-scarcity-prompts-long-distance-foraging-by-a-wild-social-bee
#1
Nathaniel S Pope, Shalene Jha
Foraging is an essential process for mobile animals, and its optimization serves as a foundational theory in ecology and evolution; however, drivers of foraging are rarely investigated across landscapes and seasons. Using a common bumblebee species from the western United States (Bombus vosnesenskii), we ask whether seasonal decreases in food resources prompt changes in foraging behavior and space use. We employ a unique integration of population genetic tools and spatially explicit foraging models to estimate foraging distances and rates of patch visitation for wild bumblebee colonies across three study regions and two seasons...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243011/public-stigma-and-the-label-of-gambling-disorder-does-it-make-a-difference
#2
Billy A Palmer, Eric J Richardson, Martin Heesacker, M Kristina DePue
This study examined public gambling stigma by testing stigmatization of those diagnosed with a gambling disorder, as specified by the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm16 ). The researchers hypothesized that the magnitude of stigmatization would fall in this order, from most stigmatized to least: (a) the target labelled and described in ways consistent with moderate gambling disorder (b) the target described in ways consistent with moderate gambling disorder, (c) the target described in ways consistent with recreational gambling, (d) and control...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241470/-social-issues-in-the-doctor-s-clinic
#3
H Vos
Doctors are confronted with issues that arise in society. These social issues can affect patients' health. Solving these problems requires more than just prescribing a pill, as illustrated by the cases of three patients. The first patient is a 42-year-old male with cardiac symptoms, chronic lower back pain and an excessive use of tranquillizers. The welfare worker intervened and his demand for health care and use of tranquillizers diminished. The second patient is a 53-year-old female with symptoms of chronic back pain, migraine and depression...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240810/forest-loss-in-new-england-a-projection-of-recent-trends
#4
Jonathan R Thompson, Joshua S Plisinski, Pontus Olofsson, Christopher E Holden, Matthew J Duveneck
New England has lost more than 350,000 ha of forest cover since 1985, marking a reversal of a two-hundred-year trend of forest expansion. We a cellular land-cover change model to project a continuation of recent trends (1990-2010) in forest loss across six New England states from 2010 to 2060. Recent trends were estimated using a continuous change detection algorithm applied to twenty years of Landsat images. We addressed three questions: (1) What would be the consequences of a continuation of the recent trends in terms of changes to New England's forest cover mosaic? (2) What social and biophysical attributes are most strongly associated with recent trends in forest loss, and how do these vary geographically? (3) How sensitive are projections of forest loss to the reference period-i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228367/how-social-structure-drives-the-population-dynamics-of-the-common-vampire-bat-desmodus-rotundus-phyllostomidae
#5
Maïlis Huguin, Nidia Arechiga-Ceballos, Marguerite Delaval, Amandine Guidez, Isaï Jorge de Castro, Vincent Lacoste, Arielle Salmier, Alvaro Aguilar Setien, Claudia Regina Silva, Anne Lavergne, Benoit de Thoisy
Social systems are major drivers of population structure and gene flow, with important effects on dynamics and dispersal of associated populations of parasites. Among bats, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) has likely one of the most complex social structure. Using autosomal and mitochondrial markers on vampires from Mexico, French Guiana and North Brazil, from both roosting and foraging areas, we observed an isolation by distance at the wider scale and lower but significant differentiation between closer populations (<50 km)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223196/application-of-psychological-theories-in-agent-based-modeling-the-case-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#6
Andrea Scalco, Andrea Ceschi, Riccardo Sartori
It is likely that computer simulations will assume a greater role in the next future to investigate and understand reality (Rand & Rust, 2011). Particularly, agent-based models (ABMs) represent a method of investigation of social phenomena that blend the knowledge of social sciences with the advantages of virtual simulations. Within this context, the development of algorithms able to recreate the reasoning engine of autonomous virtual agents represents one of the most fragile aspects and it is indeed crucial to establish such models on well-supported psychological theoretical frameworks...
January 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221498/influence-of-community-based-education-on-undergraduate-health-professions-students-decision-to-work-in-underserved-areas-in-uganda
#7
Samuel Kizito, Rhona Baingana, Kintu Mugagga, Peter Akera, Nelson K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: Uganda is beset by a shortage of health workers and the few available are mal-distributed. Providing rural exposure through community-based education could positively influence students' perspectives towards work in rural areas. We aimed to assess the impact of Community-Based Education and Research (COBERS) on health professions students' attitudes towards working in rural areas. This was a before-and-after study among 525 students of 4 medical universities in Uganda. Data was collected using self-administered paper-based questionnaires...
December 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213249/skewed-sociolinguistic-awareness-of-a-native-non-standard-dialect-evidence-from-the-cypriot-greek-writing-of-greek-cypriot-students
#8
Ioli Ayiomamitou, Androula Yiakoumetti
Over the last 50 years, sociolinguistic research in settings in which a regional, social, or ethnic non-standard linguistic variety is used alongside the standard variety of the same language has steadily increased. The educational implications of the concomitant use of such varieties have also received a great deal of research attention. This study deals with regional linguistic variation and its implications for education by focusing on the Greek Cypriot educational context. This context is ideal for investigating the linguistic profiles of speakers of proximal varieties as the majority of Greek Cypriots are primarily educated in just one of their varieties: the standard educational variety...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212724/major-histocompatibility-complex-linked-social-signalling-affects-female-fertility
#9
D Burger, S Thomas, H Aepli, M Dreyer, G Fabre, E Marti, H Sieme, M R Robinson, C Wedekind
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been shown to influence social signalling and mate preferences in many species, including humans. First observations suggest that MHC signalling may also affect female fertility. To test this hypothesis, we exposed 191 female horses (Equus caballus) to either an MHC-similar or an MHC-dissimilar stimulus male around the time of ovulation and conception. A within-subject experimental design controlled for non-MHC-linked male characteristics, and instrumental insemination with semen of other males (n = 106) controlled for potential confounding effects of semen or embryo characteristics...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211046/building-based-analysis-of-the-spatial-provision-of-urban-parks-in-shenzhen-china
#10
Wenxiu Gao, Qiang Lyu, Xiang Fan, Xiaochun Yang, Jiangtao Liu, Xirui Zhang
Urban parks provide important environmental, social, and economic benefits to people and urban areas. The literature demonstrates that proximity to urban parks is one of the key factors influencing people's willingness to use them. Therefore, the provision of urban parks near residential areas and workplaces is one of the key factors influencing quality of life. This study designed a solution based on the spatial association between urban parks and buildings where people live or work to identify whether people in different buildings have nearby urban parks available for their daily lives...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208617/stigma-towards-mental-illness-among-medical-and-nursing-students-in-singapore-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Sherilyn Chang, Hui Lin Ong, Esmond Seow, Boon Yiang Chua, Edimansyah Abdin, Ellaisha Samari, Wen Lin Teh, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
OBJECTIVES: To assess stigma towards people with mental illness among Singapore medical and nursing students using the Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC), and to examine the relationship of students' stigmatising attitudes with sociodemographic and education factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in Singapore PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted among 1002 healthcare (502 medical and 500 nursing) students during April to September 2016...
December 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206842/from-menarche-to-menopause-a-population-based-assessment-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-risk-factors-for-reproductive-tract-infection-symptoms-over-life-stages-in-rural-girls-and-women-in-india
#12
Kelly K Baker, Bijaya Padhi, Belen Torondel, Padmalaya Das, Ambarish Dutta, Krushna Chandra Sahoo, Bhabani Das, Robert Dreibelbis, Bethany Caruso, Matthew C Freeman, Lauren Sager, Pinaki Panigrahi
Women face greater challenges than men in accessing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) resources to address their daily needs, and may respond to these challenges by adopting unsafe practices that increase the risk of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). WASH practices may change as women transition through socially-defined life stage experiences, like marriage and pregnancy. Thus, the relationship between WASH practices and RTIs might vary across female reproductive life stages. This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between WASH exposures and self-reported RTI symptoms in 3,952 girls and women from two rural districts in India, and tested whether social exposures represented by reproductive life stage was an effect modifier of associations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206627/promoting-physical-activity-in-copd-insights-from-a-randomized-trial-of-a-web-based-intervention-and-pedometer-use
#13
Emily S Wan, Ana Kantorowski, Diana Homsy, Merilee Teylan, Reema Kadri, Caroline R Richardson, David R Gagnon, Eric Garshick, Marilyn L Moy
RATIONALE: Low physical activity is highly prevalent among COPD patients and is associated with increased healthcare utilization and mortality and reduced HRQL. The addition of a website to pedometer use is effective at increasing physical activity; however, the timeline of change and impact of environmental factors on efficacy is unknown. METHODS: U.S. Veterans with COPD were randomized (1:1) to receive either (1) a pedometer and website which provided goal-setting, feedback, disease-specific education, and an online community forum or (2) pedometer alone for 3 months...
September 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197717/inferring-chinese-surnames-with-y-str-profiles
#14
Cheng-Min Shi, Changzhen Li, Liang Ma, Lianjiang Chi, Jing Zhao, Wuzhou Yuan, Zhendiao Zhou, Jiang-Wei Yan, Hua Chen
Co-ancestry of human surnames and Y-chromosomes in most human populations and social groups suggests the possibility of inferring one from the other. However, such an intuitive perspective remains to be formally explored. In the present study, we develop two computational methods, based on cosine distance (dcos) and coalescence distance (dcoal) respectively, to infer surnames from Y-STR profiles. We also survey Y-STR variations at 15 loci for 19,009 individuals of Shandong Province in China. For a total of 266 surnames included in the data set, our methods can pinpoint to a single surname with an average accuracy of 65%, and with an average accuracy higher than 80% when providing >4 candidate surnames...
November 24, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192463/le-secret-professionnel-soignant%C3%A2-un-enjeu-de-d%C3%A3-mocratie-sanitaire-entre-immanence-et-ali%C3%A3-nation
#15
Silvère Pautier
For a long time considered as total and absolute, healthcare professional secrecy is today difficult to reconcile with care practices. Lots of paradoxes question its preservation in favour of general interest and public order against the protection of private interest within an individualistic normative society. Exploring this interrogation, the article's objective is to initiate an ethical discussion from a professional caregiver secrecy's historical and sociological evolution perspective. Thus, with the help of theoretical understandings, especially those by Michel Foucault, medical secrecy is considered a defense of rationality specific to populations' government...
November 21, 2017: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191239/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-of-arctic-foxes-vulpes-lagopus-in-the-high-arctic
#16
Sandra Lai, Adrien Quiles, Josie Lambourdière, Dominique Berteaux, Aude Lalis
OBJECTIVE: The arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) is a circumpolar species inhabiting all accessible Arctic tundra habitats. The species forms a panmictic population over areas connected by sea ice, but recently, kin clustering and population differentiation were detected even in regions where sea ice was present. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic structure of a population in the High Arctic using a robust panel of highly polymorphic microsatellites. RESULTS: We analyzed the genotypes of 210 individuals from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, using 15 microsatellite loci...
December 1, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190332/the-neural-correlates-of-intelligence-comparison
#17
Xue Wen, Jonathan S Cant, Yanhui Xiang, Ruiwang Huang, Lei Mo
Social comparison plays an important role in our daily life. Several studies have investigated the neural mechanism of social comparison; however, their conclusions remain controversial. The present study explored the neural correlates of intelligence comparison and nonsocial size comparison using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a distance effect paradigm. We found that both intelligence and size comparisons obeyed the behavioral distance effect-longer response times for near than far distances and this effect involved an overlapping frontal network including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and insula...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188726/smoking-to-fit-a-stigmatised-identity-a-qualitative-study-of-marginalised-young-people-in-australia
#18
Marita Hefler, Stacy M Carter
In countries with comprehensive tobacco control, smoking is increasingly denormalised, with smokers subject to social stigmatisation. Qualitative research and commentary about denormalisation and stigma has largely focused on the impact on current or former smokers. Little attention has been given to the interaction between existing stigma among socially marginalised and disadvantaged young people and its role in smoking uptake, maintenance and resistance to quitting, or remaining a non-smoker. This article draws on a qualitative (grounded theory) study of young people aged 16-25 years who attended social services for at-risk youth in an inner city area in Australia, to explore the intersection between stigmatised identity and smoking in a context of increasing smoking denormalisation...
November 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187164/depression-stigma-and-migration-results-of-a-survey-from-germany
#19
Anna C Makowski, Olaf von dem Knesebeck
BACKGROUND: There are barely any studies focusing on migration in relation to mental illness stigma. We explore present attitudes regarding depression among migrants (either born in Germany or born abroad) and non-migrants in Germany, drawing upon three components of public stigma: stereotypes, emotional reactions and desire for social distance. Furthermore, differences in self-stigma of depression between the two groups are analyzed. METHODS: Analyses are based on a representative telephone survey (N = 2013) in Germany...
November 29, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181611/human-wildlife-interactions-predict-febrile-illness-in-park-landscapes-of-western-uganda
#20
Jonathan Salerno, Noam Ross, Ria Ghai, Michael Mahero, Dominic A Travis, Thomas R Gillespie, Joel Hartter
Fevers of unknown origin complicate treatment and prevention of infectious diseases and are a global health burden. We examined risk factors of self-reported fever-categorized as "malarial" and "nonmalarial"-in households adjacent to national parks across the Ugandan Albertine Rift, a biodiversity and emerging infectious disease hotspot. Statistical models fitted to these data suggest that perceived nonmalarial fevers of unknown origin were associated with more frequent direct contact with wildlife and with increased distance from parks where wildlife habitat is limited to small forest fragments...
November 27, 2017: EcoHealth
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