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Computational neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909400/the-demise-of-the-synapse-as-the-locus-of-memory-a-looming-paradigm-shift
#1
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903717/deciphering-decision-making-variation-in-animal-models-of-effort-and-uncertainty-based-choice-reveals-distinct-neural-circuitries-underlying-core-cognitive-processes
#2
Catharine A Winstanley, Stan B Floresco
Maladaptive decision-making is increasingly recognized to play a significant role in numerous psychiatric disorders, such that therapeutics capable of ameliorating core impairments in judgment may be beneficial in a range of patient populations. The field of "decision neuroscience" is therefore in its ascendancy, with researchers from diverse fields bringing their expertise to bear on this complex and fascinating problem. In addition to the advances in neuroimaging and computational neuroscience that contribute enormously to this area, an increase in the complexity and sophistication of behavioral paradigms designed for nonhuman laboratory animals has also had a significant impact on researchers' ability to test the causal nature of hypotheses pertaining to the neural circuitry underlying the choice process...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890676/combined-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches-to-the-assessment-of-stimulant-properties-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-the-case-of-the-benzofuran-5-mapb
#3
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, George Khelashvili, Vincenzo Barrese, Neelakshi Dutta, Harel Weinstein, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are increasingly prevalent world-wide although their pharmacological characteristics are largely unknown; those with stimulant properties, due to interactions with the dopamine transporter (DAT), have addictive potential which their users may not realise. We evaluated the binding of 1-(1-benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (5-MAPB) to rat striatal DAT by means of quantitative autoradiography with [(125)I]RTI-121, and the effects of 5-MAPB on electrically-evoked dopamine efflux by fast-cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872367/the-neurobiology-of-uncertainty-implications-for-statistical-learning
#4
REVIEW
Uri Hasson
The capacity for assessing the degree of uncertainty in the environment relies on estimating statistics of temporally unfolding inputs. This, in turn, allows calibration of predictive and bottom-up processing, and signalling changes in temporally unfolding environmental features. In the last decade, several studies have examined how the brain codes for and responds to input uncertainty. Initial neurobiological experiments implicated frontoparietal and hippocampal systems, based largely on paradigms that manipulated distributional features of visual stimuli...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867346/an-event-based-neurobiological-recognition-system-with-orientation-detector-for-objects-in-multiple-orientations
#5
Hanyu Wang, Jiangtao Xu, Zhiyuan Gao, Chengye Lu, Suying Yao, Jianguo Ma
A new multiple orientation event-based neurobiological recognition system is proposed by integrating recognition and tracking function in this paper, which is used for asynchronous address-event representation (AER) image sensors. The characteristic of this system has been enriched to recognize the objects in multiple orientations with only training samples moving in a single orientation. The system extracts multi-scale and multi-orientation line features inspired by models of the primate visual cortex. An orientation detector based on modified Gaussian blob tracking algorithm is introduced for object tracking and orientation detection...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865452/cyp2a6-genetic-variation-alters-striatal-cingulate-circuits-network-hubs-and-executive-processing-in-smokers
#6
Sufang Li, Yihong Yang, Ewa Hoffmann, Rachel F Tyndale, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Variation in the CYP2A6 gene alters the rate of nicotine metabolic inactivation and is associated with smoking behaviors and cessation success rates. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this genetic influence are unknown. METHODS: Intrinsic functional connectivity strength, a whole-brain, data-driven, graph theory-based method, was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 66 smokers and 92 nonsmokers. A subset of subjects (n = 23/20; smokers/nonsmokers) performed the monetary incentive delay task, probing reward anticipation, and a go/no-go task, probing response inhibition, on two occasions, in the presence and absence of a nicotine patch...
September 28, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852766/compartmentalized-microfluidic-platforms-the-unrivaled-breakthrough-of-in-vitro-tools-for-neurobiological-research
#7
Estrela Neto, Luís Leitão, Daniela M Sousa, Cecília J Alves, Inês S Alencastre, Paulo Aguiar, Meriem Lamghari
Microfluidic technology has become a valuable tool to the scientific community, allowing researchers to study fine cellular mechanisms with higher variable control compared with conventional systems. It has evolved tremendously, and its applicability and flexibility made its usage grow exponentially and transversely to several research fields. This has been particularly noticeable in neuroscience research, where microfluidic platforms made it possible to address specific questions extending from axonal guidance, synapse formation, or axonal transport to the development of 3D models of the CNS to allow pharmacological testing and drug screening...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843501/visual-memory-profile-in-22q11-2-microdeletion-syndrome-are-there-differences-in-performance-and-neurobiological-substrates-between-tasks-linked-to-ventral-and-dorsal-visual-brain-structures-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study
#8
Mathilde Bostelmann, Maude Schneider, Maria Carmela Padula, Johanna Maeder, Marie Schaer, Elisa Scariati, Martin Debbané, Bronwyn Glaser, Sarah Menghetti, Stephan Eliez
BACKGROUND: Children affected by the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have a specific neuropsychological profile with strengths and weaknesses in several cognitive domains. Specifically, previous evidence has shown that patients with 22q11.2DS have more difficulties memorizing faces and visual-object characteristics of stimuli. In contrast, they have better performance in visuo-spatial memory tasks. The first focus of this study was to replicate these results in a larger sample of patients affected with 22q11...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832148/topological-organization-of-metabolic-brain-networks-in-pre-chemotherapy-cancer-with-depression-a-resting-state-pet-study
#9
Lei Fang, Zhijun Yao, Jianping An, Xuejiao Chen, Yuanwei Xie, Hui Zhao, Junfeng Mao, Wangsheng Liang, Xiangxing Ma
This study aimed to investigate the metabolic brain network and its relationship with depression symptoms using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data in 78 pre-chemotherapy cancer patients with depression and 80 matched healthy subjects. Functional and structural imbalance or disruption of brain networks frequently occur following chemotherapy in cancer patients. However, few studies have focused on the topological organization of the metabolic brain network in cancer with depression, especially those without chemotherapy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812554/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-coincide-with-altered-striatal-connectivity
#10
Marianne Oldehinkel, Christian F Beckmann, Raimon H R Pruim, Erik S B van Oort, Barbara Franke, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
BACKGROUND: Cortico-striatal network dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally investigated by comparing functional connectivity of the main striatal sub-regions (i.e., putamen, caudate, and nucleus accumbens) between an ADHD and a control group. However, dimensional analyses based on continuous symptom measures might help to parse the high phenotypic heterogeneity in ADHD. Here, we focus on functional segregation of regions in the striatum and investigate cortico-striatal networks using both categorical and dimensional measures of ADHD...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802274/topology-cross-frequency-and-same-frequency-band-interactions-shape-the-generation-of-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-a-neural-mass-model-of-a-cortical-column
#11
Roberto C Sotero
Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC), a type of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) where the phase of a low-frequency rhythm modulates the amplitude of a higher frequency, is becoming an important indicator of information transmission in the brain. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying its generation remain undetermined. A realistic, yet tractable computational model of the phenomenon is thus needed. Here we analyze a neural mass model of a cortical column, comprising fourteen neuronal populations distributed across four layers (L2/3, L4, L5 and L6)...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799057/integrative-network-analysis-of-nineteen-brain-regions-identifies-molecular-signatures-and-networks-underlying-selective-regional-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Minghui Wang, Panos Roussos, Andrew McKenzie, Xianxiao Zhou, Yuji Kajiwara, Kristen J Brennand, Gabriele C De Luca, John F Crary, Patrizia Casaccia, Joseph D Buxbaum, Michelle Ehrlich, Sam Gandy, Alison Goate, Pavel Katsel, Eric Schadt, Vahram Haroutunian, Bin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. However, despite extensive clinical and genomic studies, the molecular basis of AD development and progression remains elusive. METHODS: To elucidate molecular systems associated with AD, we developed a large scale gene expression dataset from 1053 postmortem brain samples across 19 cortical regions of 125 individuals with a severity spectrum of dementia and neuropathology of AD...
November 1, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797556/memory-states-influence-value-based-decisions
#13
Katherine D Duncan, Daphna Shohamy
Using memory to guide decisions allows past experience to improve future outcomes. However, the circumstances that modulate how and when memory influences decisions are not well understood. Here, we report that the use of memories to guide decisions depends on the context in which these decisions are made. We show that decisions made in the context of familiar images are more likely to be influenced by past events than are decisions made in the context of novel images (Experiment 1), that this bias persists even when a temporal gap is introduced between the image presentation and the decision (Experiment 2), and that contextual novelty facilitates value learning whereas familiarity facilitates the retrieval and use of previously learned values (Experiment 3)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790629/neurocomputational-models-of-interval-and-pattern-timing
#14
Nicholas F Hardy, Dean V Buonomano
Most of the computations and tasks performed by the brain require the ability to tell time, and process and generate temporal patterns. Thus, there is a diverse set of neural mechanisms in place to allow the brain to tell time across a wide range of scales: from interaural delays on the order of microseconds to circadian rhythms and beyond. Temporal processing is most sophisticated on the scale of tens of milliseconds to a few seconds, because it is within this range that the brain must recognize and produce complex temporal patterns-such as those that characterize speech and music...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739402/the-si-elegans-project-at-the-interface-of-experimental-and-computational-caenorhabditis-elegans-neurobiology-and-behavior
#15
Alexey Petrushin, Lorenzo Ferrara, Axel Blau
OBJECTIVE: In light of recent progress in mapping neural function to behavior, we briefly and selectively review past and present endeavors to reveal and reconstruct nervous system function in Caenorhabditis elegans through simulation. APPROACH: Rather than presenting an all-encompassing review on the mathematical modeling of C. elegans, this contribution collects snapshots of pathfinding key works and emerging technologies that recent single- and multi-center simulation initiatives are building on...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707968/role-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-learning-and-generalizing-hierarchical-rules-in-8-month-old-infants
#16
Denise M Werchan, Anne G E Collins, Michael J Frank, Dima Amso
: Recent research indicates that adults and infants spontaneously create and generalize hierarchical rule sets during incidental learning. Computational models and empirical data suggest that, in adults, this process is supported by circuits linking prefrontal cortex (PFC) with striatum and their modulation by dopamine, but the neural circuits supporting this form of learning in infants are largely unknown. We used near-infrared spectroscopy to record PFC activity in 8-month-old human infants during a simple audiovisual hierarchical-rule-learning task...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688018/improved-detection-of-soma-location-and-morphology-in-fluorescence-microscopy-images-of-neurons
#17
Cihan Bilge Kayasandik, Demetrio Labate
BACKGROUND: Automated detection and segmentation of somas in fluorescent images of neurons is a major goal in quantitative studies of neuronal networks, including applications of high-content-screenings where it is required to quantify multiple morphological properties of neurons. Despite recent advances in image processing targeted to neurobiological applications, existing algorithms of soma detection are often unreliable, especially when processing fluorescence image stacks of neuronal cultures...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647695/the-neurobiology-of-emotion-regulation-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-amygdala-downregulation-via-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback
#18
Andrew A Nicholson, Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Paul A Frewen, Christian Paret, Rosemarie Kluetsch, Christian Schmahl, Jean Théberge, Richard W J Neufeld, Margaret C McKinnon, Jim Reiss, Rakesh Jetly, Ruth A Lanius
Amygdala dysregulation has been shown to be central to the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) representing a critical treatment target. Here, amygdala downregulation was targeted using real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI-nf) in patients with PTSD, allowing us to examine further the regulation of emotional states during symptom provocation. Patients (n = 10) completed three sessions of rt-fMRI-nf with the instruction to downregulate activation in the amygdala, while viewing personalized trauma words...
September 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647280/reduced-left-lateralization-of-language-in-congenitally-blind-individuals
#19
Connor Lane, Shipra Kanjlia, Hilary Richardson, Anne Fulton, Akira Omaki, Marina Bedny
Language processing depends on a left-lateralized network of frontotemporal cortical regions. This network is remarkably consistent across individuals and cultures. However, there is also evidence that developmental factors, such as delayed exposure to language, can modify this network. Recently, it has been found that, in congenitally blind individuals, the typical frontotemporal language network expands to include parts of "visual" cortices. Here, we report that blindness is also associated with reduced left lateralization in frontotemporal language areas...
January 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608958/modelling-adhd-a-review-of-adhd-theories-through-their-predictions-for-computational-models-of-decision-making-and-reinforcement-learning
#20
REVIEW
Sigurd Ziegler, Mads L Pedersen, Athanasia M Mowinckel, Guido Biele
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by altered decision-making (DM) and reinforcement learning (RL), for which competing theories propose alternative explanations. Computational modelling contributes to understanding DM and RL by integrating behavioural and neurobiological findings, and could elucidate pathogenic mechanisms behind ADHD. This review of neurobiological theories of ADHD describes predictions for the effect of ADHD on DM and RL as described by the drift-diffusion model of DM (DDM) and a basic RL model...
September 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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