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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733248/pupil-dilations-induced-by-barely-conscious-reward-goal-priming
#1
Yudai Takarada, Daichi Nozaki
The topic of unconscious influences on behavior has long been explored as a way of understanding human performance and the neurobiological correlates of intention, motivation and action. Previous research using transcranial magnetic stimulation has demonstrated that barely visible priming of an action concept, when combined with reward in the form of a consciously perceived positive stimulus, can alter the state of the motor system and enhance the maximal voluntary force level. One possible explanation is that positive stimulus-induced reward signals are processed by the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia, motivating individuals to increase the effort they invest in particular behaviors, or to recruit the resources necessary for maintaining those behaviors...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730119/predictors-for-attending-annual-eye-screening-for-diabetic-retinopathy-amongst-patients-with-diabetes-in-an-urban-community-of-beijing
#2
Yan-Hong Zou, Qian Li, Shan-Shan Cui, Wei Jia, Ning Zhang, Kai Ma, Torkel Snellingen, Xi-Pu Liu
AIM: To gain a better understanding of possible factors that may influence the decision of diabetes persons to participate in annual eye screening in an urban community setting of China. METHODS: A structured interview including questions on attendance of eye screening, knowledge and awareness of diabetic retinopathy was conducted. The presence and degree of retinopathy were assessed using two field non-mydriatic retinal photography. RESULTS: Totally 720 diabetes persons were recruited and 519 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729927/fatigue-and-cognition-pupillary-responses-to-problem-solving-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#3
Sigrid A de Rodez Benavent, Gro O Nygaard, Hanne F Harbo, Siren Tønnesen, Piotr Sowa, Nils I Landrø, Marte Wendel-Haga, Lars Etholm, Kristian B Nilsen, Liv Drolsum, Emilia Kerty, Elisabeth G Celius, Bruno Laeng
INTRODUCTION: In early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, cognitive changes and fatigue are frequent and troublesome symptoms, probably related to both structural and functional brain changes. Whether there is a common cause of these symptoms in MS is unknown. In theory, an altered regulation of central neuropeptides can lead to changes in regulation of autonomic function, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue. Direct measurements of central neuropeptides are difficult to perform, but measurements of the eye pupil can be used as a reliable proxy of function...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727614/a-5-minute-interval-between-two-dilating-eye-drops-increases-their-effect
#4
Eric Denion, Frédérique Charlot, Guillaume Béraud
PURPOSE: Patients are usually advised to wait 5 minutes between eye drops. This delay supposedly allows the first drop not to be washed out by the second one, thereby increasing the combined effect. However, in the only experimental study conducted in humans on the concurrent administration of two different eye drops, the authors concluded that a 10-minute time interval between eye drops did not increase their combined effect. Our study was designed to address this puzzling observation...
July 19, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724815/efficacy-and-safety-of-intraoperative-intracameral-mydriasis-in-manual-small-incision-cataract-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
K Ajay, Srinivasan Saranya, Divya Dabir Sundaresh, H R Hithashree, B C Hemalatha, Malavika Krishnaswamy, Sathyendranath B Shetty
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of intracameral mydriatic solution, as compared to preoperative topical mydriatics, in patients undergoing manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) under peribulbar anesthesia. To assess the sustainability of intracameral mydriasis in MSICS by monitoring pupil size at specific junctures during the surgery. METHODS: This trial recruited 127 patients, who underwent MSICS under peribulbar block...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720746/-a-rare-case-of-ruptured-internal-carotid-posterior-communicating-artery-aneurysm-associated-with-contralateral-delayed-oculomotor-nerve-palsy
#6
Chika Somagawa, Yutaka Fukuda, Shota Yoshimura, Kei Satoh, Takeshi Hiu, Tomonori Ono, Ryujirou Ushijima, Keisuke Toda, Keisuke Tsutsumi
A 55-year-old man presented with difficulty breathing, chest pain, and disturbance of consciousness, and was transferred to our hospital. Initial whole body CT revealed a diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)with severe pulmonary edema that was considered neurogenic in origin. He received controlled ventilation under sedation and conservative care for the SAH. One day after the onset of the SAH, his left pupil suddenly became dilated to 6mm, with no reaction to light. Head CT showed no new bleeding. Subsequent CT angiogram revealed a right internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm(IC-PC AN)with a posterior-lateral projection; however, no vessel abnormality was observed in the left anterior or posterior circulations...
July 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719273/bungarus-multicinctus-multicinctus-snakebite-in-taiwan
#7
Yan-Chiao Mao, Po-Yu Liu, Liao-Chun Chiang, Shu-Chen Liao, Hung-Yuan Su, Szu-Yin Hsieh, Chen-Chang Yang
AbstractAlthough specific antivenom is available in Taiwan, respiratory failure and general pain frequently accompany Bungarus multicinctus envenomation and there have been few reports on the management of B. multicinctus envenomation. We retrospectively analyzed 44 cases of B. multicinctus bite admitted to Taichung Veterans General Hospital (VGH) or to Taipei VGH. Demographic data, treatment, and outcome of patients with and without respiratory failure were compared. In this study, 20.5% patients had bites without noticeable signs or symptoms of significant envenoming, 27...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689345/extensive-brain-infarction-involving-deep-structures-during-an-acetazolamide-challenged-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-scan-in-a-patient-with-moyamoya-disease
#8
Sangjoon Chong, June Dong Park, Jong Hee Chae, Jung-Eun Cheon, Seung-Ki Kim, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Jin Chul Paeng, Kyu-Chang Wang
BACKGROUND: Acetazolamide-challenged brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is used for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in cerebrovascular diseases including moyamoya disease (MMD). Not a few patients experience adverse side effects during the acetazolamide-challenged brain SPECT, but most of the symptoms are mild and transient. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of severe brain infarction leading to death during the examination of an acetazolamide-challenged brain SPECT in a patient with MMD...
July 8, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672367/pupil-dilation-to-illusory-motion-in-peripheral-drift-images-perception-versus-reality
#9
Steve Beukema, Jay A Olson, Ben J Jennings, Frederick A A Kingdom
Peripheral drift is a specific type of illusory motion that causes observers to perceive motion in a static image. We aimed to determine whether pupil dilation occurs during the perception of illusory motion. In three experiments investigating pupil-size changes to peripheral drift, pupil response differences were observed between symmetric patterns (SPs) that elicited no impression of motion and repeated asymmetric patterns (RAPs) that did. All participants reported the perception of motion in the RAP condition and showed significantly greater pupil dilation to these stimuli as compared with viewing stimuli in the SP condition...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669253/unaltered-emotional-experience-in-parkinson-s-disease-pupillometry-and-behavioral-evidence
#10
Rachel Schwartz, Kathrin Rothermich, Sonja A Kotz, Marc D Pell
INTRODUCTION: Recognizing emotions in others is a pivotal part of socioemotional functioning and plays a central role in social interactions. It has been shown that individuals suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) are less accurate at identifying basic emotions such as fear, sadness, and happiness; however, previous studies have predominantly assessed emotion processing using unimodal stimuli (e.g., pictures) that do not reflect the complexity of real-world processing demands. Dynamic, naturalistic stimuli (e...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663681/living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-acute-liver-failure-with-fixed-pupils-are-we-fixed
#11
Shweta A Singh, Anshuman Singh, Viniyendra Pamecha, Chandra Kant Pandey, Shiv Kumar Sarin
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is fraught with the social and ethical dilemma of excising a part of the liver from a healthy first-degree relative. When LDLT is to be done for an acute liver failure (ALF), identification of a suitable donor is a race against time. Herein, we describe a unique challenge faced by the transplant team of whether to proceed with donor hepatectomy from a son, when the recipient (HBV-related ALF) developed non-reactive fully dilated pupils on the table, prior to beginning the surgery...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662002/urrets-zavalia-syndrome-after-diode-laser-transscleral-cyclophotocoagulation
#12
Geraldo M Vieira, Fernando J Vieira, Robert Ritch
OBJECTIVE: To report the occurrence of 5 cases of Urrets-Zavalia syndrome after transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC). DESIGN: Retrospective cases series. METHODS: A review of the charts of 5 patients treated with TSCPC as primary glaucoma surgery who developed Urrets-Zavalia syndrome. RESULTS: A total of 8 eyes of 5 patients developed a fixed and dilated pupil after TSCPC, unresponsive to light. A mydriatic pupil could still be observed at least 6 months after treatment in 7 of 8 eyes; however, it was asymptomatic...
July 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658588/utility-of-1-tropicamide-in-improving-the-quality-of-images-for-tele-screening-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-patients-with-dark-irides
#13
Touka Banaee, Mohammad-Reza Ansari-Astaneh, Hamidreza Pourreza, Fatemeh Faal Hosseini, Maryam Vatanparast, Nasser Shoeibi, Vajihe Jami
PURPOSE: To compare the quality of fundus photographs taken before and after instillation of one drop of tropicamide. METHODS: The 45º fundus photographs were taken with a non-mydriatic fundus camera in three conditions of the pupil; pre-mydriatic, 10 minutes after one drop of tropicamide, and fully dilated. Two photographs were taken in each condition; one centered on the macula and the other on the optic disc. Two vitreoretinal specialists graded the images. RESULTS: A total of 1768 fundus photographs of 149 diabetic patients with dark irides were included...
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650856/a-rare-case-of-pupillary-block-glaucoma-following-centraflow-implantable-collamer-lens-surgery
#14
Isha G Grover, Sirisha Senthil, Somasheila Murthy, Jagadesh C Reddy
A 28-year-old lady with a refractive error of -11.0 D sphere/-1.50 D cylinder at 160 degrees in the right eye underwent an uneventful Implantable Collamer Lens surgery (ICL) with a V4c model, which uses a central Aquaport. This ICL does not require preoperative laser iridotomy or surgical iridectomy, as the centraflow opening is designed to prevent pupillary block. At postoperative day 1, her visual acuity in the right eye was 20/400, with diffuse microcystic corneal edema with fixed, dilated pupil and high intraocular pressure...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640038/impact-of-noise-and-noise-reduction-on-processing-effort-a-pupillometry-study
#15
Dorothea Wendt, Renskje K Hietkamp, Thomas Lunner
OBJECTIVES: Speech perception in adverse listening situations can be exhausting. Hearing loss particularly affects processing demands, as it requires increased effort for successful speech perception in background noise. Signal processing in hearing aids and noise reduction (NR) schemes aim to counteract the effect of noise and reduce the effort required for speech recognition in adverse listening situations. The present study examined the benefit of NR schemes, applying a combination of a digital NR and directional microphones, for reducing the processing effort during speech recognition...
June 20, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639450/-bilateral-congenital-multiple-pigmented-vitreous-cysts-in-a%C3%A2-three-year-old-girl-ten-years-follow-up
#16
J Štěpánková, M Hósová, D Dotřelová
The authors present a case report of a three-year-old female patient with bilateral multiple anterior vitreous cysts. During examination for intermittent esotropia of the right eye was diagnosed not only hypermetropia, astigmatism and anisometropia, but also pigmented changes in peripheral retrolental space of both eyes. Clinical examination under general anaesthesia revealed bilateral multiple pigmented immobile vitreous cysts. There were five almost spherical, translucent, but slightly pigmented cysts on its cover on the right eye and four similar on the left, but visible only with dilated pupils...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638055/pupil-response-hazard-rates-predict-perceived-gaze-durations
#17
Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
We investigated the mechanisms for evaluating perceived gaze-shift duration. Timing relies on the accumulation of endogenous physiological signals. Here we focused on arousal, measured through pupil dilation, as a candidate timing signal. Participants timed gaze-shifts performed by face stimuli in a Standard/Probe comparison task. Pupil responses were binned according to "Longer/Shorter" judgements in trials where Standard and Probe were identical. This ensured that pupil responses reflected endogenous arousal fluctuations opposed to differences in stimulus content...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631315/a-two-year-study-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-concentrations-in-drivers-part-2-physiological-signs-on-drug-recognition-expert-dre-and-non-dre-examinations
#18
Kari Declues, Shelli Perez, Ariana Figueroa
Whole blood samples were examined for ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) over 2 years in drivers suspected of driving under the influence. Part one of the study examined the link between [THC] and performance on field sobriety tests. This portion examined objective signs, eye examinations and physiological indicators; and their relationship to the presence of THC. Several objective signs were excellent indicators of the presence of THC: red eyes (94%), droopy eyelids (85.6%), affected speech (87.6%), tongue coating (96...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623164/thick-corneas-large-pupils-and-a-giant-problem
#19
Francesco Pellegrini, Giovanni Prosdocimo, Daniela Bonsanto, Rod Foroozan
An 87-year-old woman presented 1 month after uneventful cataract surgery with ipsilateral corneal edema. She was diagnosed with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and scheduled for endothelial transplantation. However, a few days later, she presented with bilateral corneal edema, dilated pupils and further reduction of visual acuity. Neuro-Ophthalmic evaluation disclosed a bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome causing complete visual loss. Temporal artery biopsy was consistent with GCA. Corneal decompensation should be considered as a rare presentation of GCA, that ophthalmologists should suspect in any case of unilateral or bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome...
June 13, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622894/impact-of-stimulus-related-factors-and-hearing-impairment-on-listening-effort-as-indicated-by-pupil-dilation
#20
Barbara Ohlenforst, Adriana A Zekveld, Thomas Lunner, Dorothea Wendt, Graham Naylor, Yang Wang, Niek J Versfeld, Sophia E Kramer
Previous research has reported effects of masker type and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as indicated by the peak pupil dilation (PPD) relative to baseline during speech recognition. At about 50% correct sentence recognition performance, increasing SNRs generally results in declining PPDs, indicating reduced effort. However, the decline in PPD over SNRs has been observed to be less pronounced for hearing-impaired (HI) compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. The presence of a competing talker during speech recognition generally resulted in larger PPDs as compared to the presence of a fluctuating or stationary background noise...
August 2017: Hearing Research
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