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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636578/human-neuropsin-gene-in-depression
#1
Kinga Bobińska, Joanna Mossakowska-Wójcik, Janusz Szemraj, Piotr Gałecki, Marlena Zajączkowska, Monika Talarowska
BACKGROUND: Neuropsin (NP, kallikrein 8, KLK8) - a kallikrein gene-related (KLK) endoprotease - plays a key role in neuroplasticity processes, since intracellular signal cascades and regulation of gene expression are engaged in long-term synaptic plasticity. The main aim of this paper is to compare expression of the human neuropsin gene on the mRNA level in a group of patients diagnosed with depression and in a group of healthy subjects who have never been treated psychiatrically. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 291 people, aged 18-67, were qualified to participate in the experiment: major recurrent depression group (MRD) and the control group (CG)...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632905/the-malleable-brain-plasticity-of-neural-circuits-and-behavior-a-review-from-students-to-students
#2
REVIEW
Natascha Schaefer, Carola Rotermund, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Mychael V Lourenco, Pooja Joshi, Regina U Hegemann, Sumit Jamwal, Nilufar Ali, Ezra Michelet García Romero, Sorabh Sharma, Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra K Sinha, Hannah Loke, Vishal Jain, Katarzyna Lepeta, Ahmad Salamian, Mahima Sharma, Mojtaba Golpich, Katarzyna Nawrotek, Ramesh K Paidi, Sheila M Shahidzadeh, Tetsade Piermartiri, Elham Amini, Veronica Pastor, Yvette Wilson, Philip A Adeniyi, Ashok K Datusalia, Benham Vafadari, Vedangana Saini, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Neetu Kushwah, Paula Fontanet, Anthony J Turner
One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624138/serum-ncam-levels-and-cognitive-deficits-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-versus-health-controls
#3
HuiMei An, LuPing Zhou, Yinghua Yu, Hongzhen Fan, FengMei Fan, Shuping Tan, ZhiRen Wang, Boz Z, Jing Shi, FuDe Yang, Xiangyang Zhang, Yunlong Tan, Xu-Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a glycoprotein and plays an important role in cell-cell adhesion, neural migration, neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and brain development. We investigated the relationship between the serum NCAM concentration and cognitive deficit in first episode drug naïve schizophrenia (FES) patients. METHODS: Thirty FES patients and thirty healthy controls were recruited for this study. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS)...
June 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621434/eea1-restores-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-in-hippocampal-neurons-from-rett-syndrome-mice
#4
Xin Xu, Lucas Pozzo-Miller
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Deletion of Mecp2 in mice results in an imbalance of synaptic excitation and inhibition in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which affects "Hebbian" long-term synaptic plasticity. Since the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance is maintained by homeostatic mechanisms, we examined the role of MeCP2 in homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) at excitatory synapses...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619476/brexanolone-sage-547-injection-in-post-partum-depression-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Stephen Kanes, Helen Colquhoun, Handan Gunduz-Bruce, Shane Raines, Ryan Arnold, Amy Schacterle, James Doherty, C Neill Epperson, Kristina M Deligiannidis, Robert Riesenberg, Ethan Hoffmann, David Rubinow, Jeffrey Jonas, Steven Paul, Samantha Meltzer-Brody
BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression is a serious mood disorder in women that might be triggered by peripartum fluctuations in reproductive hormones. This phase 2 study investigated brexanolone (USAN; formerly SAGE-547 injection), an intravenous formulation of allopregnanolone, a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, for the treatment of post-partum depression. METHODS: For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled self-referred or physician-referred female inpatients (≤6 months post partum) with severe post-partum depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D] total score ≥26) in four hospitals in the USA...
June 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612096/the-birth-of-the-synapse
#6
REVIEW
Saak V Ovsepian
It has long been held that the rise of neurons as a specialized cell type also marked the onset of the grand evolutionary journey for chemical synapses. Research over recent decades has shown, however, that the most dynamic chapters of synaptic history have been 'written' out of the context of neurobiology and neuronal evolution, dating back to the early metazoa and unicellular living forms. Here, I consider and discuss emerging evidence suggesting the exaptive origin of chemical synapses, via tinkering and neo-functionalization of already existent junctional morphologies and constituents of primeval paracrine signalling...
June 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600320/limited-distal-organelles-and-synaptic-function-in-extensive-monoaminergic-innervation
#7
Juan Tao, Dinara Bulgari, David L Deitcher, Edwin S Levitan
Organelles such as neuropeptide-containing dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and mitochondria travel down axons to supply synaptic boutons. DCV distribution among en passant boutons in small axonal arbors is mediated by circulation with bidirectional capture. However, it is not known how organelles are distributed in extensive arbors associated with volume transmission and neuromodulation by monoamines and neuropeptides and mammalian dopamine neuron vulnerability. Therefore, we studied presynaptic organelle distribution in Drosophila octopamine neurons that innervate ∼20 muscles with ∼1500 boutons...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596977/different-forms-of-structural-plasticity-in-the-adult-olfactory-bulb
#8
REVIEW
Delphine Hardy, Armen Saghatelyan
The adult olfactory bulb (OB) continuously receives new interneurons that integrate into the functional neuronal network and that play an important role in odor information processing and olfactory behavior. Adult neuronal progenitors are derived from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) bordering the lateral ventricle. They migrate long distances along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) toward the OB where they differentiate into interneurons, mature, and establish synapses with tufted or mitral cells (MC), the principal neurons in the OB...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592691/all-for-one-but-not-one-for-all-excitatory-synaptic-scaling-and-intrinsic-excitability-are-coregulated-by-camkiv-while-inhibitory-synaptic-scaling-is-under-independent-control
#9
Annelise Joseph, Gina G Turrigiano
Neocortical circuits utilize a family of homeostatic plasticity mechanisms to stabilize firing, including excitatory and inhibitory synaptic scaling and homeostatic intrinsic plasticity (Turrigiano and Nelson, 2004). All three mechanisms can be induced in tandem in cultured rat neocortical pyramidal neurons by chronic manipulations of firing, but it is unknown whether they are co-induced by the same activity-sensors and signaling pathways, or whether they are under independent control. CaMKIV is a key sensory/effector in excitatory synaptic scaling that senses perturbations in firing through changes in calcium influx, and translates this into compensatory changes in excitatory quantal amplitude (Goold and Nicoll, 2010; Ibata et al...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577431/supramolecular-organization-of-nmda-receptors-and-the-postsynaptic-density
#10
REVIEW
René Aw Frank, Seth Gn Grant
The postsynaptic density (PSD) of all vertebrate species share a highly complex proteome with ∼1000 conserved proteins that function as sophisticated molecular computational devices. Here, we review recent studies showing that this complexity can be understood in terms of the supramolecular organization of proteins, which self-assemble within a hierarchy of different length scales, including complexes, supercomplexes and nanodomains. We highlight how genetic and biochemical approaches in mice are being used to uncover the native molecular architecture of the synapse, revealing hitherto unknown molecular structures, including highly selective mechanisms for specifying the assembly of NMDAR-MAGUK supercomplexes...
May 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573983/neuromorphic-neural-interfaces-from-neurophysiological-inspiration-to-biohybrid-coupling-with-nervous-systems
#11
Frédéric D Broccard, Siddharth Joshi, Jun Wang, Gert Cauwenberghs
OBJECTIVE: Computation in nervous systems operates with different computational primitives, and on different hardware, than traditional digital computation and is thus subjected to different constraints from its digital counterpart regarding the use of physical resources such as time, space and energy. In an effort to better understand neural computation on a physical medium with similar spatiotemporal and energetic constraints, the field of neuromorphic engineering aims to design and implement electronic systems that emulate in very large-scale integration (VLSI) hardware the organization and functions of neural systems at multiple levels of biological organization, from individual neurons up to large circuits and networks...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557985/adaptation-towards-scale-free-dynamics-improves-cortical-stimulus-discrimination-at-the-cost-of-reduced-detection
#12
Wesley P Clawson, Nathaniel C Wright, Ralf Wessel, Woodrow L Shew
Fundamental to the function of nervous systems is the ability to reorganize to cope with changing sensory input. Although well-studied in single neurons, how such adaptive versatility manifests in the collective population dynamics and function of cerebral cortex remains unknown. Here we measured population neural activity with microelectrode arrays in turtle visual cortex while visually stimulating the retina. First, we found that, following the onset of stimulation, adaptation tunes the collective population dynamics towards a special regime with scale-free spatiotemporal activity, after an initial large-scale transient response...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553342/low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-improves-motor-dysfunction-after-cerebral-infarction
#13
Zhi-Yong Meng, Wei-Qun Song
Low frequency (≤ 1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can affect the excitability of the cerebral cortex and synaptic plasticity. Although this is a common method for clinical treatment of cerebral infarction, whether it promotes the recovery of motor function remains controversial. Twenty patients with cerebral infarction combined with hemiparalysis were equally and randomly divided into a low frequency rTMS group and a control group. The patients in the low frequency rTMS group were given 1-Hz rTMS to the contralateral primary motor cortex with a stimulus intensity of 90% motor threshold, 30 minutes/day...
April 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550022/longitudinal-assessment-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-sardinian-psychotic-patients-labsp-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#14
Diego Primavera, Mirko Manchia, Luca Deriu, Massimo Tusconi, Roberto Collu, Maria Scherma, Paola Fadda, Walter Fratta, Bernardo Carpiniello
INTRODUCTION: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and neuronal function and survival. Serum and plasma BDNF levels are moderately, but consistently, decreased in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) compared with healthy controls. There is a lack of knowledge, however, on the temporal manifestation of this decline. Clinical, illness course and treatment factors might influence the variation of BDNF serum levels in patients with psychosis...
May 25, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539418/loss-of-doc2-dependent-spontaneous-neurotransmission-augments-glutamatergic-synaptic-strength
#15
Denise M O Ramirez, Devon C Crawford, Natali L Chanaday, Brent Trauterman, Lisa M Monteggia, Ege T Kavalali
Action potential-evoked vesicle fusion comprises the majority of neurotransmission within chemical synapses, but action potential-independent spontaneous neurotransmission also contributes to the collection of signals sent to the postsynaptic cell. Previous work has implicated spontaneous neurotransmission in homeostatic synaptic scaling, but few studies have selectively manipulated spontaneous neurotransmission without substantial changes in evoked neurotransmission to study this function in detail. Here we used a quadruple knockdown strategy to reduce levels of proteins within the soluble calcium-binding double C2 domain (Doc2)-like protein family to selectively reduce spontaneous neurotransmission in cultured mouse and rat neurons...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532358/experience-dependent-structural-plasticity-in-the-visual-system
#16
Kalen P Berry, Elly Nedivi
During development, the environment exerts a profound influence on the wiring of brain circuits. Due to the limited resolution of studies in fixed tissue, this experience-dependent structural plasticity was once thought to be restricted to a specific developmental time window. The recent introduction of two-photon microscopy for in vivo imaging has opened the door to repeated monitoring of individual neurons and the study of structural plasticity mechanisms at a very fine scale. In this review, we focus on recent work showing that synaptic structural rearrangements are a key mechanism mediating neural circuit adaptation and behavioral plasticity in the adult brain...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530904/wiring-variations-that-enable-and-constrain-neural-computation-in-a-sensory-microcircuit
#17
William F Tobin, Rachel I Wilson, Wei-Chung Allen Lee
Neural network function can be shaped by varying the strength of synaptic connections. One way to achieve this is to vary connection structure. To investigate how structural variation among synaptic connections might affect neural computation, we examined primary afferent connections in the Drosophila olfactory system. We used large-scale serial section electron microscopy to reconstruct all the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) axons that target a left-right pair of glomeruli, as well as all the projection neurons (PNs) postsynaptic to these ORNs...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#18
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518121/two-algorithms-for-high-throughput-and-multi-parametric-quantification-of-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction-morphology
#19
Anna Castells-Nobau, Bonnie Nijhof, Ilse Eidhof, Louis Wolf, Jolanda M Scheffer-de Gooyert, Ignacio Monedero, Laura Torroja, Jeroen A W M van der Laak, Annette Schenck
Synaptic morphology is tightly related to synaptic efficacy, and in many cases morphological synapse defects ultimately lead to synaptic malfunction. The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a well-established model for glutamatergic synapses, has been extensively studied for decades. Identification of mutations causing NMJ morphological defects revealed a repertoire of genes that regulate synapse development and function. Many of these were identified in large-scale studies that focused on qualitative approaches to detect morphological abnormalities of the Drosophila NMJ...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505612/behavioral-performance-and-neural-systems-are-robust-to-sensory-injury-in-workers-of-the-ant-pheidole-dentata
#20
Hannah K Waxman, Mario L Muscedere, James F A Traniello
Miniaturized nervous systems have been thought to limit behavioral ability, and animals with miniaturized brains may be less flexible when challenged by injuries resulting in sensory deficits that impact the development, maintenance, and plasticity of small-scale neural networks. We experimentally examined how injuries to sensory structures critical for olfactory ability affect behavioral performance in workers of the ant Pheidole dentata, which have minute brains (0.01 mm3) and primarily rely on the perception and processing of chemical signals and cues to direct their social behavior...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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