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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912190/nanostructured-3d-porous-graphene-hydrogel-based-ti-sb-sno2-gr-electrode-with-enhanced-electrocatalytic-activity
#1
Sumreen Asim, Yunqing Zhu, Masud Rana, Jiao Yin, Muhammad Wajid Shah, Yingxuan Li, Chuanyi Wang
Nanostructured highly porous 3D-Ti/Sb-SnO2-Gr electrode, based on 3D porous graphene hydrogel was fabricated via a fast-evaporation technique through layer by layer (LBL) deposition. The 3D pores are uniformly distributed on the high fidelity of substrate with pore sizes of 7-12 nm, as confirmed by SEM analysis. Compared to Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrode, the fabricated 3D porous electrode possesses high oxygen evolution potential (2.40 V), smaller charge transfer resistance (29.40 Ω cm(-2)), higher porosity (0...
November 29, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912117/morphology-dependence-of-electrochemical-properties-on-palladium-nanocrystals
#2
Jinchang Fan, Kun Qi, Hong Chen, Weitao Zheng, Xiaoqiang Cui
In recent years, shape control has received the most attention in the exploration of Pd nanocrystals (NCs). However, exploring an efficient approach for the systematic production of Pd NCs under similar reaction conditions still presents a significant challenge, which is significantly important to clearly explain the effectiveness of morphology on the catalytic activity of Pd NCs. We designed and accomplished a facile strategy for the morphology transformation between Pd nanosheets and Pd nanotetrahedra by simply controlling the reaction temperature...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911438/evolutionary-convergence-in-experimental-pseudomonas-populations
#3
Peter A Lind, Andrew D Farr, Paul B Rainey
Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911097/performance-of-an-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-in-which-granular-sludge-and-dynamic-filtration-are-integrated
#4
Jixiang Yang, Xin Ji, Lunhui Lu, Hua Ma, Youpeng Chen, Jinsong Guo, Fang Fang
To alleviate the fouling of a filter, simple substrates, dynamic filtration, and granular sludge were applied in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The results showed that under a transmembrane pressure < 20 kPa, the filter flux ranged between 15 and 20 l (m(-2) h)(-1) for a period of 30 days. The flux was higher than the typical flux of AnMBRs with conventional membranes and most current dynamic filters. In addition, the low cost of the filter avoided the need for a higher flux. Moreover, a stable granular sludge bed, which consumed all volatile fatty acids, was maintained...
December 2, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910932/oer-activity-manipulated-by-iro6-coordination-geometry-an-insight-from-pyrochlore-iridates
#5
Wei Sun, Ji-Yuan Liu, Xue-Qing Gong, Waqas-Qamar Zaman, Li-Mei Cao, Ji Yang
The anodic reaction of oxygen evolution reaction (OER), an important point for electrolysis, however, remains the obstacle due to its complicated reaction at electrochemical interfaces. Iridium oxide (IrO2) is the only currently known 5d transition metal oxide possessing admirable OER activity. Tremendous efforts have been carried out to enhance the activity of iridium oxides. Unfortunately there lies a gap in understanding what factors responsible for the activity in doped IrO2 or the novel crystal structure...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910196/atomically-dispersed-iron-nitrogen-species-as-electrocatalysts-for-bifunctional-oxygen-evolution-and-reduction-reactions
#6
Pengzuo Chen, Tianpei Zhou, Lili Xing, Kun Xu, Yun Tong, Hui Xie, Lidong Zhang, Wensheng Yan, Wangsheng Chu, Changzheng Wu, Yi Xie
Rational design of non-noble materials as highly efficient, economical, and durable bifunctional catalysts for oxygen evolution and reduction reactions (OER/ORR) is currently a critical obstacle for rechargeable metal-air batteries. A new route involving S was developed to achieve atomic dispersion of Fe-Nx species on N and S co-decorated hierarchical carbon layers, resulting in single-atom bifunctional OER/ORR catalysts for the first time. The abundant atomically dispersed Fe-Nx species are highly catalytically active, the hierarchical structure offers more opportunities for active sites, and the electrical conductivity is greatly improved...
December 2, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905827/modeling-pn2-through-geological-time-implications-for-planetary-climates-and-atmospheric-biosignatures
#7
E E Stüeken, M A Kipp, M C Koehler, E W Schwieterman, B Johnson, R Buick
Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure...
December 1, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900829/self-templating-synthesis-of-hollow-co3-o4-microtube-arrays-for-highly-efficient-water-electrolysis
#8
Yun Pei Zhu, Tian Yi Ma, Mietek Jaroniec, Shi Zhang Qiao
In spite of recent advances in the synthesis of hollow micro/nanostructures, the fabrication of three-dimensional electrodes on the basis of these structures remains a major challenge. Herein, we develop an electrochemical sacrificial-template strategy to fabricate hollow Co3 O4 microtube arrays with hierarchical porosity. The resultant unique structures and integrated electrode configurations impart enhanced mass transfer and electron mobility, ensuring high activity and stability in catalyzing oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899717/optimization-of-waste-combinations-during-in-vessel-composting-of-agricultural-waste
#9
V Sudharsan Varma, Ajay S Kalamdhad, Bimlesh Kumar
In-vessel composting of agricultural waste is a well-described approach for stabilization of compost within a short time period. Although composting studies have shown the different combinations of waste materials for producing good quality compost, studies of the particular ratio of the waste materials in the mix are still limited. In the present study, composting was conducted with a combination of vegetable waste, cow dung, sawdust and dry leaves using a 550 L rotary drum composter. Application of a radial basis functional neural network was used to simulate the composting process...
November 28, 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897374/efficient-overall-water-splitting-electrocatalysis-using-lepidocrocite-vooh-hollow-nanospheres
#10
Huanhuan Shi, Hanfeng Liang, Fangwang Ming, Zhoucheng Wang
Herein we report the control synthesis of lepidocrocite VOOH hollow nanospheres and further their applications in electrocatalytic water splitting for the first time. By tuning the surface area of the nanospheres, the optimal performance can be achieved with low overpotentials of 270 mV for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and 164 mV for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at 10 mA cm(-2) in 1 m KOH, respectively. Furthermore, when used as both the anode and cathode for overall water splitting, a low cell voltage of 1...
November 29, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897364/engineering-the-electrical-conductivity-of-lamellar-silver-doped-cobalt-ii-selenide-nanobelts-for-enhanced-oxygen-evolution
#11
Xu Zhao, Hantao Zhang, Yu Yan, Jinhua Cao, Xingqi Li, Shiming Zhou, Zhenmeng Peng, Jie Zeng
Precisely engineering the electrical conductivity represents a promising strategy to design efficient catalysts towards oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, we demonstrate a versatile partial cation exchange method to fabricate lamellar Ag-CoSe2 nanobelts with controllable conductivity. The electrical conductivity of the materials was significantly enhanced by the addition of Ag(+) cations of less than 1.0 %. Moreover, such a trace amount of Ag induced a negligible loss of active sites which was compensated through the effective generation of active sites as shown by the excellent conductivity...
November 29, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896527/an-enzyme-kinetics-study-of-the-ph-dependence-of-chloride-activation-of-oxygen-evolution-in-photosystem-ii
#12
Sergei Baranov, Alice Haddy
Oxygen evolution by photosystem II (PSII) involves activation by Cl(-) ion, which is regulated by extrinsic subunits PsbQ and PsbP. In this study, the kinetics of chloride activation of oxygen evolution was studied in preparations of PSII depleted of the PsbQ and PsbP subunits (NaCl-washed and Na2SO4/pH 7.5-treated) over a pH range from 5.3 to 8.0. At low pH, activation by chloride was followed by inhibition at chloride concentrations >100 mM, whereas at high pH activation continued as the chloride concentration increased above 100 mM...
November 28, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896340/one-step-fabrication-of-porous-oxygen-doped-g-c3n4-with-feeble-nitrogen-vacancies-for-enhanced-photocatalytic-performance
#13
Li Jun Fang, Xue Lu Wang, Jun Jie Zhao, Yu Hang Li, Yu Lei Wang, Xu Lei Du, Zhi Fei He, Hui Dan Zeng, Hua Gui Yang
Porous oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with feeble nitrogen vacancies was fabricated through thermal polycondensation of melamine with an appropriate amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone. After optimization, the bandgap of g-C3N4 can be narrowed by 0.2 eV and the specific surface area expanded, which contribute to increasing the utilization of solar energy. Consequently, the optimized g-C3N4 exhibits impressive enhancement in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance, by nearly 5 times compared with the pristine one under the irradiation of visible light...
November 29, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892544/boron-doped-diamond-semiconductor-electrodes-efficient-photoelectrochemical-co2-reduction-through-surface-modification
#14
Nitish Roy, Yuiri Hirano, Haruo Kuriyama, Pitchaimuthu Sudhagar, Norihiro Suzuki, Ken-Ichi Katsumata, Kazuya Nakata, Takeshi Kondo, Makoto Yuasa, Izumi Serizawa, Tomoaki Takayama, Akihiko Kudo, Akira Fujishima, Chiaki Terashima
Competitive hydrogen evolution and multiple proton-coupled electron transfer reactions limit photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction in aqueous electrolyte. Here, oxygen-terminated lightly boron-doped diamond (BDDL) thin films were synthesized as a semiconductor electron source to accelerate CO2 reduction. However, BDDL alone could not stabilize the intermediates of CO2 reduction, yielding a negligible amount of reduction products. Silver nanoparticles were then deposited on BDDL because of their selective electrochemical CO2 reduction ability...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891542/-ti12in6o18-oocc6h5-30-a-multifunctional-hetero-polyoxotitanate-nanocluster-with-high-stability-and-visible-photoactivity
#15
Shengjun Liu, Wei Hu, Jayanta Kr Nath, Jing Tong, Xudong Hou, Wenlong Liu, Jinlong Yang, Bo Liu
We present a novel strategy to improve the stability and optical absorption of polyoxotitanates (POTs) via concurrently fully carboxylate-coordinating and hetero-metal-doping, and illustrate the strategy by an indium doped hetero-polyoxotitanate (h-POT) of a [Ti12In6O18(OOCC6H5)30] (POTi12In6) nanocluster, which possesses ultrahigh stability in both acid and base aqueous solutions. The nanocluster structurally features a core-shell double wheel structure and a polar cavity. Both experiments and theoretical calculations confirm the semiconductive properties of the nanocluster...
November 28, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891206/atomic-structural-evolution-during-the-reduction-of-%C3%AE-fe2o3-nanowires
#16
Wenhui Zhu, Jonathan Winterstein, Itai Maimon, Qiyue Yin, Lu Yuan, Aleksey N Kolmogorov, Renu Sharma, Guangwen Zhou
The atomic-scale reduction mechanism of α-Fe2O3 nanowires by H2 was followed using transmission electron microscopy to reveal the evolution of atomic structures and the associated transformation pathways for different iron oxides. The reduction commences with the generation of oxygen vacancies that order onto every 10(th) [Formula: see text] plane. This vacancy ordering is followed by an allotropic transformation of α-Fe2O3 → γ-Fe2O3 along with the formation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of the γ-Fe2O3 nanowire by a topotactic transformation process, which shows 3D correspondence between the structures of the product and its host...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886291/a-first-principles-study-of-the-preventive-effects-of-al-and-mg-doping-on-the-degradation-in-lini0-8co0-1mn0-1o2-cathode-materials
#17
Kyoungmin Min, Seung-Woo Seo, You Young Song, Hyo Sug Lee, Eunseog Cho
First-principles calculations have been used to investigate the effects of Al and Mg doping on the prevention of degradation phenomena in Li(Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1)O2 cathode materials. Specifically, we have examined the effects of dopants on the suppression of oxygen evolution and cation disordering, as well as their correlation. It is found that Al doping can suppress the formation of oxygen vacancies effectively, while Mg doping prevents the cation disordering behaviors, i.e., excess Ni and Li/Ni exchange, and Ni migration...
November 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886117/surface-modification-of-a-nanoporous-carbon-photoanode-upon-irradiation
#18
Alicia Gomis-Berenguer, Inmaculada Velo-Gala, Enrique Rodríguez-Castellón, Conchi O Ania
The photocorrosion of a nanoporous carbon photoanode, with low surface functionalization and high performance towards the photoelectrochemical oxidation of water using simulated solar light, was investigated. Two different light configurations were used to isolate the effect of the irradiation wavelength (UV and visible light) on the textural and chemical features of the carbon photoanode, and its long-term photocatalytic performance for the oxygen evolution reaction. A complete characterization of the carbon showed that the photocorrosion of carbon anodes of low functionalization follows a different pathway than highly functionalized carbons...
November 23, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885701/bifunctional-oxygen-reaction-catalysis-of-quadruple-manganese-perovskites
#19
Ikuya Yamada, Hiroshi Fujii, Akihiko Takamatsu, Hidekazu Ikeno, Kouhei Wada, Hirofumi Tsukasaki, Shogo Kawaguchi, Shigeo Mori, Shunsuke Yagi
Bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution/reduction reaction (OER/ORR) are desirable for the development of energy conversion technologies. It is discovered that the manganese quadruple perovskites CaMn7 O12 and LaMn7 O12 show bifunctional catalysis in the OER/ORR. A possible origin of high OER activity is the unique surface structure through corner-shared planar MnO4 and octahedral MnO6 units to promote direct OO bond formations.
November 25, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883155/in-situ-integration-of-cofe-alloy-nanoparticles-with-nitrogen-doped-carbon-nanotubes-as-advanced-bifunctional-cathode-catalysts-for-zn-air-batteries
#20
Pingwei Cai, Yuan Hong, Suqin Ci, Zhenhai Wen
Electrochemical catalysis of O2-incorporated reactions is a promising strategy for metal-air batteries. The performance of metal-air batteries is determined by the catalytic activities of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Therefore, developing efficient catalysts with superior activities for the ORR and OER is of great significance to expand the application range of metal-air batteries. Herein, CoFe alloy nanoparticles adhered to the inside wall of nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes (CoFe@NCNTs) are synthesized and can function as a Janus particle to efficiently catalyze the ORR and OER with desirable activities in 0...
November 24, 2016: Nanoscale
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