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brain calcification

Ilaria Viozzi, Kirsten van Baarsen, André Grotenhuis
The authors present a case of a young girl affected by a syndromal hydrocephalus who developed a bilateral ossified chronic subdural hematoma with the typical radiological appearance of "the armored brain". Bilateral calcified chronic subdural hematoma is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. There is controversy in the treatment, but most published literature discourages a surgical intervention to remove the calcifications.
October 25, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Frank J Wolters, Daniel Bos, Meike W Vernooij, Oscar H Franco, Albert Hofman, Peter J Koudstaal, Aad van der Lugt, M Arfan Ikram
The association of aortic valve calcification (AVC) with dementia remains unknown. In 2,428 non-demented participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study, we investigated the association of CT-assessed AVC with risk of dementia and cognitive decline. AVC was present in 33.1% of the population. During a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 160 participants developed dementia. We found no association between presence of AVC and risk of all-cause dementia [hazard ratio (HR): 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI):0...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
M Pistacchi, M Gioulis, F Sanson, S M Marsala
INTRODUCTION: Fahr's disease is characterized by bilateral calcium deposition within the basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate nucleus and subcortical brain white matter. The main clinical manifestations are rigid or hyperkinetic syndrome, mood disorders and cognitive impairment. The correlation between neurological impairment and symmetrical basal ganglia calcification is not so frequent. Aim of the study was to report the results of neurological assessment of three sporadic cases of Fahr's disease highlighting a correlation between the clinical syndrome and neuroimaging...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Karan Seegobin, Kamille Abdool, Kanterpersad Ramcharan, Haramnauth Dyaanand, Fidel Rampersad
We describe a case of Parry Romberg syndrome/en coupe de sabre in a woman whose disease started as seizures at age 8 but was diagnosed at the age 39. During these 31 years she got married, completed a first degree at university, had two successful pregnancies and has been gainfully employed. The features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, autoimmune abnormalities, ocular abnormalities, morphea en coup de sabre and brain imaging abnormalities were present. Areas of parietal lobe cerebral calcification were encountered on the computed tomographic scan and bilateral periventricular white matter changes on the magnetic resonance imaging with frontal, temporal and parietal lobe brain atrophy ipsilateral to the facial hemiatrophy...
September 30, 2016: Neurology International
Jeong-Min Kim, Kwang-Yeol Park, Dong-Woo Shin, Moo-Seok Park, Oh-Sang Kwon
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated serum homocysteine level is known to be associated with increased risk of vascular event due to endothelial senescence. We investigated the association between serum homocysteine level and cerebral arteriosclerosis status including intracranial vascular calcification and atherosclerosis burden. METHODS: We identified 1193 consecutive patients (mean age = 68.6 ± 12.7, 537 female patients) who were admitted with acute cerebral infarction or transient ischemic attack from a single university medical center...
October 13, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Camila V Ventura, Maria Paula Fernandez, Ivan A Gonzalez, Delia M Rivera-Hernandez, Roberto Lopez-Alberola, Maria Peinado, Angelica A Floren, Patricia A Rodriguez, Basil K Williams, Gabriela de la Vega Muns, Ana J Rodriguez, Catherin Negron, Brenda Fallas, Audina M Berrocal
A 6-day-old female baby with known diagnosis of congenital Zika infection was referred for ophthalmologic examination. The mother (37 years old) was referred for a pruritic rash, conjunctival hyperemia, and malaise at 12 weeks of gestation while still living in Venezuela. Upon arrival to Miami, Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure was confirmed during prenatal screening. At birth, due to the known exposure, a complete congenital ZIKV workup was performed, including brain ultrasound and MRI, which disclosed calcifications in the frontal lobe...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Haiyan Liao, Detai Li, Bing Zhou, Jun Liu, Yajun Li, Hui Liu, Yuzhi Wu, Xiongzhao Zhu, Changlian Tan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of cerebral sparganosis to improve the accuracy of diagnosing cerebral sparganosis with medical imaging modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of CT and MRI features of 12 patients with cerebral sparganosis. A comparative analysis between imaging findings, and intraoperative and postoperative pathological findings was performed...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Peter Štrafela, Alenka Vizjak, Jerica Mraz, Jernej Mlakar, Jože Pižem, Nataša Tul, Tatjana Avšič Županc, Mara Popović
CONTEXT: -The 2015 outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil resulted in a 20-times increased prevalence of congenital microcephaly in stillborns and neonates and was instrumental in raising the suspicion of a causal association between Zika virus and microcephaly. OBJECTIVE: -To provide a comprehensive description of the neuropathologic features of congenital Zika virus infection. DESIGN: -Autopsy evaluation of the brain from a fetus of 32 weeks and 6 days of gestation, with a prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly associated with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed, fetal, Zika virus infection...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
P Pasanen, J Mäkinen, L Myllykangas, R Guerreiro, J Bras, M Valori, M Viitanen, M Baumann, P J Tienari, M Pöyhönen, P Baumann
OBJECTIVES: Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare neurological disease often inherited as a dominant trait. Mutations in four genes (SLC20A2, PDGFB, PDGFRB, and XPR1) have been reported in patients with PFBC. Of these, point mutations or small deletions in SLC20A2 are most common. Thus far, only one large deletion covering entire SLC20A2 and several smaller, exonic deletions of SLC20A2 have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify the causative gene defect in a Finnish PFBC family with three affected patients...
October 10, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Yuhee Ryu, Li Jin, Hae Jin Kee, Zhe Hao Piao, Jae Yeong Cho, Gwi Ran Kim, Sin Young Choi, Ming Quan Lin, Myung Ho Jeong
Gallic acid, a type of phenolic acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects in inflammation, vascular calcification, and metabolic diseases. The present study was aimed at determining the effect and regulatory mechanism of gallic acid in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol (ISP) in mice and primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. Gallic acid pretreatment attenuated concentric cardiac hypertrophy. It downregulated the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and beta-myosin heavy chain in vivo and in vitro...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sanjay Konakondla, Mayur Jayarao, Jami Skrade, Caterina Giannini, Michael J Workman, Chad J Morgan
INTRODUCTION: The well-described entity of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma (SEGA) in the setting of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is profound in current literature. It has been described in children as well as adults with or without identifiable clinical presentations of tuberous sclerosis. To our knowledge there has not been any report of a negative genetic workup of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex in an adult patient presenting with an isolated SEGA. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 25-year-old female with no medical history who presented to the emergency room for headaches...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Carlo Ticconi, Adalgisa Pietropolli, Giovanni Rezza
Recent data strongly suggest an association between the current outbreak of ZIKA virus (ZIKV) in many countries of Central and South America and a sharp increase in the detection of microcephaly and fetal malformations. The link with brain defect, which has been detected mainly in some areas of Brazil, is supported by the following evidence: (1) ZIKV transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses; (2) the potential of ZIKV to determine a specific congenital fetal syndrome characterized by abnormalities involving primarily the developing brain and eye...
September 30, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Karen Grütz, Claudia B Volpato, Aloysius Domingo, Daniel Alvarez-Fischer, Uwe Gebert, Günther Schifferle, Ebba Buffone, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Rosa Rademakers, Andreas Ferbert, Andrew A Hicks, Christine Klein, Peter P Pramstaller, Ana Westenberger
BACKGROUND: Linkage analyses of families with primary familial brain calcification (formerly idiopathic basal ganglia calcification [IBGC]) identified 3 candidate loci (IBGC1-3). Recently, SLC20A2 mutations were found in the IBGC1 and IBGC3 families, merging these 2 loci. We here elucidate the genetic cause of primary familial brain calcification in the 'IBGC2' kindred. METHODS: We sequenced known primary familial brain calcification genes and quantified SLC20A2 and PDGFB...
September 27, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
A Florido-Rodriguez, J Eiris-Punal, F Barros-Angueira, L Toledo-Bravo de Laguna, A Santana-Artiles, I Sebastian-Garcia, A Santana-Rodriguez, J C Cabrera-Lopez
INTRODUCTION: Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome is a rare progressive subacute encephalopathy of early onset - generally in the first year of life - characterised by psychomotor retardation, microcephaly, alterations in the white matter of the brain, intracranial calcifications, pleocytosis and elevated levels of interferon alpha in the cerebrospinal fluid. It is associated to an increase in the expression of genes stimulated by interferon in peripheral blood, a fact known as the interferon signature...
October 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Manoel Sarno, Marcelo Aquino, Kleber Pimentel, Renata Cabral, Gisela Costa, Fernanda Bastos, Carlos Brites
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the pattern and progression of Central Nervous System (CNS) lesions of microcephalic fetuses with suspected Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection. METHODS: We analyzed fetuses diagnosed with microcephaly after a routine primary care ultrasound scan suspect a fetal microcephaly in Salvador, Brazil, from July/2015 to February/2016 and these pregnancies were followed until delivery. Microcephaly was diagnosed when the head circumference was below two or more standard deviation for gestational age and its relationship with ZIKV infection was defined according to World Health Organization criteria...
September 19, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Mériam Koob, François Rousseau, Vincent Laugel, Nicolas Meyer, Jean-Paul Armspach, Nadine Girard, Jean-Louis Dietemann
OBJECTIVE: Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder characterized by severe brain atrophy, white matter (WM) hypomyelination and basal ganglia calcifications. This study aimed to quantify atrophy and WM abnormalities using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and volumetric analysis, to evaluate possible differences between CS subtypes and to determine whether DTI findings may correspond to a hypomyelinating disorder. METHODS: 14 patients with CS and 14 controls underwent brain MRI including DTI and a volumetric three-dimensional T1 weighted sequence...
November 2016: British Journal of Radiology
T Konno, D F Broderick, N Mezaki, A Isami, D Kaneda, Y Tashiro, T Tokutake, B M Keegan, B K Woodruff, T Miura, H Nozaki, M Nishizawa, O Onodera, Z K Wszolek, T Ikeuchi
Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia is a rare neurodegenerative disease resulting from mutations in the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor gene. Accurate diagnosis can be difficult because the associated clinical and MR imaging findings are nonspecific. We present 9 cases with intracranial calcifications distributed in 2 brain regions: the frontal white matter adjacent to the anterior horns of the lateral ventricles and the parietal subcortical white matter. Thin-section (1-mm) CT scans are particularly helpful in detection due to the small size of the calcifications...
September 15, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Yuri Raoni Ramalho Rocha, José Ricardo Cavalcanti Costa, Pericles Almeida Costa, Gessica Maia, Rafael de Medeiros Vasconcelos, Cynthia Ramos Tejo, Rafaella Martins Batista, Manoel Lima Neto, Gustavo Graco Martins de Lima, Francisco Negromonte, Marcelle Borba, Selma Maria Bezerra Jeronimo, Eduardo Bouth Sequerra, Manuel Moreira Neto
INTRODUCTION: Brazil is facing, since October of 2015, an outbreak of microcephalic fetuses. This outbreak is correlated with the beginning of circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the country. Although it is clear that the size of the head is diminished in these fetuses, the brain phenotype associated with these malformations is unknown. METHODS: We collected computed tomography images of the microcephaly cases from the region of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, from September 2015 to February 2016...
2016: PLoS Currents
Elisabetta Savino, Cecilia Soavi, Eleonora Capatti, Massimo Borrelli, Giovanni B Vigna, Angelina Passaro, Giovanni Zuliani
BACKGROUND: Fahr's disease is rare a neurodegenerative idiopathic condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcifications of basal ganglia, usually associated with progressive neuropsychiatric dysfunctions and movement disorders. The term "Fahr's syndrome" is used in presence of calcifications secondary to a specific cause, but the variability of etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical picture underlying this condition have raised the question of the real existence of a syndrome...
September 8, 2016: BMC Neurology
Ozan Kocak, Coskun Yarar, Sevgi Yimenicioğlu, Arzu Ekici, Özcan Bör
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. HLH may occur as a complication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), particularly in patients with immunodeficiencies. Herein, we describe a 16-year-old girl with neurological complications associated EBV-induced HLH. Her cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed contrast-enhanced axial T1-weighted images with enhancement of meningeal surface in the right hemisphere that was consistent with right hemi-meningitis. Hydrocephalus, dilated subdural spaces, delayed myelination, edema, diffuse parenchymal atrophy, calcifications, diffuse/patchy white matter abnormalities have all been previously described with HLH...
July 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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