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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640038/impact-of-noise-and-noise-reduction-on-processing-effort-a-pupillometry-study
#1
Dorothea Wendt, Renskje K Hietkamp, Thomas Lunner
OBJECTIVES: Speech perception in adverse listening situations can be exhausting. Hearing loss particularly affects processing demands, as it requires increased effort for successful speech perception in background noise. Signal processing in hearing aids and noise reduction (NR) schemes aim to counteract the effect of noise and reduce the effort required for speech recognition in adverse listening situations. The present study examined the benefit of NR schemes, applying a combination of a digital NR and directional microphones, for reducing the processing effort during speech recognition...
June 20, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639450/-bilateral-congenital-multiple-pigmented-vitreous-cysts-in-a%C3%A2-three-year-old-girl-ten-years-follow-up
#2
J Štěpánková, M Hósová, D Dotřelová
The authors present a case report of a three-year-old female patient with bilateral multiple anterior vitreous cysts. During examination for intermittent esotropia of the right eye was diagnosed not only hypermetropia, astigmatism and anisometropia, but also pigmented changes in peripheral retrolental space of both eyes. Clinical examination under general anaesthesia revealed bilateral multiple pigmented immobile vitreous cysts. There were five almost spherical, translucent, but slightly pigmented cysts on its cover on the right eye and four similar on the left, but visible only with dilated pupils...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638055/pupil-response-hazard-rates-predict-perceived-gaze-durations
#3
Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
We investigated the mechanisms for evaluating perceived gaze-shift duration. Timing relies on the accumulation of endogenous physiological signals. Here we focused on arousal, measured through pupil dilation, as a candidate timing signal. Participants timed gaze-shifts performed by face stimuli in a Standard/Probe comparison task. Pupil responses were binned according to "Longer/Shorter" judgements in trials where Standard and Probe were identical. This ensured that pupil responses reflected endogenous arousal fluctuations opposed to differences in stimulus content...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631315/a-two-year-study-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-concentrations-in-drivers-part-2-physiological-signs-on-drug-recognition-expert-dre-and-non-dre-examinations
#4
Kari Declues, Shelli Perez, Ariana Figueroa
Whole blood samples were examined for ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) over 2 years in drivers suspected of driving under the influence. Part one of the study examined the link between [THC] and performance on field sobriety tests. This portion examined objective signs, eye examinations and physiological indicators; and their relationship to the presence of THC. Several objective signs were excellent indicators of the presence of THC: red eyes (94%), droopy eyelids (85.6%), affected speech (87.6%), tongue coating (96...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623164/thick-corneas-large-pupils-and-a-giant-problem
#5
Francesco Pellegrini, Giovanni Prosdocimo, Daniela Bonsanto, Rod Foroozan
An 87-year-old woman presented 1 month after uneventful cataract surgery with ipsilateral corneal edema. She was diagnosed with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and scheduled for endothelial transplantation. However, a few days later, she presented with bilateral corneal edema, dilated pupils and further reduction of visual acuity. Neuro-Ophthalmic evaluation disclosed a bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome causing complete visual loss. Temporal artery biopsy was consistent with GCA. Corneal decompensation should be considered as a rare presentation of GCA, that ophthalmologists should suspect in any case of unilateral or bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome...
June 13, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622894/impact-of-stimulus-related-factors-and-hearing-impairment-on-listening-effort-as-indicated-by-pupil-dilation
#6
Barbara Ohlenforst, Adriana A Zekveld, Thomas Lunner, Dorothea Wendt, Graham Naylor, Yang Wang, Niek J Versfeld, Sophia E Kramer
Previous research has reported effects of masker type and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as indicated by the peak pupil dilation (PPD) relative to baseline during speech recognition. At about 50% correct sentence recognition performance, increasing SNRs generally results in declining PPDs, indicating reduced effort. However, the decline in PPD over SNRs has been observed to be less pronounced for hearing-impaired (HI) compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. The presence of a competing talker during speech recognition generally resulted in larger PPDs as compared to the presence of a fluctuating or stationary background noise...
May 25, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617722/prevalence-of-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome-in-an-isolated-island-population-of-korea-the-woodo-study
#7
Sang-Yoon Lee, Seondo Kim, Jeong Hong Kim, Sung-Chul Hong, Keun Hwa Lee, Hye-Sook Lee, Aesun Shin, Jinho Jeong
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS) within Korean population living in Woodo Island. METHODS: Among the 625 residents aged 50 years or older, 305 residents (197 women and 108 men) participated in the study; a response rate of 48.8%. Participants filled out questionnaires on life style. Intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial cell function was measured. Both pupils were dilated. Fundus photographs and stereo disc photographs were taken...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604573/pupillometry-as-a-screening-tool-to-detect-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome
#8
Erdogan Yasar, Nilgun Yildirim, Eray Atalay, Emre Tambova, Ertugrul Colak
PURPOSE: Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a handheld pupillometer in differentiating eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS) from healthy controls. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the province of Eskisehir, Turkey. Subjects 40 years of age and older were randomly recruited using stratified two-stage cluster sampling from the database of the Turkish Statistical Institute office in Eskisehir. Recruitment took place between June and October 2014...
June 9, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602326/capsular-bag-fixated-and-ciliary-sulcus-fixated-intraocular-lens-centration-after-supplementary-intraocular-lens-implantation%C3%A2-in-the-same-eye
#9
Franz Prager, Michael Amon, Joerg Wiesinger, Barbara Wetzel, Guenal Kahraman
PURPOSE: To assess capsular bag and sulcus intraocular lens (IOL) centration in eyes that had implantation of a sulcus-fixated supplementary IOL anterior to a preexisting capsular bag IOL. SETTING: Academic Teaching Hospital of St. John, Vienna, Austria. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: A sulcus-fixated supplementary IOL (Sulcoflex) was implanted anterior to a preexisting capsular bag IOL. The geometric center of preexisting capsular bag IOLs and newly implanted sulcus-fixated IOLs was evaluated at least 12 months postoperatively and in relation to the geometric center of the pupil and limbus...
May 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602320/precision-pulse-capsulotomy-initial-clinical-experience-in-simple-and-challenging-cataract-surgery-cases
#10
Kevin Waltz, Vance M Thompson, Gabriel Quesada
PURPOSE: To evaluate precision pulse capsulotomy (PPC) in simple and challenging cataract surgery cases. SETTING: Clínica Quesada, San Salvador, El Salvador. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: This single-center prospective study assessed cataract surgeries with anterior capsulotomy performed using a PPC device through a 2.2 mm corneal incision in the presence of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device. This was followed by phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation...
May 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602315/importance-of-pupil-dilation-for-cataract-surgery
#11
EDITORIAL
Nick Mamalis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596923/unilateral-dilated-pupil-and-spontaneous-cardiac-arrest-with-successful-bystander-resuscitation
#12
James M Hancox, Julian Spiers, Nicholas Crombie, David N Naumann
A 75-year-old man collapsed on a golf course and received cardiopulmonary resuscitation from a bystander, including the use of a public automated external defibrillator (AED). The AED was discharged once, with return of spontaneous circulation. An air ambulance crew found the patient haemodynamically stable, with no acute abnormalities on a 12-lead ECG. He had reduced consciousness and a dilated left pupil. On contacting the patient's wife by telephone, she said that he had fallen and hit his head earlier that day...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593652/pupil-size-as-a-measure-of-within-task-learning
#13
Cyrus K Foroughi, Ciara Sibley, Joseph T Coyne
Pupillometry is commonly used in research to determine how much mental effort an individual is exerting while completing tasks. Traditionally, larger pupils are associated with increased mental effort when completing more difficult tasks. However, little research has investigated how pupils change as individuals learn a new task. In theory, as one repeatedly completes a task, the task demands should reduce, reliance on working memory should decrease, and the task should become more automatic. This should translate to faster completion times and smaller peak pupil dilations...
June 7, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588466/attentional-bias-for-uncertain-cues-of-shock-in-human-fear-conditioning-evidence-for-attentional-learning-theory
#14
Stephan Koenig, Metin Uengoer, Harald Lachnit
We conducted a human fear conditioning experiment in which three different color cues were followed by an aversive electric shock on 0, 50, and 100% of the trials, and thus induced low (L), partial (P), and high (H) shock expectancy, respectively. The cues differed with respect to the strength of their shock association (L < P < H) and the uncertainty of their prediction (L < P > H). During conditioning we measured pupil dilation and ocular fixations to index differences in the attentional processing of the cues...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581284/evaluation-of-corneal-endothelial-cell-loss-after-uncomplicated-phacoemulsification-cataract-surgery-with-intracameral-phenylephrine
#15
Li Sar Teoh, Siu Wan Foo, Vanessa Naseem Mansurali, Ee Ling Ang, Umi Kalthum Md Noh, Mae-Lynn Catherine Bastion
PURPOSE: To study the effects of intracameral phenylephrine 1.5% on corneal endothelial cell loss and morphological changes in patients who had uneventful phacoemulsification surgery. DESIGN: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. METHODS: This study comprised 295 patients who were randomized into the intracameral (ICM) mydriatic group or topical mydriatic group. Central corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), coefficient of variation (CV), and percentage of hexagonal cells were measured preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 week, 6 weeks, and 3 months with specular microscope...
June 1, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578309/two-staged-en-bloc-excision-of-a-retinal-haemangioma
#16
Mahima Jhingan, Jay Chhablani, Komal Agarwal, Padmaja Kumari Rani
A 31-year-old man presented to us with diminution of vision in the right eye which he noticed since 10 days, with a visual acuity of hand motions only. On examination, festooned pupil and a complicated cataract were noted with no view of the retina. Ultrasonography of the right eye showed retinal detachment in all quadrants with suspected areas of traction and membranes in the vitreous. Left eye examination revealed a normal anterior and posterior segment. Intraoperatively, he underwent a pars plana lensectomy following which an inferior large retinal haemangioma was noted with dilated and tortuous feeder artery and draining vein...
June 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575101/efficacy-of-digital-pupillometry-for-diagnosis-of-horner-syndrome
#17
Yung Ju Yoo, Hee Kyung Yang, Jeong-Min Hwang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of digital pupillometry in the diagnosis of anisocoria related to Horner syndrome in adult patients. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational, case control study. METHODS: Nineteen patients with unilateral Horner syndrome (Horner group) and age-matched controls of 30 healthy individuals with normal vision and neither optic nerve dysfunction nor pupillary abnormalities were included. Pupillary light reflex (PLR) of the Horner group and controls were measured by a dynamic pupillometer (PLR-200; NeurOptics Inc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572991/sex-specific-but-not-sexually-explicit-pupillary-responses-to-dressed-and-naked-adults
#18
Janice Attard-Johnson, Markus Bindemann
Dilation of the pupils is an indicator of an observer's sexual interest in other people, but it remains unresolved whether this response is strengthened or diminished by sexually explicit material. To address this question, this study compared pupillary responses of heterosexual men and women to naked and dressed portraits of male and female adult film actors. Pupillary responses corresponded with observers' self-reported sexual orientation, such that dilation occurred during the viewing of opposite-sex people, but were comparable for naked and dressed targets...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571838/-spasm-of-iris-dilator-muscle-or-tadpole-shaped-pupil
#19
C Deschasse, F Baudin, P H Gabrielle, A M Bron, C Creuzot-Garcher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570486/handheld-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-imaging-through-the-undilated-pupil-in-infants-born-preterm-or-with-hypoxic-injury-or-hydrocephalus
#20
Du Tran-Viet, Brittany M Wong, Shwetha Mangalesh, Ramiro Maldonado, C Michael Cotten, Cynthia A Toth
PURPOSE: The authors investigated feasibility of undilated handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) retinal imaging in preterm infants and children with neurologic abnormalities. METHODS: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol, the authors attempted handheld SDOCT imaging of the retina, choroid, and optic nerve in infants and young children without pupil dilation. Scans were analyzed for quality and successful capture of foveal, optic nerve, and retinal structural parameters and abnormalities...
May 29, 2017: Retina
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