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pupil dilation

Nikolaus Luft, Piotr A Wozniak, Gerold C Aschinger, Klemens Fondi, Ahmed M Bata, René M Werkmeister, Doreen Schmidl, Katarzyna J Witkowska, Matthias Bolz, Gerhard Garhöfer, Leopold Schmetterer
Purpose: This study evaluated the validity of retinal perfusion measurements using laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) by means of in vitro experiments and direct comparison with dual-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) in a healthy Caucasian population. Methods: The flow velocity of scattering solution pumped through a glass capillary was measured at 17 different flow velocities (range, 0.5-47 mm/s) using LSFG. The flow within the glass capillary was produced by a computer-controlled infusion pump...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
James Q Truong, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
OBJECTIVE: No objective vision biomarker for photosensitivity currently exists. The present study sought to uncover potential biomarkers for photosensitivity within the pupillary light reflex. METHODS: The pupillary light reflex was evaluated in those with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and in normal individuals, with and without photosensitivity, under a range of test conditions. The Neuroptics DP-2000, infrared, binocular pupillometer was used for both binocular stimulation and recording...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Ritch C Savin-Williams, Brian M Cash, Mark McCormack, Gerulf Rieger
This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Tsontcho Ianchulev, Arturo Chayet, Malik Kahook, Mark Packer, Louis Pasquale, Robert N Weinreb
AIM: Eyedroppers deliver medication volumes exceeding conjunctival absorptive capacity, causing spillage and risking ocular/systemic complications. We evaluated piezoelectric microdosing. Results/methodology: Subjects (n = 102) received precision microdroplet delivery of phenylephrine (2.5%) and tropicamide (1.0%): 1 × 1.5 μl, 1 × 6 μl or 2 × 3 μl of each (randomized 1:1:1), into one eye. Contralateral eyes received eyedropper doses of both drugs. Outcomes were pupil dilation (0-60 min) and patient satisfaction...
October 13, 2016: Therapeutic Delivery
Sameer Saproo, Victor Shih, David C Jangraw, Paul Sajda
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the neural correlates of workload buildup in a fine visuomotor task called the boundary avoidance task (BAT). The BAT has been known to induce naturally occurring failures of human-machine coupling in high performance aircraft that can potentially lead to a crash-these failures are termed pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). APPROACH: We recorded EEG and pupillometry data from human subjects engaged in a flight BAT simulated within a virtual 3D environment...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Pelin Özyol, Erhan Özyol, Ercan Baldemir
PURPOSE: Since age-related changes in lens elasticity and ciliary muscle contractility can affect how ocular parameters respond to cycloplegia, intraocular lens (IOL) power measurements calculated by formulas using anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT) or white-to-white (WtW) for effective lens position prediction can vary. In response, using swept-source optical biometry in pre-presbyopic and presbyopic eyes, we investigated changes in ocular parameters and IOL power calculations due to cycloplegia...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Roberto Gonzalez-Salinas, Adriano Guarnieri, María Concepción Guirao Navarro, Manuel Saenz-de-Viteri
Cataract, a degradation of the optical quality of the crystalline lens, progressive and age-related, is the leading cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure performed by ophthalmologists and is the only effective treatment for cataracts. Advances in the surgical techniques and better postoperative visual outcomes have progressively changed the primary concern of cataract surgery to become a procedure refined to yield the best possible refractive results...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
James M Shine, Patrick G Bissett, Peter T Bell, Oluwasanmi Koyejo, Joshua H Balsters, Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Craig A Moodie, Russell A Poldrack
Higher brain function relies upon the ability to flexibly integrate information across specialized communities of brain regions; however, it is unclear how this mechanism manifests over time. In this study, we used time-resolved network analysis of fMRI data to demonstrate that the human brain traverses between functional states that maximize either segregation into tight-knit communities or integration across otherwise disparate neural regions. Integrated states enable faster and more accurate performance on a cognitive task, and are associated with dilations in pupil diameter, suggesting that ascending neuromodulatory systems may govern the transition between these alternative modes of brain function...
September 28, 2016: Neuron
Katalin Tamási, Cristina McKean, Adamantios Gafos, Tom Fritzsche, Barbara Höhle
This study introduces a method ideally suited for investigating toddlers' ability to detect mispronunciations in lexical representations: pupillometry. Previous research has established that the magnitude of pupil dilation reflects differing levels of cognitive effort. Building on those findings, we use pupil dilation to study the level of detail encoded in lexical representations with 30-month-old children whose lexicons allow for a featurally balanced stimulus set. In each trial, we present a picture followed by a corresponding auditory label...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Soujanya Kaup, Siddharudha Shivalli, Divyalakshmi Ks, Cynthia Arunachalam, Rejitha Chinnu Varghese
INTRODUCTION: Corneal endothelial damage following phacoemulsification is still one of the major concerns of modern day cataract surgery. Although many techniques have been proposed, the risks of posterior capsular rupture and corneal endothelium damage persist. In theory, damage to the corneal endothelium is minimised by delivering the lowest phaco energy only in the direction necessary to emulsify the lens nucleus. Hence, it is believed that the bevel of the needle should be turned towards the nucleus or the nuclear fragment (ie, bevel-down...
2016: BMJ Open
Eilif Dahl
A previously healthy 65-year-old female passenger presented on the 3rd day of her voyage with a small facial laceration after she fell and hit her forehead, following sudden blurred vision and dizziness. When the ship's doctor noticed that one pupil was much bigger than the other, he feared intracranial bleeding and considered helicopter evacuation. Her symptoms had started shortly after she had removed a transdermal scopolamine patch from behind her ear. Getting scopolamine from her hands in direct contact with the eye surface caused mydriasis...
2016: International Maritime Health
Anastacia Y Kudinova, Katie L Burkhouse, Greg Siegle, Max Owens, Mary L Woody, Brandon E Gibb
There is a large body of research supporting the association between disrupted physiological reactivity to negative stimuli and depression. The present study aimed to examine whether physiological reactivity to emotional stimuli, assessed via pupil dilation, served as a biological marker of risk for depression recurrence among individuals who are known to be at a higher risk due to having previous history of depression. Participants were 57 women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD). Pupil dilation to angry, happy, sad, and neutral faces was recorded...
September 27, 2016: Psychophysiology
Mark Rosenfield, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
PURPOSE: The SVOne is a portable, Hartmann-Shack wavefront aberrometer, which can be attached to a smartphone to determine the refractive error of the eye objectively. Previous results have shown the device to provide measurements equivalent to those of standard clinical techniques in young, healthy adults. The aim of the present study was to compare the findings of the SVOne with retinoscopy, subjective refraction, and two commercially available autorefractors (Retinomax-3 and WAM-5500) in a pediatric population...
September 23, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
J Nekolová, H Langrová, P Rozsíval, N Jirásková
PURPOSE: To prospectively compare postoperative results of two premium intraocular lenses EnVISTA (Bausch and Lomb) and AcrySof IQ (Alcon), focussing on glistenings and posterior capsule opacification. The evaluation of glistenings was done using Image J software and posterior capsule opacifications were quantified with OSCA system. METHODS: Twenty patients (7 men and 13 women) with bilateral cataract were included. EnVista intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted in one eye and AcrySof IQ IOL in the second eye of each patient...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
Yuanjia Zhu, Tiwalola Kolawole, Xavier F Jimenez
Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant that is structurally similar to amphetamines. Its primary toxic effects include seizure, sinus tachycardia, hypertension, and agitation; however, at higher amounts of ingestion, paradoxical cardiac effects are seen. We report the case of a 21-year-old woman who ingested 13.5 g of bupropion, a dose higher than any other previously reported. The patient presented with seizure, sinus tachycardia with prolonged QTc and QRS intervals, dilated pupils, and agitation. Four days after overdose, the patient's sinus tachycardia and prolonged QTc and QRS intervals resolved with symptomatic management, but she soon developed sinus bradycardia, hypotension, and mild transaminitis...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Ingo Bothe, Mary K Baylies
The skeletal muscle system is the largest organ in motile animals, constituting between 35 and 55% of the human body mass, and up to 75% of the body mass in flying organisms like Drosophila. The flight muscles alone in flying insects comprise up to 65% of total body mass. Not only is the musculature the largest organ system, it is also exquisitely complex, with single muscles existing in different shapes and sizes. These different morphologies allow for such different functions as the high-frequency beating of a wing in a hummingbird, the dilation of the pupil in a human eye, or the maintenance of posture in a giraffe's neck...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jessica Bruijel, Wisse P van der Meijden, Denise Bijlenga, Farangis Dorani, Joris E Coppens, Bart H W Te Lindert, J J Sandra Kooij, Eus J W Van Someren
Melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells play an important role in the non-image forming effects of light, through their direct projections on brain circuits involved in circadian rhythms, mood and alertness. Individual differences in the functionality of the melanopsin-signaling circuitry can be reliably quantified using the maximum post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) after blue light. Previous protocols for acquiring PIPR relied on the use of mydriatics to dilate the light-exposed eye. However, pharmacological pupil dilation is uncomfortable for the participants and requires ophthalmological expertise...
2016: Biology
James Q Truong, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
PURPOSE: To determine if mTBI adversely affects the pupillary light reflex (PLR). METHODS: The PLR was evaluated in mTBI and compared to normal individuals under a range of test conditions. Nine pupil parameters (maximum, minimum and final pupil diameter, latency, amplitude and peak and average constriction and dilation velocities) and six stimulus conditions (dim pulse, dim step, bright pulse, bright step, bright red step and bright blue step) were assessed in 32 adults with mTBI (21-60 years of age) and compared to 40 normal (22-56 years of age)...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Jack J Tian, Giancarlo A Garcia, Rustum Karanjia, Kenneth L Lu
UNLABELLED: We compared the degree of postoperative iris distortion with the diamond-shaped Malyugin ring and the circular Visitec I-Ring iris dilators using postoperative iris photographs in a patient with bilateral small nondilating pupils. Routine phacoemulsification was performed in the right eye with the assistance of a Malyugin ring for iris dilation. One month later, the same procedure was performed in the left eye using the circular ring for iris dilation. Anterior chamber slitlamp photographs were taken of both eyes...
August 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Boris Cheval, Emmanuelle Grob, Julien Chanal, Paolo Ghisletta, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli, Remi Radel
INTRODUCTION: A recent study by Cheval et al (J Sex Med 2016;13:825-834) found that individuals high in homophobia look significantly less long at sex-related photographs, regardless of their nature (ie, homosexual or heterosexual). Because viewing time is under some conscious control, this result could indicate that individuals high in homophobia have a low sexual interest in any sexual stimuli or are consciously motivated to avoid sexual material in line with their conscious values...
October 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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