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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738414/impact-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-on-slow-tonic-myofiber-composition-in-human-extraocular-muscles
#1
Anton E Tjust, Adam Danielsson, Peter M Andersen, Thomas Brännström, Fatima Pedrosa Domellöf
Purpose: To analyze the proportion and cross-sectional area of myofibers containing myosin heavy chain slow-twitch (MyHCI) and myosin heavy chain slow tonic (MyHCsto) in extraocular muscles of autopsied amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with either spinal or bulbar site of disease onset. Methods: Whole-muscle cross sections from the middle portion of the medial rectus were labeled with antibodies against MyHCI or MyHCsto and laminin. Myofibers labeled with the MyHC antibodies (MyHCI+sto) and the total number of myofibers were quantified in the orbital and global layer of 6 control individuals and 18 ALS patients...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738022/werner-syndrome-a-model-for-sarcopenia-due-to-accelerated-aging
#2
Masaya Yamaga, Minoru Takemoto, Mayumi Shoji, Kenichi Sakamoto, Masashi Yamamoto, Takahiro Ishikawa, Masaya Koshizaka, Yoshiro Maezawa, Kazuki Kobayashi, Koutaro Yokote
Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare inheritable progeroid syndrome caused by a mutation in the WRN gene. Although WS has been described as a characteristic appearance of very slender extremities with a stocky trunk, few studies have investigated the loss of muscle mass, fat mass distribution (body composition), and mobility according to age and sex. Therefore, the aim of this study was to precisely describe the body composition in WS. Nine Japanese patients with WS (four males and five females; mean age 48±8.8 years) were recruited...
July 19, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737276/age-related-differences-in-the-motor-unit-action-potential-size-in-relation-to-recruitment-threshold
#3
Adam J Sterczala, Trent J Herda, Jonathan D Miller, Anthony B Ciccone, Michael A Trevino
Motor unit action potential size (MUAPsize ) versus recruitment threshold (RT) relationship analysis provides a non-invasive measure of motor unit (MU) hypertrophy; however, this method's ability to identify MU atrophy is unknown. This investigation sought to determine if MUAPsize versus RT relationship slope (APslope ) comparison could identify evidence of MU atrophy in older individuals. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of fourteen young (YG, age = 22·29 ± 2·79 years) and ten older (OG, 61·0 ± 2·0 years) subjects during a 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) isometric trapezoidal muscle action...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737046/instrumented-assessment-of-physical-activity-is-associated-with-muscle-function-but-not-with-muscle-mass-in-a-general-population
#4
Anna G M Rojer, Esmee M Reijnierse, Marijke C Trappenburg, Rob C van Lummel, Martijn Niessen, Kim S van Schooten, Mirjam Pijnappels, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier
OBJECTIVES: Self-reported physical activity has shown to affect muscle-related parameters. As self-report is likely biased, this study aimed to assess the association between instrumented assessment of physical activity (I-PA) and muscle-related parameters in a general population. METHOD: Included were 156 young-to-middle-aged and 80 older community-dwelling adults. Seven days of trunk accelerometry (DynaPort MoveMonitor, McRoberts B.V.) quantified daily physical activity (i...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736900/depletion-of-pax7-satellite-cells-does-not-affect-diaphragm-adaptations-to-running-in-young-or-aged-mice
#5
Kevin A Murach, Amy L Confides, Angel Ho, Janna R Jackson, Lina S Ghazala, Charlotte A Peterson, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden
Satellite cell contribution to un-stressed diaphragm is higher compared to hind limb muscles, which is likely attributable to constant activation of this muscle to drive ventilation. Whether satellite cell depletion negatively impacts diaphragm quantitative and qualitative characteristics under stressed conditions in young and aged mice is unknown. We therefore challenged the diaphragm with prolonged running activity in the presence and absence of Pax7+ satellite cells in young and aged mice using an inducible Pax7(CreER) -R26R(DTA) model...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736898/identification-of-positive-selection-signatures-in-pigs-by-comparing-linkage-disequilibrium-variances
#6
X Li, S Yang, K Dong, Z Tang, K Li, B Fan, Z Wang, B Liu
Selection affects the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) around the site of a beneficial allele with an increase in LD among the hitchhiking alleles. Comparing the differences in regional LD between pig populations could help to identify putative genomic regions with potential adaptations for economic traits. In this study, using Illumina Porcine SNP60K BeadChip genotyping data from 207 Chinese indigenous, 117 South American village and 408 Large White pigs, we estimated the variation of genome-wide LD between populations using the varld program...
July 23, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736700/profiling-and-characterization-of-a-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-microrna-dataset-from-an-f2-duroc%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-pietrain-pig-resource-population
#7
Kaitlyn R Daza, Juan P Steibel, Deborah Velez-Irizarry, Nancy E Raney, Ronald O Bates, Catherine W Ernst
To elucidate the effects of microRNA (miRNA) regulation in skeletal muscle of adult pigs, miRNA expression profiling was performed with RNA extracted from longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples from 174 F2 pigs (~ 5.5 months of age) from a Duroc × Pietrain resource population. Total RNA was extracted from LD samples, and libraries were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform in 1 × 50 bp format. After processing, 232,826,977 total reads were aligned to the Sus scrofa reference genome (v10.2.79), with 74...
September 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736605/minimally-invasive-orthodontics-elastodontic-therapy-in-a-growing-patient-affected-by-dentinogenesis-imperfecta
#8
Gaetano Ierardo, Valeria Luzzi, Giuliana Nardacci, Iole Vozza, Antonella Polimeni
AIM: The aim of the study was to report the use of an elastodontic therapy in a growing patient affected by Dentinogenesis Imperfecta, second class malocclusion, deep bite and lower arch crowding from the deciduous dentition to permanent one. CASE REPORT: At first, the 5-year-old patient was treated with an elastodontic device known as "Nite-Guide". When the patient was 7 years old, during her first permanent molars and incisors eruption and after optimal house-practices, an Occlus-o-Guide Series G was placed at night and on daylight (two hours a day) performing exercises aimed to activate facial muscles and facilitate the deep bite reopening...
January 2017: Annali di Stomatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736511/effects-of-methylsulfonylmethane-msm-on-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-muscle-damage-and-pain-following-a-half-marathon-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Eric D Withee, Kimberly M Tippens, Regina Dehen, Deanne Tibbitts, Douglas Hanes, Heather Zwickey
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and muscle damage occur during exhaustive bouts of exercise, and many runners report pain and soreness as major influences on changes or breaks in training regimens, creating a barrier to training persistence. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-based nutritional supplement that is purported to have pain and inflammation-reducing effects. To investigate the effects of MSM in attenuating damage associated with physical exertion, this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of MSM supplementation on exercise-induced pain, oxidative stress and muscle damage...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736109/electromyographic-analysis-of-superior-orbicularis-oris-muscle-function-in-children-surgically-treated-for-unilateral-complete-cleft-lip-and-palate
#10
Liliana Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Krzysztof Woźniak, Teresa Matthews-Brzozowska, Beata Kawala, Marcin Mikulewicz
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the electrical activity of the superior orbicularis oris muscle in children surgically treated for unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample comprised 45 patients 6.38-12.68 years of age with UCCLP and 40 subjects 6.61-11.71 years of age with no clefts. Electromyographical (EMG) recordings were taken with a DAB-Bluetooth Instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany) in the rest position and during saliva swallowing, lip protrusion and reciprocal compression of the lips, as well as while producing the phonemes /p/, /b/, and /m/ combined with the vowel /a/...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736036/-regulation-of-the-expression-of-coenzyme-q-synthesis-complex-during-ageing
#11
Carmen Campos-Silva, Iván Reyes-Torres, Maximiliano Rivera, Catherine Meza-Torres, Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho, Elisabet Rodríguez-Bies, Plácido Navas, Guillermo López-Lluch
INTRODUCTION: Coenzyme Q is an essential component in the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Its synthesis involves, at least, a complex of ten different proteins. In this study, an attempt is made to determine the evolution of the expression of the genes involved in coenzyme Q synthesis during mouse ageing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The messenger RNA (mRNA) of different organs, such as brain, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle from young (8 months), mature (18 months), and old (24 months) mice was extracted by using Trizol and was then analysed by real time PCR (qPCR) using specific primers for all the known components of the coenzyme Q-synthesis complex (COQ genes)...
July 20, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735981/autoimmune-liver-disease-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#12
Suttiruk Jitraruch, Emer Fitzpatrick, Maesha Deheragoda, Annamaria Deganello, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Susan Height, David Rees, Nedim Hadzic, Marianne Samyn
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence, clinical features, and outcome of autoimmune liver disease (AILD) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). STUDY DESIGN: Single center retrospective review of patients with SCD with AILD referred between 1999 and 2015. RESULTS: Thirteen of 77 (17%) patients with SCD with hepatic dysfunction were diagnosed with AILD (median age 11, range, 3.4-16 years) with a female preponderance (77%). Acute hepatitis and insidious onset were the commonest presentations...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735552/a-prospective-study-on-the-effect-of-sport-specialization-on-lower-extremity-injury-rates-in-high-school-athletes
#13
Timothy A McGuine, Eric G Post, Scott J Hetzel, M Alison Brooks, Stephanie Trigsted, David R Bell
BACKGROUND: Sport specialization is associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEIs) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, sport specialization and the incidence of LEIs have not been investigated prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. PURPOSE: To determine if sport specialization was associated with an increased risk of LEIs in high school athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735354/transplantation-sites-for-human-and-murine-islets
#14
Rebecca A Stokes, Kim Cheng, Amit Lalwani, Michael M Swarbrick, Helen E Thomas, Thomas Loudovaris, Tom W Kay, Wayne J Hawthorne, Philip J O'Connell, Jenny E Gunton
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Beta cell replacement is a potential cure for type 1 diabetes. In humans, islet transplants are currently infused into the liver via the portal vein, although this site has disadvantages. Here, we investigated alternative transplantation sites for human and murine islets in recipient mice, comparing the portal vein with quadriceps muscle and kidney, liver and spleen capsules. METHODS: Murine islets were isolated from C57BL6/J mice and transplanted into syngeneic recipients...
July 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735104/effect-of-limb-dominance-and-sex-on-neuromuscular-activation-patterns-in-athletes-under-12-performing-unanticipated-side-cuts
#15
Michael J Del Bel, Alana K Fairfax, Michelle L Jones, Kendal Steele, Scott C Landry
Non-contact ACL injuries are one of the most common injuries to the knee joint among adolescent/collegiate athletes, with sex and limb dominance being identified as risk factors. In children under 12years of age (U12), these injuries occur less often and there is no sex-bias present. This study set out to explore if sex and/or limb dominance differences exist in neuromuscular activations in U12 athletes. Thirty-four U12 males and females had six bilateral muscles analyzed during unanticipated side-cuts. Principal component analysis was performed, capturing differences in overall magnitudes and timing of peak magnitudes...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735103/voluntary-activation-of-the-trapezius-muscle-in-cases-with-neck-shoulder-pain-compared-to-healthy-controls
#16
Katrine Tholstrup Bech, Camilla Marie Larsen, Gisela Sjøgaard, Andreas Holtermann, Janet L Taylor, Karen Søgaard
Subjects reporting neck/shoulder pain have been shown to generate less force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the shoulder muscles compared to healthy controls. This has been suggested to be caused by a pain-related decrease in voluntary activation (VA) rather than lack of muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to investigate VA of the trapezius muscle during MVCs in subjects with and without neck/shoulder pain by use of the twitch interpolation technique. Ten cases suffering from pain and ten age and gender matched, healthy controls were included in the study...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734761/patients-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-are-significantly-shorter-than-those-with-becker-muscular-dystrophy-with-the-higher-incidence-of-short-stature-in-dp71-mutated-subgroup
#17
Masaaki Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Awano, Tomoko Lee, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Masafumi Matsuo, Kazumoto Iijima
Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and are characterized by severe and mild progressive muscle wasting, respectively. Short stature has been reported as a feature of DMD in the Western hemisphere, but not yet confirmed in Orientals. Height of young BMD has not been fully characterized. Here, height of ambulant and steroid naive Japanese 179 DMD and 42 BMD patients between 4 and 10 years of age was retrospectively examined using height standard deviation score (SDS)...
June 19, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734538/accuracy-of-infraspinatus-isometric-testing-in-predicting-tear-size-and-tendon-reparability-comparison-with-imaging-and-arthroscopy
#18
Helen Razmjou, Monique Christakis, Tim Dwyer, Varda van Osnabrugge, Richard Holtby
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of external rotation in neutral (0° external position) and in shortened position (45° external position) in relation to rotator cuff tear size, tendon reparability, and other clinical, surgical, and imaging findings. METHODS: This was a prospective blinded diagnostic study of consecutive surgical candidates for rotator cuff repair using magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic surgery as the "gold standards...
August 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733748/preoperative-botulinum-toxin-a-enabling-defect-closure-and-laparoscopic-repair-of-complex-ventral-hernia
#19
Omar Rodriguez-Acevedo, Kristen E Elstner, Anita S W Jacombs, John W Read, Rodrigo Tomazini Martins, Fernando Arduini, Michael Wehrhahm, Colette Craft, Peter H Cosman, Anthony N Dardano, Nabeel Ibrahim
INTRODUCTION: Operative management of complex ventral hernia still remains a significant challenge for surgeons. Closure of large defects in the unprepared abdomen has serious pathophysiological consequences due to chronic contraction and retraction of the lateral abdominal wall muscles. We report outcomes of 56 consecutive patients who had preoperative Botulinum toxin A (BTA) abdominal wall relaxation facilitating closure and repair. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 56 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided BTA into the lateral abdominal oblique muscles prior to elective ventral hernia repair between November 2012 and January 2017...
July 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733716/osteosarcopenia-where-bone-muscle-and-fat-collide
#20
REVIEW
H P Hirschfeld, R Kinsella, G Duque
As the world's population ages, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are two conditions that are associated with aging, with similar risk factors that include genetics, endocrine function, and mechanical factors. Additionally, bone and muscle closely interact with each other not only anatomically, but also chemically and metabolically. Fat infiltration, a phenomenon observed in age-related bone and muscle loss, is highly prevalent and more severe in sarcopenic and osteoporotic subjects...
July 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
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