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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214088/a-case-of-seropositive-autoimmune-autonomic-ganglionopathy-with-diffuse-esophageal-spasm
#1
Nobutoshi Morimoto, Sakuma Takahashi, Tomoki Inaba, Motonori Takamiya, Yasuhiko Kageyama, Mizuki Morimoto, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Hirotake Nishimura, Shunya Nakane, Koji Abe
Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an immune-mediated disorder that leads to various autonomic failures associated with anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies (anti-gAChR-Abs). Diffuse esophageal spasm (DES) is an uncommon esophageal motility disorder. We herein report the case of a 68-year-old woman with DES as a partial symptom of AAG. She presented with chronic esophageal transit failure, constipation, and numbness of the hands and feet, Adie's pupil, thermal hypoalgesia, and decreased deep tendon reflexes...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210543/changes-in-intraocular-pressure-and-horizontal-pupil-diameter-during-use-of-topical-mydriatics-in-the-canine-eye
#2
Liga Kovalcuka, Agris Ilgazs, Dace Bandere, David L Williams
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP) and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD) in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically normal canine patients (between the ages of 2 and 6 years) of varying breed and sex were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of ten and given one drop of tropicamide, atropine, phenylephrine or saline into one eye...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210174/anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography-changes-with-introduction-and-discontinuation-of-tamsulosin
#3
Abdullah Al-Kharashi, Amir A Azimzadeh, Jerry Leung, Sidney Radomski, Lenny Radomski, Wai-Ching Lam
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to quantify changes and reversibility in pupil dilation and iris dilator muscle region thickness associated with introduction and subsequent discontinuation of tamsulosin in patients naïve to this drug with the aid of an anterior OCT system. METHODS: The study was carried out on 7 patients (14 eyes) naïve to tamsulosin and with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BHP). Measurements taken by Vistante OCT were done pre- and post-dilation of the following: pupil size, iris dilator muscle region (DMR) thickness, sphincter muscle region (SMR) thickness, and anterior chamber depth...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196403/morphologic-patterns-formed-by-the-anomalous-fibers-occurring-along-the-anterior-capsule-of-the-crystalline-lens-in-people-with-the-long-anterior-zonule-trait
#4
Daniel K Roberts, Yongyi Yang, Christina E Morettin, Tricia L Newman, Mary F Roberts, Jacob T Wilensky
People with the long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait, which may have prevalence near 2%, have zonular fibers that extend more central than usual along the anterior capsule of the crystalline lens. The anomalous fibers can be observed in vivo with clinical slit lamp biomicroscopy after pharmacologic pupil dilation, and although minimally studied, the LAZ trait may have importance to glaucoma, retinal degeneration, and cataract surgery. In order to further characterize LAZ morphology, a custom computer program was used to trace LAZ fibers seen on retro-illumination photos acquired during previous study at an academic, urban eye care facility in Chicago, IL, USA...
February 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194321/extranodal-natural-killer-t-cell-lymphoma-presenting-as-orbital-cellulitis
#5
Hanis Zuhaimy, Hayati Abdul Aziz, Suresh Vasudevan, Siah Hui Hui
Objective: To report an aggressive case of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) of the ethmoid sinus presenting as orbital cellulitis Method: Case report Results: A 56-year-old male presented with right eye redness, reduced vision, and periorbital swelling for 5 weeks duration associated with a two-month history of blocked nose. The visual acuity of the right eye was 6/18. The eye was proptosed with periorbital oedema and conjunctival chemosis. The pupil was mid-dilated but there was no relative afferent pupillary defect...
2017: GMS Ophthalmology Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187129/podoconiosis-trachomatous-trichiasis-and-cataract-in-northern-ethiopia-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#6
Helen Burn, Sintayehu Aweke, Tariku Wondie, Esmael Habtamu, Kebede Deribe, Saul Rajak, Stephen Bremner, Gail Davey
BACKGROUND: Rural populations in low-income countries commonly suffer from the co-morbidity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis (both NTDs) and cataract are common causes of morbidity among subsistence farmers in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. We explored whether podoconiosis was associated with cataract or trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among this population. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in East Gojam region, Amhara, Ethiopia in May 2016...
February 10, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182171/early-clinical-features-of-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome-in-anterior-segment-and-gonioscopy-examination
#7
Sirel Gür Güngör, Atilla Bayer, Ahmet Akman, Leyla Asena
OBJECTIVES: To determine the early signs of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) in fellow eyes of cases with unilateral PEX. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fellow eyes of 34 cases with unilateral PEX were evaluated by slit-lamp and gonioscopy. Findings associated with PEX were recorded. RESULTS: Mean age was 67.8±8.1 years (range 55-86 years). Twenty-five patients (73.5%) had pigmentation in the inferior angle and 23 patients (67.6%) had Sampaolesi's line located on the inferior angle in fellow eyes...
January 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166792/mothers-pupillary-responses-to-infant-facial-expressions
#8
Santeri Yrttiaho, Dana Niehaus, Eileen Thomas, Jukka M Leppänen
BACKGROUND: Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. METHODS: Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs...
February 6, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166436/interventions-to-reduce-myopia-progression-in-children
#9
Su Ann Tay, Sonal Farzavandi, Donald Tan
Efforts to reduce the progression of myopia in childhood are on the rise, due to an increasing incidence of myopia worldwide and its associated sight-threatening complications. Interventions are aimed at reducing myopia in childhood and include environmental considerations, spectacles, contact lenses, and pharmacological agents. We reviewed recent literature with interventions aimed at reducing myopia progression in children and found that a number of interventions were significant in reducing the progression of myopia...
February 6, 2017: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163935/short-term-monocular-deprivation-enhances-physiological-pupillary-oscillations
#10
Paola Binda, Claudia Lunghi
Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162198/-a-preliminary-study-on-macular-retinal-and-choroidal-thickness-and-blood-flow-change-after-posterior-scleral-reinforcement-by-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#11
X F Zhang, L Y Qiao, X X Li, N Ma, M Li, Z Guan, H Z Wang, N L Wang
Objective: To investigate macular retinal and choroidal thickness and blood flow change using optical coherence tomography angiography after posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) surgery. Methods: Prospective study. Twenty eyes of 10 patients with high myopia were enrolled in this open-label, single-treatment group and prospective study. Radial lines and Angio retina (3 mm×3 mm) module were performed for 20 eyes using Angio-vue optical coherence tomography (Avanti, Optovue) without pupil dilation, and best corrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent and axial length were compared before and 60 days after surgery...
January 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160194/constant-luminance-cd%C3%A2-s-m-2-versus-constant-retinal-illuminance-td%C3%A2-s-stimulation-in-flicker-ergs
#12
C Quentin Davis, Olga Kraszewska, Colette Manning
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of variable pupil size on the flicker electroretinogram (ERG) between a stimulus having constant luminance and a stimulus having constant retinal illuminance (constant Troland) that compensates for pupil size. METHODS: Subjects (n = 18) were tested with 12 pairs of the stimuli. The stimulus pair consisted of the ISCEV standard constant luminance stimulus (3 cd·s/m(2) with a 30 cd/m(2) background) and a constant retinal illuminance stimulus (32 Td·s with a 320 Td background) selected to provide the same stimulus and background when the pupil diameter is 3...
February 3, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157098/pupillary-responses-as-a-biomarker-of%C3%A2-early-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Eric L Granholm, Matthew S Panizzon, Jeremy A Elman, Amy J Jak, Richard L Hauger, Mark W Bondi, Michael J Lyons, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen
Task-evoked pupillary responses may be a psychophysiological biomarker of early risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pupil dilation during cognitive tasks reflects cognitive effort until compensatory capacity is surpassed and performance declines are manifest, and reflects activation in the locus coeruleus, where degenerative changes have been found in the earliest stages of AD. We recorded pupillary responses during digit span recall in 918 participants ages 56-66. Despite normal performance, amnestic single-domain MCI (S-MCI) participants showed greater pupil dilation than non-amnestic S-MCI and cognitively normal (CN) participants at lower cognitive loads...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127779/fine-grained-versus-categorical-pupil-size-differentiates-between-strategies-for-spatial-working-memory-performance
#14
Martina Starc, Alan Anticevic, Grega Repovš
Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories...
January 27, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123618/comparison-of-neurological-clinical-manifestation-in-patients-with-hemorrhagic-and-ischemic-stroke
#15
Seyedhossein Ojaghihaghighi, Samad Shams Vahdati, Akram Mikaeilpour, Ali Ramouz
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is the third leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. Anyone suspected of having a stroke should be taken immediately to a medical facility for diagnosis and treatment. The symptoms that follow a stroke aren't significant and depend on the area of the brain that has been affected and the amount of tissue damaged. Parameters for predicting long-term outcome in such patients have not been clearly delineated, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate this possibility and to test a system that might practicably be used routinely to aid management and predict outcomes of individual stroke patients...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114580/origins-of-pupillary-hippus-in-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#16
Philip R K Turnbull, Nouzar Irani, Nicky Lim, John R Phillips
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative roles of the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) in pupillary hippus. Methods: We used a paired-eye control study design with three cohorts receiving either 1.0% tropicamide (PNS antagonist) in light (TL), 1.0% tropicamide in dark (TD), or 10% phenylephrine (SNS) in light (PL), n = 12 in each. Each subject received one drop to the randomly determined treatment eye, while the other eye served as control...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110740/pupillary-transient-responses-to-within-task-cognitive-load-variation
#17
Hoe Kin Wong, Julien Epps
Changes in physiological signals due to task evoked cognitive load have been reported extensively. However, pupil size based approaches for estimating cognitive load on a moment-to-moment basis are not as well understood as estimating cognitive load on a task-to-task basis, despite the appeal these approaches have for continuous load estimation. In particular, the pupillary transient response to instantaneous changes in induced load has not been experimentally quantified, and the within-task changes in pupil dilation have not been investigated in a manner that allows their consistency to be quantified with a view to biomedical system design...
December 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106471/topical-0-1-bromfenac-sodium-for-intraoperative-miosis-prevention-and-prostaglandin-e2-inhibition-in-femtosecond-laser-assisted-cataract-surgery
#18
Hui Chen, Haotian Lin, Wan Chen, Bo Zhang, Wu Xiang, Jing Li, Weirong Chen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical 0.1% bromfenac sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on intraoperative pupil dilation maintenance and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) inhibition during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients (30 each in study and control groups) were included in this study. The patients received 0.1% bromfenac ophthalmic solution or control placebo twice a day for 3 days before surgery...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103197/the-tuebingen-scotopic-threshold-test-tstt
#19
Torsten Strasser, Hana Langrova, Sabrina Sundermeier, Dominic Hillerkuss, Katarina Stingl, Wilhelm Durst, Anne Kurtenbach, Eberhart Zrenner, Ditta Zobor
Measurement of the dark-adaptation threshold plays a key role in the diagnosis and estimation of disease progression of many retinal disorders. Determining the threshold is, however, difficult to perform in young children. We present here a prototype for a dark adaptometer, the Tuebingen Scotopic Threshold Test (TSST) aimed to ease measurement of photoreceptor thresholds in young subjects. The device consists of two 7cm x 10cm fields with either blue or yellow LEDs, for testing rod or cone sensitivity, respectively...
January 5, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089758/pupil-responses-and-pain-ratings-to-heat-stimuli-reliability-and-effects-of-expectations-and-a-conditioning-pain-stimulus
#20
James C Eisenach, Regina Curry, Carol A Aschenbrenner, Robert C Coghill, Timothy T Houle
BACKGROUND: The locus coeruleus (LC) signals salience to sensory stimuli and these responses can modulate the experience of pain stimuli. The pupil dilation response (PDR) to noxious stimuli is thought to be a surrogate for LC responses, but PDR response to Peltier-controlled noxious heat stimuli, the most commonly used method in experimental pain research, has not been described. NEW METHOD: Healthy volunteers were presented with randomly presented heat stimuli of 5 sec duration and provided pain intensity ratings to each stimulus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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