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Synaptic scaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431800/genetic-predictors-of-antipsychotic-response-to-lurasidone-identified-in-a-genome-wide-association-study-and-by-schizophrenia-risk-genes
#1
Jiang Li, Akane Yoshikawa, Mark D Brennan, Timothy L Ramsey, Herbert Y Meltzer
Biomarkers which predict response to atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) increases their benefit/risk ratio. We sought to identify common variants in genes which predict response to lurasidone, an AAPD, by associating genome-wide association study (GWAS) data and changes (Δ) in Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores from two 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled trials of lurasidone in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients. We also included SCZ risk SNPs identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium using a polygenic risk analysis...
April 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422010/synaptic-input-sequence-discrimination-on-behavioral-time-scales-mediated-by-reaction-diffusion-chemistry-in-dendrites
#2
Upinder Singh Bhalla
Sequences of events are ubiquitous in sensory, motor, and cognitive function. Key computational operations, including pattern recognition, event prediction, and plasticity, involve neural discrimination of spatio-temporal sequences. Here we show that synaptically-driven reaction-diffusion pathways on dendrites can perform sequence discrimination on behaviorally relevant time-scales. We used abstract signaling models to show that selectivity arises when inputs at successive locations are aligned with, and amplified by, propagating chemical waves triggered by previous inputs...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419388/daytime-sleepiness-increases-with-age-in-early-adolescence-a-sleep-restriction-dose-response-study
#3
Ian G Campbell, Christopher S Burright, Amanda M Kraus, Kevin J Grimm, Irwin Feinberg
Study Objectives: Daytime sleepiness increases across adolescence. This increase is commonly attributed to insufficient sleep durations resulting from increasingly limited time in bed. We tested the effects of 3 sleep schedules on daytime sleepiness and whether these effects changed with age in early adolescence. Methods: In 77 children ranging in age from 9.9 to 14 years, objective (multiple sleep latency test - MSLT) and subjective (Karolinska sleepiness scale -KSS) sleepiness was measured following 4 consecutive nights of either 7, 8...
April 17, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404629/braf-signaling-principles-unveiled-by-large-scale-human-mutation-analysis-with-a-rapid-lentivirus-based-gene-replacement-method
#4
Chae-Seok Lim, Xi Kang, Vincent Mirabella, Huaye Zhang, Qian Bu, Yoichi Araki, Elizabeth T Hoang, Shiqiang Wang, Ying Shen, Sukwoo Choi, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Qiang Chang, Zhiping P Pang, Richard L Huganir, J Julius Zhu
Rapid advances in genetics are linking mutations on genes to diseases at an exponential rate, yet characterizing the gene mutation-cell behavior relationships essential for precision medicine remains a daunting task. More than 350 mutations on small GTPase BRaf are associated with various tumors, and ∼40 mutations are associated with the neurodevelopmental disorder cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). We developed a fast cost-effective lentivirus-based rapid gene replacement method to interrogate the physiopathology of BRaf and ∼50 disease-linked BRaf mutants, including all CFC-linked mutants...
March 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398343/large-scale-interaction-effects-reveal-missing-heritability-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#5
H J Woo, C Yu, K Kumar, J Reifman
Genetic susceptibility factors behind psychiatric disorders typically contribute small effects individually. A possible explanation for the missing heritability is that the effects of common variants are not only polygenic but also non-additive, appearing only when interactions within large groups are taken into account. Here, we tested this hypothesis for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) disease risks, and identified genetic factors shared with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). When considered independently, few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome-wide significance...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381592/strength-and-diversity-of-inhibitory-signaling-differentiates-primate-anterior-cingulate-from-lateral-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Maria Medalla, Joshua P Gilman, Jing-Yi Wang, Jennifer I Luebke
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of the primate play distinctive roles in the mediation of complex cognitive tasks. Compared to the LPFC, integration of information by the ACC can span longer timescales and requires stronger engagement of inhibitory processes. Here, we reveal the synaptic mechanism likely to underlie these differences, using in vitro patch-clamp recordings of synaptic events and multi-scale imaging of synaptic markers in rhesus monkeys. While excitatory synaptic signaling does not differ, the level of synaptic inhibition is much higher in ACC than LPFC layer 3 pyramidal neurons- with a ∼6x higher frequency and significantly longer duration of inhibitory synaptic currents...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368007/learning-through-ferroelectric-domain-dynamics-in-solid-state-synapses
#7
Sören Boyn, Julie Grollier, Gwendal Lecerf, Bin Xu, Nicolas Locatelli, Stéphane Fusil, Stéphanie Girod, Cécile Carrétéro, Karin Garcia, Stéphane Xavier, Jean Tomas, Laurent Bellaiche, Manuel Bibes, Agnès Barthélémy, Sylvain Saïghi, Vincent Garcia
In the brain, learning is achieved through the ability of synapses to reconfigure the strength by which they connect neurons (synaptic plasticity). In promising solid-state synapses called memristors, conductance can be finely tuned by voltage pulses and set to evolve according to a biological learning rule called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Future neuromorphic architectures will comprise billions of such nanosynapses, which require a clear understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for plasticity...
April 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336415/sncam-as-a-specific-marker-of-peripheral-demyelination
#8
Adam Niezgoda, Sławomir Michalak, Jacek Losy, Alicja Kalinowska-Łyszczarz, Wojciech Kozubski
Adhesion molecules are involved in nerve growth, synaptic plasticity and myelin formation and maintenance process. Neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56 or NCAM) seems to play a crucial role in all the above-mentioned events. Having found poly-sialylated NCAM increased re-expression on demyelinated axons within multiple sclerosis plaques we assessed soluble NCAM (sNCAM) in sera of patients with various types of peripheral nerve affections - demyelinating, axonal "inflammatory", axonal metabolic polyneuropathies and healthy controls...
March 21, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332227/general-features-of-inhibition-in-the-inner-retina
#9
Katrin Franke, Tom Baden
Visual processing starts in the retina. Within only two synaptic layers, a large number of parallel information channels emerge, each encoding a highly processed feature like edges or the direction of motion. Much of this functional diversity arises in the inner plexiform layer, where inhibitory amacrine cells modulate the excitatory signal of bipolar and ganglion cells. Studies investigating individual amacrine cell circuits like the starburst or A17 circuit have demonstrated that single types can possess specific morphological and functional adaptations to convey a particular function in one or a small number of inner retinal circuits...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306273/chaos-and-correlated-avalanches-in-excitatory-neural-networks-with-synaptic-plasticity
#10
Fabrizio Pittorino, Miguel Ibáñez-Berganza, Matteo di Volo, Alessandro Vezzani, Raffaella Burioni
A collective chaotic phase with power law scaling of activity events is observed in a disordered mean field network of purely excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with short-term synaptic plasticity. The dynamical phase diagram exhibits two transitions from quasisynchronous and asynchronous regimes to the nontrivial, collective, bursty regime with avalanches. In the homogeneous case without disorder, the system synchronizes and the bursty behavior is reflected into a period doubling transition to chaos for a two dimensional discrete map...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304362/bdnf-variants-may-modulate-long-term-visual-memory-performance-in-a-healthy-cohort
#11
Nesli Avgan, Heidi G Sutherland, Lauren K Spriggens, Chieh Yu, Omar Ibrahim, Claire Bellis, Larisa M Haupt, David H K Shum, Lyn R Griffiths
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) and long-term visual memory (p-value = 0.003) in a small cohort (n = 181) comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290135/spinal-cord-injury-impairs-neurogenesis-and-induces-glial-reactivity-in-the-hippocampus
#12
Ignacio Jure, Luciana Pietranera, Alejandro F De Nicola, Florencia Labombarda
The incorporation of newborn neurons with increased synaptic remodeling and activity-dependent plasticity in the dentate gyrus enhances hippocampal-dependent learning performances. Astrocytes and microglial cells are components of the neurogenic niche and regulate neurogenesis under normal and neurophatological conditions leading to functional consequences for learning and memory. Although cognitive impairments were reported in patients after spinal cord injury (SCI), only few studies have considered remote changes in brain structures which are not related with sensory and motor cortex...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279228/erratum-to-%C3%AE-amyloid-triggers-aberrant-over-scaling-of-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity
#13
James Gilbert, Shu Shu, Xin Yang, Youming Lu, Ling-Qiang Zhu, Heng-Ye Man
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270025/a-scalable-weight-free-learning-algorithm-for-regulatory-control-of-cell-activity-in-spiking-neuronal-networks
#14
Xu Zhang, Greg Foderaro, Craig Henriquez, Silvia Ferrari
Recent developments in neural stimulation and recording technologies are providing scientists with the ability of recording and controlling the activity of individual neurons in vitro or in vivo, with very high spatial and temporal resolution. Tools such as optogenetics, for example, are having a significant impact in the neuroscience field by delivering optical firing control with the precision and spatiotemporal resolution required for investigating information processing and plasticity in biological brains...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269645/development-of-a-detailed-model-of-calcium-dynamics-at-the-postsynaptic-spine-of-an-excitatory-synapse
#15
Eric Y Hu, Jean-Marie C Bouteiller, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger
Postsynaptic calcium dynamics play a critical role in synaptic plasticity, but are often difficult to measure in experimental protocols due to their relatively fast rise and decay times, and the small spine dimensions. To circumvent these limitations, we propose to develop a computational model of calcium dynamics in the postsynaptic spine. This model integrates the main elements that participate in calcium concentration influx, efflux, diffusion and buffering. These consist of (i) spine geometry; (ii) calcium influx through NMDA receptors and voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC); (iii) calcium efflux with plasma membrane calcium pumps (PMCA) and sodium-calcium exchangers (NCX); (iv) intracellular calcium stores; and (v) calcium buffers...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260126/neuroplasticity-and-second-messenger-pathways-in-antidepressant-efficacy-pharmacogenetic-results-from-a-prospective-trial-investigating-treatment-resistance
#16
Chiara Fabbri, Concetta Crisafulli, Raffaella Calati, Diego Albani, Gianluigi Forloni, Marco Calabrò, Rosalba Martines, Siegfried Kasper, Joseph Zohar, Alzbeta Juven-Wetzler, Daniel Souery, Stuart Montgomery, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti
Genes belonging to neuroplasticity, monoamine, circadian rhythm, and transcription factor pathways were investigated as modulators of antidepressant efficacy. The present study aimed (1) to replicate previous findings in an independent sample with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and (2) to perform a pathway analysis to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms involved. 220 patients with major depressive disorder who were non-responders to a previous antidepressant were treated with venlafaxine for 4-6 weeks and in case of non-response with escitalopram for 4-6 weeks...
March 4, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255461/dynamic-control-of-synaptic-adhesion-and-organizing-molecules-in-synaptic-plasticity
#17
REVIEW
Gabby Rudenko
Synapses play a critical role in establishing and maintaining neural circuits, permitting targeted information transfer throughout the brain. A large portfolio of synaptic adhesion/organizing molecules (SAMs) exists in the mammalian brain involved in synapse development and maintenance. SAMs bind protein partners, forming trans-complexes spanning the synaptic cleft or cis-complexes attached to the same synaptic membrane. SAMs play key roles in cell adhesion and in organizing protein interaction networks; they can also provide mechanisms of recognition, generate scaffolds onto which partners can dock, and likely take part in signaling processes as well...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250467/automated-synaptic-connectivity-inference-for-volume-electron-microscopy
#18
Sven Dorkenwald, Philipp J Schubert, Marius F Killinger, Gregor Urban, Shawn Mikula, Fabian Svara, Joergen Kornfeld
Teravoxel volume electron microscopy data sets from neural tissue can now be acquired in weeks, but data analysis requires years of manual labor. We developed the SyConn framework, which uses deep convolutional neural networks and random forest classifiers to infer a richly annotated synaptic connectivity matrix from manual neurite skeleton reconstructions by automatically identifying mitochondria, synapses and their types, axons, dendrites, spines, myelin, somata and cell types. We tested our approach on serial block-face electron microscopy data sets from zebrafish, mouse and zebra finch, and computed the synaptic wiring of songbird basal ganglia...
February 27, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236778/interactions-between-synaptic-homeostatic-mechanisms-an-attempt-to-reconcile-bcm-theory-synaptic-scaling-and-changing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#19
REVIEW
Tara Keck, Mark Hübener, Tobias Bonhoeffer
Homeostatic plasticity is proposed to be mediated by synaptic changes, such as synaptic scaling and shifts in the excitation/inhibition balance. These mechanisms are thought to be separate from the Bienenstock, Cooper, Munro (BCM) learning rule, where the threshold for the induction of long-term potentiation and long-term depression slides in response to changes in activity levels. Yet, both sets of mechanisms produce a homeostatic response of a relative increase (or decrease) in strength of excitatory synapses in response to overall activity-level changes...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235895/spike-and-neuropeptide-dependent-mechanisms-control-gnrh-neuron-nerve-terminal-ca-2-over-diverse-time-scales
#20
Karl J Iremonger, Robert Porteous, Allan E Herbison
Fast cell-to-cell communication in the brain is achieved by action potential-dependent synaptic release of neurotransmitters. The fast kinetics of transmitter release are determined by transient Ca(2+) elevations in presynaptic nerve terminals. Neuromodulators have previously been shown to regulate transmitter release by inhibiting presynaptic Ca(2+) influx. Few studies to date have demonstrated the opposite, that is, neuromodulators directly driving presynaptic Ca(2+) rises and increases in nerve terminal excitability...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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