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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227119/-molecular-pathology-of-lung-cancer-in-routine-diagnostic-practice-2017-update
#1
Radoslav Matěj, Zdeněk Rohan, Kristýna Němejcová, Pavel Dundr
The group of non-small cell lung carcinomas includes tumors that are variable at the clinical, histopathological and molecular levels. Advances in the understanding of molecular pathology of lung adenocarcinomas in particular led to changes in their histopathological classification and treatment. Patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma harboring specific mutations benefit from the administration of specific targeted therapy. Analysis of EGFR gene mutations and ALK rearrangement in lung adenocarcinomas are already routinely performed and are closely related to the indication for the administration of tyrosinkinase inhibitors...
2017: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225480/role-of-afatinib-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
REVIEW
Tiziana Vavalà
Lung cancer treatment has considerably changed over the last few years: the identification of druggable oncogenic alterations and innovative immunotherapic approaches granted lung cancer patients the possibility of more efficient and less toxic therapeutic options than chemotherapy. Nowadays, lung squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs) patients have the chance to benefit from novel treatment alternatives, including immune checkpoint blockade and anti-angiogenic agents and, given positive trial results, from afatinib, a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that irreversibly antagonizes ErbB family tyrosine kinase receptors...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221983/medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaws-associated-with-targeted-therapy-as-monotherapy-and-in-combination-with-antiresorptives-a-report-of-7-cases-from-the-copenhagen-cohort
#3
Hoda Abel Mahedi Mohamed, Charlotte Emilie Nor Nielsen, Morten Schiodt
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report cases of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) associated with targeted therapy (TT) with or without concomitant antiresorptive treatment, among the Copenhagen ONJ cohort, which includes all consecutive cases of MRONJ seen in Copenhagen. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively studied the treatment of 204 consecutive patients with MRONJ, seen between January 2010 and May 2016, to identify those associated with TT...
November 6, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221745/upfront-surgery-as-first-line-therapy-in-selected-patients-with-stage-iiia-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Difan Zheng, Ting Ye, Hong Hu, Yawei Zhang, Yihua Sun, Jiaqing Xiang, Haiquan Chen
OBJECTIVE: Surgery plays an important role in the multidisciplinary treatment strategy for patients with stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Besides induction therapy, patients could benefit from surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This study analyzed a subset of patients with pIIIA NSCLC who underwent upfront surgery as first-line therapy. METHODS: Selected patients with pIIIA NSCLC who received upfront surgery were retrospectively analyzed...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219616/next-generation-sequencing-approach-to-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-yields-more-actionable-alterations
#5
Mitra Mehrad, Somak Roy, Humberto Trejo Bittar, Sanja Dacic
CONTEXT: - Different testing algorithms and platforms for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements in advanced-stage lung adenocarcinoma exist. The multistep approach with single-gene assays has been challenged by more efficient next-generation sequencing (NGS) of a large number of gene alterations. The main criticism of the NGS approach is the detection of genomic alterations of uncertain significance. OBJECTIVE: - To determine the best testing algorithm for patients with lung cancer in our clinical practice...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218795/revisiting-bevacizumab%C3%A2-%C3%A2-cytotoxics-scheduling-using-mathematical-modeling-proof-of-concept-study-in-experimental-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#6
Diane-Charlotte Imbs, Raouf El Cheikh, Arnaud Boyer, Joseph Ciccolini, Céline Mascaux, Bruno Lacarelle, Fabrice Barlesi, Dominique Barbolosi, Sébastien Benzekry
Concomitant administration of bevacizumab and pemetrexed-cisplatin is a common treatment for advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Vascular normalization following bevacizumab administration may transiently enhance drug delivery, suggesting improved efficacy with sequential administration. To investigate optimal scheduling, we conducted a study in NSCLC-bearing mice. First, experiments demonstrated improved efficacy when using sequential vs. concomitant scheduling of bevacizumab and chemotherapy...
December 7, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218239/csf-1r-regulates-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-dissemination-through-wnt3a-signaling
#7
Yan Xia Yu, Hai Jian Wu, Bing Xu Tan, Chen Qiu, Hui Zhong Liu
Therapeutic antibodies targeting colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) to block colony stimulating factor-1/colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1/CSF-R) signaling axis have exhibit remarkable efficacy in the treatment of malignant tumor. Yet, little is known about the effects of intrinsic CSF-1R in human non-small-cell carcinoma (NSCLC). Here we demonstrated that NSCLC cell-intrinsic CSF-1R promoted cells growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. CSF-1R knocked-down by transfecting with shRNA target CSF-1R suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation and tumor growth in nude mice...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217732/peptide-blocking-of-pd-1-pd-l1-interaction-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
Chunlin Li, Nengpan Zhang, Jundong Zhou, Chen Ding, Yaqing Jin, Xueyuan Cui, Kefeng Pu, Yimin Zhu
Immunotherapy has become a promising alternative therapeutic approach for cancer patients. Interruption of immune checkpoints, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, has been verified to be a successful means for cancer therapy in clinical trials. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting to PD-L1 has been approved to treat urothelial carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer or merkel cell carcinoma by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, the high cost of the antibody can limit its application. In our study, TPP-1 (targeting PD-L1 peptide), which specifically binds to PD-L1 with high affinity, was identified through bacterial surface display methods...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211692/a-molecular-and-cytogenetic-update-on-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#9
Maximilian Becker, Lori Ryan, Alexis Dowiak, Carlos A Tirado
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Among patients with lung cancer, approximately 85% have non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The discovery of oncogenic driver mutations in NSCLC opened new personalized treatment options. Several methods that can identify these biomarkers are used routinely in a clinical setting to stratify patients for targeted therapy. In this review, we summarize the most clinically relevant driver genes, discuss the advantages and limitations of current clinical detection methods, and highlight the benefits of personalized treatment over standard chemotherapy...
2017: Journal of the Association of Genetic Technologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209918/molecular-classification-and-precision-therapy-of-cancer-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#10
Yingyan Yu
On May 23, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a treatment for cancer patients with positive microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) markers or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) markers. This approach is the first approved tumor treatment using a common biomarker rather than specified tumor locations in the body. FDA previously approved Keytruda for treatment of several types of malignancies, such as metastatic melanoma, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer, refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, and urothelial carcinoma, all of which carry positive programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 biomarkers...
December 5, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209915/classification-of-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-on-computed-tomographic-images-into-histological-types-using-radiomic-features-interobserver-delineation-variability-analysis
#11
Akihiro Haga, Wataru Takahashi, Shuri Aoki, Kanabu Nawa, Hideomi Yamashita, Osamu Abe, Keiichi Nakagawa
Radiomics, which involves the extraction of large numbers of quantitative features from medical images, has attracted attention in cancer research. In radiomics analysis, tumor segmentation is a crucial step. In this study, we evaluated the potential application of radiomics for predicting the histology of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by analyzing interobserver variability in tumor delineation. Forty patient datasets were included in this study, 21 involving adenocarcinomas and 19 involving squamous cell carcinomas...
December 5, 2017: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207658/overexpression-of-rad51b-predicts-a-preferable-prognosis-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#12
Mengyin Wu, Zufeng Sheng, Lingyan Jiang, Zhengyuan Liu, Yuhua Bi, Yueping Shen
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death. The majority of patients are diagnosed at an incurable advanced stage with poor prognosis. A recent study associated the methylation of homologous recombination genes with expression of immune checkpoints in lung squamous cell carcinoma. However, the correlation between them remains unclear. In our study, we propose that RAD51B, a repair gene in the homologous recombination process, which is noticed to be a key player in the maintenance of chromosome integrity and in sensing DNA damage, can act as an independent factor affecting the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207598/low-expression-of-serpinb2-is-associated-with-reduced-survival-in-lung-adenocarcinomas
#13
Maria Ramnefjell, Christina Aamelfot, Lars Helgeland, Lars A Akslen
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and new biomarkers are of utmost importance. Studies have indicated that the anti-plasminogen activators SerpinB2 and Neuroserpin, and the adhesion molecule L1CAM, have a coordinated impact on development of metastasis. Here, we examined whether expression of these markers was associated with clinico-pathologic characteristics and prognosis in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Surgical specimens from 438 NSCLC patients treated at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway (1993-2010) were included (median age 68 years; 213 adenocarcinomas, 135 squamous cell carcinomas, 90 others)...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207165/combination-treatment-of-fty720-and-cisplatin-exhibits-enhanced-antitumour-effects-on-cisplatin-resistant-non-small-lung-cancer-cells
#14
Yang Li, Tinghua Hu, Tianjun Chen, Tian Yang, Hui Ren, Mingwei Chen
A major common medical treatment for lung carcinoma is cisplatin (DDP)-based therapy. However, the development or existence of chemoresistance frequently blocks its effectiveness. Currently, autophagy is recognised as a potential anticancer strategy, although there is controversy over its role in the development of cancer. In lung carcinoma, no studies of autophagy induced by FTY720, a sphingosine 1-phosphate analog and a novel immunosuppressant drug, have been published, while apoptosis has been shown to be induced by FTY720 in several cancer cell lines...
November 24, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207115/current-status-and-future-prospects-of-the-strategy-of-combining-car%C3%A2-t-with-pd%C3%A2-1-blockade-for-antitumor-therapy-review
#15
Jinjing Xu, Qing Zhang, Kang Tian, Haiyu Wang, Hong Yin, Junnian Zheng
The immune system serves an important role in controlling and eradicating malignant cells. Immunotherapy for treating tumors has received much attention in recent years due to its marked effect. There are two approaches which currently lead this field: Chimeric antigen receptor‑modified T‑cell immunotherapy (CAR‑T) and programmed cell death protein-1 blockade (PD‑1 blockade). CAR‑T has emerged as a promising regimen for the treatment of a range of types of cancer, including chronic lymphoid leukemia and neuroblastoma, with studies of long term remission in certain patients...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204511/smarca4-germline-gene-mutation-in-a-patient-with-epithelial-ovarian-a-case-report
#16
Reshma Muppala, Talia Donenberg, Marilyn S Huang, Matthew P Schlumbrecht
Background: SMARCA4 is gene whose protein product participates in chromatin remodeling. Somatic mutations in this gene are associated with non-small cell lung cancer and malignant rhabdoid tumors, and both germline and somatic mutations are seen with small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type. To date, there are no data identifying an association with more common epithelial carcinomas of the ovary. Case: The patient is a 57-year-old female without any significant family history of cancer, diagnosed with high-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary...
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202350/case-report-ectopic-cushing-s-syndrome-in-a-young-male-with-hidden-lung-carcinoid-tumor
#17
Ghanem Aljassem, Hazem Aljasem
INTRODUCTION: Ectopic Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing's in which a tumor outside the pituitary gland produces adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Small cell carcinoma and carcinoid of the lung comprises half of its cases. The main purpose of this study is to present a case of ectopic Cushing syndrome caused by a hidden lung carcinoid and how to manage it. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Here we present a case of a 26year old young male complains of increased weight and appetite, proximal muscle weakness, easy bruising and appearing of purple striae on his abdomen, with a final diagnosis of ACTH secreting lung carcinoid...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201450/the-role-of-surgery-in-high-grade-neuroendocrine-tumours-of-the-lung
#18
Stefan Welter, Clemens Aigner, Christian Roesel
High grade lung neuroendocrine tumours are a heterogeneous subtype of pulmonary cancers including small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). LCNEC represents approximately 2-3% of lung cancers, whereas SCLC represents 15-20% of lung cancers. Patients with SCLC and LCNEC have a poor prognosis compared with patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). LCNEC is treated with primary surgical resection in stages I-II, which is similar to other NSCLCs. Neo-adjuvant treatment in stage III is similar to NSCLC but has not been well studied...
November 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199707/evolving-epidemiology-of-lung-cancer-in-india-reducing-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-not-otherwise-specified-and-quantifying-tobacco-smoke-exposure-are-the-key
#19
H Kaur, I S Sehgal, A Bal, N Gupta, D Behera, A Das, N Singh
BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma is the most prevalent histological type of lung cancer (LC) in developed countries while squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) has so far been the most common type at our center. Herein, we report our continued assessment of the epidemiological trend of LC aimed at determining any change in the histological distribution. METHODS: Retrospective analysis involving all consecutive newly diagnosed LC patients over a 4-year period (March 2011-February 2015)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199595/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-a-potential-target-in-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#20
REVIEW
Venugopal Vinod Prabhu, Niranjali Devaraj
Lung cancer is responsible for 1.6 million deaths. Approximately 80%-85% of lung cancers are of the non-small-cell variety, which includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large-cell carcinoma. Knowing the stage of cancer progression is a requisite for determining which management approach-surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and/or immunotherapy-is optimal. Targeted therapeutic approaches with antiangiogenic monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors are one option if tumors harbor oncogene mutations...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
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