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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346458/revealing-the-reaction-mechanisms-of-li-o2-batteries-using-environmental-transmission-electron-microscopy
#1
Langli Luo, Bin Liu, Shidong Song, Wu Xu, Ji-Guang Zhang, Chongmin Wang
The performances of a Li-O2 battery depend on a complex interplay between the reaction mechanism at the cathode, the chemical structure and the morphology of the reaction products, and their spatial and temporal evolution; all parameters that, in turn, are dependent on the choice of the electrolyte. In an aprotic cell, for example, the discharge product, Li2O2, forms through a combination of solution and surface chemistries that results in the formation of a baffling toroidal morphology. In a solid electrolyte, neither the reaction mechanism at the cathode nor the nature of the reaction product is known...
March 27, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345479/imaging-the-physiological-evolution-of-the-ischemic-penumbra-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#2
Richard Leigh, Linda Knutsson, Jinyuan Zhou, Peter Cm van Zijl
We review the hemodynamic, metabolic and cellular parameters affected during early ischemia and their changes as a function of approximate cerebral blood flow ( CBF) thresholds. These parameters underlie the current practical definition of an ischemic penumbra, namely metabolically affected but still viable brain tissue. Such tissue is at risk of infarction under continuing conditions of reduced CBF, but can be rescued through timely intervention. This definition will be useful in clinical diagnosis only if imaging techniques exist that can rapidly, and with sufficient accuracy, visualize the existence of a mismatch between such a metabolically affected area and regions that have suffered cell depolarization...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345283/oxygen-incorporated-amorphous-cobalt-sulfide-porous-nanocubes-as-high-activity-electrocatalysts-for-the-oxygen-evolution-reaction-in-an-alkaline-neutral-medium
#3
Pingwei Cai, Junheng Huang, Junxiang Chen, Zhenhai Wen
A novel OER electrocatalyst, namely oxygen-incorporated amorphous cobalt sulfide porous nanocubes (A-CoS4.6 O0.6 PNCs), show advantages over the benchmark RuO2 catalyst in alkaline/neutral medium. Experiments combining with calculation demonstrate that the desirable O* adsorption energy, associated with the distorted CoS4.6 O0.6 octahedron structure and the oxygen doping, contribute synergistically to the outstanding electrocatalytic activity.
March 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345220/boosting-the-performance-of-the-nickel-anode-in-the-oxygen-evolution-reaction-by-simple-electrochemical-activation
#4
Tatsuya Shinagawa, Marcus Tze-Kiat Ng, Kazuhiro Takanabe
The development of cost-effective and active water-splitting electrocatalysts that work at mild pH is an essential step towards the realization of sustainable energy and material circulation in our society. Its success requires a drastic improvement in the kinetics of the anodic half-reaction of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which determines the overall system efficiency to a large extent. A simple electrochemical protocol has been developed to activate Ni electrodes, by which a stable NiOOH phase was formed, which could weakly bind to alkali-metal cations...
March 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343390/high-performance-rh2p-electrocatalyst-for-efficient-water-splitting
#5
Haohong Duan, Dongguo Li, Yan Tang, Yang He, Ji Shu Fang, Rongyue Wang, Haifeng Lv, Pietro P Lopes, Arvydas P Paulikas, Haoyi Li, Scott X Mao, Chong-Min Wang, Nenad M Markovic, Jun Li, Vojislav R Stamenkovic, Yadong Li
Search for active, stable and cost-efficient electrocataltysts for hydrogen production via water splitting could make substantial impact to the energy technologies that do not rely on fossil fuels. Here we report the synthesis of rhodium phosphide electrocatalyst with low metal loading in the form of nanocubes (NCs) dispersed in high surface area carbon (Rh2P/C) by a facile solvo-thermal approach. The Rh2P/C exhibit remarkable performance for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) compared to Rh/C and Pt/C catalysts...
March 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342966/time-courses-of-post-injury-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-and-respiratory-dysfunction-and-neuronal-cytoskeletal-degradation-in-a-rat-model-of-focal-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Rachel L Hill, Indrapal N Singh, Juan A Wang, Edward D Hall
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative damage to essential brain cellular components leading to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. It is increasingly appreciated that a major player in TBI-induced oxidative damage is the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (PN) which is produced in large part in injured brain mitochondria. Once formed, PN decomposes into highly reactive free radicals that trigger membrane lipid peroxidation (LP) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (e...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341915/in-vivo-system-for-analyzing-the-function-of-the-psbp-protein-using-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#7
Taishi Nishimura, Fumihiko Sato, Kentaro Ifuku
The PsbP protein is an extrinsic subunit of photosystem II (PSII) specifically developed in green-plant species including land plants and green algae. The protein-protein interactions involving PsbP and its effect on oxygen evolution have been investigated in vitro using isolated PSII membranes. However, the importance of those interactions needs to be examined at the cellular level. To this end, we developed a system expressing exogenous PsbP in the background of the Chlamydomonas BF25 mutant lacking native PsbP...
March 24, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339180/a-study-of-oxygen-evolution-reaction-catalytic-behavior-of-coxni1-xfe2o4-in-alkaline-medium
#8
Viruthasalam Maruthapandian, Mahendran Mathankumar, Velu Saraswathy, Balasubramanian Subramanian, Srinivasan Muralidharan
Catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) play an important role in the conversion of solar energy to fuel of earth abundant water into H2 and O2 through splitting/electrolyzer. The heterogeneous electrocatalysts for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER) exhibit catalytic activity that depends on the electronic properties, oxidation states and local surface structure. Spinel ferrites (MFe2O4; M = Ni and Co) based materials have been attractive for the catalytic water oxidation due to their well-known stability in alkaline medium, easy synthesis, existence of metal cations with various oxidation states, low cost and tunable properties by the desired metal substitution...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338487/the-evolution-of-disease-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
Michael C Tracy, David N Cornfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease of infancy BPD was originally described 50 years ago, in 1967 by Northway et al. This article possesses two fundamental objectives to provide: a brief historical perspective on BPD; and an update relative to current notions of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and clinical management of BPD complicated by vascular disease. The review highlights areas of consensus and ongoing uncertainty. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical cause and presentation of infants with BPD has evolved over the past several decades...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338264/engineering-high-energy-interfacial-structures-for-high-performance-oxygen-involving-electrocatalysis
#10
Chunxian Guo, Yao Zheng, Jingrun Ran, Fangxi Xie, Mietek Jaroniec, Shi-Zhang Qiao
Engineering high-energy interfacial structures for high-performance electrocatalysis is achieved by chemical coupling of active CoO nanoclusters and high-index facet Mn3 O4 nano-octahedrons (hi-Mn3 O4 ). A thorough characterization, including synchrotron-based near edge X-ray absorption fine structure, reveals that strong interactions between both components promote the formation of high-energy interfacial Mn-O-Co species and high oxidation state CoO, from which electrons are drawn by Mn(III) -O present in hi-Mn3 O4 ...
March 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337912/nanostructured-nickel-cobalt-titanium-alloy-grown-on-titanium-substrate-as-efficient-electrocatalysts-for-alkaline-water-electrolysis
#11
Pandian Ganesan, Sivanantham Arumugam, Sangaraju Shanmugam
One of the important challenges in alkaline water electrolysis are to utilize a bifunctional catalyst for both hydrogen evolution (HER) and oxygen evolution (OER) reactions to increase the efficiency of water splitting devices for the long durable operations. Herein, nickel-cobalt-titanium alloy directly grown on a high corrosion resistance titanium foil (NCT) by a simple, single and rapid electrochemical deposition at room temperature. The electrocatalytic activity of NCT alloy electrodes is evaluated for both HER and OER in aqueous electrolyte...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335500/comparison-of-two-types-of-overoxidized-pedot-films-and-their-application-in-sensor-fabrication
#12
Yun Hui, Chao Bian, Jinfen Wang, Jianhua Tong, Shanhong Xia
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films were prepared by electro-oxidation on Au microelectrodes in an aqueous solution. Electrolyte solutions and polymerization parameters were optimized prior to overoxidation. The effect of overoxidation time has been optimized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which results in the film overoxidized for 45 s at 1.35 V presenting a strong adsorption. The other one-step overoxidation film prepared by direct CV ranging from -0...
March 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335406/factors-that-negatively-affect-the-prognosis-of-pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-district-hospital-in-tanzania
#13
Serena Caggiano, Nicola Ullmann, Elisa De Vitis, Marzia Trivelli, Chiara Mariani, Maria Podagrosi, Fabiana Ursitti, Chiara Bertolaso, Carolina Putotto, Marta Unolt, Andrea Pietravalle, Paola Pansa, Kajoro Mphayokulela, Maria Incoronata Lemmo, Michael Mkwambe, Joseph Kazaura, Marzia Duse, Francesco Nieddu, Chiara Azzari, Renato Cutrera
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still the most important cause of death in countries with scarce resources. All children (33 months ± 35 DS) discharged from the Pediatric Unit of Itigi Hospital, Tanzania, with a diagnosis of CAP from August 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled. Clinical data were gathered. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial detection were collected in all 100 children included. Twenty-four percent of patients were identified with severe CAP and 11% died...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335331/the-use-of-spray-dried-mn%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-c-composites-as-electrocatalysts-for-li-o%C3%A2-batteries
#14
Hong-Kai Yang, Chih-Chun Chin, Jenn-Shing Chen
The electrocatalytic activities of Mn₃O₄/C composites are studied in lithium-oxygen (Li-O₂) batteries as cathode catalysts. The Mn₃O₄/C composites are fabricated using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) with organic surfactants as the carbon sources. The physical and electrochemical performance of the composites is characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, elemental analysis, galvanostatic charge-discharge methods and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) measurements...
November 7, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334530/morphology-and-doping-engineering-of-sn-doped-hematite-nanowire-photoanodes
#15
Mingyang Li, Yi Yang, Yichuan Ling, Weitao Qiu, Fuxin Wang, Tianyu Liu, Yu Song, Xiaoxia Liu, Pingping Fang, Yexiang Tong, Yat Li
High-temperature activation has been commonly used to boost the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of hematite nanowires for water oxidation, by inducing Sn diffusion from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate into hematite. Yet, hematite nanowires thermally annealed at high temperature suffer from two major drawbacks that negatively affect their performance. First, the structural deformation reduces light absorption capability of nanowire. Second, this "passive" doping method leads to nonuniform distribution of Sn dopant in nanowire and limits the Sn doping concentration...
March 27, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333437/a-tio2-femnp-core-shell-nanorod-array-photoanode-for-efficient-photoelectrochemical-oxygen-evolution
#16
Desmond E Schipper, Zhenhuan Zhao, Andrew P Leitner, Lixin Xie, Fan Qin, Md Kamrul Alam, Shuo Chen, Dezhi Wang, Zhifeng Ren, Zhiming Wang, Jiming Bao, Kenton H Whitmire
A variety of catalysts have been developed for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution, but very few of them can be readily integrated with semiconducting light absorbers for photoelectrochemical or photocatalytic water splitting. Here, we demonstrate an efficient core/shell photoanode with a highly active oxygen evolution electrocatalyst shell (FeMnP) and semiconductor core (rutile TiO2) for photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (PEC-OER). Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) from a single-source precursor was used to ensure good contact between the FeMnP and the TiO2...
March 23, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332812/hierarchical-nico2s4-nife-ldh-heterostructures-supported-on-nickel-foam-for-enhanced-overall-water-splitting-activity
#17
Jia Liu, Jinsong Wang, Bao Zhang, Yunjun Ruan, Lin Lv, Xiao Ji, Kui Xu, Ling Miao, Jianjun Jiang
Low cost and high efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are intensively investigated for overall water splitting. Herein, we combined experimental researches with first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) to engineer the NiCo2S4@NiFe LDH heterostructures interface for enhancing overall water splitting activity. The DFT calculations exhibit a strong interaction and charge transfer between NiCo2S4 and NiFe LDH, which change the interfacial electronic structure and surface reactivity...
March 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332635/microstructure-formation-and-interface-characteristics-of-directionally-solidified-tial-si-alloys-in-alumina-crucibles-with-a-new-y2o3-skull-aided-technology
#18
Jianglei Fan, Jianxiu Liu, Shen Wu, Shuxia Tian, Hongxia Gao, Shengyong Wang, Jingjie Guo, Xiao Wang
The microstructure evolution and interface characteristics of a directionally solidified Ti-43Al-3Si (at.%) alloy in an alumina (Al2O3) crucible with new Y2O3 skull-aided technology were investigated. The Y2O3-skull that is in contact with the TiAl-melt is relatively stable, which results in a more controlled reaction between the skull and the melt than in the case of an Al2O3 crucible is used. A thin reaction layer was formed between the mould and the melt through mutual diffusion. The layer thickness increased with increasing reaction time...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331791/one-dimensional-earth-abundant-nanomaterials-for-water-splitting-electrocatalysts
#19
REVIEW
Jun Li, Gengfeng Zheng
Hydrogen fuel acquisition based on electrochemical or photoelectrochemical water splitting represents one of the most promising means for the fast increase of global energy need, capable of offering a clean and sustainable energy resource with zero carbon footprints in the environment. The key to the success of this goal is the realization of robust earth-abundant materials and cost-effective reaction processes that can catalyze both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), with high efficiency and stability...
March 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331787/enhancing-oxygen-evolution-reaction-at-high-current-densities-on-amorphous-like-ni-fe-s-ultrathin-nanosheets-via-oxygen-incorporation-and-electrochemical-tuning
#20
Jingfang Zhang, Yuchen Hu, Dali Liu, Yu Yu, Bin Zhang
Amorphous-like Ni-Fe-S ultrathin nanosheets by oxygen incorporation and electrochemical tuning show excellent OER activity at high current densities. Such excellent performance could be attributed to the unique 3D porous configuration composed of amorphous-like ultrathin nanosheets with much more active sites and improved conductivity, as well as the proper electronic structure benefiting from the oxygen incorporation and electrochemical tuning.
March 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
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