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non-small cell lung carcinoma

Lívia Rojkó, Lilla Reiniger, Vanda Téglási, Katalin Fábián, Orsolya Pipek, Attila Vágvölgyi, László Agócs, János Fillinger, Zita Kajdácsi, József Tímár, Balázs Döme, Zoltán Szállási, Judit Moldvay
OBJECTIVES: While the predictive value of programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein expression for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy of lung cancer has been extensively studied, the impact of standard platinum-based chemotherapy on PD-L1 or programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) expression is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in PD-L1 expression of tumor cells (TC) and immune cells (IC), in PD-1 expression of IC, and in the amount of stromal mononuclear cell infiltration after platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Mitchell D Ross, Sreeja Biswas Roy, Pradnya D Patil, Jasmine L Huang, Nitika Thawani, Ralph Drosten, Tanmay S Panchabhai
Despite recent advances in screening methods, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. By the time lung cancer becomes symptomatic and patients seek treatment, it is often too advanced for curative measures. Low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening has been shown to reduce mortality in patients at high risk of lung cancer. We present a 66-year-old man with a 50-pack-year smoking history who had a right upper lobe (RUL) pulmonary nodule and left lower lobe (LLL) consolidation on a screening CT...
2018: Case Reports in Pulmonology
Bing Zhou, Dimin Wang, Gaozhong Sun, Fuyang Mei, Yong Cui, Heyun Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP2), a tumorigenesis related protein, plays a critical role in the initiation and development of various types of cancers. However, the effect of ASPP2 on lung cancer remains unknown. The purpose of this study aims to investigate the mechanism of ASPP2 regulated by miR-21 in lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In the study, migration and invasion assays, apoptosis assay, caspase activity assay, TUNEL staining, real time PCR and western blot were used to investigate the mechanism of ASPP2 regulated by miR-21 in lung cancer in vitro and in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Masomeh Mehrabi, Hamid Mahdiuni, Hassan Rasouli, Kamran Mansouri, Mohsen Shahlaie, Reza Khodarahmi
Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and their cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases play significant roles in cell proliferation and signaling. All the members of the EGFR/ErbB family are primary goals for cancer therapy, particularly for tumors of breast, cervix, ovaries, kidney, esophagus, prostate and non-small-cell lung carcinoma and head and neck tumors. However, the therapeutic ability of accessible anti-ErbB agents is limited. Therefore, recognizing EGF analogues or small organic molecules with high affinity for the extracellular domain of the EGFR is a critical target on cancer research...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Lesley J Scott
Apatinib [AiTan™ (China); Rivoceranib® (global)] is a novel, small molecule, selective vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is the second anti-angiogenic drug to be approved in China for the treatment of advanced or metastatic gastric cancer. This article summarizes the pharmacological properties of apatinib and reviews its clinical use in chemotherapy-experienced patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma, including gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA), or with other advanced cancers such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), breast cancer, gynaecological cancers, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), thyroid cancer and sarcomas...
April 16, 2018: Drugs
Ludovic Dhont, Melania Pintilie, Ethan Kaufman, Roya Navab, Shirley Tam, Arsène Burny, Frances Shepherd, Alexandra Belayew, Ming-Sound Tsao, Céline Mascaux
BACKGROUND: The relapse rate in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection is high. Prognostic biomarkers may help identify patients who may benefit from additional therapy. The Helicase-like Transcription Factor (HLTF) is a tumor suppressor, altered in cancer either by gene hypermethylation or mRNA alternative splicing. This study assessed the expression and the clinical relevance of wild-type (WT) and variant forms of HLTF RNAs in NSCLC. METHODS: We analyzed online databases (TCGA, COSMIC) for HLTF alterations in NSCLC and assessed WT and spliced HLTF mRNAs expression by RT-ddPCR in 39 lung cancer cell lines and 171 patients with resected stage I-II NSCLC...
April 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
Maliazurina Saad, Tae-Sun Choi
BACKGROUND: The histological classification or subtyping of non-small cell lung cancer is essential for systematic therapy decisions. Differentiating between the two main subtypes of pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma highlights the considerable differences that exist in the prognosis of patient outcomes. Physicians rely on a pathological analysis to reveal these phenotypic variations that requires invasive methods, such as biopsy and resection sample, but almost 70% of tumors are unresectable at the point of diagnosis...
April 4, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Sudhanshu Shukla
Undifferentiated large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) accounts for 2.9-9% of total lung cancers. Recently, RNA-seq based studies have revealed major genomic aberrations in LCLC. In this study, we aim to identify long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) expression pattern specific to LCLC. The RNA-seq profile of LCLC and other non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and analyzed. Using 10 LCLC samples, we found that 18% of all the annotated LncRNAs are expressed in LCLC samples...
February 5, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Manisha Pant, Gwenalyn Garcia, Marcel Odaimi
Primary bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma comprises 5% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and usually has an indolent course. Synchronous primary lung cancers with BALT lymphoma are seldom seen in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Synchronous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and BALT lymphoma is an extremely rare occurrence. We report an unusual case of stage 4 BALT lymphoma requiring treatment that revealed an underlying ipsilateral mass causing a diagnostic dilemma. An 84-year-old female with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus, deep vein thrombosis, and thrombotic microangiopathy presented to the hospital with cough and dyspnea on exertion...
February 6, 2018: Curēus
Cristina Alguacil-Núñez, Inés Ferrer-Ortiz, Elena García-Verdú, Pilar López-Pirez, Irene Maria Llorente-Cortijo, Bruno Sainz
Lung cancer, in particular non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is the second most common cancer in both men and women and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Its prognosis and diagnosis are determined by several driver mutations and diverse risk factors (e.g. smoking). While immunotherapy has proven effective in some patients, treatment of NSCLC using conventional chemotherapy is largely ineffective. The latter is believed to be due to the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like, highly tumorigenic and chemoresistant cells within the tumor population known as cancer stem cells (CSC)...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
David S Hong, Kathleen N Moore, Manish R Patel, Stefan C Grant, Howard A Burris, William N William, Suzanne Jones, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Jeffrey Infante, Lisa Golden, Wei Zhang, Ricardo Martinez, Sameera R Wijayawardana, Richard P Beckmann, Aimee Bence Lin, Cathy Eng, Johanna C Bendell
PURPOSE: Prexasertib, a checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitor, demonstrated single-agent activity in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the dose-escalation portion of a Phase I study (NCT01115790). Monotherapy prexasertib was further evaluated in patients with advanced SCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients were given prexasertib 105 mg/m2 as a 1-hour infusion on day 1 of a 14-day cycle. Expansion cohorts were defined by tumor and treatment line. Safety, tolerability, efficacy, and exploratory biomarkers were analyzed...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
X Lv, L Yao, Y-Q Nie, X-Y Xu
OBJECTIVE: Currently, pathogenesis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is still unknown and the treatment is far from ideal. Therefore, we investigated the effect of inhibiting microRNA-520a-3p in NSCLC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NCI-H157 cells were treated with microRNA-520a-3p analogs for 48 h, or microRNA-520a-3p analogs and its inhibitor, for a total of 48 h. Many tests were performed, including MTT, flow cytometry, wound healing assay and transwell assay...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Y Liao, S Cheng, J Xiang, C Luo
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is common cancer worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of lung cancers. Thus, we studied whether long non-coding RNAs influence malignancy in NSCLC to discover new therapeutic targets for increasing the survival rate of NSCLC patients. lncRNA has been proven to be important in different cancer progression. In this study, we mainly focused on the role of lncRNA CCHE1 (cervical carcinoma high expressed 1) expressed PCNA regulatory lncRNA in NSCLC cancer...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Harun Patel, Rahul Pawara, Sanjay Surana
The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are generally utilized as a part of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, EGFR T790M mutation results in resistance to most clinically available EGFR TKIs. Third-generation EGFR TKIs against the T790M mutation has been in active clinical development to triumph the resistance problem; they covalently bind with conserved Cys797 inside the EGFR active site, offering both potency and kinase-selectivity. Third generation drugs target C797, which makes the C797S resistance mutation more subtle...
March 29, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Kseniya S Yurchenko, Peipei Zhou, Anna V Kovner, Evgenii L Zavjalov, Lidiya V Shestopalova, Alexander M Shestopalov
Oncolyic virotherapy is one of the modern experimental techniques to treat human cancers. Here we studied the antitumor activity of wild-type Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from Russian migratory birds. We showed that NDV could selectively kill malignant cells without affecting healthy cells. We evaluated the oncolytic effect of 44 NDV isolates in 4 histogenetically different human cell lines (HCT116, HeLa, A549, MCF7). The safety of the isolates was also tested in normal peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells...
2018: PloS One
Yongyue Wei, Junya Liang, Ruyang Zhang, Yichen Guo, Sipeng Shen, Li Su, Xihong Lin, Sebastian Moran, Åslaug Helland, Maria M Bjaanæs, Anna Karlsson, Maria Planck, Manel Esteller, Thomas Fleischer, Johan Staaf, Yang Zhao, Feng Chen, David C Christiani
Background: KDM lysine demethylase family members are related to lung cancer clinical outcomes and are potential biomarkers for chemotherapeutics. However, little is known about epigenetic alterations in KDM genes and their roles in lung cancer survival. Methods: Tumor tissue samples of 1230 early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were collected from the five independent cohorts. The 393 methylation sites in KDM genes were extracted from epigenome-wide datasets and analyzed by weighted random forest (Ranger) in discovery phase and validation dataset, respectively...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
L Derosa, M D Hellmann, M Spaziano, D Halpenny, M Fidelle, H Rizvi, N Long, A J Plodkowski, K C Arbour, J E Chaft, J A Rouche, L Zitvogel, G Zalcman, L Albiges, B Escudier, B Routy
Background: The composition of gut microbiota affects anti-tumor immune responses, preclinical and clinical outcome following immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in cancer. Antibiotics (ATB) alter gut microbiota diversity and composition leading to dysbiosis, which may affect effectiveness of ICI. Patients and Methods: We examined patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with anti-PD-(L)1 mAb monotherapy or combination at two academic institutions...
March 30, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Kunshou Zhu, Yujie Deng, Guoxing Weng, Dan Hu, Cheng Huang, Keitaro Matsumoto, Takeshi Nagayasu, Takehiko Koji, Xiongwei Zheng, Wenhui Jiang, Gen Lin, Yibin Cai, Guibin Weng, Xiaohui Chen
Smoking frequently leads to epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone modifications. The effect that smoking has on the DNA methylation levels at CCGG sites, the expression of trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and their interactions in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were analyzed. There were a total of 42 patients with NSCLC, 22 with adenocarcinomas and 20 with squamous cell carcinomas enrolled in the present study...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Yu Zhang, Jie Luo, Xiao Wang, Han-Lin Wang, Xiu-Ling Zhang, Ting-Qing Gan, Gang Chen, Dian-Zhong Luo
Long non-coding RNA HOXA11 antisense RNA (HOXA11-AS) has been previously reported to be involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of ovarian cancer and glioma. However, the function of HOXA11-AS in lung cancer remains unclear. Following the knockdown of HOXA11-AS in A549 cells, a microarray analysis was performed in order to detect the differences in microRNA (miRNA/miR) profiles. Subsequently, miR-642b-3p was selected for further analysis. Four miRNA target prediction algorithms were used to identify potential target genes of miR-642b-3p...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Rieke Frank, Matthias Scheffler, Sabine Merkelbach-Bruse, Michaela Angelika Ihle, Anna Kron, Michael Rauer, Frank Ueckeroth, Katharina Koenig, Sebastian Michels, Rieke Fischer, Anna Eisert, Jana Fassunke, Carina Heydt, Monika Serke, Yon-Dschun Ko, Ulrich Gerigk, Thomas Geist, Britta Kaminsky, Lukas Heukamp, Mathieu Clement-Ziza, Reinhard Buettner, Juergen Wolf
BACKGROUND: KEAP1 and NFE2L2 mutations are associated with impaired prognosis in many cancers and with squamous cell carcinoma formation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, few is known about frequency, histology-dependence, molecular and clinical presentation as well as response to systemic treatment in NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue of 1391 patients with NSCLC was analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Clinical and pathologic characteristics, survival and treatment outcome of patients with KEAP1 or NFE2L2 mutations were assessed...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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