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Type 2 innate lymphoid cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222107/il-33-promotes-the-egress-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-from-the-bone-marrow
#1
Matthew T Stier, Jian Zhang, Kasia Goleniewska, Jacqueline Y Cephus, Mark Rusznak, Lan Wu, Luc Van Kaer, Baohua Zhou, Dawn C Newcomb, R Stokes Peebles
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are effector cells within the mucosa and key participants in type 2 immune responses in the context of allergic inflammation and infection. ILC2s develop in the bone marrow from common lymphoid progenitor cells, but little is known about how ILC2s egress from the bone marrow for hematogenous trafficking. In this study, we identified a critical role for IL-33, a hallmark peripheral ILC2-activating cytokine, in promoting the egress of ILC2 lineage cells from the bone marrow...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221580/mechanisms-of-allergen-immunotherapy-for-inhaled-allergens-and-predictive-biomarkers
#2
REVIEW
Mohamed H Shamji, Stephen R Durham
Allergen immunotherapy is effective in patients with IgE-dependent allergic rhinitis and asthma. When immunotherapy is given continuously for 3 years, there is persistent clinical benefit for several years after its discontinuation. This disease-modifying effect is both antigen-specific and antigen-driven. Clinical improvement is accompanied by decreases in numbers of effector cells in target organs, including mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Immunotherapy results in the production of blocking IgG/IgG4 antibodies that can inhibit IgE-dependent activation mediated through both high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI) on mast cells and basophils and low-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRII) on B cells...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217133/pge2-suppresses-human-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-function
#3
Jovana Maric, Avinash Ravindran, Luca Mazzurana, Åsa K Björklund, Aline Van Acker, Anna Rao, Danielle Friberg, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Akos Heinemann, Viktoria Konya, Jenny Mjösberg
BACKGROUND: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are involved in the initial phase of type 2 inflammation and can amplify allergic immune responses by orchestrating other type 2 immune cells. PGE2 is a bioactive lipid that plays protective roles in the lung, particularly during allergic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We set out to investigate how PGE2 regulates human ILC2 function. METHODS: The effects of PGE2 on human ILC2 proliferation, intracellular cytokine and transcription factor expression were assessed by flow cytometry...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202803/emerging-mechanisms-and-novel-targets-in-allergic-inflammation-and-asthma
#4
Scott T Weiss
Airway inflammation is key to the severity and persistence of asthma. Recent studies have revealed novel immune mechanisms that target dendritic cells, T helper 2 cytokines, regulatory T cells, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation, as well as novel approaches that target airway smooth muscle in asthma. These advances inform the development of new targeted treatments for allergic inflammation and asthma with the potential to provide therapeutic benefit.
December 4, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202042/relative-impact-of-complement-receptors-cd21-35-cr2-1-on-scrapie-pathogenesis-in-mice
#5
Sarah J Kane, Eric Swanson, Elizabeth O Gordon, Savannah Rocha, Heather R Bender, Luke R Donius, Adriano Aguzzi, Jonathan P Hannan, Mark D Zabel
Complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2 or CD35/CD21) recognize complement-opsonized antigens to initiate innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. CD35 stimulates phagocytosis on macrophages and antigen presentation on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). CD21 helps activate B cells as part of the B cell coreceptor with CD19 and CD81. Differential splicing of transcripts from the mouse Cr2 gene generates isoforms with both shared and unique complement binding capacities and cell-type expression. In mouse models, genetic depletion of Cr2 causes either a delay or complete prevention of prion disease, but the relative importance of CD35 versus CD21 in promoting prion disease remains unknown...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196657/alternative-activation-generates-il-10-producing-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#6
Corey R Seehus, Asha Kadavallore, Brian de la Torre, Alyson R Yeckes, Yizhou Wang, Jie Tang, Jonathan Kaye
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) share cytokine and transcription factor expression with CD4+ Th2 cells, but functional diversity of the ILC2 lineage has yet to be fully explored. Here, we show induction of a molecularly distinct subset of activated lung ILC2, termed ILC210. These cells produce IL-10 and downregulate some pro-inflammatory genes. Signals that generate ILC210 are distinct from those that induce IL-13 production, and gene expression data indicate that an alternative activation pathway leads to the generation of ILC210...
December 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194733/activity-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-is-associated-with-chronic-inflammation-and-dysregulated-metabolic-homeostasis-in-type-2-diabetic-nephropathy
#7
Ping Lu, Xiaoyun Ji, Jie Wan, Huaxi Xu
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetic nephropathy, and accompanied by subclinical inflammation which involves immune-deriving factors. Emerging studies indicate that ILC2s can regulate adipose metabolism, but much less is known about the activity of ILC2s in metabolic imbalance in obesity and diabetes. The present study explored the effect of ILC2s-related molecules on the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Thirty patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy were included in the study, the mRNA expression of ILC2s associated molecules from peripheral blood mononuclear cell and the correlation of the ILC2s activity and the metabolic syndrome related indicators were analyzed...
December 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192833/cytometric-gating-stringency-impacts-studies-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-asthma
#8
Timothy S C Hinks, Paul Batty, Paul Klenerman, Ian D Pavord, Luzheng Xue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184556/gata3-regulates-the-development-and-functions-of-innate-lymphoid-cell-subsets-at-multiple-stages
#9
REVIEW
Jinfang Zhu
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are regarded as the innate counterpart of effector CD4 T helper (Th) cells. Just as Th cells, ILCs are classified into distinct subsets based on their functions that are delivered mainly through effector cytokine production. Both ILCs and Th cells play critical roles in various protective immune responses and inflammatory diseases. Similar to Th cell differentiation, the development of ILC subsets depends on several master transcription factors, among which GATA3 is critical for the development and maintenance of type 2 ILCs (ILC2s)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166590/interleukin-33-activated-islet-resident-innate-lymphoid-cells-promote-insulin-secretion-through-myeloid-cell-retinoic-acid-production
#10
Elise Dalmas, Frank M Lehmann, Erez Dror, Stephan Wueest, Constanze Thienel, Marcela Borsigova, Marc Stawiski, Emmanuel Traunecker, Fabrizio C Lucchini, Dianne H Dapito, Sandra M Kallert, Bruno Guigas, Francois Pattou, Julie Kerr-Conte, Pierre Maechler, Jean-Philippe Girard, Daniel Konrad, Christian Wolfrum, Marianne Böni-Schnetzler, Daniela Finke, Marc Y Donath
Pancreatic-islet inflammation contributes to the failure of β cell insulin secretion during obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the nature and function of resident immune cells in this context or in homeostasis. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-33 was produced by islet mesenchymal cells and enhanced by a diabetes milieu (glucose, IL-1β, and palmitate). IL-33 promoted β cell function through islet-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that elicited retinoic acid (RA)-producing capacities in macrophages and dendritic cells via the secretion of IL-13 and colony-stimulating factor 2...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166583/the-skinny-pancreatic-ilc2s-promote-insulin-secretion
#11
Kelly M Cautivo, Ari B Molofsky
Regulation of pancreatic insulin production is pivotal in the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes. In this issue of Immunity, Dalmas et al. (2017) describe a type 2 immune circuit where pancreatic interleukin-33 (IL-33) promotes insulin secretion via the activity of islet-associated group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s).
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163497/interactions-between-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-cells-of-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-system
#12
REVIEW
Cornelia Symowski, David Voehringer
Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a major source of cytokines, which are also produced by Th2 cells and several cell types of the innate immune system. Work over the past few years indicates that ILC2s play a central role in regulating type 2 immune responses against allergens and helminths. ILC2s can interact with a variety of cells types of the innate and adaptive immune system by cell-cell contacts or by communication via soluble factors. In this review, we provide an overview about recent advances in our understanding how ILC2s orchestrate type 2 immune responses with focus on direct interactions between ILC2s and other cells of the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163470/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-and-tolerance-where-are-we-now
#13
REVIEW
Andrew L Mellor, Henrique Lemos, Lei Huang
Cells expressing IDO suppress innate and adaptive immunity to promote tolerance by catabolizing the amino acid tryptophan (Trp) and other indole compounds. Interferon type I (IFN-I) and type II (IFN-II) produced at sites of inflammation or by activated immune cells are potent IDO inducers because mammalian IDO genes contain IFN response elements. Elevated IDO expression by dendritic cells (DCs) is of particular significance because IDO activity converts mature DCs into tolerogenic APCs that suppress effector T cells (Teff) and promote regulatory T cells (Tregs), thereby promoting tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141759/cell-type-specific-immunomodulation-induced-by-helminthes-effect-on-metainflammation-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#14
Vivekanandhan Aravindhan, Gowrishankar Anand
Recent epidemiological studies have documented an inverse relationship between the decreasing prevalence of helminth infections and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases ("metabolic hygiene hypothesis"). Chronic inflammation leading to insulin resistance (IR) has now been identified as a major etiological factor for a variety of metabolic diseases other than obesity and Type-2 diabetes (metainflammation). One way by which helminth infections such as filariasis can modulate IR is by inducing a chronic, nonspecific, low-grade, immune suppression mediated by modified T-helper 2 (Th2) response (induction of both Th2 and regulatory T cells) which can in turn suppress the proinflammatory responses and promote insulin sensitivity (IS)...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140397/progress-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathology-of-allergic-asthma-and-the-potential-of-fruit-proanthocyanidins-as-modulators-of-airway-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
Sara L Coleman, Odette M Shaw
Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by sensitization of the airways, and the development of immunoglobulin E antibodies, to benign antigens. The established pathophysiology of asthma includes recurrent lung epithelial inflammation, excessive mucus production, bronchial smooth muscle hyperreactivity, and chronic lung tissue remodeling, resulting in reversible airflow restriction. Immune cells, including eosinophils and the recently characterized type 2 innate lymphoid cells, infiltrate into the lung tissue as part of the inflammatory response in allergic asthma...
November 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138853/role-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease-review
#16
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
The immune system has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiological development of metabolic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to metabolic disease remain to be fully elucidated. It has previously been suggested that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) may be involved in the progression of numerous types of metabolic diseases as these cells act as suppressors and promoters for obesity and associated conditions, and are particularly involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is a major feature of metabolic imbalance...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138530/group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-involved-in-skewed-type-2-immunity-of-gastric-diseases-induced-by-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#17
Rong Li, Xiao-Xia Jiang, Lin-Fang Zhang, Xiao-Ming Liu, Ting-Zi Hu, Xiu-Juan Xia, Ming Li, Can-Xia Xu
H. pylori induces a complicated local and systematic immune response and contributes to the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. A primary type 1 immune response is evoked by H. pylori since its occurrence. However, it is not unusual that an inhibitory immunity is dominant in H. pylori-associated diseases, which are promoted by the formation of immunosuppressive microenvironment. But whether group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) plays a critical role in H. pylori-induced skewed type 2 immunity is still unclear...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133293/il-33-responsive-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-regulated-by-female-sex-hormones-in-the-uterus
#18
Kathleen Bartemes, Chien-Chang Chen, Koji Iijima, Li Drake, Hirohito Kita
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) reside in multiple organs in the body, where they play roles in immunity, tissue homeostasis, and metabolic regulation. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of ILC2s in different organs. Here, we identified ILC2s in the mouse uterus and found that they express cell surface molecules, including the IL-33 receptor, ST2, that are roughly comparable to those expressed by lung ILC2s. Both in vivo and in vitro treatment with IL-33 induced type 2 cytokine production in uterine ILC2s, suggesting that they respond to IL-33 in a manner similar to ILC2s in other organs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122948/microrna-regulation-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-homeostasis-and-function-in-allergic-inflammation
#19
Priti B Singh, Heather H Pua, Hannah C Happ, Christoph Schneider, Jakob von Moltke, Richard M Locksley, Dirk Baumjohann, K Mark Ansel
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert powerful effects on immunity through coordinate regulation of multiple target genes in a wide variety of cells. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are tissue sentinel mediators of allergic inflammation. We established the physiological requirements for miRNAs in ILC2 homeostasis and immune function and compared the global miRNA repertoire of resting and activated ILC2s and T helper type 2 (TH2) cells. After exposure to the natural allergen papain, mice selectively lacking the miR-17∼92 cluster in ILC2s displayed reduced lung inflammation...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108648/cyclosporin-a-indirectly-attenuates-activation-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-papain-induced-lung-inflammation
#20
Fujimi Kudo, Masashi Ikutani, Masanori Iseki, Satoshi Takaki
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a well-known immunosuppressant that is used against steroid-resistant asthma. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 2 helper T (Th2) cells produce Th2 cytokines including IL-5 and play important roles in asthma pathogenesis. Here, we studied the effects of CsA in allergen-induced lung inflammation in mice and found that CsA decreased the number of lung ILC2s and attenuated papain-induced activation of ILC2s accompanied with IL-5 expression. The ILC2 suppression mediated by CsA was not observed in culture or in lymphocyte-deficient Rag2(-/-) mice...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Immunology
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