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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922361/impact-of-four-different-recumbencies-on-the-distribution-of-ventilation-in-conscious-or-anaesthetized-spontaneously-breathing-beagle-dogs-an-electrical-impedance-tomography-study
#1
Tamas D Ambrisko, Johannes P Schramel, Ulrike Auer, Yves P S Moens
The aim was to examine the effects of recumbency and anaesthesia on distribution of ventilation in beagle dogs using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Nine healthy beagle dogs, aging 3.7±1.7 (mean±SD) years and weighing 16.3±1.6 kg, received a series of treatments in a fixed order on a single occasion. Conscious dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency (RLR) and equipped with 32 EIT electrodes around the thorax. Following five minutes of equilibration, two minutes of EIT recordings were made in each recumbency in the following order: RLR, dorsal (DR), left (LLR) and sternal (SR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922293/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-cancer-cachexia
#2
Fabio Penna, Andrea Camperi, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Nicoletta Filigheddu, Paola Costelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The possibility to use vitamin D supplementation to improve muscle wasting, with particular focus on cancer cachexia, is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D exerts biological actions on myogenic precursor proliferation and differentiation, impinging on muscle regeneration. However, the effects of VitD supplementation in diseases associated with muscle atrophy, such as cancer cachexia, are poorly investigated. Data obtained in experimental models of cancer cachexia show that the administration of vitamin D to tumor-bearing animals is not able to prevent or delay both muscle wasting and adipose tissue depletion, despite increased expression of muscle vitamin D receptor...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921721/effects-of-the-availability-of-accurate-proprioceptive-information-on-older-adults-postural-sway-and-muscle-co-contraction
#3
Chesney E Craig, Glenn H M Calvert, Michail Doumas
During conditions of increased postural instability, older adults exhibit greater lower-limb muscle co-contraction. This response has been interpreted as a compensatory postural strategy, which may be used to i006Ecrease proprioceptive information from muscle spindles or to stiffen the lower limb as a general response to minimise postural sway. The current study aimed to test these two hypotheses by investigating use of muscle co-contraction during sensory transitions that manipulated proprioceptive input. Surface EMG was recorded from the bilateral tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis muscles, in young (aged 18-30) and older adults (aged 68-80) during blind-folded postural assessment...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921674/decline-in-effort-capacity-with-age-echocardiographic-stress-analysis-in-the-elderly
#4
Anat Milman, Gad Keren, Yan Topilsky
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to assess the underlying mechanism of decline in effort capacity seen with aging. METHODS: We analyzed 250 healthy senior patients (≥65 years) with an ejection fraction ≥60% who underwent a stress echocardiogram test. The seniors (aged 65-94) were divided into 3 equal age groups (groups 1, 2, and 3), and their echo characteristics at rest and peak exercise (measured and calculated) were compared. RESULTS: Diastolic function at rest declined significantly (E lateral, E septal, E/E', A) with age, while other rest parameters were similar...
September 17, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921453/upper-and-lower-limbs-composition-a-comparison-between-anthropometry-and-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-healthy-people
#5
Danila Diano, Federico Ponti, Sara Guerri, Daniele Mercatelli, Michele Amadori, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alberto Bazzocchi
The detection of changes in lean mass (LM) distribution can help to prevent disability. This study assessed the degree of association between anthropometric measurements and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition (BC) parameters of the upper and lower limbs in a healthy general population and collected DXA age- and sex-specific values of BC that can be useful to build a reference standard. PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of some widely available anthropometric measurements in the assessment of body composition (BC) at the limbs, especially in terms of muscle mass, in a large sample of healthy subjects of different age bands and sex, using fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) parameters derived by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the gold standard...
September 18, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920924/impaired-angiopoietin-tie2-signaling-compromises-schlemm-s-canal-integrity-and-induces-glaucoma
#6
Jaeryung Kim, Dae-Young Park, Hosung Bae, Do Young Park, Dongkyu Kim, Choong-Kun Lee, Sukhyun Song, Tae-Young Chung, Dong Hui Lim, Yoshiaki Kubota, Young-Kwon Hong, Yulong He, Hellmut G Augustin, Guillermo Oliver, Gou Young Koh
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is often caused by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which arises due to increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow (AHO). Aqueous humor flows through Schlemm's canal (SC), a lymphatic-like vessel encircling the cornea, and via intercellular spaces of ciliary muscle cells. However, the mechanisms underlying increased AHO resistance are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that signaling between angiopoietin (Angpt) and the Angpt receptor Tie2, which is critical for SC formation, is also indispensable for maintaining SC integrity during adulthood...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920547/decreased-postoperative-gluteus-medius-muscle-cross-sectional-area-measured-by-computed-tomography-scan-in-patients-with-intertrochanteric-fractures-nailing
#7
Mitsuaki Noda, Yasuhiro Saegusa, Masayasu Takahashi, Yuma Takada, Masahiro Fujita, Issei Shinohara
BACKGROUND: In patients with femoral intertrochanteric fractures treated by cephalomedullary (CM) nailing, abduction force reportedly decreased by 25-30% during the postoperative follow-up period. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the cross-sectional area (CSA) and adipose tissue ratio (ATR) of the gluteus medius muscle on the postoperative computed tomography (CT) view, expecting this graphic study will support clinical results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 27 patients with femoral intertrochanteric fractures treated by CM femoral nail implants completed the study...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920546/blood-supply-and-vascularity-of-the-glenoid-labrum-its-clinical-implications
#8
Abduelmenem Alashkham, Abdulrahman Alraddadi, Paul Felts, Roger Soames
BACKGROUND: Tears of the glenoid labrum are common after dislocation of the glenohumeral joint. The outcome for healing or surgical reconstruction of the glenoid labrum relies on the extent of its vascularization. This study aims to evaluate the glenoid labrum blood supply and to determine its regional vascularity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 140 shoulders (30 male and 40 female cadavers) were examined: mean age 81.5 years, range 53-101 years. All blood vessels around the glenohumeral joint were dissected and recorded...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920404/effects-of-zearalenone-on-the-localization-and-expression-of-the-growth-hormone-receptor-gene-in-the-uteri-of-post-weaning-piglets
#9
Min Zhou, LiJie Yang, Weiren Yang, Libo Huang, Xuemei Zhou, Shuzhen Jiang, Zaibin Yang
Objective: In this study, we investigated the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (0.5 to 1.5 mg•kg-1 diet) on the localization and expression of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the uteri of post-weaning gilts and explored another mechanism of the reproductive toxicity of ZEA on piglets. Methods: A total of forty healthy piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) aged 28 d were selected for study. Piglets were transferred to single cages after 10 days' adaptation on an obstetric table...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919863/oxygen-uptake-kinetics-is-slower-in-swimming-than-arm-cranking-and-cycling-during-heavy-intensity
#10
Ana Sousa, Fabio Borrani, Ferran A Rodríguez, Grégoire P Millet
Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics has been reported to be influenced by the activity mode. However, only few studies have compared [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics between activities in the same subjects in which they were equally trained. Therefore, this study compared the [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics response to swimming, arm cranking, and cycling within the same group of subjects within the heavy exercise intensity domain. Ten trained male triathletes (age 23.2 ± 4.5 years; height 180.8 ± 8...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919112/disuse-atrophy-accompanied-by-intramuscular-ectopic-adipogenesis-in-vastus-medialis-muscle-of-advanced-osteoarthritis-patients
#11
Madoka Ikemoto-Uezumi, Yasumoto Matsui, Masaki Hasegawa, Remi Fujita, Yasuhide Kanayama, Akiyoshi Uezumi, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Atsushi Harada, A Robin Poole, Naohiro Hashimoto
Muscle dysfunction is the most important modifiable mediating factor in primary osteoarthritis because properly contracting muscles are a key absorber of forces acting on a joint. However, the pathological features of disuse muscle atrophy in osteoarthritis patients have been little studied. Vastus medialis muscles of fourteen female patients with osteoarthritis in the age range 69 to 86 years, largely immobile for one or more years, were obtained during arthroplastic surgery and analyzed histologically. These were compared to female patients without arthritis, two with patellar fracture, and two with patellar subluxation...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918955/shifts-in-the-relationship-between-motor-unit-recruitment-thresholds-versus-derecruitment-thresholds-during-fatigue
#12
Matt S Stock, Jacob A Mota
Muscle fatigue is associated with diminished twitch force amplitude. We examined changes in the motor unit recruitment versus derecruitment threshold relationship during fatigue. Nine men (mean age = 26 years) performed repeated isometric contractions at 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) knee extensor force until exhaustion. Surface electromyographic signals were detected from the vastus lateralis, and were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains. Motor unit recruitment and derecruitment thresholds and firing rates at recruitment and derecruitment were evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the protocol...
September 14, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918934/reconstructive-microsurgical-approach-for-the-treatment-of-pyoderma-gangrenosum
#13
Karl Schwaiger, Elisabeth Russe, Hassan Kholosy, Michaela Hladik, Klemens Heinrich, Laurenz Weitgasser, Thomas Schoeller, Gottfried Wechselberger
INTRODUCTION: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare type of autoimmune disease that results in progressive ulcers with or without previous trauma. However, PG is not well understood to date, and its treatment therefore remains a challenge. Because of the disease's systemic characteristic and the unpredictability of the clinical course, no gold standard treatment is available, especially concerning the surgical procedures to treat pyodermic lesions. Often, PG is not recognized during routine clinical practice, and standard ulcer treatment (conservative wound care, debridement, skin grafting, and local flap coverage) is initiated; this induces an autoinflammatory response, resulting in disastrous ulcers, thereby making free flap coverage necessary...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918423/non-discriminant-relationships-between-leg-muscle-strength-mass-and-gait-performance-in-healthy-young-and-old-adults
#14
Thomas Muehlbauer, Urs Granacher, Ron Borde, Tibor Hortobágyi
BACKGROUND: Gait speed declines with increasing age, but it is unclear if gait speed preferentially correlates with leg muscle strength or mass. OBJECTIVE: We determined the relationship between gait speed and (1) leg muscle strength measured at 3 lower extremity joints and (2) leg lean tissue mass (LTM) in healthy young (age: 25 years, n = 20) and old (age: 70 years, n = 20) adults. METHODS: Subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic hip, knee, and ankle extension torque, leg LTM by bioimpedance, and gait performance (i...
September 16, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918356/what-is-the-price-for-the-duchenne-gait-pattern-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#15
Firooz Salami, Mirjam Niklasch, Britta K Krautwurst, Thomas Dreher, Sebastian I Wolf
Duchenne gait is characterized by trunk lean towards the affected stance limb with the pelvis stable or elevated on the swinging limb side during single limb stance phase. We assessed the relationship between hip abduction moments and trunk kinetics in patients with cerebral palsy showing excessive lateral trunk motion. Data of 18 subjects with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and 20 aged matched typically developing subjects (TD) were collected retrospectively. Criteria for patient selection were barefoot walking without aid presenting with excessive lateral trunk motion...
September 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918171/the-association-between-delirium-and-sarcopenia-in-older-adult-patients-admitted-to-acute-geriatrics-units-results-from-the-glisten-multicenter-observational-study
#16
Giuseppe Bellelli, Antonella Zambon, Stefano Volpato, Pasquale Abete, Lara Bianchi, Mario Bo, Antonio Cherubini, Francesco Corica, Mauro Di Bari, Marcello Maggio, Giovanna Maria Manca, Maria Rosaria Rizzo, Andrea Rossi, Francesco Landi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To date, studies assessing the relationship between sarcopenia and delirium, two of the most common geriatric syndromes, are lacking. We sought to explore this association by investigating the co-occurrence of these two conditions and the independent association between them in a population of hospitalized older adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional multicenter analysis of older adults consecutively admitted to 12 acute geriatric units (AGUs). Sarcopenia was assessed upon admission by evaluating the presence of low skeletal mass index (kg/m(2)), and either low handgrip strength or low walking speed (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, EWGSOP criteria)...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918170/lifestyle-predictors-of-obese-and-non-obese-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Joo Hee Kwak, Dae Won Jun, Seung Min Lee, Yong Kyun Cho, Kang Nyeong Lee, Hang Lak Lee, Oh Young Lee, Ho Soon Choi, Byung Chul Yoon
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Most people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are obese, and they usually eat more while being less physically active as compared to healthy individuals. However, little is known about the lifestyle patterns of non-obese or obese patients with NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate nutrition components and behavioral differences between non-obese and obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study comprising of 209 patients...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916544/muscle-deficits-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-contribute-to-inferior-cortical-bone-structure-and-trabecular-bone-mineral-density
#18
Joshua F Baker, Jin Long, Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Michele Denburg, Erik Jorgenson, Prerna Sharma, Babette S Zemel, Elena Taratuta, Said Ibrahim, Mary B Leonard
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with muscle loss, osteoporosis, and fracture. We examined associations between skeletal muscle mass, strength, and quality and trabecular and cortical bone deficits in patients with RA and healthy controls. METHODS: Participants, ages 18-75 years, completed whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the tibia to quantify appendicular lean mass and fat mass indices (ALMI, FMI), muscle density at the lower leg, trabecular bone density, and cortical bone thickness...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916260/primary-facial-reanimation-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Axel Sahovaler, David Yeh, John Yoo
Facial Paralysis (FP) profoundly impairs the life of individuals, both functionally and psychosocially. Surgical approaches to treat this condition are myriad, but the ultimate goal is to restore symmetry and movement. Ablative surgery for tumors of the head and neck region are amongst the most common etiologies causing FP and this group of patients represents unique challenges. Surgical defects may have multiple competing reconstructive requirements and addressing the FP must be considered in this context...
September 12, 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916133/a-modified-deltoid-splitting-approach-with-axillary-nerve-bundle-mobilization-for-proximal-humeral-fracture-fixation
#20
Young Ho Shin, Young Ho Lee, Ho Sung Choi, Min Bom Kim, Sung Hee Pyo, Goo Hyun Baek
INTRODUCTION: The deltopectoral and the deltoid splitting approach are commonly used for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. While the deltopectoral approach requires massive soft tissue devascularization, the deltoid splitting approach needs an additional skipped incision to avoid axillary nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to describe a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures and to assess its radiologic and clinical outcomes...
September 8, 2017: Injury
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