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Social stigma

Henry J Whittle, Kartika Palar, Hilary K Seligman, Tessa Napoles, Edward A Frongillo, Sheri D Weiser
RATIONALE: Food-insecure people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) consistently exhibit worse clinical outcomes than their food-secure counterparts. This relationship is mediated in part through non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-optimal engagement in HIV care, and poor mental health. An in-depth understanding of how these pathways operate in resource-rich settings, however, remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand the relationship between food insecurity and HIV health among low-income individuals in the San Francisco Bay Area using qualitative methods...
October 4, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Ulrich Marcus, Martyna Gassowski, Jochen Drewes
BACKGROUND: HIV testing and serostatus awareness are essential to implement biomedical strategies (treatment as prevention; oral chemoprophylaxis), and for effective serostatus-based behaviours (HIV serosorting; strategic positioning). The analysis focuses on the associations between reported sexual risks, the perceived risk for HIV infection, and HIV testing behaviour in order to identify the most relevant barriers for HIV test uptake among MSM living in Germany. METHODS: MSM were recruited to a nationwide anonymous online-survey in 2013 on MSM social networking/dating sites...
October 22, 2016: BMC Public Health
Matthew S Lebowitz, Woo-Kyoung Ahn
People with mental disorders are strongly stigmatized. Among mental-health professionals, stigmatizing attitudes often manifest as desire for social distance from people with mental disorders. Currently ascendant biomedical conceptualizations of psychopathology could exacerbate this problem by engendering dehumanization, which is linked to prejudice. Given the clinical implications of such an occurrence, the present research tested a possible mitigation strategy. In an online study of 216 U.S. mental-health clinicians, two strategies for mitigating dehumanization in healthcare were tested-personification, highlighting personal traits of people with mental disorders rather than presenting them as malfunctioning brains, and agency reorientation, underscoring people's ability to make choices and decisions...
August 2016: Stigma Health
Julia F Sowislo, Claudia Lange, Sebastian Euler, Henning Hachtel, Marc Walter, Stefan Borgwardt, Undine E Lang, Christian G Huber
Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent...
October 19, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Sybil Hosek, Connie Celum, Craig M Wilson, Bill Kapogiannis, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents and young adults aged <25 are a key population in the HIV epidemic, with very high HIV incidence rates in many geographic settings and a large number who have limited access to prevention services. Thus, any biomedical HIV prevention approach should prepare licensure and implementation strategies for young populations. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the first antiretroviral-based prevention intervention with proven efficacy across many settings and populations, and regulatory and policy approvals at global and national levels are occurring rapidly...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Maria Augusta Carrasco, Clare Barrington, Caitlin Kennedy, Martha Perez, Yeycy Donastorg, Deanna Kerrigan
This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity...
October 20, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Amelia Rock, Clare Barrington, Sara Abdoulayi, Maxton Tsoka, Peter Mvula, Sudhanshu Handa
Extensive research documents that social network characteristics affect health, but knowledge of peer networks of youth in Malawi and sub-Saharan Africa is limited. We examine the networks and social participation of youth living in extreme poverty in rural Malawi, using in-depth interviews with 32 youth and caregivers. We describe youth's peer networks and assess how gender and the context of extreme poverty influence their networks and participation, and how their networks influence health. In-school youth had larger, more interactive, and more supportive networks than out-of-school youth, and girls described less social participation and more isolation than boys...
October 8, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Gordon D Ko, Sara L Bober, Sean Mindra, Jason M Moreau
Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Alice Keely, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Lawrie Elliott, Jane Sandall, Anne Whittaker
INTRODUCTION: women with a raised BMI are more likely to gain excessive weight in pregnancy compared to women with a BMI in the normal range. Recent behaviour change interventions have had moderate to no influence on GWG, and no effect on other perinatal outcomes. Evidence is required regarding the social and cultural contexts of weight and pregnancy. No studies to date have included the views of partners. AIMS: to explore the experiences, attitudes and health-related behaviours of pregnant women with a BMI >40kg/m(2); and to identify the factors and considerations which shape their beliefs, experiences and behaviours, and how these may change during and after pregnancy...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
Olaf von dem Knesebeck, Christopher Kofahl, Anna Christin Makowski
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minorities and people with a low socio-economic status (SES) are often mentioned groups potentially affected by double stigma when faced with the burden of mental illness. Against this background we examine differences in public attitudes towards a) migrant vs. non-migrant persons with depression and b) low vs. high SES persons with depression. METHOD: Analyses are based on data of a representative cross-sectional telephone survey among the adult population in Germany (N=2013)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Carmen H Logie, Uzma Ahmed, Wangari E Tharao, Mona Loutfy
African and Caribbean Black (ACB) women in Canada are disproportionately impacted by new HIV infections. ACB women's HIV vulnerabilty is shaped by contexts of stigma and discrimination. HIV-related stigma compromises quality of life (QOL) among women living with HIV (WLWH), yet scant research has examined concomitant effects of racial discrimination and HIV-related stigma on QOL. We used data from a cross-sectional survey with ACB WLWH in Ontario (n=173) to test a conceptual model of pathways between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, depression, social support and QOL...
October 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Huluagresh Bitew, Gashaw Andargie, Agitu Tadesse, Amsalu Belete, Wubalem Fekadu, Tesfa Mekonen
Background. Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. Suicide is more frequent in peoples living with HIV/AIDS than in general population. Objective. To assess the proportion and determining factors of suicidal ideation and attempt among peoples living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 by selecting 393 participants using systematic random sampling technique. Suicide manual of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to collect data...
2016: Depression Research and Treatment
Sarah Nutter, Shelly Russell-Mayhew, Angela S Alberga, Nancy Arthur, Anusha Kassan, Darren E Lund, Monica Sesma-Vazquez, Emily Williams
Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Martha Sajatovic, Curtis Tatsuoka, Elisabeth Welter, Adam T Perzynski, Kari Colon-Zimmermann, Jamie R Van Doren, Ashley Bukach, Mary Ellen Lawless, Eleanor R Ryan, Katherine Sturniolo, Samden Lhatoo
OBJECTIVES: Serious mental illness is disproportionately common in people with epilepsy and contributes to complications and mortality. Few care approaches specifically target individuals who have epilepsy and severe mental illness. We used an iterative process to refine an existing intervention and tested the novel intervention, Targeted Self-Management for Epilepsy and Mental Illness (TIME) in individuals with epilepsy and comorbid mental illness (E-MI). METHODS: The TIME intervention was developed with input from a community advisory board and then tested for feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy in people with E-MI, using a 16-week prospective, randomized controlled design comparing TIME (N=22) vs...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Christine H Oedegaard, Lesley Berk, Michael Berk, Eric A Youngstrom, Steven C Dilsaver, Robert H Belmaker, Ketil J Oedegaard, Ole B Fasmer, Ingunn M Engebretsen
OBJECTIVE: Clinical management of bipolar disorder patients might be affected by culture and is further dependent on the context of healthcare delivery. There is a need to understand how healthcare best can be delivered in various systems and cultures. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain knowledge about culture-specific values, beliefs and practices in the medical care provided to patients with bipolar disorders from a provider perspective in various areas of the world...
October 14, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Manuela Caslini, Cristina Crocamo, Antonios Dakanalis, Martina Tremolada, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà
Stigmatizing attitudes toward eating disorders (EDs) may lead to reduced treatment seeking. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of stigmatizing trends and beliefs related to anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), and the associations with the experiential knowledge of the problem, in a large sample of Italian undergraduates. A total of 2109 participants completed an online survey including questionnaires related to stigmatizing beliefs toward AN and BN, and personal contacts with people with EDs. Undergraduates reported almost overlapping low levels of stigmatizing trends for AN and BN, apart from personal responsibility and social distance...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Zoi Triandafilidis, Jane M Ussher, Janette Perz, Kate Huppatz
In this article, we explore how young women encounter and counter discourses of smoking-related stigma. Twenty-seven young Australian women, smokers and ex-smokers, took part in interviews. A sub-sample of 18 participants took photographs to document their smoking experience, and took part in a second interview. Data were analyzed through Foucauldian discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified: "smoking as stigmatized," "the smoking double standard," "smoking as lower class," and "smokers as bad mothers...
October 13, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Katherine Fitzgerald, Philip Yates, Jonathan Benger, Adrian Harris
OBJECTIVE: To explore the experience of psychological distress and well-being in emergency medicine (EM) consultants. METHODS: A qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) study based on 1:1 semistructured interviews with EM consultants working full time in EDs across South West England. Eighteen EM consultants were interviewed across five EDs, the mean (SD) age of participants being 43.17 (5.8) years. The personal meanings that participants attached to their experiences were inductively analysed...
October 13, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Maryam Zamanian, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, AliAkbar Haghdoost, Farzaneh Zolala
OBJECTIVES: Abortion is a sensitive issue; many cultures disapprove of it, which leads to under-reporting. This study sought to estimate the rate of abortion visibility in the city of Kerman, Iran-that is, the percentage of acquaintances who knew about a particular abortion. For estimating the visibility rate, it is crucial to use the network scale-up method, which is a new, indirect method of estimating sensitive behaviours more accurately. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kerman, Iran using various methods to ensure the cooperation of clinicians and women...
October 13, 2016: BMJ Open
Adellah Sariah, Joan Rugemalila, Magreat Somba, Anna Minja, Margareth Makuchilo, Edith Tarimo, David Urassa, Helen Siril
BACKGROUND: The specific age to which an HIV infected child can be disclosed to is stipulated to begin between ages 4 and 6 years. It has also been documented that before disclosure of HIV positive status to the infected child. Health care providers should consider children's cognitive-developmental ability. However, observation and situation analysis show that, health care providers still feel uncomfortable disclosing the HIV positive status to the infected child. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences in disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child...
October 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
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