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oxygen evolution

Shao'e Sun, Ming Hui, Minxiao Wang, Zhongli Sha
Deep-sea hydrothermal vent is one of the most extreme environments on Earth with low oxygen and high levels of toxins. Decapod species from the family Alvinocarididae have colonized and successfully adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Mitochondria plays a vital role in oxygen usage and energy metabolism, thus it may be under selection in the adaptive evolution of the hydrothermal vent shrimps. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Kikuchi & Hashimoto, 2000) was determined through Illumina sequencing...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Hua-Tian Shi, Xiu-Xiu Li, Fang-Hui Wu, Wei-Bin Yu
The development of an earth-abundant, first-row water oxidation catalyst that operates at a high TOF and a low overpotential remains a fundamental chemical challenge. Cobalt complexes are important members of water oxidation catalysts. Herein, we report a cobalt-based robust homogeneous water oxidation catalyst, which can electrocatalyze water oxidation at a high pH and a low overpotential (η = 520 mV) in phosphate buffer. This homogeneous system exhibits a high turnover frequency (about 5 s(-1)) of catalyzing water oxidation to produce oxygen at η = 720 mV...
November 16, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Sabine L Lague, Beverly Chua, Luis Alza, Graham R Scott, Peter B Frappell, Yang Zhong, Anthony P Farrell, Kevin G McCracken, Yuxiang Wang, William K Milsom
Many high-altitude vertebrates have evolved increased capacities in their oxygen transport cascade (ventilation, pulmonary diffusion, circulation and tissue diffusion), enhancing oxygen transfer from the atmosphere to mitochondria. However, the extent of interspecies variation in the control processes that dictate hypoxia responses remains largely unknown. We compared the metabolic, cardiovascular and respiratory responses to progressive decreases in inspired oxygen levels of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), birds that biannually migrate across the Himalayan mountains, with those of Andean geese (Chloephaga melanoptera) and crested ducks (Lophonetta specularioides), lifelong residents of the high Andes...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Daniella Rakotoniaina Masinarivo, Jenny Larissa Rakotomanana
We here report the case of a 52-year old hypertensive, obese woman (BMI 32,46 kg/m(2)) with a past history of smoking and without evidence-based risk factors of venous thromboembolism, hospitalized for left chest pain radiating to the dorsolumbar region associated with dyspnoea. Clinical examination on hopitalization showed left blood pressure 100/60 mmHg, tachycardia 100/min, oxygen desaturation index at 88% with the patient breathing ambient air, normal cardiopulmonary auscultation, peripheral pulses palpable and no symptoms of phlebitis of the lower limbs...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Tao Ling, Dong-Yang Yan, Hui Wang, Yan Jiao, Zhenpeng Hu, Yao Zheng, Lirong Zheng, Jing Mao, Hui Liu, Xi-Wen Du, Mietek Jaroniec, Shi-Zhang Qiao
Designing high-performance and cost-effective electrocatalysts toward oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions in water-alkali electrolyzers is pivotal for large-scale and sustainable hydrogen production. Earth-abundant transition metal oxide-based catalysts are particularly active for oxygen evolution reaction; however, they are generally considered inactive toward hydrogen evolution reaction. Here, we show that strain engineering of the outermost surface of cobalt(II) oxide nanorods can turn them into efficient electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
Eloy Isarain-Chávez, Maria Dolors Baró, Eva Pellicer, Jordi Sort
Mesoporous Fe-Pt nodular films (with a regular spatial arrangement of sub-15 nm pores) are grown onto evaporated Au, Cu and Al conductive layers by micelle-assisted electrodeposition from metal chloride salts in the presence of Pluronic P123 tri-block copolymer dissolved in the aqueous electrolytic bath. This synthetic approach constitutes a simple, one-step, versatile procedure to grow multifunctional mesoporous layers appealing for diverse applications that take advantage of materials with an ultra-high surface area-to-volume ratio...
November 14, 2017: Nanoscale
Zhu Chen, Coleman X Kronawitter, Xiaofang Yang, Yao-Wen Yeh, Nan Yao, Bruce E Koel
A new catalyst is presented for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) based on cerium-modified copper oxide (CuOx) prepared using a facile electrodeposition procedure. Incorporation of Ce into CuOx leads to greatly improved OER activity, which reached an optimal value at a surface concentration of 6.9 at% Ce. Specifically, the OER current density at 400 mV overpotential for the most active Ce-modified CuOx catalyst (6.9 at% Ce) was 3.3 times greater compared to the pure CuOx. Coincident with the improved OER activity, Ce incorporation also leads to significant structural changes that manifested in increasing degrees of disorder...
November 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xun Zhang, Jun Meng, Beien Zhu, Jian Yu, Shihui Zou, Ze Zhang, Yi Gao, Yong Wang
We demonstrate an atomic scale TEM observation of shape evolutions of Pd nanocrystals under oxygen and hydrogen environments at atmospheric pressure. Combined with multi-scale structure reconstruction model calculations, the reshaping mechanism is fully understood.
November 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Taejung Lim, Moonchang Sung, Jongwon Kim
Nanoporous electrodes have received great attention because of their unique electrochemical properties. Here, the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activities at porous Pt layers with pore dimensions in the microporous range were examined. The OER activity of the porous Pt layers in acidic media increased as the porosity of the Pt layers increased, and the highest OER activity possessed an overpotential that was 270 mV lower than that of a bulk flat electrode. The porous Pt layers did not exhibit electrocatalytic enhancement for OER in basic media, wherein the surface area of the pores was not utilized for OER...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiuling You, Liu Liu, Xiuyu Li, Hejun Du, Dongsong Nie, Xingguo Zhang, Haibing Tong, Mingjiang Wu, Yitian Gao, Zhiyong Liao
Interferon-γ-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) plays an important role in the major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen processing of endocytosed proteins via catalyzing the disulfide bond reduction in the endocytic pathway. Here, the cDNA of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) GILT (CsGILT) was cloned. It contained an open reading frame of 762 nucleotides encoding a protein of 254 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 28.1 kDa. The characteristic structural features, including a signature sequence CQHGX2ECX2NX4C, a CXXC motif, two potential N-glycosylation sites, and eight conserved cysteines were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of CsGILT...
November 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Hengjie Liu, Qun He, Hongliang Jiang, Yunxiang Lin, Youkui Zhang, Muhammad Habib, Shuangming Chen, Li Song
Developing highly active and low-cost heterogeneous catalysts towards overall electrochemical water splitting is extremely desirable but still a challenge. Herein, we report pyrite NiS2 nanosheets doped with vanadium heteroatoms as bifunctional electrode materials for both hydrogen- and oxygen-evolution reaction (HER and OER). Notably, the electronic structure reconfiguration of pyrite NiS2 is observed from typical semiconductive characteristics to metallic characteristics by engineering vanadium (V) displacement defect, which is confirmed by both experimental temperature-dependent resistivity and theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations...
November 13, 2017: ACS Nano
Yong-Tae Kim, Pietro Papa Lopes, Shin-Ae Park, A-Yeong Lee, Jinkyu Lim, Hyunjoo Lee, Seoin Back, Yousung Jung, Nemanja Danilovic, Vojislav Stamenkovic, Jonah Erlebacher, Joshua Snyder, Nenad M Markovic
The selection of oxide materials for catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction in acid-based electrolyzers must be guided by the proper balance between activity, stability and conductivity-a challenging mission of great importance for delivering affordable and environmentally friendly hydrogen. Here we report that the highly conductive nanoporous architecture of an iridium oxide shell on a metallic iridium core, formed through the fast dealloying of osmium from an Ir25Os75 alloy, exhibits an exceptional balance between oxygen evolution activity and stability as quantified by the activity-stability factor...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Haoran Song, Linxia Yan, Jin Jiang, Jun Ma, Zhongxiang Zhang, Jiaming Zhang, Pingxin Liu, Tao Yang
The combination of persulfates (peroxydisulfate (PDS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS)) and electrolysis using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode is a promising green advanced oxidation process. In comparison with electrolysis alone, electrochemical activation of persulfates at BDD anode considerably enhanced the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ). The experimental results indicate that the surface-adsorbed hydroxyl radical (HO) played the dominant role. The generally proposed nonradical oxidation mechanism ignored hydroxyl radical (HO) oxidation because low concentration of radical scavenger (<10 M methanol or 5 M tertbutanol) could not effectively scavenge the surface-adsorbed HO...
October 12, 2017: Water Research
Simeng Li, Gang Chen
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a novel technology for landfill leachate treatment with simultaneous electric power generation. In recent years, more and more modern landfills are operating as bioreactors to shorten the time required for landfill stabilization and improve the leachate quality. For landfills to operate as biofilters, leachate is recirculated back to the landfill, during which time the organics of the leachate can be decomposed. Continuous recirculation typically results in evolving leachate quality, which chronologically corresponds to evolution stages such as hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis, and maturation...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Se-A Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Je-Yong Choi, David R Jacobs, Duk-Hee Lee
Although the toxicity of synthetic chemicals at high doses is well known, chronic exposure to low-dose chemical mixtures has only recently been linked to many age-related diseases. However, it is nearly impossible to avoid the exposure to these low-dose chemical mixtures as humans are exposed to a myriad of synthetic chemicals as a part of their daily lives. Therefore, coping with possible harms due to low dose chemical mixtures is challenging. Interestingly, within the range of environmental exposure, disease risk does not increase linearly with increasing dose of chemicals, but often tends to plateau or even decrease with increasing dose...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Haiying Qin, Longxia Lin, Junkang Jia, Huangliang Ni, Yan He, Juan Wang, Aiguo Li, Zhenguo Ji, Jiabin Liu
Transition metal-based composites are one of the most important electrocatalysts because of their rich redox chemistry. The reaction kinetics of a redox couple is dependent on the chemical valence and is a key issue in electrocatalytic performance. In this study, a metallic Co catalyst was synthesized by pyrolyzing Co(OH)2. The effect of the chemical valence of Co on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated by comparing the electrocatalytic properties of three Co-based catalysts containing Co(0), Co(2+), and Co(3+)...
November 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
John M VandenBrooks, Gregory Gstrein, Jason Harmon, Jessica Friedman, Matthew Olsen, Anna Ward, Gregory Parker
Atmospheric oxygen is one of the most important atmospheric component for all terrestrial organisms. Variation in atmospheric oxygen has wide ranging effects on animal physiology, development, and evolution. This variation in oxygen has the potential to affect both respiratory systems (the supply side) and mitochondrial networks (the demand side) in animals. Insect respiratory systems supplying oxygen to tissues in the gas phase through blind ended tracheal systems are particularly susceptible to this variation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Hesham Hamad, Doaa Bassyouni, El-Sayed El-Ashtoukhy, Nevin Amin, Mona Abd El-Latif
This work focused on the knowledge-based methodology for the development of an electrochemical system, enabling simultaneous optimization of various operating parameters such as current density (j), initial dye concentration (Co), NaCl concentration (CN) for the mineralization of Reactive Violet 2 (RV-2) and Acid Brown 14 (AB-14) dye on the efficiency of removal, energy consumption (EC), Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD), apparent rate constants (kapp) and Electrical Energy per Order (EEO) all of which have been examined...
November 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Tan Huang, Yu Chen, Jong-Min Lee
Developing highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution is vital for renewable and sustainable energy production and storage. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbon encapsulated CoOx-MoC heterostructures are reported for the first time as high performance oxygen evolution electrocatalysts. The composition can be tuned by the addition of a Mo source to form a nanowire-assembled hierarchically porous microstructure, which can enlarge the specific surface area, thus exposing more active sites, facilitating mass transport and charge transfer...
November 9, 2017: Small
Pavel Galář, Josef Khun, Dušan Kopecký, Vladimír Scholtz, Miroslava Trchová, Anna Fučíková, Jana Jirešová, Ladislav Fišer
Non-thermal plasma has proved its benefits in medicine, plasma assisted polymerization, food industry and many other fields. Even though, the ability of non-thermal plasma to modify surface properties of various materials is generally known, only limited attention has been given to exploitations of this treatment on conductive polymers. Here, we show study of non-thermal plasma treatment on properties of globular and nanostructured polypyrrole in the distilled water. We observe that plasma presence over the suspension level doesn't change morphology of the polymer (shape), but significantly influences its elemental composition and physical properties...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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