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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668510/gauze-impregnated-with-quaternary-ammonium-salt-reduces-bacterial-colonization-of-surgical-drains-after-breast-reconstruction
#1
Amy L Strong, Emily T Wolfe, Nina Shank, Abigail E Chaffin, David A Jansen
Surgical site infection after breast reconstruction is associated with increased length of hospital stay, readmission rates, cost, morbidity, and mortality. Identifying methods to reduce surgical site infection without the use of antibiotics may be beneficial at reducing antimicrobial resistance, reserving the use of antibiotics for more severe cases. Quaternary ammonium salts have previously been shown to be a safe and effective antimicrobial agent in the setting of in vitro and in vivo animal experiments...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667844/lower-extremity-biomechanics-during-a-drop-vertical-jump-in-participants-with-or-without-chronic-ankle-instability
#2
C Collin Herb, Kaitlyn Grossman, Mark A Feger, Luke Donovan, Jay Hertel
CONTEXT:   Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a condition characterized by range-of-motion, neuromuscular, and postural-control deficits and subjective disability, reinjury, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Differences have been reported in kinematics, kinetics, surface electromyography (EMG), and ground reaction forces during functional tasks performed by those with CAI. These measures are often collected independently, and the research on collecting measures simultaneously during a movement task is limited...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665782/a-direct-regulatory-link-between-microrna-137-and-shank2-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#3
Ana de Sena Cortabitarte, Simone Berkel, Flavia-Bianca Cristian, Christine Fischer, Gudrun A Rappold
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the SHANK genes, which encode postsynaptic scaffolding proteins, have been linked to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. The SHANK genes and the schizophrenia-associated microRNA-137 show convergence on several levels, as they are both expressed at the synapse, influence neuronal development, and have a strong link to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders like intellectual disability, autism, and schizophrenia. This compiled evidence raised the question if the SHANKs might be targets of miR-137...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659401/effects-of-different-footwear-properties-and-surface-instability-on-neuromuscular-activity-and-kinematics-during-jumping
#4
Melanie Lesinski, Olaf Prieske, Ron Borde, Rainer Beurskens, Urs Granacher
Lesinski, M, Prieske, O, Borde, R, Beurskens, R, and Granacher, U. Effects of different footwear properties and surface instability on neuromuscular activity and kinematics during jumping. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine sex-specific effects of different footwear properties vs. barefoot condition during the performance of drop jumps (DJs) on stable and unstable surfaces on measures of jump performance, electromyographic (EMG) activity, and knee joint kinematics...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657965/considering-the-lives-of-microbes-in-microbial-communities
#5
Elizabeth A Shank
Over the last decades, sequencing technologies have transformed our ability to investigate the composition and functional capacity of microbial communities. Even so, critical questions remain about these complex systems that cannot be addressed by the bulk, community-averaged data typically provided by sequencing methods. In this Perspective, I propose that future advances in microbiome research will emerge from considering "the lives of microbes": we need to create methods to explicitly interrogate how microbes exist and interact in native-setting-like microenvironments...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656240/packing-of-muscles-in-the-rabbit-shank-influences-three-dimensional-architecture-of-m-soleus
#6
Carolin Wick, Markus Böl, Florian Müller, Reinhard Blickhan, Tobias Siebert
Isolated and packed muscles (e.g. in the calf) exhibit different three-dimensional muscle shapes. In packed muscles, cross-sections are more angular compared to the more elliptical ones in isolated muscles. As far as we know, it has not been examined yet, whether the shape of the muscle in its packed condition influences its internal arrangement of muscle fascicles and accordingly the contraction behavior in comparison to the isolated condition. To evaluate the impact of muscle packing, we examined the three-dimensional muscle architecture of isolated and packed rabbit M...
April 7, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651626/current-topics-in-the-management-of-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Christopher D Shank, Beverly C Walters, Mark N Hadley
Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) affects more than 250,000 people in the USA, with approximately 17,000 new cases each year. It continues to be one of the most significant causes of trauma-related morbidity and mortality. Despite the introduction of primary injury prevention education and vehicle safety devices, such as airbags and passive restraint systems, traumatic SCI continues to have a substantial impact on the healthcare system. Over the last three decades, there have been considerable advancements in the management of patients with traumatic SCI...
April 12, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650410/assessment-of-intersegmental-coordination-of-rats-during-walking-at-different-speeds-application-of-continuous-relative-phase
#8
Peter C Raffalt, Louise R Nielsen, Stefan Madsen, Laurits Munk Højberg, Jessica Pingel, Jens Bo Nielsen, Tine Alkjær, Jacob Wienecke
The present study investigated the feasibility and reliability of continuous relative phase (CRP) and deviation phase (DP) to assess intersegmental hind limb coordination pattern and coordination variability in rats during walking. Twenty-six adult rats walked at 8 m/min, 12 m/min and 16 m/min while two-dimensional kinematics were recorded. Segment angles and segment angular velocities of the paw, shank and thigh on the left hind-limb were extracted from 15 strides and CRP was calculated for the paw-shank and shank-thigh coupling...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628500/nargbp2-sapap-shank-the-core-postsynaptic-triad-associated-with-psychiatric-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Sang-Eun Lee, Jung Ah Kim, Sunghoe Chang
Despite the complex genetic architecture, a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders can still be caused by mutation(s) in the same gene. These disorders are interrelated with overlapping causative mechanisms including variations in the interaction among the risk-associated proteins that may give rise to the specific spectrum of each disorder. Additionally, multiple lines of evidence implicate an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neuronal activity (E/I imbalance) as the shared key etiology. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying E/I imbalance provides essential insight into the etiology of these disorders...
April 9, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625104/structural-requirement-of-the-hydrophobic-region-of-the-bordetella-pertussis-cyaa-hemolysin-for-functional-association-with-cyac-acyltransferase-in-toxin-acylation
#10
Veerada Raksanoh, Panchika Prangkio, Chompounoot Imtong, Niramon Thamwiriyasati, Kittipong Suvarnapunya, Lalida Shank, Chanan Angsuthanasombat
Previously, we demonstrated that the ∼130-kDa CyaA-hemolysin (CyaA-Hly, Met482 -Arg1706 ) from Bordetella pertussis was palmitoylated at Lys983 when co-expressed with CyaC-acyltransferase in Escherichia coli, and thus activated its hemolytic activity. Here, further investigation on a possible requirement of the N-terminal hydrophobic region (HP, Met482 -Leu750 ) for toxin acylation was performed. The ∼100-kDa RTX (Repeat-in-ToXin) fragment (CyaA-RTX, Ala751 -Arg1706 ) containing the K983 -acylation region (AR, Ala751 -Gln1000 ), but lacking HP, was co-produced with CyaC in E...
April 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619083/engineering-of-e-coli-inherent-fatty-acid-biosynthesis-capacity-to-increase-octanoic-acid-production
#11
Zaigao Tan, Jong Moon Yoon, Anupam Chowdhury, Kaitlin Burdick, Laura R Jarboe, Costas D Maranas, Jacqueline V Shanks
Background: As a versatile platform chemical, construction of microbial catalysts for free octanoic acid production from biorenewable feedstocks is a promising alternative to existing petroleum-based methods. However, the bio-production strategy has been restricted by the low capacity of E. coli inherent fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a combination of integrated computational and experimental approach was performed to manipulate the E. coli existing metabolic network, with the objective of improving bio-octanoic acid production...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616306/prodigiosin-pigment-of-serratia-marcescens-is-associated-with-increased-biomass-production
#12
Pryce L Haddix, Robert M Q Shanks
Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic bacterium and opportunistic pathogen which produces the red pigment prodigiosin. We employed both batch culture and chemostat growth methods to investigate prodigiosin function in the producing organism. Pigmentation correlated with an increased rate of ATP production during population lag phase. Results with a lacZ transcriptional fusion to the prodigiosin (pig) biosynthetic operon revealed that operon transcription is activated by low cellular levels of ATP at high cell density...
April 3, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610259/the-host-antimicrobial-protein-calgranulin-c-participates-in-the-control-of-campylobacter-jejuni-growth-via-zinc-sequestration
#13
Janette M Shank, Brittni R Kelley, Joseph W Jackson, Jessica L Tweedie, Dana Franklin, Steven M Damo, Jennifer A Gaddy, Caitlin N Murphy, Jeremiah G Johnson
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter is most commonly acquired through the consumption of undercooked poultry meat or through drinking contaminated water. Following ingestion, Campylobacter adheres to the intestinal epithelium and mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inflammation and inhibition of fluid reabsorption. Currently, the human response to infection is relatively unknown and animal hosts that model those responses are rare. As such, we examined patient fecal samples for the accumulation of the neutrophil protein, calgranulin C, during infection with Campylobacter jejuni...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608709/in-reply-guidelines-for-the-use-of-electrophysiological-monitoring-for-surgery-of-the-human-spinal-column-and-spinal-cord
#14
Mark N Hadley, Christopher D Shank, Curtis J Rozzelle, Beverly C Walters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608077/overt-attention-in-contextual-cuing-of-visual-search-is-driven-by-the-attentional-set-but-not-by-the-predictiveness-of-distractors
#15
Tom Beesley, Gunadi Hanafi, Miguel A Vadillo, David R Shanks, Evan J Livesey
Two experiments examined biases in selective attention during contextual cuing of visual search. When participants were instructed to search for a target of a particular color, overt attention (as measured by the location of fixations) was biased strongly toward distractors presented in that same color. However, when participants searched for targets that could be presented in 1 of 2 possible colors, overt attention was not biased between the different distractors, regardless of whether these distractors predicted the location of the target (repeating) or did not (randomly arranged)...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607525/remission-of-loss-of-control-eating-and-changes-in-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Lisa M Shank, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Rachel M Radin, Lauren B Shomaker, Denise E Wilfley, Jami F Young, Sheila Brady, Cara H Olsen, James C Reynolds, Jack A Yanovski
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating prospectively predicts the worsening of metabolic syndrome components. However, it is unknown if remission of LOC eating is associated with improvements in metabolic health. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of a trial that enrolled adolescent girls with LOC eating, examining whether LOC remission (vs. persistence) at end-of-treatment was associated with changes in metabolic syndrome components at 6-month follow-up. METHOD: One hundred three adolescent girls (age 14...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604046/initiation-and-slow-propagation-of-epileptiform-activity-from-ventral-to-dorsal-medial-entorhinal-cortex-is-constrained-by-an-inhibitory-gradient
#17
Thomas Ridler, Peter Matthews, Keith G Phillips, Andrew D Randall, Jonathan T Brown
The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) has an important role in the generation and propagation of seizure activity. The organisation of the mEC is such that a number of dorso-ventral relationships exist in neurophysiological properties of neurons. These range from intrinsic and synaptic properties to density of inhibitory connectivity. We examined the influence of these gradients on generation and propagation of epileptiform activity in the mEC. Using a 16-shank silicon probe array to record along the dorso-ventral axis of the mEC in vitro, we found 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) application produces ictal-like activity originating predominantly in ventral areas...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602475/concurrent-validation-of-an-inertial-measurement-system-to-quantify-kicking-biomechanics-in-four-football-codes
#18
Stephanie Blair, Grant Duthie, Sam Robertson, William Hopkins, Kevin Ball
Wearable inertial measurement systems (IMS) allow for three-dimensional analysis of human movements in a sport-specific setting. This study examined the concurrent validity of a IMS (Xsens MVN system) for measuring lower extremity and pelvis kinematics in comparison to a Vicon motion analysis system (MAS) during kicking. Thirty footballers from Australian football (n = 10), soccer (n = 10), rugby league and rugby union (n = 10) clubs completed 20 kicks across four conditions. Concurrent validity was assessed using a linear mixed-modelling approach, which allowed the partition of between and within-subject variance from the device measurement error...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602474/quantification-of-gait-parameters-with-inertial-sensors-and-inverse-kinematics
#19
Kai Bötzel, Alberto Olivares, João Paulo Cunha, Juan Manuel Górriz Sáez, Robin Weiss, Annika Plate
Measuring human gait is important in medicine to obtain outcome parameter for therapy, for instance in Parkinson's disease. Recently, small inertial sensors became available which allow for the registration of limb-position outside of the limited space of gait laboratories. The computation of gait parameters based on such recordings has been the subject of many scientific papers. We want to add to this knowledge by presenting a 4-segment leg model which is based on inverse kinematic and Kalman filtering of data from inertial sensors...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590455/estimates-of-tibial-shock-magnitude-in-men-and-women-at-the-start-and-end-of-a-military-drill-training-program
#20
Hannah M Rice, Samantha C Saunders, Stephen J McGuire, Thomas J O'Leary, Rachel M Izard
Introduction: Foot drill is a key component of military training and is characterized by frequent heel stamping, likely resulting in high tibial shock magnitudes. Higher tibial shock during running has previously been associated with risk of lower limb stress fractures, which are prevalent among military populations. Quantification of tibial shock during drill training is, therefore, warranted. This study aimed to provide estimates of tibial shock during military drill in British Army Basic training...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
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