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Ahmadreza Baghaie, Susanne Schnell, Ali Bakhshinejad, Mojtaba F Fathi, Roshan M D'Souza, Vitaliy L Rayz
Flow fields in cerebral aneurysms can be measured in vivo with phase-contrast MRI (4D Flow MRI), providing 3D anatomical magnitude images as well as 3-directional velocities through the cardiac cycle. The low spatial resolution of the 4D Flow MRI data, however, requires the images to be co-registered with higher resolution angiographic data for better segmentation of the blood vessel geometries to adequately quantify relevant flow descriptors such as wall shear stress or flow residence time. Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography (TOF MRA) is a non-invasive technique for visualizing blood vessels without the need to administer contrast agent...
June 15, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Zhiyong Yan, Shusheng Che, Yingbin Jiao, JianPeng Wang, Xingze Li, Chao Wang
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are present in up to 0.5% of the general population. While CCMs have been considered congenital lesions, numerous reports have observed de novo formations in patients with the familial form of CCM and in patients after cranial radiotherapy. Outside of these circumstances, there is scant evidence as to the potential etiologies of CCM. We present a 48-year-old woman with a medical history of endometrial hyperplasia concomitant endometrial polyps demonstrating a large de novo CCM, which grew to a large size in a period of 20 months...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ju-Hwi Kim, Woo-Youl Jang, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Sub Moon, Shin Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, In-Young Kim
In this study, we report a case of solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) without skull or systemic lesions, including reviewing the initial magnetic resonance (MR) findings of cerebral LCH. A 36-year-old male patient presented with generalized tonic-clonic type seizure. Brain MR imaging showed a 3cm mass lesion involving the right frontal lobe. It showed iso-intensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. After gadolinium enhancement, the mass showed heterogeneous enhancement with perilesional edema and additional adjacent leptomeningeal enhancement...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Giulia Cossu, Julien Dimitriou, Jean-Philippe Brouland, Roy Thomas Daniel, Mahmoud Messerer
Pituicytomas are a rare form of indolent neoplasms, which typically present with visual disturbance and hypopituitarism. Complete resection by a trans-sphenoidal approach is the optimal treatment. Only 80 cases have been described thus far in the current literature and the present case is the first to describe the development of pituitary apoplexy in the context of a pituicytoma. A 77-year-old man presented with fatigue and clinical signs of hypogonadism and a sellar lesion was diagnosed at cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Alberto Mimenza-Alvarado, Sara G Aguilar-Navarro, Sara Yeverino-Castro, César Mendoza-Franco, José Alberto Ávila-Funes, Gustavo C Román
Introduction: Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD) represents the most frequent type of vascular brain lesions, often coexisting with Alzheimer disease (AD). By quantifying white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and hippocampal and parietal atrophy, we aimed to describe the prevalence and severity of SVD among older adults with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and probable AD and to describe associated risk factors. Methods: This study included 105 older adults evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging and clinical and neuropsychological tests...
May 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Olav H Haugen, Sten Andréasson, Lars Ersland, Alexander R Craven, Kenneth Hugdahl
We present a case of a young female with a slowly progressing visual impairment who was examined with multifocal visual evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for underlying neuronal abnormality. The fMRI examination consisted of presenting black-and-white checkerboard stimuli, and her activation patterns were compared to the patterns from 4 normal-sighted subjects. The results showed clear differences in neuronal activation between the patient and the controls in the occipital and parietal lobes...
May 2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Wei-Wei Wang, Ye-Chen Lu, Wei-Jun Tang, Jun-Hai Zhang, Hua-Ping Sun, Xiao-Yuan Feng, Han-Qiu Liu
Research on brain function after brachial plexus injury focuses on local cortical functional reorganization, and few studies have focused on brain networks after brachial plexus injury. Changes in brain networks may help understanding of brain plasticity at the global level. We hypothesized that topology of the global cerebral resting-state functional network changes after unilateral brachial plexus injury. Thus, in this cross-sectional study, we recruited eight male patients with unilateral brachial plexus injury (right handedness, mean age of 27...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Xinfeng Yu, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Xiaojun Xu, Alan Jackson, Peiyu Huang, Linglin Yang, Lixia Yuan, Min Lou, Quan Jiang, Minming Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that abnormal corpus callosum (CC) induced by diabetes may impair inter-hemispheric sensorimotor functional connectivity (FC) that is associated with poor clinical outcome after stroke. METHODS: Forty-five patients with acute ischaemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and 14 normal controls participated in the study. CC was divided into five subregions on three-dimensional T1-weighted image. The microstructural integrity of each subregion of CC was analysed by DTI and the inter-hemispheric FCs in primary motor cortex (M1-M1 FC) and primary sensory cortex (S1-S1 FC) were examined by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 20, 2018: European Radiology
Abderrahmane Hedjoudje, Gaël Nicolas, Alice Goldenberg, Catherine Vanhulle, Clémentine Dumant-Forrest, Guillaume Deverrière, Pauline Treguier, Isabelle Michelet, Lucie Guyant-Maréchal, Didier Devys, Emmanuel Gerardin, Jean-Nicolas Dacher, Pierre-Hugues Vivier
BACKGROUND: The imaging features of Huntington disease are well known in adults, unlike in juvenile-onset Huntington disease. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis in three juvenile Huntington disease patients (ages 2, 4 and 6 years old) to determine whether quantitative cerebral and cerebellar morphological metrics may provide diagnostically interesting patterns of cerebellar and cerebellar atrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report the cases of three siblings with extremely early presentations of juvenile Huntington disease associated with dramatic expansions of the morbid paternal allele from 43 to more than 100 CAG trinucleotide repeats...
June 20, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Zhang-Ning Zhao, Xiao-Lin Li, Jin-Zhi Liu, Zhi-Ming Jiang, Ai-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Young ischemic stroke patients are common while classification and analysis based upon imaging characteristics are rarely reported. We intend to compare the clinical and MRI characteristics of cerebral stroke induced by intracranial atherosclerosis between young patients with branch occlusive disease (BOD) and those with non-branch occlusive disease (non-BOD) or small artery disease (SAD). METHODS: A total of 151 subjects with acute infarction within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were included and patients with ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis or cardioembolism were excluded...
June 20, 2018: BMC Neurology
F Qin, Z C Huang, M Q Cai, X F Xu, T T Lu, Q Dong, A M Wu, Z Z Lu, C Zhao, Y Guo
Objective: To investigate the value of stereotactic biopsy in the accurate diagnosis of lesions in the brain stem and deep brain. Methods: A total of 29 consecutive patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy of brainstem and deep brain lesions between May 2012 and January 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The Cosman-Roberts-Wells (CRW) stereotactic frame was installed under local anesthesia. Thin-layer CT and MRI scanning were performed. Target coordinates were calculated by inputting CT-MRI data into the radionics surgical planning system...
June 12, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Z W Liu, Y Jiang, R Wang, J Lu, P Qi, R Y Cao, L Zhang, Z Y Shen, J Chen
Objective: To explore the significance of multi-parameter semiquantitative Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) in detecting core infarction in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods: Twenty-one consecutive AIS patients from Beijing Hospital were retrospectively reviewed in this study from August 2016 to August 2017. All the patients presented within 6 hours since symptom onset.All the patients underwent one-stop dynamic whole brain 4D CTA-CTP scan before treatments (intravenous thrombolysis, mechanical thrombectomy, or other endovascular recanalization)...
June 5, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Heather Burke, Agnieszka Boron, Jung-Hyun Lee, Kudrit Riana Kahlon
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a newer alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for patients with severe aortic stenosis. Clinical trials have investigated TAVR's safety and effectiveness. Cerebral embolization is a common complication leading to stroke after TAVR and SAVR; different cerebral protection methods have been studied to prevent this. This paper evaluates the rate of post-procedural stroke rates between TAVR and SAVR and investigates the effect of cerebral protective methods on the stroke risk post-TAVR...
April 17, 2018: Curēus
Nakul Katyal, Naureen Narula, Pravin George, Premkumar Nattanamai, Christopher R Newey, Jonathan M Beary
Delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL) is a unique clinical entity that presents with cognitive impairment days to weeks after an episode of acute hypoxic brain injury. Frequently hypoxia is unrecognized as a mechanism for clinical decline and extensive workup ensues. We present two cases of DPHL highlighting the neuroimaging findings. In both patients, a cerebral hypoxic event was followed by a recovery phase with subsequent delayed clinical decline. Patient 1 suffered hypoxia from drug-induced respiratory depression and lack of post-operative positive airway pressure (PAP) support...
April 15, 2018: Curēus
Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, Edgar A Samaniego, Amy Huang, Arjun Masurkar, Binbin Zheng-Lin, Colin P Derdeyn, David Hasan, Randolph Marshall, Nils Petersen
Introduction: Severe intracranial stenosis might lead to acute cerebral ischemia. It is imperative to better assess patients who may benefit from immediate reperfusion and blood pressure management to prevent injury to peri-infarct tissue. Methods: We assessed cerebral autoregulation using static and dynamic methods in an 81-year-old woman suffering acute cerebral ischemia from severe intracranial stenosis in the petrous segment of the left internal carotid artery (LICA)...
June 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
Noor Shafina Mohd Nor, Choong Yi Fong, Kartini Rahmat, Wan Mun Vanessa Lee, Azriyanti Anuar Zaini, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin
Cerebral oedema is the most common neurological complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). However, ischaemic and haemorrhagic brain injury has been reported infrequently. A 10-year old girl who was previously well presented with severe DKA. She was tachycardic with poor peripheral perfusion but normotensive. However, two fast boluses totalling 40 ml/kg normal saline were given. She was transferred to another hospital where she was intubated due to drowsiness. Rehydration fluid (maintenance and 48-hour correction for 7...
April 2018: European Endocrinology
Cristina Rosazza, Francesco Deleo, Ludovico D'Incerti, Luigi Antelmi, Giovanni Tringali, Giuseppe Didato, Maria G Bruzzone, Flavio Villani, Francesco Ghielmetti
Objective: Mechanisms of motor plasticity are critical to maintain motor functions after cerebral damage. This study explores the mechanisms of motor reorganization occurring before and after surgery in four patients with drug-refractory epilepsy candidate to disconnective surgery. Methods: We studied four patients with early damage, who underwent tailored hemispheric surgery in adulthood, removing the cortical motor areas and disconnecting the corticospinal tract (CST) from the affected hemisphere. Motor functions were assessed clinically, with functional MRI (fMRI) tasks of arm and leg movement and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) before and after surgery with assessments of up to 3 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Chao-Qun Yan, Cun-Zhi Liu, Xu Wang, Jian-Wei Huo, Ping Zhou, Shuai Zhang, Qing-Nan Fu, Jie Zhang, Zhong-Yan Wang, Qing-Quan Liu
Background: Recently, there have been many reports about abnormalities regarding structural and functional brain connectivity of the patients with primary insomnia. However, the alterations in functional interaction between the left and right cerebral hemispheres have not been well understood. The resting-state fMRI approach, which reveals spontaneous neural fluctuations in blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals, offers a method to quantify functional interactions between the hemispheres directly. Methods: We compared interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) between 26 patients with primary insomnia (48...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Akifumi Komura, Tomohiro Kawasaki, Yuichi Yamada, Shiho Uzuyama, Yoshitaka Asano, Jun Shinoda
The aim of this study is to investigate glucose uptake on FDG-PET in patients with chronic mental and cognitive symptoms following a single blunt mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and without visible brain lesions on CT/MRI. Eighty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 43.8±10.75) who had a single blunt mild TBI from a traffic accident and suffering from chronic mental and cognitive symptoms without visible brain lesions on CT/MRI were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent FDG-PET imaging, and the mean interval between the TBI and FDG-PET was 50...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Andrew S Griffin, Nicholas Befera, Erik Hauck
Background and importance Pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) of the brain are treacherous lesions that can be challenging to treat because of high risk of hemorrhage. We report on a rare case of a pial AVF with a giant venous varix as a draining vein treated successfully with flow-directed balloon-assisted Onyx embolization. Clinical presentation A 56-year-old female with headaches underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, which demonstrated a 4 cm aneurysmal malformation in the right temporal lobe. A diagnostic cerebral angiogram demonstrated a right temporal pial AVF fed by an enlarged right posterior cerebral artery with drainage into a giant venous varix...
January 1, 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
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