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Natural product chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527183/analytical-methods-in-tracing-honey-authenticity
#1
Jelena Trifković, Filip Andrić, Petar Ristivojević, Etil Guzelmeric, Erdem Yesilada
Honey is a precious natural product that is marketed with a wide range of nutritional and medicinal properties. However, it is also a product subjected to frequent adulteration through mislabeling and mixing with cheaper and lower-quality honeys and various sugar syrups. In that sense, honey authentication regarding its genuine botanical and geographical origins, as well as the detection of any adulteration, is essential in order to protect consumer health and to avoid competition that could create a destabilized market...
May 19, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525276/chemoenzymatic-total-synthesis-and-structural-diversification-of-tylactone-based-macrolide-antibiotics-through-late-stage-polyketide-assembly-tailoring-and-c-h-functionalization
#2
Andrew N Lowell, Matthew D DeMars, Samuel T Slocum, Fengan Yu, Krithika Anand, Joseph A Chemler, Nisha Korakavi, Jennifer K Priessnitz, Sung Ryeol Park, Aaron A Koch, Pamela J Schultz, David H Sherman
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) represent a powerful catalytic platform capable of effecting multiple carbon-carbon bond forming reactions and oxidation state adjustments. We explored the functionality of two terminal PKS modules that produce the 16-membered tylosin macrocycle, using them as biocatalysts in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of tylactone and its subsequent elaboration to complete the first total synthesis of the juvenimicin, M-4365, and rosamicin classes of macrolide antibiotics via late-stage diversification...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524209/understanding-the-biomimetic-properties-of-gallium-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-an-xas-and-xps-study
#3
F Porcaro, C Bonchi, A Ugolini, E Frangipani, G Polzonetti, P Visca, C Meneghini, C Battocchio
Pyochelin (PCH) is a siderophore (extracellular chelator) produced by the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO). PCH is implicated in iron (Fe(3+)) transport to PAO, and is crucial for its metabolism and pathogenicity. Due to the chemical similarity with Fe(3+), gallium (Ga(3+)) interferes with vital iron-dependent processes in bacterial cells, thereby opening new perspectives for the design of specific metal-based antibacterial drugs. However, the structural basis for the Fe(3+)-mimetic properties of Ga(3+) complexed with the PCH siderophore is still lacking...
May 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524077/highly-stereoselective-synthesis-of-a-compound-collection-based-on-the-bicyclic-scaffolds-of-natural-products
#4
Murali Annamalai, Stanimira Hristeva, Martyna Bielska, Raquel Ortega, Kamal Kumar
Despite the great contribution of natural products in the history of successful drug discovery, there are significant limitations that persuade the pharmaceutical industry to evade natural products in drug discovery research. The extreme scarcity as well as structural complexity of natural products renders their practical synthetic access and further modifications extremely challenging. Although other alternative technologies, particularly combinatorial chemistry, were embraced by the pharmaceutical industry to get quick access to a large number of small molecules with simple frameworks that often lack three-dimensional complexity, hardly any success was achieved in the discovery of lead molecules...
May 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520403/integrated-strategy-for-unknown-ei-ms-identification-using-quality-control-calibration-curve-multivariate-analysis-ei-ms-spectral-database-and-retention-index-prediction
#5
Teruko Matsuo, Hiroshi Tsugawa, Hiromi Miyagawa, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Compound identification using unknown electron ionization (EI) mass spectra in gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is challenging in untargeted metabolomics, natural product chemistry, or exposome research. While the total count of EI-MS records included in publicly or commercially available databases is over 900,000, efficient use of this huge database has not been achieved in metabolomics. Therefore, we proposed a 'four-step' strategy for the identification of biologically significant metabolites using an integrated cheminformatics approach: (i) Quality control calibration curve to reduce background noise, (ii) variable selection by hypothesis testing in principal component analysis for the efficient selection of target peaks, (iii) searching the EI-MS spectral database, and (iv) retention index (RI) filtering in combination with RI predictions...
May 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512003/towards-a-sustainable-biobased-industry-highlighting-the-impact-of-extremophiles
#6
REVIEW
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511037/role-of-ph-and-ionic-strength-in-the-aggregation-of-tio2-nanoparticles-in-the-presence-of-extracellular-polymeric-substances-from-bacillus-subtilis
#7
Di Lin, S Drew Story, Sharon L Walker, Qiaoyun Huang, Wei Liang, Peng Cai
Increased use of commercial titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in consumer products most likely leads to their additional environmental release. Aggregation and disaggregation processes are expected to play an important role in the fate and transport of TiO2 NPs in natural aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, in this work, we have studied the colloidal stability of TiO2 NPs in the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from Bacillus subtilis and the adsorption behavior of EPS on TiO2 NPs in aqueous solutions at different pH values and ionic strengths (IS)...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507406/evaluation-of-different-agroindustrial-waste-on-the-effect-of-different-carcass-characteristics-and-physiological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-broilers-chicken
#8
Y Sánchez-Roque, Y D C Pérez-Luna, E Pérez-Luna, R Berrones Hernández, S Saldaña-Trinidad
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and biochemical effect in chickens of the Ross breed of a food enriched with agroindustrial waste. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The food is one of the main components of the total cost for the production of chickens. Rations should be formulated to provide the correct balance of energy, protein, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acids, to allow optimal growth and performance. This study was intended to evaluate a natural feed for chicken, made from corn, yucca meal, eggshells, orange peel, soybean meal, salt and garlic, enriched with agroindustrial waste (molasses, milk whey and ferment of coffee)...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497539/inverse-electron-demand-diels-alder-reactions-principles-and-applications
#9
Jianwei Xu, Zhuang Mao Png Png, Huining Zeng Zeng, Qun Ye
Inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction (iEDDA) represents an intriguing class of cycloaddition reaction that has attracted increasing attention for its applications in bioorthogonal chemistry, total synthesis of natural products, and materials science. In many cases, the application of iEDDA has been demonstrated as an innovative approach to achieve the target structures. The theoretical aspects of this class of reactions are of particular interest for scientists to understand various factors, such as steric strain and electron density of the attached groups, to govern the reaction and thus to elucidate the reaction mechanism...
May 12, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497493/natural-and-synthetic-flavonoids-as-potent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ugm-inhibitors
#10
Stephane Vincent, Sydney Villaume, Jian Fu, Inès N'Go, Huayong Lou, Hui Liang, Laurent Kremer, Weidong Pan
This study reports a novel class of inhibitors of UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) derived from a screening of natural products. This enzyme is an essential biocatalyst involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Flavonoids were found to be potent inhibitors of UGM. The synthesis of novel methylated flavonoids allowed to perform a structure-activity relationship analysis and to determine which functional groups and structural elements are required for UGM inhibition.The binding mode of one of the best inhibitor was found to be non-competitive...
May 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497154/hot-off-the-press
#11
Robert A Hill, Andrew Sutherland
A personal selection of 32 recent papers is presented covering various aspects of current developments in bioorganic chemistry and novel natural products such as macrophilone A from Macrorhynchia philippina.
May 12, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494316/combinatorial-chemistry-in-drug-discovery
#12
REVIEW
Ruiwu Liu, Xiaocen Li, Kit S Lam
Several combinatorial methods have been developed to create focused or diverse chemical libraries with a wide range of linear or macrocyclic chemical molecules: peptides, non-peptide oligomers, peptidomimetics, small-molecules, and natural product-like organic molecules. Each combinatorial approach has its own unique high-throughput screening and encoding strategy. In this article, we provide a brief overview of combinatorial chemistry in drug discovery with emphasis on recently developed new technologies for design, synthesis, screening and decoding of combinatorial library...
May 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488435/chalcone-a-privileged-structure-in-medicinal-chemistry
#13
Chunlin Zhuang, Wen Zhang, Chunquan Sheng, Wannian Zhang, Chengguo Xing, Zhenyuan Miao
Privileged structures have been widely used as an effective template in medicinal chemistry for drug discovery. Chalcone is a common simple scaffold found in many naturally occurring compounds. Many chalcone derivatives have also been prepared due to their convenient synthesis. These natural products and synthetic compounds have shown numerous interesting biological activities with clinical potentials against various diseases. This review aims to highlight the recent evidence of chalcone as a privileged scaffold in medicinal chemistry...
May 10, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487756/n-propargylamines-versatile-building-blocks-in-the-construction-of-thiazole-cores
#14
REVIEW
S Arshadi, E Vessally, L Edjlali, R Hosseinzadeh-Khanmiri, E Ghorbani-Kalhor
Thiazoles and their hydrogenated analogues are not only key structural units in a wide variety of natural products but they also constitute important building blocks in medicinal chemistry. Therefore, the synthesis of these compounds using new protocols is always interesting. It is well known that N-propargylamines can undergo a number of cyclization reactions to produce various nitrogen-containing heterocycles. In this review, we highlight the most important developments on the synthesis of thiazole and its derivatives starting from N-propargylamines...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486209/bioactivity-guided-mixed-synthesis-accelerate-the-serendipity-in-lead-optimization-discovery-of-fungicidal-homodrimanyl-amides
#15
Dangdang Li, Shasha Zhang, Zehua Song, Guotong Wang, Shengkun Li
The bioactivity-guided mixed synthesis was conceived, in which the designed mix-reactions were run in parallel for simultaneous construction of different kinds of analogs. The valuable ones were protruded by biological screening. This tactic will facilitate more rapid incorporation of bioactive candidates into pesticide chemists' repertoire, exemplified by the optimization of less explored homodrimanes as antifungal ingredients. The discovery of D9 as a potent fungicidal agent can be completed in <2 weeks by one student, with EC50 of 3...
May 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471527/biological-characterization-of-fenpicoxamid-a-new-fungicide-with-utility-in-cereals-and-other-crops
#16
W John Owen, Chenglin Yao, Kyung Myung, Greg Kemmitt, Andrew Leader, Kevin G Meyer, Andrew J Bowling, Thomas Slanec, Vincent J Kramer
BACKGROUND: The development of novel highly efficacious fungicides that lack cross resistance is extremely desirable. Fenpicoxamid (Inatreq(TM) active) possesses these characteristics and is a member of a novel picolinamide class of fungicides derived from the antifungal natural product UK-2A. RESULTS: Fenpicoxamid strongly inhibited in vitro growth of several ascomycete fungi, including Zymoseptoria tritici (EC50 , 0.051 mg litre(-1) ). Fenpicoxamid is converted by Z...
May 4, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466644/development-of-halogenase-enzymes-for-use-in-synthesis
#17
Jonathan Latham, Eileen Brandenburger, Sarah A Shepherd, Binuraj R K Menon, Jason Micklefield
Nature has evolved halogenase enzymes to regioselectively halogenate a diverse range of biosynthetic precursors, with the halogens introduced often having a profound effect on the biological activity of the resulting natural products. Synthetic endeavors to create non-natural bioactive small molecules for pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications have also arrived at a similar conclusion: halogens can dramatically improve the properties of organic molecules for selective modulation of biological targets in vivo...
May 3, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465211/catalytically-active-inclusion-bodies-carrier-free-protein-immobilizates-for-application-in-biotechnology-and-biomedicine
#18
Ulrich Krauss, Vera D Jäger, Martin Diener, Martina Pohl, Karl-Erich Jaeger
Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) consist of unfolded protein aggregates and represent inactive waste products often accumulating during heterologous overexpression of recombinant genes in Escherichia coli. This general misconception has been challenged in recent years by the discovery that IBs, apart from misfolded polypeptides, can also contain substantial amounts of active and thus correctly or native-like folded protein. The corresponding catalytically-active inclusion bodies (CatIBs) can be regarded as a biologically-active sub-micrometer sized biomaterial or naturally-produced carrier-free protein immobilizate...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460896/folates-chemistry-analysis-occurrence-biofortification-and-bioavailability
#19
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Young-Soo Keum
Folates (Vitamin B9) include both naturally occurring folates and synthetic folic acid used in fortified foods and dietary supplements. Folate deficiency causes severe abnormalities in one-carbon metabolism can result chronic diseases and developmental disorders, including neural tube defects. Mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo; therefore, diet and dietary supplements are the only way to attain daily folate requirements. In the last decade, significant advancements have been made to enhance the folate content of rice, tomato, common bean and lettuce by using genetic engineering approaches...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460229/%C3%AE-pyrones-small-molecules-with-versatile-structural-diversity-reflected-in-multiple-pharmacological-activities-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Zubair Shanib Bhat, Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Mubashir Maqbool, Hafiz Ul Lah, Syed Khalid Yousuf, Zahoor Ahmad
The investigations in the chemistry and biology of α-pyrone (2-pyrone) are of vital importance as they constitute an essential pharmacophore in many naturally occurring and biologically active synthetic agents. They are a promising class of biorenewable platform chemicals that provide access to an array of chemical products and intermediates. Literature survey reveals that a simple change in the substitution pattern on the 2-pyrone ring system often leads to diverse biological activities. In this review, we present a brief overview of 2-pyrone pharmacophore followed by highlighting their pharmacological properties and potential applicability till date...
April 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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