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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818208/catecholamine-dependent-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-a-pluripotent-stem-cell-model%C3%A2-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#1
Thomas Borchert, Daniela Hübscher, Celina I Guessoum, Tuan-Dinh D Lam, Jelena R Ghadri, Isabel N Schellinger, Malte Tiburcy, Norman Y Liaw, Yun Li, Jan Haas, Samuel Sossalla, Mia A Huber, Lukas Cyganek, Claudius Jacobshagen, Ralf Dressel, Uwe Raaz, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Kaomei Guan, Holger Thiele, Benjamin Meder, Bernd Wollnik, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Thomas F Lüscher, Gerd Hasenfuss, Christian Templin, Katrin Streckfuss-Bömeke
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by an acute left ventricular dysfunction and is associated with life-threating complications in the acute phase. The underlying disease mechanism in TTS is still unknown. A genetic basis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to establish an in vitro induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of TTS, to test the hypothesis of altered β-adrenergic signaling in TTS iPSC-cardiomyocytes (CMs), and to explore whether genetic susceptibility underlies the pathophysiology of TTS...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817124/directed-differentiation-and-long-term-maintenance-of-epicardial-cells-derived-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-under-fully-defined-conditions
#2
Xiaoping Bao, Xiaojun Lian, Tongcheng Qian, Vijesh J Bhute, Tianxiao Han, Sean P Palecek
Here, we describe how to efficiently direct human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) differentiation into self-renewing epicardial cells in a completely defined, xeno-free system by temporal modulation of regulators of canonical Wnt signaling. Appropriate differentiation-stage-specific application of Gsk3 inhibitor, Wnt inhibitor, and Gsk3 inhibitor (GiWiGi) is sufficient to produce cells expressing epicardial markers and exhibiting epicardial phenotypes with a high yield and purity from multiple hPSC lines in 16 d...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816361/msel-1l-deficiency-affects-vasculogenesis-and-neural-stem-cell-lineage-commitment
#3
Cardano M, Diaferia G R, Conti L, Baronchelli S, Sessa A, Broccoli V, Barbieri A, De Blasio P, Biunno I
mSEL-1L is a highly conserved ER-resident type I protein, involved in the degradation of misfolded peptides through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a pathway known to control the plasticity of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) phenotype and survival. In this article we demonstrate that mSEL-1L deficiency interferes with the murine embryonic vascular network, showing particular irregularities in the intracranic and intersomitic neurovascular units and in the cerebral capillary microcirculation. During murine embryogenesis, mSEL-1L is expressed in cerebral areas known to harbor progenitor neural cells, while in the adult brain the protein is specifically restricted to the stem cell niches, co-localizing with Sox2 and Nestin...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815333/comparison-of-different-culture-conditions-for-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-of-human-umbilical-cord-vein-cd146-perivascular-cells
#4
Beyza Gökçinar-Yagci, Betül Çelebi-Saltik
Pericytes are CD146+ perivascular cells (PCs) that have multipotential differentiation capacity as mesenchymal stem cells. Beside their crucial roles in vascular development and blood flow regulation, they have ability to differentiate into vascular cell types in vivo. These properties make pericytes preferred cells in the field of vascular tissue engineering. Culture medium for in vitro differentiation of pericytes to vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) has not been defined yet. The aim of this study is to try different culture media for SMC differentiation of CD146+ PCs...
August 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814507/systematic-gene-tagging-using-crispr-cas9-in-human-stem-cells-to-illuminate-cell-organization
#5
Brock Roberts, Amanda Haupt, Andrew Tucker, Tanya Grancharova, Joy Arakaki, Margaret A Fuqua, Angelique Nelson, Caroline Hookway, Susan A Ludmann, Irina A Mueller, Ruian Yang, Alan R Horwitz, Susanne M Rafelski, Ruwanthi N Gunawardane
We present a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing strategy to systematically tag endogenous proteins with fluorescent tags in human induced pluripotent stem cells. To date we have generated multiple human iPSC lines with monoallelic GFP tags labeling 10 proteins representing major cellular structures. The tagged proteins include alpha tubulin, beta actin, desmoplakin, fibrillarin, nuclear lamin B1, non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIB, paxillin, Sec61 beta, tight junction protein ZO1, and Tom20. Our genome editing methodology using Cas9/crRNA ribonuclear protein and donor plasmid co-electroporation, followed by fluorescence-based enrichment of edited cells, typically resulted in <0...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811655/a-tissue-engineered-blood-vessel-model-of-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome-using-human-ipsc-derived-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
Leigh Atchison, Haoyue Zhang, Kan Cao, George A Truskey
Hutchison-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, accelerated aging disorder caused by nuclear accumulation of progerin, an altered form of the Lamin A gene. The primary cause of death is cardiovascular disease at about 14 years. Loss and dysfunction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the vasculature may cause defects associated with HGPS. Due to limitations of 2D cell culture and mouse models, there is a need to develop improved models to discover novel therapeutics. To address this need, we produced a functional three-dimensional model of HGPS that replicates an arteriole-scale tissue engineered blood vessel (TEBV) using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived SMCs from an HGPS patient...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811571/identification-of-a-gene-encoding-slow-skeletal-muscle-troponin-t-as-a-novel-marker-for-immortalization-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#7
Takuya Kuroda, Satoshi Yasuda, Hiroyuki Nakashima, Nozomi Takada, Satoko Matsuyama, Shinji Kusakawa, Akihiro Umezawa, Akifumi Matsuyama, Shin Kawamata, Yoji Sato
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are leading candidate raw materials for cell-based therapeutic products (CTPs). In the development of hPSC-derived CTPs, it is imperative to ensure that they do not form tumors after transplantation for safety reasons. Because cellular immortalization is a landmark of malignant transformation and a common feature of cancer cells, we aimed to develop an in vitro assay for detecting immortalized cells in CTPs. We employed retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as a model of hPSC-derived products and identified a gene encoding slow skeletal muscle troponin T (TNNT1) as a novel marker of immortalized RPE cells by comprehensive microarray analysis...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811217/regulation-and-phylogeny-of-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
Meryem B Baghdadi, Shahragim Tajbakhsh
One of the most fascinating questions in regenerative biology is why some animals can regenerate injured structures while others cannot. Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity to regenerate even after repeated traumas, yet limited information is available on muscle repair mechanisms and how they have evolved. For decades, the main focus in the study of muscle regeneration was on muscle stem cells, however, their interaction with their progeny and stromal cells is only starting to emerge, and this is crucial for successful repair and re-establishment of homeostasis after injury...
August 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808339/direct-reprogramming-of-fibroblasts-into-skeletal-muscle-progenitor-cells-by-transcription-factors-enriched-in-undifferentiated-subpopulation-of-satellite-cells
#9
Naoki Ito, Isao Kii, Noriaki Shimizu, Hirotoshi Tanaka, Takeda Shin'ichi
Satellite cells comprise a functionally heterogeneous population of stem cells in skeletal muscle. Separation of an undifferentiated subpopulation and elucidation of its molecular background are necessary to identify the reprogramming factors to induce skeletal muscle progenitor cells. In this study, we found that intracellular esterase activity distinguishes a subpopulation of cultured satellite cells with high stemness using esterase-sensitive cell staining reagent, calcein-AM. Gene expression analysis of this subpopulation revealed that defined combinations of transcription factors (Pax3, Mef2b, and Pitx1 or Pax7, Mef2b, and Pitx1 in embryonic fibroblasts, and Pax7, Mef2b and MyoD in adult fibroblasts) reprogrammed fibroblasts into skeletal muscle progenitor cells...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804549/treatment-effect-of-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-on-leukopenia-induced-by-cyclophosphamide-in-rabbits
#10
Baoru Liu, Yueping Luo, Dong Luo, Weichen Zhou, Yu Zhang, Ruixin He, Junshu Li, Yong Wang, Yan Wang, Wenzhi Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the effects of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on leukopenia induced by cyclophosphamide in a rabbit model. METHODS: The leukopenia model in New Zealand rabbit was established by injecting cyclophosphamide into the ear vein. Forty leukopenia model rabbits were randomly allocated to control group (n = 20) and LIPUS group (n = 20). LIPUS group underwent 20 minutes of daily ultrasound treatment at femoral metaphysis for 7 days while control group received sham treatment...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803542/spin-infection-enables-efficient-gene-delivery-to-muscle-stem-cells
#11
Yusaku Kodaka, Yoko Asakura, Atsushi Asakura
Viral vector-mediated foreign gene expression in cultured cells has been extensively used in stem cell studies to explore gene function. However, it is difficult to obtain high-quality stem cells and primary cells after viral vector infection. Here, we describe a new protocol for high-efficiency retroviral infection of primary muscle stem cell (satellite cell) cultures. We compared multiple commercially available transfection reagents to determine which was optimal for retroviral infections of primary myoblasts...
August 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802040/aged-stem-cells-reprogram-their-daily-rhythmic-functions-to-adapt-to-stress
#12
Guiomar Solanas, Francisca Oliveira Peixoto, Eusebio Perdiguero, Mercè Jardí, Vanessa Ruiz-Bonilla, Debayan Datta, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Andrés Castellanos, Patrick-Simon Welz, Juan Martín Caballero, Paolo Sassone-Corsi, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Salvador Aznar Benitah
Normal homeostatic functions of adult stem cells have rhythmic daily oscillations that are believed to become arrhythmic during aging. Unexpectedly, we find that aged mice remain behaviorally circadian and that their epidermal and muscle stem cells retain a robustly rhythmic core circadian machinery. However, the oscillating transcriptome is extensively reprogrammed in aged stem cells, switching from genes involved in homeostasis to those involved in tissue-specific stresses, such as DNA damage or inefficient autophagy...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802039/circadian-reprogramming-in-the-liver-identifies-metabolic-pathways-of-aging
#13
Shogo Sato, Guiomar Solanas, Francisca Oliveira Peixoto, Leonardo Bee, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Selma Masri, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
The process of aging and circadian rhythms are intimately intertwined, but how peripheral clocks involved in metabolic homeostasis contribute to aging remains unknown. Importantly, caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in several organisms and rewires circadian metabolism. Using young versus old mice, fed ad libitum or under CR, we reveal reprogramming of the circadian transcriptome in the liver. These age-dependent changes occur in a highly tissue-specific manner, as demonstrated by comparing circadian gene expression in the liver versus epidermal and skeletal muscle stem cells...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802006/the-role-of-satellite-cells-in-activity-induced-adaptations-breathing-new-life-into-the-debate
#14
Michael De Lisio, Jean Farup
Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for muscle regeneration throughout the lifespan. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798257/aquaporin-1-mediated-changes-in-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-and-proliferation-involve-%C3%AE-catenin
#15
Xin Yun, Haiyang Jiang, Ning Lai, Jian Wang, Larissa A Shimoda
Exposure to hypoxia induces migration and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), leading to vascular remodeling and contributing to the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. The mechanisms controlling PASMC growth and motility are incompletely understood, although aquaporin 1 plays an important role. In tumor, kidney and stem cells, AQP1 has been shown to interact with β-catenin, a dual function protein that activates the transcription of crucial target genes (i.e., c-Myc and cyclin D1) related to cell migration and proliferation...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796340/application-of-differentiated-human-tonsil-derived-stem-cells-to-trembler-j-mice
#16
Saeyoung Park, Yoonyoung Choi, Geon Kwak, Young Bin Hong, Namhee Jung, Jieun Kim, Byung-Ok Choi, Sung-Chul Jung
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types. METHODS: We investigated the potential of human tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) for neuromuscular regeneration in trembler-J (Tr-J) mice: a model for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A. RESULTS: T-MSCs differentiated toward skeletal myocytes with increased expression of skeletal muscle-related markers (including troponin I type 1, and myogenin), and the formation of myotubes in vitro...
August 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795971/altered-satellite-cell-dynamics-accompany-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-during-chronic-illness-disuse-and-aging
#17
Colleen F McKenna, Christopher S Fry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores recent research investigating the contribution of satellite cells (skeletal muscle stem cells) during muscle fiber atrophy as seen in periods of disuse, illness, and aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies indicate reduced satellite cell activity and density in a variety of acute and chronic conditions characterized by robust muscle wasting. The direct contribution of satellite cells to unloading/denervation and chronic illness-induced atrophy remains controversial...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795648/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-self-arrange-with-areas-of-different-subtypes-during-differentiation
#18
Maj Linea Vestergaard, Søren J Grubb, Karen Koefod Rasmussen, Zoe Anderson-Jenkins, Kristina Grunnet-Lauridsen, Kristine Calloe, Christian Clausen, Søren T Christensen, Kjeld Møllgård, Claus Yding Andersen
The derivation of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) represents a unique way of studying human cardiogenesis, including the development of CM subtypes. In this study, we investigated the development and organization of CMs derived from hESCs (hESC-CMs) and examined how the expression of CM subtypes correspond to human in vivo cardiogenesis. Beating clusters were used to determine cardiac differentiation, which was evaluated by the expression of cardiac genes GATA4 and TNNT2 and subcellular localization of GATA4 and NKX2...
August 10, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794400/tbx18-positive-cells-differentiated-from-murine-es-cells-serve-as-proepicardial-progenitors-to-give-rise-to-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-and-fibroblasts
#19
Nobuhito Ikeda, Natsumi Nakazawa, Yasutaka Kurata, Hisako Yaura, Fikri Taufiq, Hiroyuki Minato, Akio Yoshida, Haruaki Ninomiya, Yuji Nakayama, Masanari Kuwabara, Yasuaki Shirayoshi, Ichiro Hisatome
Proepicardium (PE) cells generate cardiac fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells that form coronary arteries. T-box18 (Tbx18) is a well-known marker of PE cells and epicardium. We examined whether Tbx18-positive cells differentiated from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells serve as PE progenitors to give rise to vascular SMCs and fibroblasts. To collect Tbx18-positive cells, we established Tbx18-EGFP knock-in mouse ES cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We harvested the Tbx18-EGFP-positive cells on day 8, 10 and 14 after the initiation of differentiation; Tbx18 mRNA was enriched on day 8 to 14 and Snai2 mRNA was enriched on day 8 and 10, indicating successful collection of Tbx18-positive cells...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793833/synergistic-therapeutic-effect-of-three-dimensional-stem-cell-clusters-and-angiopoietin-1-on-promoting-vascular-regeneration-in-ischemic-region
#20
Jungmi Kang, Jeong-Kee Yoon, Seung Ja Oh, Byung-Soo Kim, Sang-Heon Kim
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an ischemic disease characterized by reduced blood flow to the legs, feet, and hands. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source to treat PAD in regenerative medicine. However, in clinical applications, the use of adult stem cells has several limitations, such as low cell viability and low therapeutic efficiency. In the present study, we described an innovative method of culturing three-dimensional stem cell clusters (AngioclusterTM, AC), demonstrated the potential for ACs to differentiate into vascular cells, and assessed the synergistic effects of ACs and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) on angiogenesis in ischemic animal models...
August 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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