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Social stigma

Jennifer Power, Gosia Mikołajczak, Adam Bourne, Graham Brown, William Leonard, Anthony Lyons, Gary W Dowsett, Jayne Lucke
Background: This paper explores associations between use of party-and-play drugs, including crystal methamphetamine, and wellbeing among HIV positive gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Australia. This study considers whether use of drugs in a social or sex-based setting facilitates access to social and support networks, which may in turn support wellbeing. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Australian people living with HIV (PLHIV) was conducted. There were 714 participants (79.7%) who identified as GBM. Differences between party-and-play drug users and non-users were examined using bivariate and multinomial logistic regressions...
March 16, 2018: Sexual Health
Issam Bennis, Vincent De Brouwere, Zakaria Belrhiti, Hamid Sahibi, Marleen Boelaert
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic skin disease, linked to poverty, and belonging to the group of Neglected Tropical Diseases. Depending on the severity, the type of lesions or scars, and the context, CL can lead to self- and social stigma influencing the quality of life and psychological well-being of the patient. This dimension is, however, little documented for the most common, localized form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). We aimed to describe the current knowledge on the psychological burden and the stigma related to LCL...
March 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Lee-Fay Low, Margaret McGrath, Kate Swaffer, Henry Brodaty
The aim of this study is to systematically review practitioners' practices and attitudes in regards to communicating a diagnosis of dementia. A systematic search was conducted of Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed for English language original empirical papers. A sequential explanatory mixed studies analysis approach was used. Twenty-five quantitative descriptive, two intervention, six mixed methods descriptive and 21 qualitative studies were included. Pooled analysis showed that 34% of GPs and 48% of specialists usually/routinely tell the person with dementia their diagnosis, and 89% of GPs and 97% specialists usually/routinely tell the family the diagnosis...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Joseph El-Khoury, Rassil Ghazzaoui, Amanda Ahmad
The recognition of mental health needs in developing countries is growing in parallel with increased public awareness of and reduced stigma toward mental illness. With resources still limited in these countries, creating economically viable health care models is essential. These models are often adapted from already established and tested systems in industrialized nations. The Psychosis Recovery Outreach Program (PROP) at the American University of Beirut is an initiative that exemplifies the global transfer of knowledge, experience, and skills...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Stephanie M Topp, Chanda Mwamba, Anjali Sharma, Njekwa Mukamba, Laura K Beres, Elvin Geng, Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe
BACKGROUND: Failure to keep people living with HIV engaged in life-long care and treatment has serious implications for individual and population-level health. Nested within a four-province study of HIV care and treatment outcomes, we explored the dynamic role of social and service-related factors influencing retention in HIV care in Zambia. METHODS: From a stratified random sample of 31 facilities, eight clinics were selected, one urban and one rural from each province...
2018: PloS One
Rangarirai Matima, Katherine Murphy, Naomi S Levitt, Rhonda BeLue, Tolu Oni
BACKGROUND: Current South African health policy for chronic disease management proposes integration of chronic services for better outcomes for chronic conditions; that is based on the Integrated Chronic Disease Model (ICDM). However, scant data exist on how patients with chronic multimorbidities currently experience the (re)-organisation of health services and what their perceived needs are in order to enhance the management of their conditions. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in a community health centre treating both HIV and diabetes patients in Cape Town...
2018: PloS One
Ann Sheridan, Donal O'Keeffe, Barbara Coughlan, Kate Frazer, Johnathan Drennan, Mary Kemple
BACKGROUND: Social opportunities can be limited in the lives of people with enduring mental illness (EMI) due to psychiatric stigma, restricted home environments and employment barriers. Supported socialisation programmes have the potential to redress the impact of social isolation. AIM: To explore the experiences of service users with EMI taking part in a supported socialisation programme, using written diary entries. METHODS: This article reports on the qualitative component of a randomised controlled trial of supported socialisation for people with EMI (published previously in this journal)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
T E Murray, S D Ma, F Doyle, M J Lee
AIM: To determine whether obesity information obtained via imaging techniques is desirable for clinicians and patients, and to investigate whether it impacts clinical decision-making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parallel surveys were designed to assess patient and clinician attitudes to the medical utility and social stigma of reporting obesity on radiology reports performed for other reasons. RESULTS: Where obesity was noted at medical imaging performed for any reason, clinicians and patients strongly agreed that it should be included in the radiology report (5...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Cristiano Scandurra, Vincenzo Bochicchio, Anna Lisa Amodeo, Concetta Esposito, Paolo Valerio, Nelson Mauro Maldonato, Dario Bacchini, Roberto Vitelli
Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people are a highly-stigmatized population. For this reason, they might internalize society's normative gender attitudes and develop negative mental health outcomes. As an extension of the minority stress model, the psychological mediation framework sheds light on psychological processes through which anti-transgender discrimination might affect mental health. Within this framework, the current study aimed at assessing in 149 TGNC Italian individuals the role of internalized transphobia as a mediator between anti-transgender discrimination and mental health, considering resilience as the individual-level coping mechanism buffering this relationship...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Carmen H Logie, Candice L Lys, Nicole Schott, Lisa Dias, Makenzie R Zouboules, Kayley Mackay
Scant research has addressed health and well-being among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) persons in the Arctic. The Northwest Territories (NWT) has among Canada's highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). LGBTQ persons in NWT are at the nexus of LGBTQ and Arctic health disparities. Yet little is known of their sexual health needs. This qualitative study explored the sexual health needs of LGBTQ persons in the NWT. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 51 participants, including 16 LGBTQ youth aged 15-24, 21 LGBTQ adults aged 25 and above, and 14 key informants who worked with LGBTQ persons...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
Heather deBoer, Matthew Andrews, Stephanie Cudd, Ellie Leung, Alana Petrie, Soo Chan Carusone, Kelly K O'Brien
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of physical therapy in HIV care from the perspective of people living with HIV and health care professionals with expertise in HIV care. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using semistructured interviews (with health care professionals) and focus groups (with people living with HIV). We purposively sampled health care professionals and recruited people living with HIV in collaboration with an HIV-specialty hospital...
March 13, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Deepa Rao, Christopher G Kemp, David Huh, Paul E Nevin, Janet Turan, Susan E Cohn, Jane M Simoni, Michele Andrasik, Yamile Molina, Michael J Mugavero, Audrey L French
INTRODUCTION: African American women encounter disproportionately high rates of HIVrelated morbidity and mortality which is partially mediated through stigma and its effect on HIV treatment adherence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the UNITY peer support workshop on HIV-related stigma among African American women living with HIV, compared to a time and attention control group. METHODS: African American women living with HIV were randomized to the UNITY workshop or a breast cancer education control group...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Miranda Håkansson, Monica Oguttu, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Marlene Makenzius
Introduction: Adolescent pregnancy represents a serious public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, and stigmatising attitudes are contributing factors. This study investigates stigmatising attitudes related to adolescent pregnancy, abortion and contraceptive use among healthcare providers working with postabortion care (PAC) in a low-resource setting in Kenya. Methods: A mixed methods approach in a convergent design was utilised to capture attitudes related to abortion and contraceptive use among 86 (f=62; m=19) PAC providers in Kisumu, Kenya...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Muktesh Daund, Sushma Sonavane, Amresh Shrivastava, Avinash Desousa, Sanjay Kumawat
Mental hospitals are an integral part of mental health services in India. It is an interesting story how mental hospitals have responded to the challenges of contemporary period they were built in. It is beyond doubt that it is a progressive journey along with advances in mental health both in India and internationally. As in other countries, mental hospitals in India have responded to the social challenges, disparities, and poor resources of workforce and fiscal investment. Historically, there have been changes and three major reforms are needed, namely attempt to facilitate discharge and placing patients back into the family, introducing teaching and research in mental hospitals, and accountability to civil rights as per the requirements of the National Human Rights Commission...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Kamiar Alaei, Mohammad Sarwar, Arash Alaei
Blood transfusions are contributing to a higher rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Pakistan. Half of all blood transfusions in Pakistan are not screened for hepatitis C, hepatitis B or HIV. Family members donate blood that is likely not tested due to social stigma attached to HCV. Paid donations are also quite common in the country, especially by people who inject drugs (PWID), which increases the population's exposure to HCV. Most of the population utilizes the private sector for their health needs; this sector has lax regulation due to the lack of oversight by the government or any other regulatory body...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Andy Guise, Jason Melo, Maria Luisa Mittal, Claudia Rafful, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Peter Davidson, Richard S Garfein, Dan Werb
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use initiation is shaped by social networks and structural contexts, with people who inject drugs often assisting in this process. We sought to explore the norms and contexts linked to assisting others to initiate injection drug use in San Diego, USA, to inform the development of structural interventions to prevent this phenomenon. METHODS: We undertook qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of people who inject drugs and had reported assisting others to initiate injection (n = 17) and a sub-sample of people who inject drugs (n = 4) who had not reported initiating others to triangulate accounts...
March 7, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jagnoor Jagnoor, Sheree Bekker, Shobha Chamania, Tom Potokar, Rebecca Ivers
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify priority policy issues and health system research questions associated with recovery outcomes for burns survivors in India. DESIGN: Qualitative inquiry; data were collected through semistructured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. SETTING: Nine sites in urban and rural settings across India, through primary, secondary and tertiary health facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare providers, key informants, burns survivors and/or their carers...
March 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Pablo M Gabay, Mónica Fernández Bruno
The rehabilitation of severely mentally-ill patients and their return to the community are related to historical progress. Their potential of achieving these goals is higher or lower depending on the presence of more or less stigma attached to their condition. Watts and Bennett have divided psychiatric rehabilitation into three phases: Phase 1: Very little was done because there was not much to be done. Patients were rejected and received mistreatment. Phase 2: Their vulnerability was admitted and protection was given to the disabled; services were provided by charity and voluntary religious institutions; there was no clear distinction between illness and poverty...
September 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
N Schnyder, C Michel, R Panczak, S Ochsenbein, B G Schimmelmann, F Schultze-Lutter
BACKGROUND: The stigma of mental illness, especially personal attitudes towards psychiatric patients and mental health help-seeking, is an important barrier in healthcare utilisation. These attitudes are not independent of each other and are also influenced by other factors, such as mental health literacy, especially the public's causal explanations for mental problems. We aimed to disentangle the interrelations between the different aspects of stigma and causal explanations with respect to their association with healthcare utilisation...
March 6, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Georgia Smith, Hannah Farrimond
Amid fears about the medicalisation of old age, the high prevalence of sleeping medication use in older cohorts is a significant public health concern. Long-term use is associated with a plethora of negative effects, such as cognitive impairment and risk of addiction. However, little is known about the lived experience of older adults using sleeping medication longer term. Episodic interviews lasting approximately 90 minutes were conducted with 15 independently living adults, aged 65-88 years, who were using sedative-hypnotic or tricyclic sleeping medication for more than 11 years on average...
March 1, 2018: Health (London)
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