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Computational neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792946/is-intraindividual-reaction-time-variability-an-independent-cognitive-predictor-of-mortality-in-old-age-findings-from-the-sydney-memory-and-ageing-study
#1
Nicole A Kochan, David Bunce, Sarah Pont, John D Crawford, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
Intraindividual variability of reaction time (IIVRT), a proposed cognitive marker of neurobiological disturbance, increases in old age, and has been associated with dementia and mortality. The extent to which IIVRT is an independent predictor of mortality, however, is unclear. This study investigated the association of IIVRT and all-cause mortality while accounting for cognitive level, incident dementia and biomedical risk factors in 861 participants aged 70-90 from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Participants completed two computerised reaction time (RT) tasks (76 trials in total) at baseline, and comprehensive medical and neuropsychological assessments every 2 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774192/cortical-functional-connectivity-evident-after-birth-and-behavioral-inhibition-at-age-2
#2
Chad M Sylvester, Christopher D Smyser, Tara Smyser, Jeanette Kenley, Joseph J Ackerman, Joshua S Shimony, Steve E Petersen, Cynthia E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: The infant temperament behavioral inhibition is a potent risk factor for development of an anxiety disorder. It is difficult to predict risk for behavioral inhibition at birth, however, and the neural underpinnings are poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that neonatal functional connectivity of the ventral attention network is related to behavioral inhibition at age 2 years beyond sociodemographic and familial factors. This hypothesis is supported by the ventral attention network's role in attention to novelty, a key feature of behavioral inhibition...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768322/state-dependent-cross-brain-information-flow-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#3
Edda Bilek, Gabriela Stößel, Axel Schäfer, Laura Clement, Matthias Ruf, Lydia Robnik, Corinne Neukel, Heike Tost, Peter Kirsch, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Importance: Although borderline personality disorder (BPD)-one of the most common, burdensome, and costly psychiatric conditions-is characterized by repeated interpersonal conflict and instable relationships, the neurobiological mechanism of social interactive deficits remains poorly understood. Objective: To apply recent advancements in the investigation of 2-person human social interaction to investigate interaction difficulties among people with BPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-brain information flow in BPD was examined from May 25, 2012, to December 4, 2015, in pairs of participants studied in 2 linked functional magnetic resonance imaging scanners in a university setting...
August 2, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746335/adjudicating-between-face-coding-models-with-individual-face-fmri-responses
#4
Johan D Carlin, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
The perceptual representation of individual faces is often explained with reference to a norm-based face space. In such spaces, individuals are encoded as vectors where identity is primarily conveyed by direction and distinctiveness by eccentricity. Here we measured human fMRI responses and psychophysical similarity judgments of individual face exemplars, which were generated as realistic 3D animations using a computer-graphics model. We developed and evaluated multiple neurobiologically plausible computational models, each of which predicts a representational distance matrix and a regional-mean activation profile for 24 face stimuli...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739582/gain-modulation-as-a-mechanism-for-coding-depth-from-motion-parallax-in-macaque-area-mt
#5
HyungGoo R Kim, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
Observer translation produces differential image motion between objects that are located at different distances from the observer's point of fixation (motion parallax). However, motion parallax can be ambiguous with respect to depth sign (near vs. far), and this ambiguity can be resolved by combining retinal image motion with signals regarding eye movement relative to the scene. We have previously demonstrated that both extra-retinal and visual signals related to smooth eye movements can modulate the responses of neurons in area MT of macaque monkeys, and that these modulations generate neural selectivity for depth sign...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724928/on-wakefulness-fluctuations-as-a-source-of-bold-functional-connectivity-dynamics
#6
Ariel Haimovici, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Pablo Balenzuela, Helmut Laufs
Human brain dynamics and functional connectivity fluctuate over a range of temporal scales in coordination with internal states and environmental demands. However, the neurobiological significance and consequences of functional connectivity dynamics during rest have not yet been established. We show that the coarse-grained clustering of whole-brain dynamic connectivity measured with magnetic resonance imaging reveals discrete patterns (dynamic connectivity states) associated with wakefulness and sleep. We validate this using EEG in healthy subjects and patients with narcolepsy and by matching our results with previous findings in a large collaborative database...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709922/pre-and-post-saccadic-stimulus-timing-in-saccadic-suppression-of-displacement-a-computational-model
#7
Arnold Ziesche, Julia Bergelt, Heiner Deubel, Fred H Hamker
When the target of a saccadic eye movement is displaced while the eyes move this displacement is often not noticed (saccadic suppression of displacement, SSD). We present a neurobiologically motivated, computational model of SSD and compare its simulation results to experimental data. The model offers a simple explanation of the effects of pre- and post-saccadic stimulus blanking on SSD in terms of peri-saccadic network dynamics. Under normal peri-saccadic conditions pre-and post-saccadic stimulus traces are recurrently integrated with reference to present and future eye position, whereas blanking diminishes the pre-saccadic stimulus trace and thus leads to an uninfluenced integration of the post-saccadic stimulus trace...
September 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692061/a-causal-account-of-the-brain-network-computations-underlying-strategic-social-behavior
#8
Christopher A Hill, Shinsuke Suzuki, Rafael Polania, Marius Moisa, John P O'Doherty, Christian C Ruff
During competitive interactions, humans have to estimate the impact of their own actions on their opponent's strategy. Here we provide evidence that neural computations in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) and interconnected structures are causally involved in this process. By combining inhibitory continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation with model-based functional MRI, we show that disrupting neural excitability in the rTPJ reduces behavioral and neural indices of mentalizing-related computations, as well as functional connectivity of the rTPJ with ventral and dorsal parts of the medial prefrontal cortex...
August 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682786/application-of-computational-methods-in-planaria-research-a-current-update
#9
Shyamasree Ghosh
Planaria is a member of the Phylum Platyhelminthes including flatworms. Planarians possess the unique ability of regeneration from adult stem cells or neoblasts and finds importance as a model organism for regeneration and developmental studies. Although research is being actively carried out globally through conventional methods to understand the process of regeneration from neoblasts, biology of development, neurobiology and immunology of Planaria, there are many thought provoking questions related to stem cell plasticity, and uniqueness of regenerative potential in Planarians amongst other members of Phylum Platyhelminthes...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675490/the-significance-of-negative-correlations-in-brain-connectivity
#10
Liang Zhan, Lisanne M Jenkins, Ouri E Wolfson, Johnson Jonaris GadElkarim, Kevin Nocito, Paul M Thompson, Olusola A Ajilore, Moo K Chung, Alex D Leow
Understanding the modularity of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-derived brain networks or "connectomes" can inform the study of brain function organization. However, fMRI connectomes additionally involve negative edges, which may not be optimally accounted for by existing approaches to modularity that variably threshold, binarize, or arbitrarily weight these connections. Consequently, many existing Q maximization-based modularity algorithms yield variable modular structures. Here, we present an alternative complementary approach that exploits how frequent the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal correlation between two nodes is negative...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672838/recent-advances-in-conotoxin-classification-by-using-machine-learning-methods
#11
REVIEW
Fu-Ying Dao, Hui Yang, Zhen-Dong Su, Wuritu Yang, Yun Wu, Ding Hui, Wei Chen, Hua Tang, Hao Lin
Conotoxins are disulfide-rich small peptides, which are invaluable peptides that target ion channel and neuronal receptors. Conotoxins have been demonstrated as potent pharmaceuticals in the treatment of a series of diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. In addition, conotoxins are also ideal molecular templates for the development of new drug lead compounds and play important roles in neurobiological research as well. Thus, the accurate identification of conotoxin types will provide key clues for the biological research and clinical medicine...
June 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668365/recurrent-neural-networks-as-versatile-tools-of-neuroscience-research
#12
REVIEW
Omri Barak
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are a class of computational models that are often used as a tool to explain neurobiological phenomena, considering anatomical, electrophysiological and computational constraints. RNNs can either be designed to implement a certain dynamical principle, or they can be trained by input-output examples. Recently, there has been large progress in utilizing trained RNNs both for computational tasks, and as explanations of neural phenomena. I will review how combining trained RNNs with reverse engineering can provide an alternative framework for modeling in neuroscience, potentially serving as a powerful hypothesis generation tool...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651478/interval-timing-is-preserved-despite-circadian-desynchrony-in-rats-constant-light-and-heavy-water-studies
#13
Christian C Petersen, Ralph E Mistlberger
The mechanisms that enable mammals to time events that recur at 24-h intervals (circadian timing) and at arbitrary intervals in the seconds-to-minutes range (interval timing) are thought to be distinct at the computational and neurobiological levels. Recent evidence that disruption of circadian rhythmicity by constant light (LL) abolishes interval timing in mice challenges this assumption and suggests a critical role for circadian clocks in short interval timing. We sought to confirm and extend this finding by examining interval timing in rats in which circadian rhythmicity was disrupted by long-term exposure to LL or by chronic intake of 25% D2O...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649302/differential-predictors-of-dsm-5-ptsd-and-icd-11-complex-ptsd-among-african-american-women
#14
Abigail Powers, Negar Fani, Sierra Carter, Dorthie Cross, Marylene Cloitre, Bekh Bradley
Background: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) is proposed for inclusion in the ICD-11 as a diagnosis distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reflecting deficits in affective, self-concept, and relational domains. There remains significant controversy over whether CPTSD provides useful diagnostic information beyond PTSD and other comorbid conditions, such as depression or substance use disorders. Objective: The present study examined differences in psychiatric presentation for three groups: traumatized controls, DSM-5 PTSD subjects, and ICD-11 CPTSD subjects...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641107/the-persistence-and-transience-of-memory
#15
REVIEW
Blake A Richards, Paul W Frankland
The predominant focus in the neurobiological study of memory has been on remembering (persistence). However, recent studies have considered the neurobiology of forgetting (transience). Here we draw parallels between neurobiological and computational mechanisms underlying transience. We propose that it is the interaction between persistence and transience that allows for intelligent decision-making in dynamic, noisy environments. Specifically, we argue that transience (1) enhances flexibility, by reducing the influence of outdated information on memory-guided decision-making, and (2) prevents overfitting to specific past events, thereby promoting generalization...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634148/iodine-and-freeze-drying-enhanced-high-resolution-microct-imaging-for-reconstructing-3d-intraneural-topography-of-human-peripheral-nerve-fascicles
#16
Liwei Yan, Yongze Guo, Jian Qi, Qingtang Zhu, Liqiang Gu, Canbin Zheng, Tao Lin, Yutong Lu, Zitao Zeng, Sha Yu, Shuang Zhu, Xiang Zhou, Xi Zhang, Yunfei Du, Zhi Yao, Yao Lu, Xiaolin Liu
BACKGROUND: The precise annotation and accurate identification of the topography of fascicles to the end organs are prerequisites for studying human peripheral nerves. NEW METHOD: In this study, we present a feasible imaging method that acquires 3D high-resolution (HR) topography of peripheral nerve fascicles using an iodine and freeze-drying (IFD) micro-computed tomography (microCT) method to greatly increase the contrast of fascicle images. RESULTS: The enhanced microCT imaging method can facilitate the reconstruction of high-contrast HR fascicle images, fascicle segmentation and extraction, feature analysis, and the tracing of fascicle topography to end organs, which define fascicle functions...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581274/comparison-of-electroencephalography-eeg-coherence-between-major-depressive-disorder-mdd-without-comorbidity-and-mdd-comorbid-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#17
Joohyung Youh, Ji Sun Hong, Doug Hyun Han, Un Sun Chung, Kyoung Joon Min, Young Sik Lee, Sun Mi Kim
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has many comorbid psychiatric problems including major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, we compared the neurobiological differences between MDD without comorbidity (MDD-only) and MDD comorbid with IGD (MDD+IGD) by analyzing the quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) findings. We recruited 14 male MDD+IGD (mean age, 20.0 ± 5.9 years) and 15 male MDD-only (mean age, 20.3 ± 5.5 years) patients. The electroencephalography (EEG) coherences were measured using a 21-channel digital EEG system and computed to assess synchrony in the frequency ranges of alpha (7...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555104/tdcs-over-the-motor-cortex-shows-differential-effects-on-action-and-object-words-in-associative-word-learning-in-healthy-aging
#18
Meret Branscheidt, Julia Hoppe, Nils Freundlieb, Pienie Zwitserlood, Gianpiero Liuzzi
Healthy aging is accompanied by a continuous decline in cognitive functions. For example, the ability to learn languages decreases with age, while the neurobiological underpinnings for the decline in learning abilities are not known exactly. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in combination with appropriate experimental paradigms, is a well-established technique to investigate the mechanisms of learning. Based on previous results in young adults, we tested the suitability of an associative learning paradigm for the acquisition of action- and object-related words in a cohort of older participants...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553839/a-primer-on-foraging-and-the-explore-exploit-trade-off-for-psychiatry-research
#19
REVIEW
M A Addicott, J M Pearson, M M Sweitzer, D L Barack, M L Platt
Foraging is a fundamental behavior, and many types of animals appear to have solved foraging problems using a shared set of mechanisms. Perhaps the most common foraging problem is the choice between exploiting a familiar option for a known reward and exploring unfamiliar options for unknown rewards-the so-called explore-exploit trade-off. This trade-off has been studied extensively in behavioral ecology and computational neuroscience, but is relatively new to the field of psychiatry. Explore/exploit paradigms can offer psychiatry research a new approach to studying motivation, outcome valuation, and effort-related processes, which are disrupted in many mental and emotional disorders...
May 29, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536046/neural-substrates-of-updating-the-prediction-through-prediction-error-during-decision-making
#20
Ying Wang, Ning Ma, Xiaosong He, Nan Li, Zhengde Wei, Lizhuang Yang, Rujing Zha, Long Han, Xiaoming Li, Daren Zhang, Ying Liu, Xiaochu Zhang
Learning of prediction error (PE), including reward PE and risk PE, is crucial for updating the prediction in reinforcement learning (RL). Neurobiological and computational models of RL have reported extensive brain activations related to PE. However, the occurrence of PE does not necessarily predict updating the prediction, e.g., in a probability-known event. Therefore, the brain regions specifically engaged in updating the prediction remain unknown. Here, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, the probability-unknown Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the probability-known risk decision task (RDT)...
May 20, 2017: NeuroImage
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