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oxygen evolution

Enyuan Hu, Xuelong Wang, Xiqian Yu, Xiao-Qing Yang
The rechargeable lithium-ion battery (LIB) is the most promising energy storage system to power electric vehicles with high energy density and long cycling life. However, in order to meet customers' demands for fast charging, the power performances of current LIBs need to be improved. From the cathode aspect, layer-structured cathode materials are widely used in today's market and will continue to play important roles in the near future. The high rate capability of layered cathode materials during charging and discharging is critical to the power performance of the whole cell and the thermal stability is closely related to the safety issues...
January 19, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jun Hu, Wei Chen, Xin Zhao, Haibin Su, Zhong Chen
Many experimental results reveal different activities among different low-index surfaces of photocatalysts. The current investigation focuses on theoretical understandings of the electronic characteristics, surface activity and stability of different low-index surfaces of BiVO4 towards water splitting using first-principles calculations. The results indicate that BiVO4 has four types of low-index surfaces, namely, the (010)T1, (010)T2, (110)T1, and (1 ̅11)T1. The different band edge potential of the surfaces, resulted from the variation of electrostatic potential, will lead to a higher oxidation ability for the (010)T1 and (010)T2 than (110)T1 and (1 ̅11)T1 surfaces...
January 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guangbo Chen, Tao Wang, Jian Zhang, Pan Liu, Hanjun Sun, Xiaodong Zhuang, Mingwei Chen, Xinliang Feng
Owing to its earth abundance, low kinetic overpotential, and superior stability, NiFe-layered double hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) has emerged as a promising electrocatalyst for catalyzing water splitting, especially oxygen evolution reaction (OER), in alkaline solutions. Unfortunately, as a result of extremely sluggish water dissociation kinetics (Volmer step), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity of the NiFe-LDH is rather poor in alkaline environment. Here a novel strategy is demonstrated for substantially accelerating the hydrogen evolution kinetics of the NiFe-LDH by partially substituting Fe atoms with Ru...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Mingdao Zhang, Quanbin Dai, Hegen Zheng, Mindong Chen, Liming Dai
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and MOF-derived materials have recently attracted considerable interest as alternatives to noble-metal electrocatalysts. Herein, the rational design and synthesis of a new class of Co@N-C materials (C-MOF-C2-T) from a pair of enantiotopic chiral 3D MOFs by pyrolysis at temperature T is reported. The newly developed C-MOF-C2-900 with a unique 3D hierarchical rodlike structure, consisting of homogeneously distributed cobalt nanoparticles encapsulated by partially graphitized N-doped carbon rings along the rod length, exhibits higher electrocatalytic activities for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) than that of commercial Pt/C and RuO2 , respectively...
January 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Joel B Hagen
Beginning in the mid-1930s the comparative physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Fredrik (Pete) Scholander pioneered the study of diving mammals, particularly harbor seals. Although resting on earlier work dating back to the late nineteenth century, their research was distinctive in several ways. In contrast to medically oriented physiology, the approaches of Irving and Scholander were strongly influenced by natural history, zoology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Diving mammals, they argued, shared the cardiopulmonary physiology of terrestrial mammals, but evolution had modified these basic adaptive processes in extreme ways...
January 18, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Jennifer L Carpenter, Yangyang R Yu, Darrell L Cass, Oluyinka O Olutoye, James A Thomas, Cole Burgman, Caraciolo J Fernandes, Timothy C Lee
BACKGROUND: Advances in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have led to increased use of venovenous (VV) ECMO in the pediatric population. We present the evolution and experience of pediatric VV ECMO at a tertiary care institution. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from 01/2005 to 07/2016 was performed, comparing by cannulation mode. Survival to discharge, complications, and decannulation analyses were performed. RESULTS: In total, 160 patients (105 NICU, 55 PICU) required 13 ± 11 days of ECMO...
January 18, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Joseph H Montoya, Andrew D Doyle, Jens K Nørskov, Aleksandra Vojvodic
The reactivity of solid oxide surfaces towards adsorption of oxygen and hydrogen is a key metric for the design of new catalysts for electrochemical water splitting. In this paper, we report on trends in the adsorption energy of different adsorbed intermediates derived from the oxidation and reduction of water for ternary ABO3 oxides in the cubic perovskite structure. Our findings support a previously reported trend that rationalizes the observed lower bound in oxygen evolution (OER) overpotentials from correlations in OH* and OOH* adsorption energies...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Emma U Hammarlund, Kristoffer von Stedingk, Sven Påhlman
Animal diversification on Earth has long been presumed to be associated with the increasing extent of oxic niches. Here, we challenge that view. We start with the fact that hypoxia (<1-3% O2) maintains cellular immaturity (stemness), whereas adult stem cells continuously-and paradoxically-regenerate animal tissue in oxygenated settings. Novel insights from tumour biology illuminate how cell stemness nevertheless can be achieved through the action of oxygen-sensing transcription factors in oxygenated, regenerating tissue...
January 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Tassie Andersen, Seyoung Cook, Gang Wan, Hawoong Hong, Laurence D Marks, Dillon D Fong
Control over structure and composition of (ABO3) perovskite oxides offers exciting opportunities since these materials possess unique, tunable properties. Perovskite oxides with cobalt B-site cations are particularly promising, as the range of the cation's stable oxidation states leads to many possible structural frameworks. Here, we report growth of strontium cobalt oxide thin films by molecular beam epitaxy, and conditions necessary to stabilize different defect concentration phases. In situ X-ray scattering is used to monitor structural evolution during growth, while in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy is used to probe oxidation state and measure changes to oxygen vacancy concentration as a function of film thickness...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Prabhakarn Arunachalam, Maged N Shaddad, Mohamed A Ghanem, Abdullah M Al-Mayouf, Mark T Weller
Photoanodes fabricated by the electrophoretic deposition of a thermally prepared zinc tantalum oxynitride (ZnTaO₂N) catalyst onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates show photoactivation for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solutions. The photoactivity of the OER is further boosted by the photodeposition of cobalt phosphate (CoPi) layers onto the surface of the ZnTaO₂N photoanodes. Structural, morphological, and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the modified ZnTaO₂N photoanodes are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques...
January 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jong Guk Kim, Youngmin Kim, Yuseong Noh, Seonhwa Lee, Yoongon Kim, Won Bae Kim
In this paper, bifunctional catalysts consisting of perovskite LaCo0.8Fe0.2O3 nanowires (LCFO NWs) with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets were prepared for use in lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery cathodes. The structure and morphology of bifunctional LCFO@rGO catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The prepared LCFO@rGO composite was explored as a cathode catalyst for Li-O2 batteries, resulted in an outstanding discharge capacity (ca...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Le Zhang, Peng Fei Liu, Yu Hang Li, Meng Yang Zu, Xu Li, Zheng Jiang, Yun Wang, Huijun Zhao, Huagui Yang
Boosting the sluggish kinetics of hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline environments is the key for large application of water-alkali and chlor-alkali electrolysis. Herein, for the first time, we use nitrogen atoms to precisely modulate electrochemical active sites on the surface of nickel oxide with low coordinated oxygen atoms, to achieve enhanced kinetics of alkaline hydrogen evolution. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the surface charge redistribution after modulation simultaneously facilitates the initial water dissociation step, as well as the subsequent recombination of Had from low coordinated oxygen sites and desorption of OH-ad from nickel sites, thus accelerating the overall hydrogen evolution process...
January 18, 2018: ChemSusChem
Sara Bobillo, Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Anna Solé, Julio Moreno, Mònica Balaguer, Elisabeth Esteban, Francisco José Cambra, Iolanda Jordan
Objectives: To assess the kinetics of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in pediatric patients who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and to analyze its relationship with morbidity and mortality. Patients and methods: Prospective observational study including pediatric patients who required ECMO. Both PCT and CRP were sequentially drawn before ECMO (P0) and until 72 hours after ECMO. Results: A total of 40 patients were recruited...
2018: Biomarker Insights
Yuan Pan, Kaian Sun, Shoujie Liu, Xing Cao, Konglin Wu, Weng-Chon Cheong, Zheng Chen, Yu Wang, Yang Li, Yunqi Liu, Dingsheng Wang, Qing Peng, Chen Chen, Yadong Li
The construction of highly active and stable non-noble metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions electrocatalysts is a major challenge for overall water splitting. Herein, we report a novel hybrid nanostructure with CoP na-noparticles (NPs) embedded in N-doped carbon nanotube hollow polyhedron (NCNHP) through a pyrolysis-oxidation-phosphidation strategy derived from core-shell ZIF-8@ZIF-67. Benefiting from the synergistic effects between highly active CoP NPs and NCNHP, the CoP/NCNHP hybrid exhibited outstanding bifunctional electrocatalytic performances...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Munmun Rawat, Sushma Nangia, Praveen Chandrasekharan, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
Meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) during delivery is a marker of fetal stress. Neonates born through MSAF often need resuscitation and are at risk of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), air leaks, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and death. The neonatal resuscitation approach to MSAF has evolved over the last three decades. Previously, nonvigorous neonates soon after delivery were suctioned under the vocal cords with direct visualization technique using a meconium aspirator...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
T Pérez-Pérez, I Pereda-Reyes, E Pozzi, D Oliva-Merencio, M Zaiat
This paper shows the effect of organic shock loads (OSLs) on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of synthetic swine wastewater using an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor modified with zeolite. Two reactors (R1 and R2), each with an effective volume of 3.04 L, were operated for 180 days at a controlled temperature of 30 °C and hydraulic retention time of 12 h. In the case of R2, 120 g of zeolite was added. The reactors were operated with an up-flow velocity of 6 m/h. The evolution of pH, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was monitored during the AD process with OSL and increases in the organic loading rate (OLR)...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Sheng Ye, Chunmei Ding, Ruotian Chen, Fengtao Fan, Ping Fu, Heng Yin, Xiuli Wang, Zhiliang Wang, Pingwu Du, Can Li
It has been anticipated that learning from nature photosynthesis is a rational and effective way to develop artificial photosynthesis system, but it is still a great challenge. Here, we assembled a photoelectrocatalytic system by mimicking the functions of photosystem II (PSII), with BiVO4 semiconductor as a light-harvester protected by a layered double hydroxide (NiFeLDH) as a hole storage layer, a partially oxidized graphene (pGO) as biomimetic tyrosine for charge transfer, and molecular Co cubane as oxygen evolution complex...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jinbo Zhang, Chaofeng Zhang, Wei Li, Qi Guo, Hongcai Gao, Ya You, Yutao Li, Zhiming Cui, Ke-Cheng Jiang, Huijin Long, Dawei Zhang, Sen Xin
In this work, nitrogen-doped LaNiO3 perovskite was prepared and studied, for the first time, as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen cathode in a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery. N doping was found to significantly increase the Ni3+ contents and oxygen vacancies on the bulk surface of the perovskite, which helped to promote the oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction of the cathode and therefore, enabled reversible Li2O2 formation and decomposition on the cathode surface. As a result, the oxygen cathodes loaded with the N-doped LaNiO3 catalyst showed improved electrochemical performance in terms of discharge capacity and cycling stability to promise practical Li-O2 batteries...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chang'an Liu, Yijun Fu, Yujian Xia, Cheng Zhu, Lulu Hu, Kai Zhang, Haihua Wu, Hui Huang, Yang Liu, Tengfeng Xie, Jun Zhong, Zhenhui Kang
Hematite is an earth-abundant and ubiquitous semiconductor with a suitable bandgap of 2.1 eV for solar water splitting. Unfortunately, it suffers from a low conduction band position compared to the H+/H2 potential and typically an external bias has to be applied. Here, we demonstrate carbon dot-hematite (CD-Fe2O3) nanocomposites as photocatalysts for visible-light-driven overall water splitting without any external bias or scavenger. Notably, the CD-Fe2O3 nanocomposites (carbon dots, 5 wt%) show a hydrogen evolution rate of 0...
January 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Tatyana Lapina, Khaled A Selim, Karl Forchhammer, Elena Ermilova
PII superfamily consists of widespread signal transduction proteins found in all domains of life. Whereas they are well-studied in Archaea, Bacteria and Chloroplastida, no PII homolog has been analyzed in Rhodophyta (red algae), where PII is encoded by a chloroplast localized glnB gene. Here, we characterized relevant sensory properties of PII from the red alga Porphyra purpurea (PpPII) in comparison to PII proteins from different phyla of oxygenic phototrophs (cyanobacteria, Chlamydomonas and Physcomitrella) to assess evolutionary conservation versus adaptive properties...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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