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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051742/the-joint-action-effect-on-memory-as-a-social-phenomenon-the-role-of-cued-attention-and-psychological-distance
#1
Ullrich Wagner, Anna Giesen, Judith Knausenberger, Gerald Echterhoff
In contrast to individual tasks, a specific social setting is created when two partners work together on a task. How does such a social setting affect memory for task-related information? We addressed this issue in a distributed joint-action paradigm, where two team partners respond to different types of information within the same task. Previous work has shown that joint action in such a task enhances memory for items that are relevant to the partner's task but not to the own task. By removing critical, non-social confounds, we wanted to pinpoint the social nature of this selective memory advantage...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049293/a-structural-equation-model-of-the-relationship-between-muscle-strength-balance-performance-walking-endurance-and-community-integration-in-stroke-survivors
#2
P W H Kwong, S S M Ng, R C K Chung, G Y F Ng
PURPOSE: To use structural equation modelling (SEM) to determine (1) the direct and indirect associations of strength of paretic lower limb muscles with the level of community integration, and (2) the direct association of walking endurance and balance performance with the level of community integration in community-dwelling stroke survivors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 105 stroke survivors, the Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO) was used to measure the level of community integration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049279/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-related-to-ebola-virus-disease-at-the-end-of-a-national-epidemic-guinea-august-2015
#3
Mohamed F Jalloh, Susan J Robinson, Jamaica Corker, Wenshu Li, Kathleen Irwin, Alpha M Barry, Paulyne Ngalame Ntuba, Alpha A Diallo, Mohammad B Jalloh, James Nyuma, Musa Sellu, Amanda VanSteelandt, Megan Ramsden, LaRee Tracy, Pratima L Raghunathan, John T Redd, Lise Martel, Barbara Marston, Rebecca Bunnell
Health communication and social mobilization efforts to improve the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Ebola virus disease (Ebola) were important in controlling the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in Guinea (1), which resulted in 3,814 reported Ebola cases and 2,544 deaths.* Most Ebola cases in Guinea resulted from the washing and touching of persons and corpses infected with Ebola without adequate infection control precautions at home, at funerals, and in health facilities (2,3). As the 18-month epidemic waned in August 2015, Ebola KAP were assessed in a survey among residents of Guinea recruited through multistage cluster sampling procedures in the nation's eight administrative regions (Boké, Conakry, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labé, Mamou, and Nzérékoré)...
October 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048251/mental-health-related-outcomes-of-robin-williams-death-the-role-of-parasocial-relations-and-media-exposure-in-stigma-help-seeking-and-outreach
#4
Cynthia A Hoffner, Elizabeth L Cohen
This study explores responses to the death of actor/comedian Robin Williams, focusing on the role of celebrity attachment and exposure to media coverage following his suicide. A total of 350 respondents recruited on Mechanical Turk completed an online survey. Participants who had a stronger parasocial relationship with Williams reported lower social distance from people with depression, greater willingness to seek treatment for depression, and more frequent outreach to other people with depression or suicidal thoughts following his death...
October 19, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044675/-oh-my-god-i-can-t-handle-this-trainees-emotional-responses-to-complex-situations
#5
Esther Helmich, Laura Diachun, Radha Joseph, Kori LaDonna, Nelleke Noeverman-Poel, Lorelei Lingard, Sayra Cristancho
CONTEXT: Dealing with emotions is critical for medical trainees' professional development. Taking a sociocultural and narrative approach to understanding emotions, we studied complex clinical situations as a specific context in which emotions are evoked and influenced by the social environment. We sought to understand how medical trainees respond to emotions that arise in those situations. METHODS: In an international constructivist grounded theory study, 29 trainees drew two rich pictures of complex clinical situations, one exciting and one frustrating...
October 16, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042345/the-association-of-patient-factors-digital-access-and-online-behavior-on-sustained-patient-portal-use-a-prospective-cohort-of-enrolled-users
#6
Susan S Woods, Christopher W Forsberg, Erin C Schwartz, Kim M Nazi, Judith H Hibbard, Thomas K Houston, Martha Gerrity
BACKGROUND: As electronic health records and computerized workflows expand, there are unprecedented opportunities to digitally connect with patients using secure portals. To realize the value of patient portals, initial reach across populations will need to be demonstrated, as well as sustained usage over time. OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to identify patient factors associated with short-term and long-term portal usage after patients registered to access all portal functions...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038756/the-effects-of-familiarity-on-escape-responses-in-the-trinidadian-guppy-poecilia-reticulata
#7
Hayley L Wolcott, Alfredo F Ojanguren, Miguel Barbosa
Predation is the main cause of mortality during early life stages. The ability to avoid and evade potential threats is, therefore, favoured to evolve during the early stages of life. It is also during these early stages that the process of familiarization occurs. It has long been recognized that associating with familiar individuals confers antipredator benefits. Yet gaps in our knowledge remain about how predator evasion is affected by social experience during early stages. In this study, we test the hypothesis that familiarization acquired during early life stages improves escape responses...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034811/mental-illness-stigma-among-medical-students-and-teachers
#8
Miroslava Janoušková, Aneta Weissová, Tomáš Formánek, Jiří Pasz, Lucie Bankovská Motlová
BACKGROUND: Medical school curriculum contributes to future doctors' attitude formation towards people with mental illness. AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare stigmatizing attitudes between medical students and faculty, analyse stigmatizing attitudes among students from different years of study and identify factors predicting stigma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the use of scales measuring attitudes and social distance was designed...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028800/spatial-distribution-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-patients-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#9
Thandi Kapwata, Natashia Morris, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Primrose Mpangase, Kristin N Nelson, Salim Allana, James C M Brust, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Neel R Gandhi, N Sarita Shah
BACKGROUND: KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, has among the highest burden of XDR TB worldwide with the majority of cases occurring due to transmission. Poor access to health facilities can be a barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of TB, which can contribute to ongoing transmission. We sought to determine the geographic distribution of XDR TB patients and proximity to health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS: We recruited adults and children with XDR TB diagnosed in KwaZulu-Natal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025117/preliminary-investigation-of-workplace-provided-compressed-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-with-pediatric-medical-social-workers
#10
Kelly Trowbridge, Lisa Mische Lawson, Stephanie Andrews, Jodi Pecora, Sabra Boyd
Mindfulness practices, including mindfulness meditation, show promise for decreasing stress among health care providers. This exploratory study investigates the feasibility of a two-day compressed mindfulness-based stress reduction (cMBSR) course provided in the hospital workplace with pediatric health care social workers. The standard course of Jon Kabat-Zinn's MBSR requires a participant commitment to eight weeks of instruction consisting of one 2.5-hour-per-week class, a single day retreat, and 45 minutes of practice for six of seven days each week...
September 8, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023458/emergence-of-encounter-networks-due-to-human-mobility
#11
A P Riascos, José L Mateos
There is a burst of work on human mobility and encounter networks. However, the connection between these two important fields just begun recently. It is clear that both are closely related: Mobility generates encounters, and these encounters might give rise to contagion phenomena or even friendship. We model a set of random walkers that visit locations in space following a strategy akin to Lévy flights. We measure the encounters in space and time and establish a link between walkers after they coincide several times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022358/development-of-the-injury-perceptions-questionnaire-injpq
#12
Irit Heruti, Sigal Levy, Ronit Avitsur, Daniel Deutscher, Moshe Gutvirtz, Tamar Berkovitz, Shoshana Shiloh
OBJECTIVES: Injuries are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. Given the central role of perceptions in self-regulation of health conditions, it is important to investigate how they are perceived. This article describes the development of the Injury Perceptions Questionnaire (InjPQ). METHODS: A concurrent study in a diverse sample of injured individuals (n = 333). The internal structure and the reliability (Cronbach's α) of InjPQ sub-scales were explored by factor analyses...
October 12, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022291/comparison-of-contact-lens-corrected-quality-of-vision-and-life-of-keratoconus-and-myopic-patients
#13
Sunghoon Lee, Gangwook Jung, Hyung Keun Lee
PURPOSE: To compare and analyze changes in vision quality, subjective symptoms, and psycho-social satisfaction in keratoconus and myopic patients following the wearing of contact lenses. METHODS: This study enrolled 25 keratoconus and 25 myopic patients with corrected vision over 0.8 according to the Snellen chart due to treatment with contact lenses. Patients were surveyed prior to the wearing of contact lenses, and again after three months of contact lens usage with a questionnaire about quality of vision and life...
August 26, 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020525/social-determinants-of-adherence-to-pulmonary-rehabilitation-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Gabriela R Oates, Bryant W Hamby, Irena Stepanikova, Sara J Knight, Surya P Bhatt, Jason Hitchcock, Christopher Schumann, Mark T Dransfield
Adherence to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is low. Previous studies have focused on clinical predictors of PR completion. We aimed to identify social determinants of adherence to PR. A cross-sectional analysis of a database of COPD patients (N = 455) in an outpatient PR program was performed. Adherence, a ratio of attended-to-prescribed sessions, was coded as low (<35%), moderate (35-85%), and high (>85%). Individual-level measures included age, sex, race, BMI, smoking status, pack-years, baseline 6-minute walk distance (6MWD: <150, 150-249, ≥250), co-morbidities, depression, and prescribed PR sessions (≤20, 21-30, >30)...
October 11, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016150/imagine-that-the-effect-of-counterstereotypic-imagined-intergroup-contact-on-weight-bias
#15
Jamie L Dunaev, Paula M Brochu, Charlotte H Markey
OBJECTIVE: Higher body-weight people are highly stigmatized and face prejudice and discrimination across a number of domains. Further, experiences of weight stigmatization are associated with a host of negative physical, psychological, and social consequences. However, less is known about effective means for reducing weight bias. One strategy that has shown some success in prejudice reduction, yet is relatively untested for weight bias, is imagined intergroup contact. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of counterstereotypic imagined intergroup contact on weight bias...
October 9, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993386/patterns-and-correlates-of-active-commuting-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-cross-sectional-evidence-from-uk-biobank
#16
Catherine L Falconer, Ashley R Cooper, Ellen Flint
OBJECTIVES: To describe the active commuting (AC) patterns of adults with type 2 diabetes and how these relate to physical activity and sedentary behaviour in UK Biobank. Social and environmental correlates of AC will also be explored. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study. SETTINGS: This is a population cohort of over 500 000 people recruited from 22 centres across the UK. Participants aged between 37 and 73 years were recruited between 2006 and 2010...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992547/medical-students-attitudes-to-mental-illnesses-and-to-psychiatry-before-and-after-the-psychiatric-clerkship-training-in-a-specialty-and-a-general-hospital
#17
Marina Economou, Kontantinos Kontoangelos, Lily Evangelia Peppou, Aikaterini Arvaniti, Maria Samakouri, Athanasios Douzenis, George N Papadimitriou
Medical students' attitudes to mental illnesses and psychiatry may be reshaped during the psychiatric training, with important implications in their future practice of the profession. Therefore, the present study set out to explore the impact of the psychiatric clerkship in students' attitudes, while taking into consideration the site of their practical training. To this end, a total of 678 final-year medical students were recruited. Students completed a self-reported questionnaire entailing the Attitudes to Psychiatry scale, the Attitudes to Mental Illness scale and the Greek Social Distance scale before and after their placement...
October 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981508/optimizing-a-desirable-fare-structure-for-a-bus-subway-corridor
#18
Bing-Zheng Liu, Ying-En Ge, Kai Cao, Xi Jiang, Lingyun Meng, Ding Liu, Yunfeng Gao
This paper aims to optimize a desirable fare structure for the public transit service along a bus-subway corridor with the consideration of those factors related to equity in trip, including travel distance and comfort level. The travel distance factor is represented by the distance-based fare strategy, which is an existing differential strategy. The comfort level one is considered in the area-based fare strategy which is a new differential strategy defined in this paper. Both factors are referred to by the combined fare strategy which is composed of distance-based and area-based fare strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981432/heterogeneous-multitask-metric-learning-across-multiple-domains
#19
Yong Luo, Yonggang Wen, Dacheng Tao
Distance metric learning plays a crucial role in diverse machine learning algorithms and applications. When the labeled information in a target domain is limited, transfer metric learning (TML) helps to learn the metric by leveraging the sufficient information from other related domains. Multitask metric learning (MTML), which can be regarded as a special case of TML, performs transfer across all related domains. Current TML tools usually assume that the same feature representation is exploited for different domains...
October 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979085/dietary-diversity-on-the-swahili-coast-the-fauna-from-two-zanzibar-trading-locales
#20
M E Prendergast, E M Quintana Morales, A Crowther, M C Horton, N L Boivin
Occupants of coastal and island eastern Africa-now known as the 'Swahili coast'-were involved in long-distance trade with the Indian Ocean world during the later first millennium CE. Such exchanges may be traced via the appearance of non-native animals in the archaeofaunal record; additionally, this record reveals daily culinary practises of the members of trading communities and can thus shed light on subsistence technologies and social organisation. Yet despite the potential contributions of faunal data to Swahili coast archaeology, few detailed zooarchaeological studies have been conducted...
July 2017: Int J Osteoarchaeol
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