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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148201/current-perspectives-on-the-role-of-tonsillectomy
#1
REVIEW
Samuel R Greig
Tonsillectomy is one of the most common paediatric surgical procedures performed in Australasia. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the indications for the procedure (and the evidence base for each of these indications), as well as describe the surgical technique and perioperative management and risks for a non-surgical audience. The primary indications for tonsillectomy are obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) (where it is most commonly performed in association with adenoidectomy) and recurrent pharyngotonsillitis...
November 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145984/outpatient-pediatric-orthopedic-surgery
#2
REVIEW
Daniel J Miller, Susan E Nelson, Apurva S Shah, Theodore J Ganley, John Jack M Flynn
Outpatient surgery refers to a surgical procedure that is performed without an overnight stay in a hospital. Outpatient surgery is associated with decreased individual and societal costs while achieving equivalent health outcomes and excellent patient satisfaction. Successful outpatient pediatric surgery is predicated on appropriate patient selection, adequate pain control, thorough preoperative education, and close clinical follow-up. Continuous research in quality, value, and patient safety are needed to ensure that this practice continues in as safe and efficient a manner as possible...
January 2018: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145814/elevated-exhaled-acetone-concentration-in-stage-c-heart-failure-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Tetsuro Yokokawa, Takamasa Sato, Satoshi Suzuki, Masayoshi Oikawa, Akiomi Yoshihisa, Atsushi Kobayashi, Takayoshi Yamaki, Hiroyuki Kunii, Kazuhiko Nakazato, Hitoshi Suzuki, Shu-Ichi Saitoh, Takafumi Ishida, Akito Shimouchi, Yasuchika Takeishi
BACKGROUND: Breath acetone is a noninvasive biomarker of heart failure; however, its significance in heart failure patients with diabetes mellitus has yet to be clarified. The objective of this study is to investigate whether exhaled acetone concentration is a noninvasive biomarker in heart failure patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This study prospectively included 35 diabetic patients with stage C heart failure and 20 diabetic patients with or at risk of heart failure (stage A or B)...
November 16, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144801/utility-of-a-single-late-night-plasma-cortisol-and-acth-for-the-diagnosis-of-cushing-s-syndrome
#4
Kush Dev Singh Jarial, Anil Bhansali, Kanchan K Mukherjee, Rimesh Pal, Akhilesh Sharma, Rakesh K Vashishtha, Suja P Sukumar, Naresh Sachdeva, Rama Walia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various screening tests for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS). METHODS: 35 patients of Cushing's syndrome and 16 patients of pseudo-Cushing's syndrome were enrolled. Assessment of 24h urinary free cortisol (UFC), late night salivary cortisol (LNSC), over night dexamethasone suppression test (ONDST), late night plasma cortisol (LNPC) and ACTH on outpatient basis, and during sleep as well as in awake state after 48 hours of hospital admission...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140745/passage-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-subtypes-through-0-45-and-0-65-micrometer-pore-size-nitrocellulose-filters
#5
Mark E Berrang, Richard J Meinersmann, Nelson A Cox
Campylobacter can be difficult to recover from complex samples due to overgrowth by background bacteria. A 0.45- or 0.65-μm-pore-size filter overlaid on agar plates can be used as a means to separate Campylobacter from confounding non-Campylobacter cells, facilitating detection on solid plating media. It is unclear what percentage of cells in a Campylobacter suspension passes through a filter and results in visible colonies. The objective of this study was to compare the number of Campylobacter cells detected by the filter method with those detected by direct plating and determine if the filter method can be used to estimate cellular density of an unknown Campylobacter in suspension...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140312/plasma-amino-acid-abnormalities-in-chronic-heart-failure-mechanisms-potential-risks-and-targets-in-human-myocardium-metabolism
#6
Roberto Aquilani, Maria Teresa La Rovere, Daniela Corbellini, Evasio Pasini, Manuela Verri, Annalisa Barbieri, Anna Maria Condino, Federica Boschi
The goal of this study was to measure arterial amino acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and relate them to left ventricular function and disease severity. Amino acids (AAs) play a crucial role for heart protein-energy metabolism. In heart failure, arterial AAs, which are the major determinant of AA uptake by the myocardium, are rarely measured. Forty-one subjects with clinically stable CHF (New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to IV) were analyzed. After overnight fasting, blood samples from the radial artery were taken to measure AA concentrations...
November 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140154/no-difference-in-young-adult-athletes-resting-energy-expenditure-when-measured-under-inpatient-or-outpatient-conditions
#7
Julia L Bone, Louise M Burke
Low energy availability can place athletes at increased risk of injury and illness and can be detected by a low metabolic rate. The lowest metabolic rate is captured at the bedside, after an overnight fast and termed inpatient REE. Measurements done in a laboratory with a shorter overnight fast are termed outpatient REE. Although important to know what the lowest energy expenditure, a bedside measure and/or 12 h fast is not always practical or logistically possible particularly when you take into account an athlete's training schedule...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139589/severe-fasting-hypoglycemia-in-a-child-after-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation
#8
Jacob M Redel, Jaimie D Nathan, Maisam Abu-El-Haija, Tom K Lin, Joseph J Palermo, Deborah A Elder
TPIAT is an increasingly utilized treatment option for select children with CP. Post-TPIAT fasting hypoglycemia, unrelated to exogenous insulin, is a complication recently reported in adults. This phenomenon has not been described in children. We review a case of severe fasting hypoglycemia in an adolescent female occurring 10 months post-TPIAT. A 12-year-old girl underwent TPIAT for CP. Ten months postoperatively she developed recurrent hypoglycemia on a total daily insulin dose of 0.03 units/kg. Consequently, insulin therapy was discontinued...
November 15, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136907/ultrasonic-based-membrane-aided-sample-preparation-of-urine-proteomes
#9
Jemmyson Romário Jesus, Hugo M Santos, H López-Fernández, Carlos Lodeiro, Marco Aurélio Zezzi Arruda, J L Capelo
A new ultrafast ultrasonic-based method for shotgun proteomics as well as label-free protein quantification in urine samples is developed. The method first separates the urine proteins using nitrocellulose-based membranes and then proteins are in-membrane digested using trypsin. The enzymatic digestion process is accelerated from overnight to four minutes using a sonoreactor ultrasonic device. Overall, the sample treatment pipeline comprising protein separation, digestion and identification is done in just 3h...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136797/unparalleled-sample-treatment-throughput-for-proteomics-workflows-relying-on-ultrasonic-energy
#10
Susana Jorge, J E Araújo, F M Pimentel-Santos, Jaime C Branco, Hugo M Santos, Carlos Lodeiro, J L Capelo
We report on the new microplate horn ultrasonic device as a powerful tool to speed proteomics workflows with unparalleled throughput. 96 complex proteomes were digested at the same time in 4min. Variables such as ultrasonication time, ultrasonication amplitude, and protein to enzyme ratio were optimized. The "classic" method relying on overnight protein digestion (12h) and the sonoreactor-based method were also employed for comparative purposes. We found the protein digestion efficiency homogeneously distributed in the entire microplate horn surface using the following conditions: 4min sonication time and 25% amplitude...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135910/sleep-disordered-breathing-in-children-with-recurrent-wheeze-asthma-a-single-centre-study
#11
Marco Zaffanello, Emma Gasperi, Laura Tenero, Michele Piazza, Angelo Pietrobelli, Luca Sacchetto, Franco Antoniazzi, Giorgio Piacentini
The relationship between asthma and sleep-disordered breathing is bidirectional due to common risk factors that promote airway inflammation. Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing and recurrent wheeze/asthma are conditions that involve the upper and the lower respiratory system, respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sleep disordered breathing in children with recurrent wheeze/asthma. This was a retrospective study concerning children older than 2 years who underwent-between January 2014 and November 2016-an in-laboratory overnight polygraphic study...
November 14, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135521/the-effect-of-icu-out-of-hours-admission-on-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Megan Galloway, Aoife Hegarty, Sarah McGill, Nishkantha Arulkumaran, Stephen J Brett, David Harrison
OBJECTIVES: Organizational factors are associated with outcome of critically ill patients and may vary by time of day and day of week. We aimed to identify the association between out-of-hours admission to critical care and mortality. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (via Ovid) and EMBASE (via Ovid). STUDY SELECTION: We performed a systematic search of the literature for studies on out-of-hours adult general ICU admission on patient mortality. DATA EXTRACTION: Meta-analyses were performed and Forest plots drawn using RevMan software...
November 11, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134940/fasting-alters-aphid-probing-behaviour-but-does-not-universally-increase-the-transmission-rate-of-non-circulative-viruses
#13
Jaime Jiménez, Craig G Webster, Aránzazu Moreno, Rodrigo P P Almeida, Stéphane Blanc, Alberto Fereres, Marilyne Uzest
A fasting period prior to non-circulative virus acquisition has been shown to increase the rate of transmission by aphids. However, this effect has only been studied for a few virus-vector combinations, and there are contradictory results in the literature as to the role of fasting on virus acquisition. We analysed the influence of fasting on the transmission of three non-circulative viruses, Cucumber mosaic virus, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Cauliflower mosaic virus, by two aphid vector species: Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134744/acute-oral-sodium-propionate-supplementation-raises-resting-energy-expenditure-and-lipid-oxidation-in-fasted-humans
#14
Edward S Chambers, Claire S Byrne, Karen Aspey, Yanjie Chen, Saadiyah Khan, Douglas J Morrison, Gary Frost
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota, have been suggested to modulate energy metabolism. Previous work using rodent models have demonstrated that oral supplementation of the SCFA propionate raises resting energy expenditure (REE) by promoting lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral sodium propionate on REE and substrate metabolism in humans. Eighteen healthy volunteers (9 females and 9 males; Age: 25±1 y; Body Mass Index: 24...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129750/k-complex-morphological-features-in-male-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-patients
#15
Lin Sun, Xiangmin Zhang, Shaoxiong Huang, Jiuxing Liang, Yuxi Luo
This study characterized the differences in K-complex (KC) morphology features between obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients and healthy controls and analyzed the effect of respiratory events on KC morphology. We enrolled 42 male subjects (21 OSAHS patients and 21 age-matched healthy controls) who underwent overnight polysomnography. KCs in stage N2 were manually identified. We found that KCs in healthy controls had larger negative and whole amplitudes, longer durations, and smoother positive waves than OSAHS patients but smaller positive amplitudes...
November 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128213/the-effects-of-feeding-a-partial-mixed-ration-plus-a-top-dress-before-feeding-on-milk-production-and-the-daily-rhythm-of-feed-intake-and-plasma-hormones-and-metabolites-in-dairy-cows
#16
M Niu, K J Harvatine
Total mixed rations (TMR) are commonly fed to dairy cows with a goal of reducing ruminal acidosis, but the daily pattern of feed intake has major implication for rumen fermentation and postabsorptive physiology. Generally there is low feed intake during the overnight period and high intake after feeding and during the afternoon. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding a partial mixed ration (PMR) plus a high starch top-dress before feeding of the PMR would improve production and modify key daily rhythms...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128210/short-communication-the-effects-of-morning-compared-with-evening-feed-delivery-in-lactating-dairy-cows-during-the-summer
#17
M Niu, K J Harvatine
Delivering fresh feed in the evening is a management strategy sometimes used during periods of heat stress, but previous experiments have observed that night feeding increased feed intake during the 2 h after feeding and did not change intake during the overnight period. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of night feeding on daily rhythms of the dairy cow during the summer season. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127316/exercise-induced-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-mirnas-in-gulf-war-illness-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-sedentary-control-subjects
#18
James N Baraniuk, Narayan Shivapurkar
Gulf War Illness (GWI) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) have similar profiles of pain, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and exertional exhaustion. Post-exertional malaise suggests exercise alters central nervous system functions. Lumbar punctures were performed in GWI, CFS and control subjects after (i) overnight rest (nonexercise) or (ii) submaximal bicycle exercise. Exercise induced postural tachycardia in one third of GWI subjects (Stress Test Activated Reversible Tachycardia, START). The remainder were Stress Test Originated Phantom Perception (STOPP) subjects...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122177/ascospore-release-in-apple-scab-underlies-infrared-sensation
#19
Katja Ehlert, Meike Piepenbring, Andreas Kollar
The agent of apple scab disease (Venturia inaequalis) is the most common pathogen in apple cultivation. Its ascospores are released in spring, mainly during daylight hours and triggered by rain events. To investigate the causes of diurnal rhythm of ascospore dissemination of the apple scab fungus ascospore releases were examined continuously with spore traps in the orchard and with laboratory assays. One of the spore traps was illuminated at night with different light sources in each year during 2011-2015. The laboratory assays were performed with different light sources with varying wavelengths and intensities...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121940/plasma-irisin-is-elevated-in-type-2-diabetes-and-is-associated-with-increased-e-selectin-levels
#20
Karan S Rana, Chathyan Pararasa, Islam Afzal, David A Nagel, Eric J Hill, Clifford J Bailey, Helen R Griffiths, Ioannis Kyrou, Harpal S Randeva, Srikanth Bellary, James E Brown
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a hormone released mainly from skeletal muscle after exercise which increases adipose tissue energy expenditure. Adipocytes can also release irisin after exercise, acting as a local adipokine to induce white adipose tissue to take on a brown adipose tissue-like phenotype, suggesting that irisin and its receptor may represent a novel molecular target for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diabetes. Previous reports provide conflicting evidence regarding circulating irisin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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