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Antivenom activity of plant extracts

Peik Lin Teoh, Angelina Ying Fang Cheng, Monica Liau, Fui Fui Lem, Grace P Kaling, Fern Nie Chua, Bo Eng Cheong
CONTEXT: Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial and antivenom activities. In Malaysia, it has been widely claimed to be effective in various cancer treatments but scientific evidence is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the chemical constituents, anti-proliferative, and apoptotic properties of C. nutans root extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The roots were subjected to solvent extraction using methanol and ethyl acetate...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Juliana Félix-Silva, Jacyra A S Gomes, Jacinthia B Xavier-Santos, Júlia G R Passos, Arnóbio A Silva-Junior, Denise V Tambourgi, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa
Bothrops erythromelas is a snake of medical importance responsible for most of the venomous incidents in Northeastern Brazil. However, this species is not included in the pool of venoms that are used in the Brazilian polyvalent bothropic antivenom (BAv) production. Furthermore, it is well known that antivenom therapy has limited efficacy against venom-induced local effects, making the search for complementary alternatives to treat snakebites an important task. Jatropha gossypiifolia is a medicinal plant widely indicated in folk medicine as an antidote for snakebites, whose effectiveness against Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) has been previously demonstrated in mice...
January 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Eduardo Coriolano de Oliveira, Rodrigo Alves Soares Cruz, Nayanna de Mello Amorim, Marcelo Guerra Santos, Luiz Carlos Simas Pereira Junior, Eladio Oswaldo Flores Sanchez, Caio Pinho Fernandes, Rafael Garrett, Leandro Machado Rocha, André Lopes Fuly
Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins that induce toxic effects, such as edema, hemorrhage, and death. Lachesis muta has the highest lethality indices in Brazil. In most cases, antivenom fails to neutralize local effects, leading to disabilities in victims. Thus, alternative treatments are under investigation, and plant extracts are promising candidates. The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of crude extracts, fractions, or isolated products of Erythroxylum ovalifolium and Erythroxylum subsessile to neutralize some toxic effects of L...
October 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aishwarya Balap, Bhagyashri Atre, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, Arulmozhi Sinnathambi, Kakasaheb Mahadik
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthacae) is commonly used medicinal plant in the traditional. Unani and Ayurvedic medicinal systems. It has broad range of pharmacological effects such as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antivenom, antifertility, inhibition of replication of the HIV virus, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, suppression of various cancer cells and anti-inflammatory properties. Andrographolide (AN) is one of the active constituent of the A...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Cíntia A Sf Miranda, Maria G Cardoso, Mariana E Mansanares, Marcos S Gomes, Silvana Marcussi
BACKGROUND: The search for new inhibitors of snake venom toxins is essential to complement or even replace traditional antivenom therapy, especially in relation to compounds that neutralize the local effects of envenomations. Besides their possible use as alternative to traditional antivenom therapy, some plant species possess bioactive secondary metabolites including essential oils, which can be extracted from weeds that are considered substantial problems for agriculture, such as Hedychium coronarium...
2014: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Julieta Vásquez, Juan C Alarcón, Silvia L Jiménez, Gloria I Jaramillo, Isabel C Gómez-Betancur, J Paola Rey-Suárez, Karen M Jaramillo, Diana C Muñoz, Daniela M Marín, Jefferson O Romero
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: In Colombia, more than 4.000 ophidian accidents occur per year and due to the scarce distribution and limited availability of antivenom, the use of traditional medicine has been perpetuated in some of its rural communities, in which initially, those affected are treated by healers and shamans using medicinal plants in different ways. METHODS: Research was conducted with renowned healers or connoisseurs of plants on the ethnobotany of ophidian accidents in five different areas and their municipalities of Antioquia: Magdalena Medio (Caracolí, Puerto Berrío); Bajo Cauca (Caucasia, Zaragoza); Nordeste (San Roque, Yalí); Norte (Gómez Plata, Valdivia); Suroeste (Ciudad Bolívar, Salgar); collecting information related to experience and time of use of plants in the treatment of these poisonings, amounts used, ways of use (beverage, bathing, ointment, chupaderas, vapors), preparation types (maceration or decoction) and treatment duration...
July 21, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Valéria Mourão de Moura, Luciana A Freitas de Sousa, Maria Cristina Dos-Santos, Juliana Divina Almeida Raposo, Aline Evangelista Lima, Ricardo Bezerra de Oliveira, Milton Nascimento da Silva, Rosa Helena Veras Mourão
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The poor distribution and limited availability of antivenoms in Brazil have led to greater use of plants to treat snakebites. Very often such plants are the only alternative available to riverside communities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Direct questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with members of the Cucurunã, São Pedro and Alter do Chão communities in Santarém, Pará, Brazil. For each of the 12 most frequently mentioned species aqueous extracts were prepared and the phytochemical profiles determined by thin layer chromatography...
February 23, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jeison Saturnino-Oliveira, Daiana Do Carmo Santos, Adriana Gibara Guimarães, Antônio Santos Dias, Marcelo Amorim Tomaz, Marcos Monteiro-Machado, Charles Santos Estevam, Waldecy De Lucca Júnior, Durvanei Augusto Maria, Paulo A Melo, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Márcio Roberto Viana Santos, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Rita de Cássia Meneses Oliveira, Aldeidia Pereira de Oliveira, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior
Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc) to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively...
2014: BioMed Research International
Juliana Félix-Silva, Thiago Souza, Yamara A S Menezes, Bárbara Cabral, Rafael B G Câmara, Arnóbio A Silva-Junior, Hugo A O Rocha, Ivanise M M Rebecchi, Silvana M Zucolotto, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa
Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites...
2014: PloS One
Valéria Mourão de Moura, Adrielle N Serra Bezerra, Rosa Helena Veras Mourão, Juliana L Varjão Lameiras, Juliana D Almeida Raposo, Rafael Luckwu de Sousa, Antônio Luiz Boechat, Ricardo Bezerra de Oliveira, Hipocrátes de Menezes Chalkidis, Maria Cristina Dos-Santos
Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) is one of various plant species used in folk medicine in the west of the state of Pará, Brazil, to treat snake bites. Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-snake bite plants, but few of these use the same preparation methods and doses as those traditionally used by the local populations. This study therefore compared inhibition of the main local effects of B. atrox venom (BaV) by aqueous extract of B. dichotoma (AEBd) administered according to traditional methods and pre-incubated with BaV)...
July 2014: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Bhavya Janardhan, Vineetha M Shrikanth, Kiran K Mirajkar, Sunil S More
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Although antivenom is the only treatment available, it is associated with several side effects. As an alternative, plants have been extensively studied in order to obtain an alternative treatment. In folk medicine, Azima tetracantha Lam. is usually used to treat snakebites. The present study aims to provide a scientific explanation for the use of this plant against snakebite...
2014: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Eduardo Coriolano De Oliveira, Caio Pinho Fernandes, Eladio Flores Sanchez, Leandro Rocha, André Lopes Fuly
Snake venom is composed of a mixture of substances that caused in victims a variety of pathophysiological effects. Besides antivenom, literature has described plants able to inhibit injuries and lethal activities induced by snake venoms. This work describes the inhibitory potential of ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, or dichloromethane extracts and fractions from stem and leaves of Manilkara subsericea against in vivo (hemorrhagic and edema) and in vitro (clotting, hemolysis, and proteolysis) activities caused by Lachesis muta venom...
2014: BioMed Research International
B M A Carvalho, J D L Santos, B M Xavier, J R Almeida, L M Resende, W Martins, S Marcussi, S Marangoni, R G Stábeli, L A Calderon, A M Soares, S L Da Silva, D P Marchi-Salvador
Ophidian envenomation is an important health problem in Brazil and other South American countries. In folk medicine, especially in developing countries, several vegetal species are employed for the treatment of snakebites in communities that lack prompt access to serum therapy. However, the identification and characterization of the effects of several new plants or their isolated compounds, which are able to inhibit the activities of snake venom, are extremely important and such studies are imperative. Snake venom contains several organic and inorganic compounds; phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are one of the principal toxic components of venom...
2013: BioMed Research International
Begüm Yurdakök, Emine Baydan
CONTEXT: Eryngium maritimum L. and the endemic Eryngium kotschyi Boiss. of the Apiaceae family are used for antiinflammatory, antivenom, antinociceptive and diuretic purposes in folk medicine in Turkey. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts belonging to Eryngium L. genus on various cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxic activites of the lyophilized aqueous aereal and root parts of the plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (Hep2), human glioma (U138-MG) and African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cell lines at 8...
December 2013: Pharmaceutical Biology
C Venkatesan, M Sarathi, G Balasubramanian, John Thomas, V Balachander, V Sarath Babu, S Mohammed Yusuf Bilal, S Abdul Majeed, N Madan, N Sundar Raj, S Vimal, K S N Nambi, A S Sahul Hameed
The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs...
April 2014: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Arley Camilo Patiño, Jéssica López, Mónica Aristizábal, Juan Carlos Quintana, Dora Benjumea
INTRODUCTION: Traditional medicine is an invaluable source of research into new medicines as a supplement for the treatment of snakebite, considered as a serious public health problem worldwide. The extracts of the medicinal plant, Renealmia alpina, have been used traditionally by indigenous people of Chocó (Colombia) against Bothrops asper snakebite, a snake responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in Colombia. OBJECTIVE: The ability of extracts of R...
September 2012: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
G Sakthivel, Amitabha Dey, Kh Nongalleima, Murthy Chavali, R S Rimal Isaac, N Surjit Singh, Lokesh Deb
The present study emphasizes to reveal the antivenom activity of Aristolochia bracteolata Lam., Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merrill, and Leucas aspera S. which were evaluated against venoms of Daboia russelli russelli (Russell's viper) and Naja naja (Indian cobra). The aqueous extracts of leaves and roots of the above-mentioned plants and their polyherbal (1 : 1 : 1) formulation at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed protection against envenomed mice with LD50 doses of 0.44 mg/kg and 0.28 mg/kg against Russell's viper and cobra venom, respectively...
2013: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Fernando Chagas Patrão-Neto, Marcelo Amorim Tomaz, Marcelo Abrahão Strauch, Marcos Monteiro-Machado, José Roberto Da Silva Rocha, Paula Alvarenga Borges, Sabrina Calil-Elias, Paulo A Melo
In the present work we investigated the toxic activities of two Bothrops snake venoms using in vivo and in vitro experimental protocols in mice and tested the protective effect of dexamethasone (DEXA) in different conditions, comparing it with the polyvalent antivenom. We also expanded the investigations on the antiophidic effect of the Eclipta prostrata (EP) crude extract. The administration of Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu snake venoms induced muscle damage demonstrated in vivo by the elevation on plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity in mice and by the decrease in CK content in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of these animals, and in vitro by the increase in the rate of CK release from the isolated EDL muscle...
July 2013: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Marcelo Abrahão Strauch, Marcelo Amorim Tomaz, Marcos Monteiro-Machado, Hilmar Dias Ricardo, Bruno Lemos Cons, Fabrício F A Fernandes, Camila Z El-Kik, Mariângela Soares Azevedo, Paulo A Melo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Although serotherapy against snakebite has been discovered more than one hundred years ago, antivenom is not available all over Brazil. The use of plants from folk medicine is common mainly in the Brazilian Amazon area. One of these plants is named Humirianthera ampla (HA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have investigated HA extract and constituents' antiophidic activity in different experimental protocols against some Bothrops snake venoms (Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops atrox and Bothrops jararaca)...
January 9, 2013: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
S S Hasson, M S Al-Balushi, E A Said, O Habbal, M A Idris, R A A Mothana, T A Sallam, A A Al-Jabri
The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using "oral and intra-peritoneal" route were normal even at the highest dose (24 g/kg) tested. All guinea pigs (n = 3) when treated with venoms E...
2012: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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