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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727021/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-the-effects-of-poor-maternal-nutrition-during-gestation-on-offspring-postnatal-growth-and-metabolism
#1
M L Hoffman, S A Reed, S M Pillai, A K Jones, K K McFadden, S A Zinn, K E Govoni
Poor maternal nutrition during gestation has been linked to poor growth and development, metabolic dysfunction, impaired health, and reduced productivity of offspring in many species. Poor maternal nutrition can be defined as an excess or restriction of overall nutrients or specific macro- or micronutrients in the diet of the mother during gestation. Interestingly, there are several reports that both restricted- and over-feeding during gestation negatively affect offspring postnatal growth with reduced muscle and bone deposition, increased adipose accumulation, and metabolic dysregulation through reduced leptin and insulin sensitivity...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727019/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-potential-and-perspectives-for-their-use-in-clinical-and-animal-science-purpose
#2
M S Duarte, R Bueno, W Silva, C F Campos, M P Gionbelli, S E F Guimarães, F F Silva, P S Lopes, G J Hausman, M V Dodson
An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720499/coronary-artery-disease-associated-gene-phactr1-modulates-severity-of-vascular-calcification-in-vitro
#3
Redouane Aherrahrou, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Heribert Schunkert, Jeanette Erdmann
Calcification of vessels is strongly associated with atherosclerosis and leads to coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed several genes that are associated with and contribute to CAD/MI as well as coronary artery calcification (CAC); however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. PHACTR1, which encodes phosphatase and actin regulator 1, is among these risk genes. The aim of this study was to functionally test whether Phactr1 regulates calcification in vitro using murine embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived smooth muscle cells (SMCs)...
July 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717411/skeletal-muscle-generated-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-induction-and-application
#4
REVIEW
Yuko Miyagoe-Suzuki, Shin'ichi Takeda
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells or hiPSCs) can be derived from cells of patients with severe muscle disease. If skeletal muscle induced from patient-iPSCs shows disease-specific phenotypes, it can be useful for studying the disease pathogenesis and for drug development. On the other hand, human iPSCs from healthy donors or hereditary muscle disease-iPSCs whose genomes are edited to express normal protein are expected to be a cell source for cell therapy. Several protocols for the derivation of skeletal muscle from human iPSCs have been reported to allow the development of efficient treatments for devastating muscle diseases...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714578/efficacy-and-initial-safety-profile-of-cxcl12-treatment-in-a-rodent-model-of-urinary-sphincter-deficiency
#5
J Koudy Williams, Ashley Dean, Shannon Lankford, Karl-Erik Andersson
Disappointing results of skeletal muscle precursor cell (skMPC) therapy for women with intrinsic urinary sphincter deficiency (ISD) associated urinary incontinence has increased interest in alternative sphincter regenerative approaches. This study was to measure the safety and efficacy of the cell homing chemokine CXCL12 versus skMPCs in a rat model of ISD. Thirty-six adult female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 treatment (Tx) conditions: (a) no ISD/noTx [Control]; (b) ISD/noTx; (c) ISD + skMPCs; (d) ISD + 3...
July 17, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713664/cdk-inhibitors-for-muscle-stem-cell-differentiation-and-self-renewal
#6
Amrudha Mohan, Atsushi Asakura
Regeneration of muscle is undertaken by muscle stem cell populations named satellite cells which are normally quiescent or at the G0 phase of the cell cycle. However, upon signals from damaged muscle, satellite cells lose their quiescence, and enter the G1 cell cycle phase to expand the population of satellite cell progenies termed myogenic precursor cells (MPCs). Eventually, MPCs stop their cell cycle and undergo terminal differentiation to form skeletal muscle fibers. Some MPCs retract to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process...
2017: J Phys Fit Sports Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712722/cell-polarity-regulates-biased-myosin-activity-and-dynamics-during-asymmetric-cell-division-via-drosophila-rho-kinase-and-protein-kinase-n
#7
Anna Tsankova, Tri Thanh Pham, David Salvador Garcia, Fabian Otte, Clemens Cabernard
Cell and tissue morphogenesis depends on the correct regulation of non-muscle Myosin II, but how this motor protein is spatiotemporally controlled is incompletely understood. Here, we show that in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila neural stem cells, cell intrinsic polarity cues provide spatial and temporal information to regulate biased Myosin activity. Using live cell imaging and a genetically encoded Myosin activity sensor, we found that Drosophila Rho kinase (Rok) enriches for activated Myosin on the neuroblast cortex prior to nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB)...
July 7, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710961/epigenetic-modification-differences-between-fetal-fibroblast-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-of-the-arbas-cashmere-goat
#8
Xiao Wang, Zhimin Wang, Qing Wang, Hefei Wang, Hao Liang, Dongjun Liu
To explore the epigenetic mechanisms regulating mesenchymal stem cells, we analyzed epigenetic patterns in control goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs), adipose-derived stem cells (gADSCs), bone marrow stromal cells (gBMSCs), and muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs). We found that the 5mC content of gBMSC genomes was lower than that of gFFC genomes, while the 5mC content of gADSC and gMDSC genomes surpassed that of gFFC genomes. H3K9 acetylation did not differ significantly among those cells; gFFCs, gADSCs, and gMDSCs contained acetylated H3K9, H3K14, H3K18, H4K5, and H4K12, but gBMSCs contained almost no acetylated H4K5 and H4K12...
July 9, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709866/mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-carried-in-svvyglr-modified-self-assembling-peptide-promoted-cardiac-repair-and-angiogenesis-after-myocardial-infarction
#9
Xi-Ren Gao, Hai-Jun Xu, Li-Fang Wang, Chong-Bin Liu, Feng Yu
The efficiency of stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction (MI) was very low due to the hostile microenvironment and poor blood perfusion. In this study, we designed a new self-assembling peptide through adding angiogenic polypeptide SVVYGLR to the carboxyl terminal of RADA16, and evaluated the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation carried in this designer self-assembling peptide (DSP) on MI. After the model of cell ischemia and hypoxia was established in vitro, cytoprotective effect of DSP on MSC was detected by AO/EB staining...
July 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708034/ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-common-carotid-artery-access-in-piglets-for-intracoronary-stem-cell-infusion
#10
Jason H Anderson, Nathaniel W Taggart, Sarah L Edgerton, Susana Cantero Peral, Kimberly A Holst, Frank Cetta
In pigs, the deep location of the common carotid artery and overlying sternomastoideus muscle in the neck has led to the recommendation for a surgical cutdown for common carotid access, as opposed to minimally invasive techniques for vascular access. We sought to determine if direct percutaneous common carotid artery access in piglets is attainable. Seventeen piglets were anesthetized and intubated. Under two-dimensional and color flow Doppler ultrasound guidance, a 21 gauge needle was utilized to access the right common carotid artery...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#11
Darren Qiancheng Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remains of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation; all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments; particularly those of hematopoietic, neural and muscle tissues...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705694/rotator-cuff-bridging-repair-using-acellular-dermal-matrix-in-large-to-massive-rotator-cuff-tears-histologic-and-clinical-analysis
#12
Jong Ok Kim, Jong-Ho Lee, Kwang-Sup Kim, Jong-Hun Ji, Sung-Jun Koh, Jae-Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the efficacy of the bridging repair using an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and an ADM with stem cells in rabbits. Also investigated were clinical outcomes of ADM bridging repair for large to massive rotator cuff tears. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ADM, with and without stem cells, was used to cover a 5- × 5-mm-sized cuff defect in 17 rabbits, and biomechanical, histologic, and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted. Also evaluated were 24 patients with large to massive rotator cuff tears after ADM bridging repair...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705234/in-silico-characterization-of-cell-cell-interactions-using-a-cellular-automata-model-of-cell-culture
#13
Takanori Kihara, Kosuke Kashitani, Jun Miyake
BACKGROUND: Cell proliferation is a key characteristic of eukaryotic cells. During cell proliferation, cells interact with each other. In this study, we developed a cellular automata model to estimate cell-cell interactions using experimentally obtained images of cultured cells. RESULTS: We used four types of cells; HeLa cells, human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells, rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and rat smooth muscle A7r5 cells. These cells were cultured and stained daily...
July 14, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704177/morphology-and-contractile-gene-expression-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-response-to-short-term-cyclic-uniaxial-strain-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#14
Neda Rashidi, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Nooshin Haghighipour, Mohammad-Mehdi Khani
Previous studies have shown smooth muscle induction in adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) caused by long-term cyclic stretch. Here we examined the capability of the short-term straining with time steps of 4, 8, 16 and 24 h alone or combined with TGF-β1 on smooth muscle induction of rabbit ASCs. Alterations in cell morphology were quantified through the cell shape index and orientation angle, and expression levels of α-SMA, SM22-α, h-caldesmon and calponin3 markers were examined using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
July 12, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702332/dysregulation-of-a-novel-mir-23b-27b-p53-axis-impairs-muscle-stem-cell-differentiation-of-humans-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Tora I Henriksen, Peter K Davidsen, Maria Pedersen, Heidi S Schultz, Ninna S Hansen, Therese J Larsen, Allan Vaag, Bente K Pedersen, Søren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly recognized as fine-tuning regulators of metabolism, and are dysregulated in several disease conditions. With their capacity to rapidly change gene expression, miRNAs are also important regulators of development and cell differentiation. In the current study, we describe an impaired myogenic capacity of muscle stem cells isolated from humans with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and assess whether this phenotype is regulated by miRNAs. METHODS: We measured global miRNA expression during in vitro differentiation of muscle stem cells derived from T2DM patients and healthy controls...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702326/rev-erb-co-regulates-muscle-regeneration-via-tethered-interaction-with-the-nf-y-cistrome
#16
Ryan D Welch, Chun Guo, Monideepa Sengupta, Katherine J Carpenter, Natalie A Stephens, Stacy A Arnett, Marvin J Meyers, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith, Jinsong Zhang, Thomas P Burris, Colin A Flaveny
OBJECTIVE: The loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength are a central feature of traumatic injury and degenerative myopathies. Unfortunately, pharmacological interventions typically fail to stem the long-term decline in quality of life. Reduced Rev-Erb-mediated gene suppression in cultured C2C12 myoblasts has been shown to stimulate myoblast differentiation. Yet the mechanisms that allow Rev-Erb to pleiotropically inhibit muscle differentiation are not well understood. In this study, we sought to elucidate the role of Rev-Erb in the regulation of muscle differentiation and regeneration in vivo...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701357/a-tale-of-two-niches-differential-functions-for-vcam-1-in-satellite-cells-under-basal-and-injured-conditions
#17
Hyo-Jung Choo, James P Canner, Katherine E Vest, Zachary Thompson, Grace K Pavlath
Cell-cell adhesion molecules play key roles in maintaining quiescence or promoting activation of various stem cells in their niche. Muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SC) are critical for skeletal muscle regeneration after injury but little is known about the role of adhesion molecules in regulating the behavior of these stem cells. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a cell-cell adhesion protein expressed on quiescent and activated SC whose function is unknown in this context. We deleted Vcam1 from SC using an inducible Cre recombinase in young mice...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701175/isolation-and-characterization-of-equine-endometrial-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#18
B Elisabeth Rink, Karin R Amilon, Cristina L Esteves, Hilari M French, Elaine Watson, Christine Aurich, F Xavier Donadeu
BACKGROUND: Equine mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are most commonly harvested from bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue, requiring the use of surgical procedures. By contrast, the uterus can be accessed nonsurgically, and may provide a more readily available cell source. While human endometrium is known to harbor mesenchymal precursor cells, MSCs have not been identified in equine endometrium. This study reports the isolation, culture, and characterization of MSCs from equine endometrium...
July 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698718/the-holy-grail-of-orthopedic-surgery-mesenchymal-stem-cells-their-current-uses-and-potential-applications
#19
REVIEW
Roberto Berebichez-Fridman, Ricardo Gómez-García, Julio Granados-Montiel, Enrique Berebichez-Fastlicht, Anell Olivos-Meza, Julio Granados, Cristina Velasquillo, Clemente Ibarra
Only select tissues and organs are able to spontaneously regenerate after disease or trauma, and this regenerative capacity diminishes over time. Human stem cell research explores therapeutic regenerative approaches to treat various conditions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are derived from adult stem cells; they are multipotent and exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. They can differentiate into multiple cell types of the mesenchyme, for example, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, tenocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, and sarcomere muscular cells...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698572/the-effect-of-calorie-restriction-on-mouse-skeletal-muscle-is-sex-strain-and-time-dependent
#20
Luisa Boldrin, Jacob A Ross, Charlotte Whitmore, Bruno Doreste, Charlotte Beaver, Ayad Eddaoudi, Daniel J Pearce, Jennifer E Morgan
Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function occurs with increasing age. Calorie restriction (CR) increases the lifespan of C57Bl/6 mice, but not in the shorter-lived DBA/2 strain. There is some evidence that calorie restriction reduces or delays many of the age-related defects that occur in rodent skeletal muscle. We therefore investigated the effect of short (2.5 month) and longer term (8.5 and 18.5 months) CR on skeletal muscle in male and female C57Bl/6 and DBA/2 mice. We found that short-term CR increased the satellite cell number and collagen VI content of muscle, but resulted in a delayed regenerative response to injury...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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