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Computational neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700377/knowledge-acquisition-is-governed-by-striatal-prediction-errors
#1
Alex Pine, Noa Sadeh, Aya Ben-Yakov, Yadin Dudai, Avi Mendelsohn
Discrepancies between expectations and outcomes, or prediction errors, are central to trial-and-error learning based on reward and punishment, and their neurobiological basis is well characterized. It is not known, however, whether the same principles apply to declarative memory systems, such as those supporting semantic learning. Here, we demonstrate with fMRI that the brain parametrically encodes the degree to which new factual information violates expectations based on prior knowledge and beliefs-most prominently in the ventral striatum, and cortical regions supporting declarative memory encoding...
April 26, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700312/action-and-object-words-are-differentially-anchored-in-the-sensory-motor-system-a-perspective-on-cognitive-embodiment
#2
Houpand Horoufchin, Danilo Bzdok, Giovanni Buccino, Anna M Borghi, Ferdinand Binkofski
Embodied and grounded cognition theories have assumed that the sensorimotor system is causally involved in processing motor-related language content. Although a causal proof on a single-cell basis is ethically not possible today, the present fMRI study provides confirmation of this longstanding speculation, as far as it is possible with recent methods, employing a new computational approach. More specifically, we were looking for common activation of nouns and objects, and actions and verbs, representing the canonical and mirror neuron system, respectively...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680396/changes-in-canine-cerebral-perfusion-after-accelerated-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-hf-rtms-a-proof-of-concept-study
#3
R Dockx, C Baeken, R Duprat, F De Vos, J H Saunders, I Polis, K Audenaert, K Peremans
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a treatment for several neuropsychiatric disorders in human beings, but the neurobiological effects of rTMS in dogs have not been investigated to date. A proof of concept study was designed to evaluate the effect of rTMS on cerebral perfusion, measured with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in dogs. An accelerated high frequency (aHF)-rTMS (20Hz) protocol was applied to the canine left frontal cortex. To accurately target this area, eight dogs underwent a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan before stimulation...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664346/an-agent-based-model-for-the-role-of-short-term-memory-enhancement-in-the-emergence-of-grammatical-agreement
#4
Javier Vera
What is the influence of short-term memory enhancement on the emergence of grammatical agreement systems in multi-agent language games? Agreement systems suppose that at least two words share some features with each other, such as gender, number, or case. Previous work, within the multi-agent language-game framework, has recently proposed models stressing the hypothesis that the emergence of a grammatical agreement system arises from the minimization of semantic ambiguity. On the other hand, neurobiological evidence argues for the hypothesis that language evolution has mainly related to an increasing of short-term memory capacity, which has allowed the online manipulation of words and meanings participating particularly in grammatical agreement systems...
April 17, 2018: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611429/evaluating-the-contribution-of-eeg-power-profiles-to-characterize-and-discriminate-posttraumatic-stress-symptom-factors-in-a-combat-exposed-population
#5
Christina M Sheerin, Laura M Franke, Steven H Aggen, Ananda B Amstadter, William C Walker
This study investigated the use of resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) data to help differentiate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom factors. The sample, 147 combat-exposed OIF/OEF (Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom) Veterans and service members, was a polytrauma population with variable PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) diagnoses. Participants completed the PTSD Checklist (PCL) and resting-state EEG was assessed for 10 minutes, with eyes closed. Regional averages of absolute power in alpha, beta, delta, and theta frequency bands were computed to estimate a single EEG common factor per band...
March 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605758/electrophysiological-activity-is-associated-with-vulnerability-of-internet-addiction-in-non-clinical-population
#6
Grace Y Wang, Inga Griskova-Bulanova
This study investigated the electrophysiological activity associated with vulnerability of problematic Internet use in non-clinical population. The resting EEG spectrum of alpha (8-13 Hz) rhythm was measured in 22 healthy subjects who have used the Internet for recreational purpose. The vulnerability of Internet addiction was assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and Assessment for Computer and Internet Addiction-Screener (AICA-S) respectively. Depression and impulsivity were also measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11(BIS-11) respectively...
March 27, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601053/implications-of-information-theory-for-computational-modeling-of-schizophrenia
#7
Steven M Silverstein, Michael Wibral, William A Phillips
Information theory provides a formal framework within which information processing and its disorders can be described. However, information theory has rarely been applied to modeling aspects of the cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia. The goal of this article is to highlight the benefits of an approach based on information theory, including its recent extensions, for understanding several disrupted neural goal functions as well as related cognitive and symptomatic phenomena in schizophrenia. We begin by demonstrating that foundational concepts from information theory-such as Shannon information, entropy, data compression, block coding, and strategies to increase the signal-to-noise ratio-can be used to provide novel understandings of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia and metrics to evaluate their integrity...
October 2017: Computational psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595312/cps-referred-mothers-psychophysiological-responses-to-own-versus-other-child-predict-sensitivity-to-child-distress
#8
Kristin Bernard, Sierra Kuzava, Robert Simons, Mary Dozier
Maltreating mothers often struggle to respond sensitively to their children's distress. Examining psychophysiological processing of own child cues may offer insight into neurobiological mechanisms that promote sensitive parenting among high-risk mothers. The current study used event-related potential (ERP) methodology to examine associations between mothers' neural responses to their own child versus other children and observed sensitivity to distress. Participants included 73 mothers: 42 with histories of child protective services (CPS) involvement and 31 low-risk comparison mothers...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572625/predicting-personality-from-network-based-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#9
Alessandra D Nostro, Veronika I Müller, Deepthi P Varikuti, Rachel N Pläschke, Felix Hoffstaedter, Robert Langner, Kaustubh R Patil, Simon B Eickhoff
Personality is associated with variation in all kinds of mental faculties, including affective, social, executive, and memory functioning. The intrinsic dynamics of neural networks underlying these mental functions are reflected in their functional connectivity at rest (RSFC). We, therefore, aimed to probe whether connectivity in functional networks allows predicting individual scores of the five-factor personality model and potential gender differences thereof. We assessed nine meta-analytically derived functional networks, representing social, affective, executive, and mnemonic systems...
March 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518541/computational-methods-to-examine-conformational-changes-and-ligand-binding-properties-examples-in-neurobiology
#10
REVIEW
Marc A Dämgen, Philip C Biggin
Many proteins that are central to key aspects of neurobiology undergo conformational changes as part of their function, usually in response to a stimulus. Often, these proteins are embedded within a membrane, which creates particular experimental challenges to surmount. This has resulted in computational methods providing a valuable complementary tool for some time now, especially in the development of working models at atomic resolution. Indeed, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are now routinely applied to new structures, either as part of the initial analysis or as part of an automated pipeline...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503842/anhedonia-in-depression-biological-mechanisms-and-computational-models
#11
Jessica A Cooper, Amanda R Arulpragasam, Michael T Treadway
Anhedonia is a severe condition that describes a near-complete absence of enjoyment, motivation, and interest. A core feature of depression, clinical manifestations of anhedonia can include deficits in experiencing pleasure, approach-related motivated behavior, and learning how to match expectations to the environment. To date, the precise neurobiological mechanisms of anhedonia in major depression are still poorly understood. We have previously argued that contradictory findings and the inability to identify specific neurobiological substrates for anhedonic symptoms may result from sample heterogeneity, suboptimal methods of assessment, and the challenge of dissociating between different components of anhedonia...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503329/neuroimaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Madhavi Tripathi, Atin Kumar, Chandrasekhar Bal
Neuroimaging (NI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) includes functional techniques like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and morphological imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial sonography to probe different aspects of the neurobiology of PD. Changes in neurotransmitters in various regions of the brain and their influence on brain networks is the basis for the motor symptoms of PD which are interrogated by NI. The recent Movement Disorders Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for PD (MDS-PD) have included the results of a few of these neuroimaging techniques to serve as single supportive criteria or absolute exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of PD...
March 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502753/internet-and-video-game-addictions-diagnosis-epidemiology-and-neurobiology
#13
REVIEW
Clifford J Sussman, James M Harper, Jessica L Stahl, Paul Weigle
In the past 2 decades, there has been substantial increase in availability and use of digital technologies, including the Internet, computer games, smart phones, and social media. Behavioral addiction to use of technologies spawned a body of related research. The recent inclusion of Internet gaming disorder as a condition for further study in the DSM-V invigorated a new wave of researchers, thereby expanding our understanding of these conditions. This article reviews current research, theory, and practice regarding the diagnosis, epidemiology, and neurobiology of Internet and video game addictions...
April 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496145/laser-microdissection-and-gene-expression-profiling-in-the-human-postmortem-brain
#14
Kai-Christian Sonntag, Tsung-Ung W Woo
Laser microdissection in combination with gene expression profiling using postmortem human brain tissue provides a powerful approach to interrogating cell type-specific pathologies within neural circuits that are known to be dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disorders. The success of these experiments critically depends on a number of factors, such as the cellular purity of the sample, the quality of the RNA, the methodologies of data normalization and computational data analysis, and how data are interpreted...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478431/what-is-mood-a-computational-perspective
#15
James E Clark, Stuart Watson, Karl J Friston
The neurobiological understanding of mood, and by extension mood disorders, remains elusive despite decades of research implicating several neuromodulator systems. This review considers a new approach based on existing theories of functional brain organisation. The free energy principle (a.k.a. active inference), and its instantiation in the Bayesian brain, offers a complete and simple formulation of mood. It has been proposed that emotions reflect the precision of - or certainty about - the predicted sensorimotor/interoceptive consequences of action...
February 26, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468065/neuroimaging-in-bulimia-nervosa-and-binge-eating-disorder-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Brooke Donnelly, Stephen Touyz, Phillipa Hay, Amy Burton, Janice Russell, Ian Caterson
Objective: In recent decades there has been growing interest in the use of neuroimaging techniques to explore the structural and functional brain changes that take place in those with eating disorders. However, to date, the majority of research has focused on patients with anorexia nervosa. This systematic review addresses a gap in the literature by providing an examination of the published literature on the neurobiology of individuals who binge eat; specifically, individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED)...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459373/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-responding-to-injustice
#17
Mirre Stallen, Filippo Rossi, Amber Heijne, Ale Smidts, Carsten K W De Dreu, Alan G Sanfey
People are particularly sensitive to injustice. Accordingly, deeper knowledge regarding the processes that underlie the perception of injustice, and the subsequent decisions to either punish transgressors or compensate victims, is of important social value. By combining a novel decision-making paradigm with functional neuroimaging, we identified specific brain networks that are involved with both the perception of, and response to, social injustice, with reward-related regions preferentially involved in punishment compared with compensation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453689/sustained-sensorimotor-control-as-intermittent-decisions-about-prediction-errors-computational-framework-and-application-to-ground-vehicle-steering
#18
Gustav Markkula, Erwin Boer, Richard Romano, Natasha Merat
A conceptual and computational framework is proposed for modelling of human sensorimotor control and is exemplified for the sensorimotor task of steering a car. The framework emphasises control intermittency and extends on existing models by suggesting that the nervous system implements intermittent control using a combination of (1) motor primitives, (2) prediction of sensory outcomes of motor actions, and (3) evidence accumulation of prediction errors. It is shown that approximate but useful sensory predictions in the intermittent control context can be constructed without detailed forward models, as a superposition of simple prediction primitives, resembling neurobiologically observed corollary discharges...
February 16, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445333/sleep-dependent-memory-consolidation-and-incremental-sentence-comprehension-computational-dependencies-during-language-learning-as-revealed-by-neuronal-oscillations
#19
Zachariah R Cross, Mark J Kohler, Matthias Schlesewsky, M G Gaskell, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
We hypothesize a beneficial influence of sleep on the consolidation of the combinatorial mechanisms underlying incremental sentence comprehension. These predictions are grounded in recent work examining the effect of sleep on the consolidation of linguistic information, which demonstrate that sleep-dependent neurophysiological activity consolidates the meaning of novel words and simple grammatical rules. However, the sleep-dependent consolidation of sentence-level combinatorics has not been studied to date...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414944/posterior-parietal-cortex-represents-sensory-history-and-mediates-its-effects-on-behaviour
#20
Athena Akrami, Charles D Kopec, Mathew E Diamond, Carlos D Brody
Many models of cognition and of neural computations posit the use and estimation of prior stimulus statistics: it has long been known that working memory and perception are strongly impacted by previous sensory experience, even when that sensory history is not relevant to the current task at hand. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms and regions of the brain that are necessary for computing and using such prior experience are unknown. Here we report that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical locus for the representation and use of prior stimulus information...
February 15, 2018: Nature
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