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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089758/pupil-responses-and-pain-ratings-to-heat-stimuli-reliability-and-effects-of-expectations-and-a-conditioning-pain-stimulus
#1
James C Eisenach, Regina Curry, Carol A Aschenbrenner, Robert C Coghill, Timothy T Houle
BACKGROUND: The locus coeruleus (LC) signals salience to sensory stimuli and these responses can modulate the experience of pain stimuli. The pupil dilation response (PDR) to noxious stimuli is thought to be a surrogate for LC responses, but PDR response to Peltier-controlled noxious heat stimuli, the most commonly used method in experimental pain research, has not been described. NEW METHOD: Healthy volunteers were presented with randomly presented heat stimuli of 5 sec duration and provided pain intensity ratings to each stimulus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072724/fatal-antiphospholipid-syndrome-following-endoscopic-transnasal-transsphenoidal-surgery-for-a-pituitary-tumor-a-case-report
#2
Chiao-Zhu Li, Chiao-Ching Li, Chih-Chuan Hsieh, Meng-Chi Lin, Dueng-Yuan Hueng, Feng-Chen Liu, Yuan-Hao Chen
INTRODUCTION: The fatal type of antiphospholipid syndrome is a rare but life-threating condition. It may be triggered by surgery or infection. Endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery is a common procedure for pituitary tumor. We report a catastrophic case of a young woman died of fatal antiphospholipid syndrome following endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS AND RESULT: A 31-year-old woman of a history of stroke received endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary tumor...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072452/what-our-eyes-tell-us-about-feelings-tracking-pupillary-responses-during-emotion-regulation-processes
#3
Valerie L Kinner, Lars Kuchinke, Angelika M Dierolf, Christian J Merz, Tobias Otto, Oliver T Wolf
Emotion regulation is essential for adaptive behavior and mental health. Strategies applied to alter emotions are known to differ in their impact on psychological and physiological aspects of the emotional response. However, emotion regulation outcome has primarily been assessed via self-report, and studies comparing regulation strategies with regard to their peripheral physiological mechanisms are limited in number. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the effects of different emotion regulation strategies on pupil dilation, skin conductance responses, and subjective emotional responses...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059460/memory-for-incidentally-perceived-social-cues-effects-on-person-judgment
#4
Ralph Pawling, Alexander J Kirkham, Steven P Tipper, Harriet Over
Dynamic face cues can be very salient, as when observing sudden shifts of gaze to a new location, or a change of expression from happy to angry. These highly salient social cues influence judgments of another person during the course of an interaction. However, other dynamic cues, such as pupil dilation, are much more subtle, affecting judgments of another person even without awareness. We asked whether such subtle, incidentally perceived, dynamic cues could be encoded in to memory and retrieved at a later time...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055227/clinical-evaluation-of-post-operative-cerebral-infarction-in-traumatic-epidural-haematoma
#5
Suojun Zhang, Sheng Wang, Xueyan Wan, Shengwen Liu, Kai Shu, Ting Lei
BACKGROUND: Patients with traumatic epidural haematoma, undergoing the prompt and correct treatment, usually have favourable outcomes. However, secondary cerebral infarction may be life-threatening condition, as it is difficult to be identified before neurological impairment occurs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical data of patients with traumatic EDH and assess potential risk factors for post-operative cerebral infarction. METHODS: The clinical data of patients with traumatic EDH were collected and analysed retrospectively...
January 5, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052304/is-tadpole-pupil-in-an-adolescent-girl-caused-by-denervation-hypersensitivity
#6
Jonas Kjeldbjerg Hansen, Hans Ulrik Møller
Tadpole pupil is a rarely encountered phenomenon caused by episodic, segmental iris dilator muscle spasm of short duration (2-15 minutes), occurring in clusters without a known precipitating factor. It has most commonly been described in women aged 28 to 48 years. A few hypotheses on pathogenesis have been discussed but none has been proved. Here, we present an adolescent girl with bilateral tadpole pupil that appeared during physical exercise. This is the first pediatric case of tadpole pupil, not caused by preceding surgery, to be published...
January 4, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032676/hippocampal-gamma-band-synchrony-and-pupillary-responses-index-memory-during-visual-search
#7
Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Timothy K Leonard, Kari L Hoffman
Memory for scenes is supported by the hippocampus, among other interconnected structures, but the neural mechanisms related to this process are not well understood. To assess the role of the hippocampus in memory-guided scene search, we recorded local field potentials and multi-unit activity from the hippocampus of macaques as they performed goal-directed search tasks using natural scenes. We additionally measured pupil size during scene presentation, which in humans is modulated by recognition memory. We found that both pupil dilation and search efficiency accompanied scene repetition, thereby indicating memory for scenes...
December 29, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027274/effect-of-accommodation-on-peripheral-eye-lengths-of-emmetropes-and-myopes
#8
Hussain Aldossari, Marwan Suheimat, David A Atchison, Katrina L Schmid
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of accommodation on central and peripheral axial lengths in young adult emmetropes and myopes. METHODS: On-axis and peripheral axial lengths were measured with the Haag-Streit Lenstar in 83 young adult participants for 0D and 6D accommodation demands. A Badal system was used to both correct refractive errors and induce accommodation. Participants were emmetropes (n = 29, mean spherical equivalent refraction +0.35 ± 0.35D), low myopes (32, -1...
December 23, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010951/utility-of-ward-based-retinal-photography-in-stroke-patients
#9
Shaun Frost, Michael Brown, Verity Stirling, Janardhan Vignarajan, David Prentice, Yogesan Kanagasingam
BACKGROUND: Improvements in acute care of stroke patients have decreased mortality, but survivors are still at increased risk of future vascular events and mitigation of this risk requires thorough assessment of the underlying factors leading to the stroke. The brain and eye share a common embryological origin and numerous similarities exist between the small vessels of the retina and brain. Recent population-based studies have demonstrated a close link between retinal vascular changes and stroke, suggesting that retinal photography could have utility in assessing underlying stroke risk factors and prognosis after stroke...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009794/ocular-straylight-with-different-multifocal-contact-lenses
#10
Grzegorz Łabuz, Norberto López-Gil, Thomas J T P van den Berg, Fernando Vargas-Martín
PURPOSE: Multifocal contact lenses have been growing in popularity as a modality to correct presbyopic eyes, although visual side effects such as disability glare have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multifocal contact lenses on disability glare by means of ocular straylight. METHODS: A prospective randomized, comparative study was performed that included 16 subjects free of ocular pathology. Straylight was measured using a commercial straylight meter with the natural and dilated pupil...
December 22, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008074/increased-neural-and-pupillary-reactivity-to-emotional-faces-in-adolescents-with-current-and-remitted-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Katie L Burkhouse, Max Owens, Cope Feurer, Effua Sosoo, Anastacia Kudinova, Brandon E Gibb
The current study combined multiple levels of analysis to examine whether disrupted neural and pupillary reactivity to emotional faces serves as a state- or trait-like marker of adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD). The study examined differences in pupil dilation and the event-related potential (ERP) late positive potential (LPP) component to emotional faces before and after a negative mood induction between 71 adolescents (age 11-18 years) with (i) a current diagnosis of MDD, (ii) a past episode of MDD currently in full remission, and (iii) no lifetime history of any Axis I disorder...
December 21, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002873/effects-of-pupil-dilation-on-maia-microperimetry
#12
Ruofan C Han, Jasleen K Jolly, Kanmin Xue, Robert E MacLaren
BACKGROUND: MAIA microperimetry assesses macular sensitivity to projected point light sources and maps eye movements to assess fixation stability. While microperimetry is gaining prominence as an assessment tool in clinical and research settings, there is no consensus on whether it should be performed before or after pupil dilation. No studies to date have examined the effect of pupil dilation on results. The aim of this project was to elucidate the effect of pupil dilation on microperimetry outcomes...
December 21, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999697/modified-surgical-techniques-for-managing-intraoperative-floppy-iris-syndrome
#13
Pornchai Simaroj, Kaevalin Lekhanont, Puwat Charukamnoetkanok
Purpose. To report a modified surgical strategy in the management of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome-associated iris prolapse. Methods. Prolapsed iris is left as is and a new corneal incision near the original wound but at a different site is created. Depending on the location of the original incision and the surgeon's preference, this additional incision can be used as a new port for phacoemulsification tip or can be the new site for the iris to securely prolapse, allowing for the surgery to proceed safely...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988254/targeted-temperature-management-after-cardiac-arrest-with-anaphylaxis
#14
Woon Jeong Lee, Dae Hee Kim, Seon Hee Woo, Seung Hwan Seol, Seung Pill Choi
Fatal anaphylaxis is uncommon but not rare. Extrapolated mortality rates are 0.52% of total anaphylaxis patients Bock et al. (Jan. 2001) [1]. Nevertheless, compared with the incidence of the other cardiac arrest events, the incidence of cardiac arrest due to anaphylaxis is relatively small. As a result, the effect using targeted temperature management after anaphylaxis is not clearly understood. We report the case of a 63-year-old man who developed cardiac arrest after ingestion of two pieces of peach. He was resuscitated and his circulation returned spontaneously after approximately 11min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but he was unresponsive and had fixed dilated pupils...
December 12, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983733/caffeine-intake-is-associated-with-pupil-dilation-and-enhanced-accommodation
#15
S Abokyi, J Owusu-Mensah, K A Osei
PurposeIt is purported that caffeine, an autonomic stimulant, affects visual performance. This study sought to assess whether caffeine intake was associated with changes in pupil size and/or amplitude of accommodation.Patients and methodsA double-masked, crossover study was conducted in 50 healthy subjects of age range 19 to 25 years. Subjects were randomized to treatments such that subjects consumed either 250 mg caffeine drink or vehicle on separate days. Amplitude of accommodation was measured by the push-up technique, and pupil size using a millimeter ruler fixed to a slit lamp biomicroscope in dim illumination (5 lux)...
December 16, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981704/the-eye-of-the-retriever-developing-episodic-memory-mechanisms-in-preverbal-infants-assessed-through-pupil-dilation
#16
Kahl Hellmer, Hedvig Söderlund, Gustaf Gredebäck
Studying memory in infants can be challenging, as they cannot express their subjective recollection verbally. In this study we use a novel method with which we can assess episodic recognition memory through pupillometry, using identical procedures and stimuli for infants and adults. In three experiments of 4- and 7-month-old infants, and adults we show that the adult pupillary response is larger to previously seen than to never seen items (old/new effect). Pupil dilations index subjective memory experience in adults, producing distinct pupil dilations to items judged as remembered, familiar, and new, regardless of actual previous exposure (Experiment 1)...
December 15, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977534/acute-mercury-poisoning-in-a-group-of-school-children
#17
Olcay Güngör, Ahmet Kağan Özkaya, Serkan Kirik, Tahir Dalkiran, Gülay Güngör, Sedat Işikay, Mehmet Davutoğlu, Cengiz Dilber
OBJECTIVE: Elemental mercury is a toxic liquid element that is used widely in the home, medicine, agriculture, and industry. It is readily vaporized and inhaled at room temperature. Thereby, inhalation can cause acute or chronic poisoning. Mercury can be found in environmental naturally find but some dangers sources give rise to contaminations. It can be very dangerous to all living organisms, especially children. METHODS: This study presents the features of mercury poisoning in a group of pediatric cases...
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960641/proparacaine-induced-mydriasis-during-strabismus-surgery
#18
Brijesh Takkar, Pradeep Sharma, Nripen Gaur, Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Rashmi Ramachandran
AIM: To evaluate the mydriatic effect of proparacaine hydrochloride (PH) in children undergoing strabismus surgery under general anesthesia (GA). METHODS: This was a pilot, prospective, non-randomized, self-controlled interventional study. Nine children with esotropia or exotropia undergoing horizontal muscle squint surgery under GA at a tertiary eye care center were included. The six Group 1 patients underwent both eye surgeries, while the three Group 2 patients underwent single eye surgery...
December 14, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959905/ocular-blood-flow-measurements-in-healthy-white-subjects-using-laser-speckle-flowgraphy
#19
Nikolaus Luft, Piotr A Wozniak, Gerold C Aschinger, Klemens Fondi, Ahmed M Bata, René M Werkmeister, Doreen Schmidl, Katarzyna J Witkowska, Matthias Bolz, Gerhard Garhöfer, Leopold Schmetterer
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and reliability of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy (LSFG) to measure ocular perfusion in a sample of healthy white subjects and to elucidate the age-dependence of the parameters obtained. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 80 eyes of 80 healthy, non-smoking white subjects of Western European descent between 19 and 79 years of age. A commercial LSFG instrument was applied to measure ocular blood flow at the optic nerve head (ONH) three successive times before and after pharmacological pupil dilation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940505/a-previously-healthy-adolescent-with-acute-encephalopathy-and-decorticate-posturing
#20
Yu Kawai, Andrea G DeMonbrun, Rebecca S Chambers, Danielle A Nolan, Bram A Dolcourt, Nasuh M Malas, Michael W Quasney
A 14-year-old previously healthy female was transferred from a local emergency department after being found unresponsive at home. Parental questioning revealed she had fever and pharyngitis 2 weeks before presentation. Past mental health history was negative, including concern for past or present suicidal ideation/attempts, suspected substance use, or toxic ingestion. In the emergency department, she was orotracheally intubated due to a Glasgow Coma Scale of 3. She was hemodynamically stable and euglycemic...
January 2017: Pediatrics
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