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Computational neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933068/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity-research
#1
Liliana Letra, Daniela Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g., striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), sensory and motor processing (e...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892737/misdeed-of-the-need-towards-computational-accounts-of-transition-to-addiction
#2
REVIEW
Mehdi Keramati, Serge H Ahmed, Boris S Gutkin
Drug addiction is a complex behavioral and neurobiological disorder which, in an emergent brain-circuit view, reflects a loss of prefrontal top-down control over subcortical circuits governing drug-seeking and drug-taking. We first review previous computational accounts of addiction, focusing on cocaine addiction and on prevalent dopamine-based positive-reinforcement and negative-reinforcement computational models. Then, we discuss a recent computational proposal that the progression to addiction is unlikely to result from a complete withdrawal of the goal-oriented decision system in favor the habitual one...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891515/a-computational-approach-towards-the-microscale-mouse-brain-connectome-from-the-mesoscale
#3
Tielin Zhang, Yi Zeng, Bo Xu
The wiring diagram of the mouse brain presents an indispensable foundation for the research on basic and applied neurobiology. It is also essential as a structural foundation for computational simulation of the brain. Different scales of the connectome give us different hints and clues to understand the functions of the nervous system and how they process information. However, compared to the macroscale and most recent mesoscale mouse brain connectome studies, there is no complete whole brain microscale connectome available because of the scalability and accuracy of automatic recognition techniques...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887785/bioplausible-multiscale-filtering-in-retino-cortical-processing-as-a-mechanism-in-perceptual-grouping
#4
Nasim Nematzadeh, David M W Powers, Trent W Lewis
Why does our visual system fail to reconstruct reality, when we look at certain patterns? Where do Geometrical illusions start to emerge in the visual pathway? How far should we take computational models of vision with the same visual ability to detect illusions as we do? This study addresses these questions, by focusing on a specific underlying neural mechanism involved in our visual experiences that affects our final perception. Among many types of visual illusion, 'Geometrical' and, in particular, 'Tilt Illusions' are rather important, being characterized by misperception of geometric patterns involving lines and tiles in combination with contrasting orientation, size or position...
September 8, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887227/probabilistic-language-models-in-cognitive-neuroscience-promises-and-pitfalls
#5
REVIEW
Kristijan Armeni, Roel M Willems, Stefan Frank
Cognitive neuroscientists of language comprehension study how neural computations relate to cognitive computations during comprehension. On the cognitive part of the equation, it is important that the computations and processing complexity are explicitly defined. Probabilistic language models can be used to give a computationally explicit account of language complexity during comprehension. Whereas such models have so far predominantly been evaluated against behavioral data, only recently have the models been used to explain neurobiological signals...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873968/high-precision-registration-between-zebrafish-brain-atlases-using-symmetric-diffeomorphic-normalization
#6
Gregory D Marquart, Kathryn M Tabor, Eric J Horstick, Mary Brown, Alexandra K Geoca, Nicholas F Polys, Damian Dalle Nogare, Harold A Burgess
Atlases provide a framework for spatially mapping information from diverse sources into a common reference space. Specifically, brain atlases allow annotation of gene expression, cell morphology, connectivity, and activity. In larval zebrafish, advances in genetics, imaging, and computational methods now allow the collection of such information brain-wide. However, due to technical considerations, disparate datasets may use different references and may not be aligned to the same coordinate space. Two recent larval zebrafish atlases exemplify this problem: Z-Brain, containing gene expression, neural activity, and neuroanatomical segmentations, was acquired using immunohistochemical stains, while the Zebrafish Brain Browser (ZBB) was constructed from live scans of fluorescent reporters in transgenic larvae...
August 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868531/a-control-theory-model-of-smoking
#7
Georgiy Bobashev, John Holloway, Eric Solano, Boris Gutkin
We present a heuristic control theory model that describes smoking under restricted and unrestricted access to cigarettes. The model is based on the allostasis theory and uses a formal representation of a multiscale opponent process. The model simulates smoking behavior of an individual and produces both short-term ("loading up" after not smoking for a while) and long-term smoking patterns (e.g., gradual transition from a few cigarettes to one pack a day). By introducing a formal representation of withdrawal- and craving-like processes, the model produces gradual increases over time in withdrawal- and craving-like signals associated with abstinence and shows that after 3 months of abstinence, craving disappears...
June 2017: Methods Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867653/comprehensive-review-computational-modelling-of-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Vincent Valton, Liana Romaniuk, Douglas Steele, Stephen Lawrie, Peggy Seriès
Computational modelling has been used to address: (1) the variety of symptoms observed in schizophrenia using abstract models of behaviour (e.g. Bayesian models- top-down descriptive models of psychopathology); (2) the causes of these symptoms using biologically realistic models involving abnormal neuromodulation and/or receptor imbalance (e.g. connectionist & neural networks - bottom-up realistic models of neural processes). These different levels of analysis have been used to answer different questions (i...
August 31, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863348/biological-and-perceived-stress-in-motor-functional-neurological-disorders
#9
Kalliopi Apazoglou, Viridiana Mazzola, Jennifer Wegrzyk, Giulia Frasca Polara, Selma Aybek
BACKGROUND: Current models explaining motor functional neurological disorders (FND) integrate both the neurobiological mechanisms underlying symptoms production and the role of psychosocial stressors. Imaging studies have suggested abnormal motor control linked to impaired emotional and stress regulation. However, little is known on the biological stress regulation in FND. Our aim was to study the biological and perceived response to stress in patients with motor FND. METHODS: Sixteen patients with motor FND (DSM-5 criteria) and fifteen healthy controls underwent the Trier Social Stress Test...
August 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860983/radial-structure-scaffolds-convolution-patterns-of-developing-cerebral-cortex
#10
Mir Jalil Razavi, Tuo Zhang, Hanbo Chen, Yujie Li, Simon Platt, Yu Zhao, Lei Guo, Xiaoping Hu, Xianqiao Wang, Tianming Liu
Commonly-preserved radial convolution is a prominent characteristic of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Endeavors from multiple disciplines have been devoted for decades to explore the causes for this enigmatic structure. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to consistent cortical convolution patterns still remain poorly understood. In this work, inspired by prior studies, we propose and evaluate a plausible theory that radial convolution during the early development of the brain is sculptured by radial structures consisting of radial glial cells (RGCs) and maturing axons...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855318/considering-aspects-of-the-3rs-principles-within-experimental-animal-biology
#11
REVIEW
Lynne U Sneddon, Lewis G Halsey, Nic R Bury
The 3Rs - Replacement, Reduction and Refinement - are embedded into the legislation and guidelines governing the ethics of animal use in experiments. Here, we consider the advantages of adopting key aspects of the 3Rs into experimental biology, represented mainly by the fields of animal behaviour, neurobiology, physiology, toxicology and biomechanics. Replacing protected animals with less sentient forms or species, cells, tissues or computer modelling approaches has been broadly successful. However, many studies investigate specific models that exhibit a particular adaptation, or a species that is a target for conservation, such that their replacement is inappropriate...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792946/is-intraindividual-reaction-time-variability-an-independent-cognitive-predictor-of-mortality-in-old-age-findings-from-the-sydney-memory-and-ageing-study
#12
Nicole A Kochan, David Bunce, Sarah Pont, John D Crawford, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
Intraindividual variability of reaction time (IIVRT), a proposed cognitive marker of neurobiological disturbance, increases in old age, and has been associated with dementia and mortality. The extent to which IIVRT is an independent predictor of mortality, however, is unclear. This study investigated the association of IIVRT and all-cause mortality while accounting for cognitive level, incident dementia and biomedical risk factors in 861 participants aged 70-90 from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Participants completed two computerised reaction time (RT) tasks (76 trials in total) at baseline, and comprehensive medical and neuropsychological assessments every 2 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774192/cortical-functional-connectivity-evident-after-birth-and-behavioral-inhibition-at-age-2
#13
Chad M Sylvester, Christopher D Smyser, Tara Smyser, Jeanette Kenley, Joseph J Ackerman, Joshua S Shimony, Steve E Petersen, Cynthia E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: The infant temperament behavioral inhibition is a potent risk factor for development of an anxiety disorder. It is difficult to predict risk for behavioral inhibition at birth, however, and the neural underpinnings are poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that neonatal functional connectivity of the ventral attention network is related to behavioral inhibition at age 2 years beyond sociodemographic and familial factors. This hypothesis is supported by the ventral attention network's role in attention to novelty, a key feature of behavioral inhibition...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768322/state-dependent-cross-brain-information-flow-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#14
Edda Bilek, Gabriela Stößel, Axel Schäfer, Laura Clement, Matthias Ruf, Lydia Robnik, Corinne Neukel, Heike Tost, Peter Kirsch, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Importance: Although borderline personality disorder (BPD)-one of the most common, burdensome, and costly psychiatric conditions-is characterized by repeated interpersonal conflict and instable relationships, the neurobiological mechanism of social interactive deficits remains poorly understood. Objective: To apply recent advancements in the investigation of 2-person human social interaction to investigate interaction difficulties among people with BPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-brain information flow in BPD was examined from May 25, 2012, to December 4, 2015, in pairs of participants studied in 2 linked functional magnetic resonance imaging scanners in a university setting...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746335/adjudicating-between-face-coding-models-with-individual-face-fmri-responses
#15
Johan D Carlin, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
The perceptual representation of individual faces is often explained with reference to a norm-based face space. In such spaces, individuals are encoded as vectors where identity is primarily conveyed by direction and distinctiveness by eccentricity. Here we measured human fMRI responses and psychophysical similarity judgments of individual face exemplars, which were generated as realistic 3D animations using a computer-graphics model. We developed and evaluated multiple neurobiologically plausible computational models, each of which predicts a representational distance matrix and a regional-mean activation profile for 24 face stimuli...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739582/gain-modulation-as-a-mechanism-for-coding-depth-from-motion-parallax-in-macaque-area-mt
#16
HyungGoo R Kim, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
Observer translation produces differential image motion between objects that are located at different distances from the observer's point of fixation [motion parallax (MP)]. However, MP can be ambiguous with respect to depth sign (near vs far), and this ambiguity can be resolved by combining retinal image motion with signals regarding eye movement relative to the scene. We have previously demonstrated that both extra-retinal and visual signals related to smooth eye movements can modulate the responses of neurons in area MT of macaque monkeys, and that these modulations generate neural selectivity for depth sign...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724928/on-wakefulness-fluctuations-as-a-source-of-bold-functional-connectivity-dynamics
#17
Ariel Haimovici, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Pablo Balenzuela, Helmut Laufs
Human brain dynamics and functional connectivity fluctuate over a range of temporal scales in coordination with internal states and environmental demands. However, the neurobiological significance and consequences of functional connectivity dynamics during rest have not yet been established. We show that the coarse-grained clustering of whole-brain dynamic connectivity measured with magnetic resonance imaging reveals discrete patterns (dynamic connectivity states) associated with wakefulness and sleep. We validate this using EEG in healthy subjects and patients with narcolepsy and by matching our results with previous findings in a large collaborative database...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709922/pre-and-post-saccadic-stimulus-timing-in-saccadic-suppression-of-displacement-a-computational-model
#18
Arnold Ziesche, Julia Bergelt, Heiner Deubel, Fred H Hamker
When the target of a saccadic eye movement is displaced while the eyes move this displacement is often not noticed (saccadic suppression of displacement, SSD). We present a neurobiologically motivated, computational model of SSD and compare its simulation results to experimental data. The model offers a simple explanation of the effects of pre- and post-saccadic stimulus blanking on SSD in terms of peri-saccadic network dynamics. Under normal peri-saccadic conditions pre-and post-saccadic stimulus traces are recurrently integrated with reference to present and future eye position, whereas blanking diminishes the pre-saccadic stimulus trace and thus leads to an uninfluenced integration of the post-saccadic stimulus trace...
September 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692061/a-causal-account-of-the-brain-network-computations-underlying-strategic-social-behavior
#19
Christopher A Hill, Shinsuke Suzuki, Rafael Polania, Marius Moisa, John P O'Doherty, Christian C Ruff
During competitive interactions, humans have to estimate the impact of their own actions on their opponent's strategy. Here we provide evidence that neural computations in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) and interconnected structures are causally involved in this process. By combining inhibitory continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation with model-based functional MRI, we show that disrupting neural excitability in the rTPJ reduces behavioral and neural indices of mentalizing-related computations, as well as functional connectivity of the rTPJ with ventral and dorsal parts of the medial prefrontal cortex...
August 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682786/application-of-computational-methods-in-planaria-research-a-current-update
#20
Shyamasree Ghosh
Planaria is a member of the Phylum Platyhelminthes including flatworms. Planarians possess the unique ability of regeneration from adult stem cells or neoblasts and finds importance as a model organism for regeneration and developmental studies. Although research is being actively carried out globally through conventional methods to understand the process of regeneration from neoblasts, biology of development, neurobiology and immunology of Planaria, there are many thought provoking questions related to stem cell plasticity, and uniqueness of regenerative potential in Planarians amongst other members of Phylum Platyhelminthes...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
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