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Natural product chemistry

Grace Yim, Wenliang Wang, Maulik N Thaker, Stephanie Tan, Gerard D Wright
Modification of natural product backbones is a proven strategy for the development of clinically useful antibiotics. Such modifications have traditionally been achieved through medicinal chemistry strategies or via in vitro enzymatic activities. In an orthogonal approach, engineering of biosynthetic pathways using synthetic biology techniques can generate chemical diversity. Here we report the use of a minimal teicoplanin class glycopeptide antibiotic (GPA) scaffold expressed in a production-optimized Streptomyces coelicolor strain to expand GPA chemical diversity...
September 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Will Kew, Ian Goodall, David Clarke, Dušan Uhrín
Scotch Whisky is an important product, both culturally and economically. Chemically, Scotch Whisky is a complex mixture, which comprises thousands of compounds, the nature of which are largely unknown. Here, we present a thorough overview of the chemistry of Scotch Whisky as observed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Eighty-five whiskies, representing the majority of Scotch Whisky produced and sold, were analyzed by untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry. Thousands of chemical formulae were assigned for each sample based on parts-per-billion mass accuracy of FT-ICR MS spectra...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Robert G Salomon
Our research on the roles of lipid oxidation in human disease is guided by chemical intuition. For example, we postulated that 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of primary amines would be produced through covalent adduction of a γ-hydroxyalkenal generated, in turn, through oxidative fragmentation of docosahexaenoates. Our studies confirmed the natural occurrence of this chemistry, and the biological activities of these natural products and their extensive involvements in human physiology (wound healing) and pathology (age-related macular degeneration, autism, atherosclerosis, sickle cell disease and tumor growth) continue to emerge...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Vitaly K Koltover
There are two generally known concepts in biology of aging. Accordingly to the first one, there is a program of aging. The alternative concept advocates that aging proceeds stochastically. In this area of research, free radical-theory of aging, which was put forward by Denham Harman in fifties of XXth century, has determined the most heuristic line. The goal of this review is to demonstrate how the aging program and the aging stochastics are united on the basis of the systems theory of reliability. On this basis, universal features of aging, such as the exponential growth of mortality rate with time and correlation of longevity with the species-specific resting metabolism, are naturally explained...
October 9, 2016: Current Aging Science
Jennifer Herrmann, Tadeja Lukežič, Angela Kling, Sascha Baumann, Stephan Hüttel, Hrvoje Petković, Rolf Müller
Natural products continue to be a predominant source for new anti-infective agents. Research at the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) is dedicated to the development of new lead structures against infectious diseases and, in particular, new antibiotics against hard-to-treat and multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In this chapter, we introduce some of the concepts currently being employed in the field of antibiotic discovery...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Tao Wang, Thomas R Hoye
Here we report the use of the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder (HDDA) reaction for the de novo construction of a benzenoid ring in fused polycyclic heteroaromatic carbazole (i.e., [2,3]-benzoindole) skeletons. The strategy allows creation of highly substituted benzenoids. We also describe the HDDA-enabled chemical synthesis of the natural product alkaloids mahanimbine and koenidine. Trapping of the intermediate carbazolyne with a conjugated enal, proceeding through formal [2+2] cycloaddition, 4π-electrocyclic ring opening, and 6π-electrocyclic ring-closing events, constitutes a robust method for producing pyranocarbazoles...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jenna L Shelton, Denise M Akob, Jennifer C McIntosh, Noah Fierer, John R Spear, Peter D Warwick, John E McCray
Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
F Bartoccini, S Bartolucci, M Mari, G Piersanti
The modular and versatile synthesis of C4-substituted tryptophan derivatives by direct functionalization of easily available N-acetyl 4-boronate tryptophan methyl ester via transition metal-catalyzed and metal-mediated cross coupling reactions is described. The versatility of the chemistry is highlighted by the gram-scale synthesis of 4-boronated N-acetyl-tryptophan methyl ester and the rapid synthesis of C4-aryl, C4-alkyl, C4-cyano, C4-trifluoromethyl, C4-azido, and C4-hydroxy tryptophan derivatives. The utility of our methodology is illustrated through the quick approach to the tricyclic azepino indole skeleton embedded in many natural products...
October 10, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
E Carlino, A Piedimonte, F Benedetti
Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
I P Shanura Fernando, Jae-Woon Nah, You-Jin Jeon
Inflammatory diseases have become one of the leading causes of health issue throughout the world, having a considerable influence on healthcare costs. With the emerging developments in natural product, synthetic and combinatorial chemistry, a notable success has been achieved in discovering natural products and their synthetic structural analogs with anti-inflammatory activity. However, many of these therapeutics have indicated detrimental side effects upon prolonged usage. Marine algae have been identified as an underexplored reservoir of unique anti-inflammatory compounds...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
T Montagnon, D Kalaitzakis, M Sofiadis, G Vassilikogiannakis
Very recent investigations are described, which have shown how basic and unprotected nitrogen functionalities can be included, problem-free, in the furan photooxidation step of singlet oxygen-initiated cascade reaction sequences. The amine groups do not react with singlet oxygen, but, instead, participate later on in the sequences that ultimately yield a diverse range of important alkaloid motifs. To illustrate the versatility of this chemistry, six natural products were synthesised very rapidly and efficiently...
September 21, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Binuraj R K Menon, Jonathan Latham, Mark S Dunstan, Eileen Brandenburger, Ulrike Klemstein, David Leys, Chinnan Karthikeyan, Michael F Greaney, Sarah A Shepherd, Jason Micklefield
Flavin-dependent halogenase (Fl-Hal) enzymes have been shown to halogenate a range of synthetic as well as natural aromatic compounds. The exquisite regioselectively of Fl-Hal enzymes can provide halogenated building blocks which are inaccessible using standard halogenation chemistries. Consequently, Fl-Hal are potentially useful biocatalysts for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other valuable products, which are derived from haloaromatic precursors. However, the application of Fl-Hal enzymes, in vitro, has been hampered by their poor catalytic activity and lack of stability...
October 4, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Sambasivarao Kotha, Mohammad Saifuddin, Vikas R Aswar
New synthetic strategies to indolocarbazoles have been reported via two-fold Fischer indolization under green conditions using l-(+)-tartaric acid and N,N-dimethyl urea. Starting with cyclohexanone, a bench-top starting material, this methodology has been extended to the total synthesis of natural products such as tjipanazoles D and I as well as the core structure of asteropusazole and racemosin B. Here, atom economical reactions like ring-closing metathesis, enyne-metathesis, and the Diels-Alder reaction have been used as key steps...
October 18, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as chrysamide A from a deep-sea fungus Penicillium chrysogenum.
September 28, 2016: Natural Product Reports
Shang Yik Reigh, Mu-Jie Huang, Jeremy Schofield, Raymond Kapral
Active media, whose constituents are able to move autonomously, display novel features that differ from those of equilibrium systems. In addition to naturally occurring active systems such as populations of swimming bacteria, active systems of synthetic self-propelled nanomotors have been developed. These synthetic systems are interesting because of their potential applications in a variety of fields. Janus particles, synthetic motors of spherical geometry with one hemisphere that catalyses the conversion of fuel to product and one non-catalytic hemisphere, can propel themselves in solution by self-diffusiophoresis...
November 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Adam M Kubas, Daniel Berger, Harald Oberhofer, Dimitrios Maganas, Karsten Reuter, Frank Neese
Coupled cluster theory with single, double and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) is widely considered to be the 'gold standard' of ab initio quantum chemistry. Using the domain-based pair natural orbital local correlation concept (DLPNO-CCSD(T)), these calculations can be performed on systems with hundreds of atoms at an accuracy of about 99.9% of the canonical CCSD(T) method. This allows for ab initio calculations providing reference adsorption energetics at solid surfaces with an accuracy approaching 1 kcal/mol...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Erik Hans Hoffmann, Andreas Tilgner, Roland Schrödner, Peter Bräuer, Ralf Wolke, Hartmut Herrmann
Oceans dominate emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), the major natural sulfur source. DMS is important for the formation of non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO4 (2-)) aerosols and secondary particulate matter over oceans and thus, significantly influence global climate. The mechanism of DMS oxidation has accordingly been investigated in several different model studies in the past. However, these studies had restricted oxidation mechanisms that mostly underrepresented important aqueous-phase chemical processes. These neglected but highly effective processes strongly impact direct product yields of DMS oxidation, thereby affecting the climatic influence of aerosols...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marie Portail, Karine Olu, Stanislas F Dubois, Elva Escobar-Briones, Yves Gelinas, Lénaick Menot, Jozée Sarrazin
In the Guaymas Basin, the presence of cold seeps and hydrothermal vents in close proximity, similar sedimentary settings and comparable depths offers a unique opportunity to assess and compare the functioning of these deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems. The food webs of five seep and four vent assemblages were studied using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses. Although the two ecosystems shared similar potential basal sources, their food webs differed: seeps relied predominantly on methanotrophy and thiotrophy via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and vents on petroleum-derived organic matter and thiotrophy via the CBB and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles...
2016: PloS One
Luciana Scotti, Marcus T Scotti, Francisco J B Mendonça
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Pritha Basu, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
The use of natural products derived from plants as medicines precedes even the recorded human history. In the past few years there were renewed interests in developing natural compounds and understanding their target specificity for drug development for many devastating human diseases. This has been possible due to remarkable advancements in the development of sensitive chemistry and biology tools. Sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid derived from rhizomes of the plant species Sanguinaria canadensis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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