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Andreas Brandl, Patrick Daum, Sven Brenner, Sebastian R Schulz, Desmond Yat-Hin Yap, Michael R Bösl, Jürgen Wittmann, Wolfgang Schuh, Hans-Martin Jäck
microRNAs (miRNAs) are important posttranscriptional regulators during hematopoietic lineage commitment and lymphocyte development. Mature miRNAs are processed from primary miRNA transcripts in two steps by the microprocessor complex, consisting of Drosha and its partner DiGeorge Critical Region 8 (DGCR8), and the RNAse III enzyme, Dicer. Conditional ablations of Drosha and Dicer have established the importance of both RNAses in B- and T-cell development. Here, we show that a cre-mediated B-cell specific deletion of DGCR8 in mice results in a nearly complete maturation block at the transition from the pro-B to the pre-B cell stage, and a failure to upregulate Ig μ heavy chain expression in pro-B cells...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Paldeep S Atwal, C Macmurdo
Features of Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS, 17p13.3 deletion syndrome, LIS1-associated lissencephaly) include classic lissencephaly, microcephaly, cardiac malformations, growth restriction, and characteristic facial changes. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) are known to have congenital cardiac malformations (in particular conotruncal defects), palatal abnormalities (especially velopharyngeal insufficiency), hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial features...
December 2015: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Gabriella Lania, Alberto Bresciani, Monica Bisbocci, Alessandra Francone, Vincenza Colonna, Sergio Altamura, Antonio Baldini
Pathological conditions caused by reduced dosage of a gene, such as gene haploinsufficiency, can potentially be reverted by enhancing the expression of the functional allele. In practice, low specificity of therapeutic agents, or their toxicity reduces their clinical applicability. Here, we have used a high throughput screening (HTS) approach to identify molecules capable of increasing the expression of the gene Tbx1, which is involved in one of the most common gene haploinsufficiency syndromes, the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome...
August 9, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Jean-Loup Duband, Sophie Escot, Claire Fournier-Thibault
The DiGeorge/22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS), also known as velocardiofacial syndrome, is a congenital disease causing numerous structural and behavioral disorders, including cardiac outflow tract anomalies, craniofacial dysmorphogenesis, parathyroid and thymus hypoplasia, and mental disorders. It results from a unique chromosomal microdeletion on the 22q11.2 region in which the transcriptional activator TBX1 is decisive for the occurrence of the disease. During embryogenesis, Tbx1 is required for patterning of pharyngeal region giving rise to structures of the face, neck and chest...
2016: Rare Diseases
Ellen Schatorjé, Michiel van der Flier, Mikko Seppänen, Michael Browning, Megan Morsheimer, Stefanie Henriet, João Farela Neves, Donald Cuong Vinh, Laia Alsina, Anete Grumach, Pere Soler-Palacin, Thomas Boyce, Fatih Celmeli, Ekaterini Goudouris, Grant Hayman, Richard Herriot, Elisabeth Förster-Waldl, Markus Seidel, Annet Simons, Esther de Vries
BACKGROUND: Patients with syndromic features frequently suffer from recurrent respiratory infections, but little is known about the spectrum of immunological abnormalities associated with their underlying chromosomal aberrations outside the well-known examples of Down and DiGeorge syndromes. Therefore, we performed this retrospective, observational survey study. METHODS: All members of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) were invited to participate by reporting their patients with chromosomal aberration (excluding Down and DiGeorge syndromes) in combination with one or more identified immunological abnormalities potentially relating to primary immunodeficiency...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Daiei Kojima, Hideki Muramatsu, Yusuke Okuno, Shinsuke Kataoka, Norihiro Murakami, Yoshihiro Tanahashi, Kyogo Suzuki, Tamaki Kato, Yuko Sekiya, Nozomu Kawashima, Atsushi Narita, Nobuhiro Nishio, Asahito Hama, Kohsuke Imai, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Seiji Kojima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Xingyi Guo, Maria Delio, Nousin Haque, Raquel Castellanos, Matthew S Hestand, Joris R Vermeesch, Bernice E Morrow, Deyou Zheng
Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome/22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination events between flanking low copy repeats termed LCR22A and LCR22D, resulting in a 3 million base pair (Mb) deletion. Due to their complex structure, large size and high sequence identity, genetic variation within LCR22s among different individuals has not been well characterized. In this study, we sequenced 13 BAC clones derived from LCR22A/D and aligned them with 15 previously available BAC sequences to create a new genetic variation map...
July 19, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Elizabeth Normand, Sadeem Qdaisat, Weimin Bi, Chad Shaw, Ignatia Van den Veyver, Arthur Beaudet, Amy Breman
OBJECTIVE: Detection of genomic copy number abnormalities in a single cell using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) offers a promising non-invasive alternative for prenatal diagnosis. Our objective was to compare three commercially available whole-genome amplification (WGA) kits for their capacity to produce high quality DNA from single cells that is suitable for both molecular genotyping and array CGH. METHODS: We examined kit performance on unfixed, fixed and fixed/permeabilized lymphoblastoid cells...
September 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Sarah L Pachtman, Kathy Deng, Deepak Nanda
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome, is associated with a wide spectrum of phenotypic features. It is known to be associated with severe macrothrombocytopenia. Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality globally. Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is rare cause of thrombocytopenia that can be a significant risk factor for life-threatening postpartum hemorrhage. We report a case of postpartum hemorrhage in a woman with 22q11...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hamid Ganji, Mansoor Salehi, Maryam Sedghi, Hossein Abdali, Nayereh Nouri, Leyli Sadri, Majid Hosseinzadeh, Bahareh Vakili, Mahdi Lotfi
BACKGROUND: DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is the result of a microdeletion in chromosome 22q11.2 in over 90% of cases. DGS is the second most frequent syndrome after Down syndrome and has an incidence of 1/4000 births. Unequal crossover between low-copy repeats, on the proximal part of the long arm of chromosome 22, usually results in a 3 Mb deletion in one of the chromosome 22 and a reciprocal and similarly sized duplication on the other one. Several studies have indicated that TBX1 (T-box 1) haploinsufficiency is responsible for many of the phenotypic traits of 22q11...
2013: Heart Asia
Hatice Aksu, Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Mitesh Shetty, Ambika Srikanth, Jayarama Kadandale, Sridevi Hegde
Congenital heart defect (CHD) is the most common form of birth defects. There is a high association between increased nuchal translucency and CHD in fetuses, and CHD in the antenatal period has a high incidence of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). Apart from 22q11.2DS, the BRUNOL3 gene at 10p14 is also associated with DiGeorge-like features. We studied a total of 110 pre- and postnatal CHD cases with FISH probes. 22q11.2DS was detected in 5 cases and 10p14 deletion in 1 case. Antenatally diagnosed cases of CHD should be investigated by karyotyping and 22q11...
2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Filomena Gabriella Fulcoli, Monica Franzese, Xiangyang Liu, Zhen Zhang, Claudia Angelini, Antonio Baldini
Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects eight out of 1,000 live births and is a major social and health-care burden. A common genetic cause of CHD is the 22q11.2 deletion, which is the basis of the homonymous deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), also known as DiGeorge syndrome. Most of its clinical spectrum is caused by haploinsufficiency of Tbx1, a gene encoding a T-box transcription factor. Here we show that Tbx1 positively regulates monomethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me1) through interaction with and recruitment of histone methyltransferases...
2016: Nature Communications
X H Tang, B C Yang, S Zhu, J Su, J M Zhang, Y F Yin, Y Feng, D M Li, Q F Zhao, R Yu, B S Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new prenatal diagnosis model of chromosomal abnormalities and nine microdeletion syndromes by using both traditional karyotyping and a newly-developed rapid prenatal diagnosis technology, BACs-on-Beads (BoBs) technique. METHODS: From June 2012 to December 2014, 807 pregnant women with high risk after screening or with other indicators, were performed amniocentesis. Traditional karyotyping and BoBs were employed simultaneously for prenatal diagnosis...
May 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Marilia Pyles Patto Kanegae, Lucila Akune Barreiros, Juliana Themudo Lessa Mazzucchelli, Sonia Marchezi Hadachi, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto, Ana Lúcia Acquesta, Isabel Rugue Genov, Silvia Maia Holanda, Regina Sumiko Watanabe Di Gesu, Ana Lucia Goulart, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes Dos Santos, Newton Bellesi, Beatriz Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Antonio Condino-Neto
OBJECTIVE: To apply, in Brazil, the T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) quantification technique using real-time polymerase chain reaction in newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency and assess the feasibility of implementing it on a large scale in Brazil. METHODS: 8715 newborn blood samples were collected on filter paper and, after DNA elution, TRECs were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The cutoff value to determine whether a sample was abnormal was determined by ROC curve analysis, using SSPS...
July 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Kathleen E Sullivan, Bruno Marino, Nicole Philip, Ann Swillen, Jacob A S Vorstman, Elaine H Zackai, Beverly S Emanuel, Joris R Vermeesch, Bernice E Morrow, Peter J Scambler, Anne S Bassett
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common chromosomal microdeletion disorder, estimated to result mainly from de novo non-homologous meiotic recombination events occurring in approximately 1 in every 1,000 fetuses. The first description in the English language of the constellation of findings now known to be due to this chromosomal difference was made in the 1960s in children with DiGeorge syndrome, who presented with the clinical triad of immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism and congenital heart disease...
2015: Nat Rev Dis Primers
Marianne C Astor, Kristian Løvås, Aleksandra Debowska, Erik F Eriksen, Johan A Evang, Christian Fossum, Kristian J Fougner, Synnøve E Holte, Kari Lima, Ragnar B Moe, Anne Grethe Myhre, E Helen Kemp, Bjørn G Nedrebø, Johan Svartberg, Eystein S Husebye
OBJECTIVE: The epidemiology of hypoparathyroidism (HP) is largely unknown. We aimed to determine prevalence, etiologies, health related quality of life (HRQOL) and treatment pattern of HP. METHODS: Patients with HP and 22q11 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome) were identified in electronic hospital registries. All identified patients were invited to participate in a survey. Among patients who responded, HRQOL was determined by Short Form 36 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Chi-Chiang Tu, Jean Y J Wang
The Microprocessor complex consisting of DROSHA (a type III ribonuclease) and DGCR8 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8-encoded RNA binding protein) recognizes and cleaves the precursor microRNA hairpin (pre-miRNA) from the primary microRNA transcript (pri-miRNA). The Abelson tyrosine kinase 1 (ABL) phosphorylates DGCR8 to stimulate the cleavage of a subset of pro-apoptotic pri-miRNAs, thus expanding the nuclear functions of ABL to include regulation of RNA processing.
2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Ana Julia Cunha Leite, Irene Plaza Pinto, Damiana Mirian da Cruz E Cunha, Cristiano Luiz Ribeiro, Claudio Carlos da Silva, Aparecido Divino da Cruz, Lysa Bernardes Minasi
The chromosome 22q11.2 region has long been implicated in genomic diseases. Some genomic regions exhibit numerous low copy repeats with high identity in which they provide increased genomic instability and mediate deletions and duplications in many disorders. DiGeorge Syndrome is the most common deletion syndrome and reciprocal duplications could be occurring in half of the frequency of microdeletions. We described five patients with phenotypic variability that carries deletions or reciprocal duplications at 22q11...
2016: BioMed Research International
Malte P Bartram, Elena Amendola, Thomas Benzing, Bernhard Schermer, Gabriella de Vita, Roman-Ulrich Müller
BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNAs have gained increasing attention during the last decade. The first large group of non-coding RNAs to be characterized systematically starting at the beginning of the 21st century were small oligonucleotides--the so-called microRNAs (miRNAs). By now we have learnt that microRNAs are indispensable for most biological processes including organogenesis and maintenance of organ structure and function. The role of microRNAs has been studied extensively in the development of a number of organs, so far most studies focussed on e...
2016: BMC Molecular Biology
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