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muscle stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326295/role-of-the-cytokine-like-hormone-leptin-in-muscle-bone-crosstalk-with-aging
#1
REVIEW
Mark W Hamrick
The cytokine-like hormone leptin is a classic adipokine that is secreted by adipocytes, increases with weight gain, and decreases with weight loss. Additional studies have, however, shown that leptin is also produced by skeletal muscle, and leptin receptors are abundant in both skeletal muscle and bone-derived mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells. These findings suggest that leptin may play an important role in muscle-bone crosstalk. Leptin treatment in vitro increases the expression of myogenic genes in primary myoblasts, and leptin treatment in vivo increases the expression of microRNAs involved in myogenesis...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320829/tissue-engineering-functional-gastrointestinal-regions-the-importance-of-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#2
Andrew Trecartin, Tracy Grikscheit
The intestine shows extraordinary regenerative potential that might be harnessed to alleviate numerous morbid and lethal human diseases. The intestinal stem cells regenerate the epithelium every 5 days throughout an individual's lifetime. Understanding stem-cell signaling affords power to influence the niche environment for growing intestine. The manifold approaches to tissue engineering may be organized by variations of three basic components required for the transplantation and growth of stem/progenitor cells: (1) cell delivery materials or scaffolds; (2) donor cells including adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and in vitro expansion of isolated or cocultured epithelial, smooth muscle, myofibroblasts, or nerve cells; and (3) environmental modulators or biopharmaceuticals...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320172/neuropathological-findings-from-an-autopsied-case-showing-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-like-neuroradiological-findings-associated-with-premedication-including-tacrolimus-for-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Yuichi Hayashi, Akio Kimura, Hiroshi Nakamura, Maya Mimuro, Yasushi Iwasaki, Akira Hara, Mari Yoshida, Takashi Inuzuka
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is diagnosed based on neuroradiological findings. Typically, PRES is reversible and presents with a good outcome; however, fatal outcomes have been reported. We report an autopsied case showing PRES-like neuroradiological findings associated with premedication including tacrolimus for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in a 28-year-old woman with a 2-year history of acute myeloid sarcoma/acute myeloid leukemia. Neurological examination revealed disturbed consciousness, muscle weakness in all extremities, and bilaterally diminished tendon reflexes...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318975/a-large-and-consistent-phylogenomic-dataset-supports-sponges-as-the-sister-group-to-all-other-animals
#4
Paul Simion, Hervé Philippe, Denis Baurain, Muriel Jager, Daniel J Richter, Arnaud Di Franco, Béatrice Roure, Nori Satoh, Éric Quéinnec, Alexander Ereskovsky, Pascal Lapébie, Erwan Corre, Frédéric Delsuc, Nicole King, Gert Wörheide, Michaël Manuel
Resolving the early diversification of animal lineages has proven difficult, even using genome-scale datasets. Several phylogenomic studies have supported the classical scenario in which sponges (Porifera) are the sister group to all other animals ("Porifera-sister" hypothesis), consistent with a single origin of the gut, nerve cells, and muscle cells in the stem lineage of eumetazoans (bilaterians + ctenophores + cnidarians). In contrast, several other studies have recovered an alternative topology in which ctenophores are the sister group to all other animals (including sponges)...
March 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315973/stem-cell-factor-kit-signal-insufficiency-contributes-to-hypoxia-induced-intestinal-motility-dysfunctions-in-neonatal-mice
#5
Hong Ren, Juan Han, Zhifang Li, Zhiyong Xiong
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders represent a group of problems that more constantly encountered in preterm infants. However, whether hypoxia exposure contributes to the GI dysfunctions is still unclear. METHODS: Newborn mice were exposed to hypoxia (10%) from P1 to P7. Intestinal motilities were examined by a strain gauge transducer. The proliferation of ICCs was detected by using immunostaining for BrdU, Ki67, Kit, Ano1, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R+)...
March 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314379/rejuvenation-by-partial-reprogramming-of-the-epigenome
#6
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James Larrick, Jennifer L Lei
Epigenetic variation with age is one of the most important hallmarks of aging. Resetting or repairing the epigenome of aging cells in intact animals may rejuvenate the cells and perhaps the entire organism. In fact, differentiated adult cells, which by definition have undergone some epigenetic changes, are capable of being rejuvenated and reprogrammed to create pluripotent stem cells and viable cloned animals. Apparently, such reprogramming is capable of completely resetting the epigenome. However, attempts to fully reprogram differentiated cells in adult animals have failed in part because reprogramming leads to formation of teratomas...
March 17, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301308/regenerating-muscle-with-arginine-methylation
#7
Roméo S Blanc, Stéphane Richard
Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) is a family of nine proteins catalyzing the methylation of arginine residues. They were recently shown to be essential for proper regeneration of skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms triggering the methylation event, as well as how the methylated substrates regulate muscle stem cell function and fate decision remain to be determined. This point-of-view will discuss the recent findings on the specific role of PRMT1, CARM1/PRMT4, PRMT5, and PRMT7 in muscle stem cell fate guidance, and shed light on the future challenges which could help defining the therapeutic potential of PRMT inhibitors against muscular disorders and aging...
February 17, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299448/capacity-of-muscle-derived-stem-cells-and-pericytes-to-promote-tendon-graft-integration-and-ligamentization-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#8
Tomislav Ćuti, Maja Antunović, Inga Marijanović, Alan Ivković, Andreja Vukasović, Igor Matić, Marko Pećina, Damir Hudetz
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine the capacity of muscle tissue preserved on hamstring tendons forming candy-stripe grafts in order to improve tendon to bone ingrowth and ligamentization. We hypothesized that muscle tissue does possess a stem cell population that could enhance the healing process of the ACL graft when preserved on the tendons. METHODS: Human samples from gracilis and semitendinosus muscles were collected during ACL surgery from ten patients and from these tissue samples human muscle-derived stem cells and tendon-derived stem cells were isolated and propagated...
March 15, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298297/angiogenic-mechanisms-of-human-cd34-stem-cell-exosomes-in-the-repair-of-ischemic-hindlimb
#9
Prabhu Mathiyalagan, Yaxuan Liang, David Kim, Sol Misener, Tina Thorne, Christine Kamide, Ekaterina Klyachko, Douglas W Losordo, Roger J Hajjar, Susmita Sahoo
Rationale: Paracrine secretions appear to mediate therapeutic effects of human CD34(+) stem cells locally transplanted in patients with myocardial and critical limb ischemia as well as in animal models. Earlier, we had discovered that paracrine secretion from human CD34(+) cells contains pro-angiogenic, membrane-bound nano-vesicles called exosomes (CD34Exo). Objective: Here, we investigated the mechanisms of CD34Exo-mediated ischemic tissue repair and therapeutic angiogenesis by studying their miRNA content and uptake...
March 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297569/administration-of-adult-human-bone-marrow-derived-cultured-pooled-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-critical-limb-ischemia-due-to-buerger-s-disease-phase-ii-study-report-suggests-clinical-efficacy
#10
Pawan K Gupta, Murali Krishna, Anoop Chullikana, Sanjay Desai, Rajkumar Murugesan, Santanu Dutta, Uday Sarkar, Radhakrishnan Raju, Anita Dhar, Rajiv Parakh, Lakshmanan Jeyaseelan, Pachaiyappan Viswanathan, Prasanth Kulapurathu Vellotare, Raviraja N Seetharam, Charan Thej, Mathiyazhagan Rengasamy, Sudha Balasubramanian, Anish S Majumdar
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) due to Buerger's disease is a major unmet medical need with a high incidence of morbidity. This phase II, prospective, nonrandomized, open-label, multicentric, dose-ranging study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of i.m. injection of adult human bone marrow-derived, cultured, pooled, allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSC) in CLI due to Buerger's disease. Patients were allocated to three groups: 1 and 2 million cells/kg body weight (36 patients each) and standard of care (SOC) (18 patients)...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297566/instructive-role-of-the-microenvironment-in-preventing-renal-fibrosis
#11
Kei Matsumoto, Sandhya Xavier, Jun Chen, Yujiro Kida, Mark Lipphardt, Reina Ikeda, Annie Gevertz, Mario Caviris, Antonis K Hatzopoulos, Ivo Kalajzic, James Dutton, Brian B Ratliff, Hong Zhao, Zbygniew Darzynkiewicz, Stefan Rose-John, Michael S Goligorsky
Accumulation of myofibroblasts is a hallmark of renal fibrosis. A significant proportion of myofibroblasts has been reported to originate via endothelial-mesenchymal transition. We initially hypothesized that exposing myofibroblasts to the extract of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) could reverse this transition. Indeed, in vitro treatment of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-activated fibroblasts with EPC extract prevented expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA); however, it did not enhance expression of endothelial markers...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296277/effect-of-icariin-in-combination-with-daily-sildenafil-on-penile-atrophy-and-erectile-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-bilateral-cavernous-nerves-injury
#12
Y Xu, H Xin, Y Wu, R Guan, H Lei, X Fu, Z Xin, Y Yang
The commonly utilized phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors do not lead to satisfactory penile erection after radical prostatectomy mainly because of insufficient nitric oxide drive from the damaged cavernous nerves. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and mechanisms of icariin in combination with daily sildenafil on neurogenic erectile dysfunction and penile atrophy in a rat model of bilateral cavernous nerves injury. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (50 mg/kg) at postnatal day 1 for the purpose of tracking endogenous stem cells in penis...
March 10, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290190/disruption-in-bone-marrow-fat-may-attenuate-testosterone-action-on-muscle-size-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#13
Ashraf S Gorgey, Pamela D Moore, Rodney C Wade, Ranjodh S Gill, Timothy Lavis, Robert A Adler
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into muscle satellite cells. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) promotes the differentiation of satellite cells into muscle cells. CASE REPORT: A 31 year old male with a T4 complete chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) had fixation for a mid-shaft fracture of the left femur. The participant received transdermal testosterone patches (4mg/day) daily for 16 weeks. Skeletal muscle and yellow bone marrow adiposity cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of both thighs were measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287512/preparation-and-culture-of-myogenic-precursor-cells-primary-myoblasts-from-skeletal-muscle-of-adult-and-aged-humans
#14
Ana Soriano-Arroquia, Peter D Clegg, Andrew P Molloy, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
Skeletal muscle homeostasis depends on muscle growth (hypertrophy), atrophy and regeneration. During ageing and in several diseases, muscle wasting occurs. Loss of muscle mass and function is associated with muscle fiber type atrophy, fiber type switching, defective muscle regeneration associated with dysfunction of satellite cells, muscle stem cells, and other pathophysiological processes. These changes are associated with changes in intracellular as well as local and systemic niches. In addition to most commonly used rodent models of muscle ageing, there is a need to study muscle homeostasis and wasting using human models, which due to ethical implications, consist predominantly of in vitro cultures...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283336/tissue-engineering-with-peripheral-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-the-regeneration-of-injured-peripheral-nerves
#15
Mengjie Pan, Xianghai Wang, Yijing Chen, Shangtao Cao, Jinkun Wen, Guofeng Wu, Yuanyuan Li, Lixia Li, Changhui Qian, Zhenqi Qin, Zhenlin Li, Dandan Tan, Zhihao Fan, Wutian Wu, Jiasong Guo
Peripheral nerve injury repair can be enhanced by Schwann cell (SC) transplantation, but clinical applications are limited by the lack of a cell source. Thus, alternative systems for generating SCs are desired. Herein, we found the peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PBMSCs) could be induced into SC like cells with expressing SC-specific markers (S100, P75NTR and CNPase) and functional factors (NGF, NT-3, c-Fos, and Krox20). When the induced PBMSCs (iPBMSCs) were transplanted into crushed rat sciatic nerves, they functioned as SCs by wrapping the injured axons and expressing myelin specific marker of MBP...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283218/long-term-performance-evaluation-of-small-diameter-vascular-grafts-based-on-polyvinyl-alcohol-hydrogel-and-dextran-and-mscs-based-therapies-using-the-ovine-pre-clinical-animal-model
#16
Nuno Alexandre, Irina Amorim, Ana Rita Caseiro, Tiago Pereira, Rui Alvites, Alexandra Rêma, Ana Gonçalves, Guilherme Valadares, Elísio Costa, Alice Santos-Silva, Miguel Rodrigues, Maria Ascensão Lopes, André Almeida, José Domingos Santos, Ana Colette Maurício, Ana Lúcia Luís
The functional and structural performance of a 5cm synthetic small diameter vascular graft (SDVG) produced by the copolymerization of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel with low molecular weight dextran (PVA/Dx graft) associated to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapies and anticoagulant treatment with heparin, clopidogrel and warfarin was tested using the ovine model during the healing period of 24 weeks. The results were compared to the ones obtained with standard expanded polyetetrafluoroethylene grafts (ePTFE graft)...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281528/lnc-mg-is-a-long-non-coding-rna-that-promotes-myogenesis
#17
Mu Zhu, Jiafan Liu, Jia Xiao, Li Yang, Mingxiang Cai, Hongyu Shen, Xiaojia Chen, Yi Ma, Sumin Hu, Zuolin Wang, An Hong, Yingxian Li, Yao Sun, Xiaogang Wang
Recent studies indicate important roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) as essential regulators of myogenesis and adult skeletal muscle regeneration. However, the specific roles of lncRNAs in myogenic differentiation of adult skeletal muscle stem cells and myogenesis are still largely unknown. Here we identify a lncRNA that is specifically enriched in skeletal muscle (myogenesis-associated lncRNA, in short, lnc-mg). In mice, conditional knockout of lnc-mg in skeletal muscle results in muscle atrophy and the loss of muscular endurance during exercise...
March 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279710/satellite-like-cells-contribute-to-pax7-dependent-skeletal-muscle-repair-in-adult-zebrafish
#18
Michael A Berberoglu, Thomas L Gallagher, Zachary T Morrow, Jared C Talbot, Kimberly J Hromowyk, Inês M Tenente, David M Langenau, Sharon L Amacher
Satellite cells, also known as muscle stem cells, are responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair in mammals. Pax7 and Pax3 transcription factors are established satellite cell markers required for muscle development and regeneration, and there is great interest in identifying additional factors that regulate satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and/or skeletal muscle regeneration. Due to the powerful regenerative capacity of many zebrafish tissues, even in adults, we are exploring the regenerative potential of adult zebrafish skeletal muscle...
March 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279224/urethral-reconstruction-with-autologous-urine-derived-stem-cells-seeded-in-three-dimensional-porous-small-intestinal-submucosa-in-a-rabbit-model
#19
Yang Liu, Wenjun Ma, Bo Liu, Yangcai Wang, Jiaqiang Chu, Geng Xiong, Lianju Shen, Chunlan Long, Tao Lin, Dawei He, Denis Butnaru, Lyundup Alexey, Yuanyuan Zhang, Deying Zhang, Guanghui Wei
BACKGROUND: Urethral reconstruction is one of the great surgical challenges for urologists. A cell-based tissue-engineered urethra may be an alternative for patients who have complicated long strictures and need urethral reconstruction. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of using autologous urine-derived stem cells (USCs) seeded on small intestinal submucosa (SIS) to repair a urethral defect in a rabbit model. METHODS: Autologous USCs were obtained and characterized, and their capacity to differentiate into urothelial cells (UCs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was tested...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275008/pparg-is-central-to-the-initiation-and-propagation-of-human-angiomyolipoma-suggesting-its-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target
#20
Oren Pleniceanu, Racheli Shukrun, Dorit Omer, Einav Vax, Itamar Kanter, Klaudyna Dziedzic, Naomi Pode-Shakked, Michal Mark-Daniei, Sara Pri-Chen, Yehudit Gnatek, Hadas Alfandary, Nira Varda-Bloom, Dekel D Bar-Lev, Naomi Bollag, Rachel Shtainfeld, Leah Armon, Achia Urbach, Tomer Kalisky, Arnon Nagler, Orit Harari-Steinberg, Jack L Arbiser, Benjamin Dekel
Angiomyolipoma (AML), the most common benign renal tumor, can result in severe morbidity from hemorrhage and renal failure. While mTORC1 activation is involved in its growth, mTORC1 inhibitors fail to eradicate AML, highlighting the need for new therapies. Moreover, the identity of the AML cell of origin is obscure. AML research, however, is hampered by the lack of in vivo models. Here, we establish a human AML-xenograft (Xn) model in mice, recapitulating AML at the histological and molecular levels. Microarray analysis demonstrated tumor growth in vivo to involve robust PPARG-pathway activation...
March 8, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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