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pupillary dilatation reflex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413552/trigeminocardiac-reflex-preceding-development-of-postoperative-superior-orbital-fissure-syndrome
#1
Rudrashish Haldar, Prakhar Gyanesh, Arun Srivastava, Guru Prasad Bettaswamy
The superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) is a rare condition presenting as painful unilateral opthalmoplegia, ptosis, pupillary dilatation and anesthesia of the upper eyelid and forehead. It has been described after facial trauma. Other etiologies include infections, tumors or spontaneous hemorrhages in the retro-orbital space. Occurrence of SOFS after surgery in the skull base has not been described before. We recently encountered a case where a young female developed SOFS following surgery for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387133/altered-pupillary-light-response-scales-with-disease-severity-in-migrainous-photophobia
#2
Melissa M Cortez, Natalie A Rea, Lindsay A Hunter, Kathleen B Digre, K C Brennan
Background Autonomic dysfunction and light sensitivity are core features of the migraine attack. Growing evidence also suggests changes in these parameters between attacks. Though sensory and autonomic responses likely interact, they have not been studied together across the spectrum of disease in migraine. Methods We performed digital infrared pupillometry while collecting interictal photophobia thresholds (PPT) in 36 migraineurs (14 episodic; 12 chronic; 10 probable) and 24 age and sex-matched non-headache controls...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353471/the-phenylephrine-test-revisited
#3
Arpine Barsegian, Adam Botwinick, Harsha S Reddy
PURPOSE: To characterize the phenylephrine test in ptotic patients to help clinicians perform the test more efficiently. METHODS: Adults with involutional ptosis (n = 24, 30 eyes) were assessed with digital photographs for response to topical 2.5% phenylephrine drop instillation. Patient characteristics (age, gender, iris color, dermatochalasis, brow ptosis, and baseline marginal reflex distance-1 [MRD-1] height) were recorded. From the photographs, change in (MRD-1), presence of conjunctival blanching, pupillary dilation, and Hering effect were recorded at specified time intervals, 1 minute to 1 hour after drop placement...
March 28, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326023/infrared-video-pupillography-coupled-with-smart-phone-led-for-measurement-of-pupillary-light-reflex
#4
Lily Yu-Li Chang, Jason Turuwhenua, Tian Yuan Qu, Joanna M Black, Monica L Acosta
Clinical assessment of pupil appearance and pupillary light reflex (PLR) may inform us the integrity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Current clinical pupil assessment is limited to qualitative examination, and relies on clinical judgment. Infrared (IR) video pupillography combined with image processing software offer the possibility of recording quantitative parameters. In this study we describe an IR video pupillography set-up intended for human and animal testing. As part of the validation, resting pupil diameter was measured in human subjects using the NeurOptics(™) (Irvine, CA, USA) pupillometer, to compare against that measured by our IR video pupillography set-up, and PLR was assessed in guinea pigs...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275978/infrared-pupillometry-helps-to-detect-and-predict-delirium-in-the-post-anesthesia-care-unit
#5
Eric Yang, Matthias Kreuzer, September Hesse, Paran Davari, Simon C Lee, Paul S García
This study evaluates the capability of pupillary parameters to detect and predict delirium in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU-D) following general anesthesia. PACU-D may complicate and prolong the patient's postoperative course, consequently increasing hospital costs. After institutional approval, 47 patients undergoing surgical interventions with general anesthesia were included in the study. We measured the pupillary reflexes at signing of informed consent, during surgery 20 min after intubation and when the primary inhaled anesthetic was turned off, and 15 and 45 min after PACU admittance and upon discharge from the PACU...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262507/influence-of-refractive-error-on-pupillary-dynamics-in-the-normal-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-populations
#6
James Q Truong, Nabin R Joshi, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
PURPOSE: There have been several studies investigating static, baseline pupil diameter in visually-normal individuals across refractive error. However, none have assessed the dynamic pupillary light reflex (PLR). In the present study, both static and dynamic pupillary parameters of the PLR were assessed in both the visually-normal (VN) and the mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations and compared as a function of refractive error. METHODS: The VN population comprised 40 adults (22-56 years of age), while the mTBI population comprised 32 adults (21-60 years of age) over a range of refractive errors (-9...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183584/monitoring-of-the-intraoperative-analgesia-by-pupillometry-during-laparoscopic-splenectomy-for-splenic-hydatid-cyst
#7
Ana Abad-Torrent, Albert Sueiras-Gil, Miquel Martínez-Vilalta, Josep Vallet-Fernández, María Guisasola-Rabés
Echinococcosis causes a hydatid cyst, a worldwide disease. Human beings are intermediate hosts, but dogs complete the life cycle of the cestode. The most common presentation sites are the liver and lungs. We present an unusual case of a primary splenic hydatid cyst. Open splenectomy has traditionally been the treatment of choice for splenic hydatid cysts. In recent years, minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery has been used in appropriate cases. A healthy 48-year-old woman was scheduled for laparoscopic splenectomy...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141703/intraoperative-monitoring-of-analgesia-using-nociceptive-reflexes-correlates-with-delayed-extubation-and-immediate-postoperative-pain-a-prospective-observational-study
#8
Axel Jakuscheit, Johannes Weth, Gregor Lichtner, Carlo Jurth, Benno Rehberg, Falk von Dincklage
BACKGROUND: Immediate postoperative pain could be prevented by the administration of long-lasting analgesics before the end of the anaesthesia. However, to prevent over or underdosing of analgesics under anaesthesia, tools are required to estimate the analgesia-nociception balance. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the pupillary dilation reflex (PDR) and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) at the end of general anaesthesia correlate with immediate postoperative pain, as a sign of analgesic underdosing, and with delayed tracheal extubation as a sign of analgesic overdosing...
May 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107273/influence-of-depth-of-hypnosis-on-pupillary-reactivity-to-a-standardized-tetanic-stimulus-in-patients-under-propofol-remifentanil-target-controlled-infusion-a-crossover-randomized-pilot-study
#9
Nada Sabourdin, Jean-Baptiste Peretout, Eliane Khalil, Marie-Laurence Guye, Nicolas Louvet, Isabelle Constant
BACKGROUND: Pupillometry allows the measurement of pupillary diameter variations in response to nociceptive stimuli. This technique has been used to monitor the balance between analgesia and nociception. Under general anesthesia, the amplitude of pupillary dilation is related to the amount of administered opioids. The objective of this study was to determine whether at a constant infusion rate of opioids, the pupillary response was influenced by depth of hypnosis assessed by the bispectral index (BIS)...
January 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898547/bilateral-congenital-iris-sphincter-agenesis-diagnosed-after-massive-bleeding-episode-during-repair-of-aneurysmal-dilation-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-a-case-report
#10
Tomohiro Yamamoto, Martin Schmidt-Niemann, Ehrenfried Schindler
We report a rare case of an infant with both an aneurysmal dilation of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and bilateral congenital iris sphincter agenesis. Her mydriasis without pupillary light reflex was first noted after a massive intraoperative bleeding episode during the PDA ligation. The assumption that the mydriasis was a sign of cerebral ischemia led to additional examinations and intensive medical therapies that in retrospect were unnecessary. This is the first reported case of combined aneurysmal dilation of a PDA and congenital iris sphincter agenesis in the anesthesia literature...
April 1, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753579/objective-pupillary-correlates-of-photosensitivity-in-the-normal-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-populations
#11
James Q Truong, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
OBJECTIVE: No objective vision biomarker for photosensitivity currently exists. The present study sought to uncover potential biomarkers for photosensitivity within the pupillary light reflex. METHODS: The pupillary light reflex was evaluated in those with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and in normal individuals, with and without photosensitivity, under a range of test conditions. The Neuroptics DP-2000, infrared, binocular pupillometer was used for both binocular stimulation and recording...
October 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541745/comparison-of-pupillary-dynamics-to-light-in-the-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-and-normal-populations
#12
James Q Truong, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
PURPOSE: To determine if mTBI adversely affects the pupillary light reflex (PLR). METHODS: The PLR was evaluated in mTBI and compared to normal individuals under a range of test conditions. Nine pupil parameters (maximum, minimum and final pupil diameter, latency, amplitude and peak and average constriction and dilation velocities) and six stimulus conditions (dim pulse, dim step, bright pulse, bright step, bright red step and bright blue step) were assessed in 32 adults with mTBI (21-60 years of age) and compared to 40 normal (22-56 years of age)...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152964/determination-of-rod-and-cone-influence-to-the-early-and-late-dynamic-of-the-pupillary-light-response
#13
Corinne Kostic, Sylvain V Crippa, Catherine Martin, Randy H Kardon, Martin Biel, Yvan Arsenijevic, Aki Kawasaki
PURPOSE: This study aims to identify which aspects of the pupil light reflex are most influenced by rods and cones independently by analyzing pupil recordings from different mouse models of photoreceptor deficiency. METHODS: One-month-old wild type (WT), rodless (Rho-/-), coneless (Cnga3-/-), or photoreceptor less (Cnga3-/-; Rho-/- or Gnat1-/-) mice were subjected to brief red and blue light stimuli of increasing intensity. To describe the initial dynamic response to light, the maximal pupillary constriction amplitudes and the derivative curve of the first 3 seconds were determined...
May 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26882061/upper-eyelid-and-pupillary-effects-of-topical-dilute-epinephrine
#14
Giancarlo A Garcia, Philip Ngai, Swapna Vemuri, Jeremiah P Tao
PURPOSE: Adrenergic medications may elevate the upper eyelid and dilate the pupil. The effects of topical phenylephrine on Müller's muscle have been well described. Dilute epinephrine (DE) is a sympathomimetic agent commonly administered in blepharoptosis surgery, and has been shown to elevate the upper eyelid margin when injected subcutaneously. The effects of DE applied topically to the eye, whether intentional or inadvertent during surgery have not been characterized. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify and compare the effects of topical DE and phenylephrine on upper eyelid position and pupil size...
March 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26684093/evaluation-of-the-mydriatic-effects-of-topical-administration-of-rocuronium-bromide-in-hispaniolan-amazon-parrots-amazona-ventralis
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Olivia A Petritz, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Kate Gustavsen, K Tomo Wiggans, Philip H Kass, Emma Houck, Christopher J Murphy, Joanne Paul-Murphy
UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVE :To determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment. DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. ANIMALS: 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. PROCEDURES: Rocuronium bromide (20 μL/eye; 10 mg/mL) or saline (20 μL/eye; 0.9% NaCl) solution was administered in both eyes of each bird with a 26-day washout period...
January 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26506756/unilateral-adie-s-tonic-pupil-and-viral-hepatitis-report-of-two-cases
#16
Jelena Karadžić, Natalija Jaković, Igor Kovačević
INTRODUCTION: Adie's (tonic) pupil is a neuro-ophthalmological disorder characterized by a tonically dilated pupil, which is unresponsive to light. It is caused by damage to postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic innervation of the eye, usually by a viral.or bacterial infection. Adie's syndrome includes diminished deep tendon reflexes. OUTLINE OF CASES: We report data of a 59-year-old female with unequal pupil sizes. She complained of blurred vision and headache mainly while reading...
July 2015: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494950/new-light-on-the-mind-s-eye-the-pupillary-light-response-as-active-vision
#17
Sebastiaan Mathôt, Stefan Van der Stigchel
The eye's pupils constrict (shrink) in brightness and dilate (expand) in darkness. The pupillary light response was historically considered a low-level reflex without any cognitive component. Here, we review recent studies that have dramatically changed this view: The light response depends not only on a stimulus's brightness but also on whether you are aware of the stimulus, whether you are paying attention to it, and even whether you are thinking about it. We highlight the link between the pupillary light response and eye-movement preparation: When you intend to look at a bright stimulus, a pupillary constriction is prepared along with the eye movement before the eyes set in motion...
October 2015: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26410694/executive-control-suppresses-pupillary-responses-to-aversive-stimuli
#18
Noga Cohen, Natali Moyal, Avishai Henik
Adaptive behavior depends on the ability to effectively regulate emotional responses. Continuous failure in the regulation of emotions can lead to heightened physiological reactions and to various psychopathologies. Recently, several behavioral and neuroimaging studies showed that exertion of executive control modulates emotion. Executive control is a high-order operation involved in goal-directed behavior, especially in the face of distractors or temptations. However, the role of executive control in regulating emotion-related physiological reactions is unknown...
December 2015: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26225382/developmental-changes-of-normal-pupil-size-and-reactivity-in-children
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jacob T Brown, Mark Connelly, Caitlin Nickols, Kathleen A Neville
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to establish normative values for measurements of quantitative pupillometry in children. METHODS: Quantitative pupillometry measurements were obtained from children between 1 and 18 years of age being seen for either a well child check or other outpatient appointment. RESULTS: Maximum and minimum pupil size increased slightly with age; however, the correlation was weak (r = 0.29 and 0.19, respectively). Similarly weak correlations with age also were observed for maximum constriction velocity (r = -0...
May 2015: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26209783/post-illumination-pupil-response-after-blue-light-reliability-of-optimized-melanopsin-based-phototransduction-assessment
#20
Wisse P van der Meijden, Bart H W te Lindert, Denise Bijlenga, Joris E Coppens, Germán Gómez-Herrero, Jessica Bruijel, J J Sandra Kooij, Christian Cajochen, Patrice Bourgin, Eus J W Van Someren
Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells have recently been shown highly relevant to the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits that regulate alertness, mood and circadian rhythms. A quantitative assessment of functionality of the melanopsin-signaling pathway could be highly relevant in order to mechanistically understand individual differences in the effects of light on these regulatory systems. We here propose and validate a reliable quantification of the melanopsin-dependent Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR) after blue light, and evaluated its sensitivity to dark adaptation, time of day, body posture, and light exposure history...
October 2015: Experimental Eye Research
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