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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229137/how-persistent-microbubbles-shield-nanoparticle-productivity-in-laser-synthesis-of-colloids-quantification-of-their-volume-dwell-dynamics-and-gas-composition
#1
Mark-Robert Kalus, Niko Bärsch, René Streubel, Emine Gökce, Stephan Barcikowski, Bilal Gökce
During laser synthesis of colloids, cavitation bubbles with lifetimes in the microsecond-scale form and shield the laser pulse leading to a decrease in nanoparticle output. A second type of productivity-limiting bubble that severely affects the productivity of the process is often neglected. With lifetimes from milliseconds to seconds, these persistent bubbles are systematically studied in this work by quantifying their composition, amount, size and dwell time in liquids with different viscosities and by relating the results to the nanoparticle productivities...
February 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227791/nonlinear-3-d-simulation-of-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-therapy-in-the-kidney
#2
Visa Suomi, Jiri Jaros, Bradley Treeby, Robin Cleveland, Visa Suomi, Jiri Jaros, Bradley Treeby, Robin Cleveland, Jiri Jaros, Bradley Treeby, Robin Cleveland, Visa Suomi
Kidney cancer is a severe disease which can be treated non-invasively using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. However, tissue in front of the transducer and the deep location of kidney can cause significant losses to the efficiency of the treatment. The effect of attenuation, refraction and reflection due to different tissue types on HIFU therapy of the kidney was studied using a nonlinear ultrasound simulation model. The geometry of the tissue was derived from a computed tomography (CT) dataset of a patient which had been segmented for water, bone, soft tissue, fat and kidney...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227309/an-analysis-of-sounds-for-lungs-with-excessive-water
#3
Kah Jun Hong, Wee Ser, David Chee-Guan Foo, Kah Jun Hong, Wee Ser, David Chee-Guan Foo, Wee Ser, Kah Jun Hong, David Chee-Guan Foo
Excessive lung water occurs when too much water accumulates in the lung, causing breathing difficulty. Current diagnosis methods include X-rays and CT-scans. However, because of their bulk and the need for trained professionals to operate, physicians rely on auscultation for preliminary diagnosis. Recent attempts have been made to automate the auscultation process and some degree of success has been reported. Thus, it would be useful to provide more analysis of such lung sounds. This paper attempts to study the characteristics of breathing sounds from lungs with excessive water and compare them with breathing sounds from healthy lungs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224657/cryoprotectant-effect-of-trehalose-in-extender-on-post-thaw-quality-and-in-vivo-fertility-of-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-bull-spermatozoa
#4
S Iqbal, S Naz, H Ahmed, S M H Andrabi
This study was designed to ascertain the cryoprotectant effects of different concentrations of trehalose [0 (T0), 25 (T25), 35 (T35), 45 (T45) mm], egg yolk [20% (E20), 15% (E15) v/v] and glycerol [7% (G7), 5% (G5) v/v] in Tris-citric acid-based extender on post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa. Twenty-five ejaculates were collected from five bulls and split into four parts. After that, the split ejaculates from each of the bull were diluted either in T0E20G7 (control) or T25E20G5 or T35E15G5 or T45E15G5 extender...
February 22, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224126/antioxidant-effects-of-the-quercetin-in-the-jejunal-myenteric-innervation-of-diabetic-rats
#5
Sara R Garcia de Souza, Marcílio Hubner de Miranda Neto, Juliana Vanessa Colombo Martins Perles, Flávia Cristina Vieira Frez, Isabela Zignani, Francielle Veiga Ramalho, Catchia Hermes-Uliana, Gleison Daion Piovezana Bossolani, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni
PURPOSE: Enteric glial cells (EGCs) exert a critical role in the structural integrity, defense, and metabolic function of enteric neurons. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disorders and chronic autonomic neuropathy. Quercetin supplementation, which is a potent antioxidant, has been used in order to reduce the effects of diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of quercetin supplementation in the drinking water at a daily dose of 40 mg on the glial cells and neurons in the jejunum of diabetic rats...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222601/energy-related-small-molecule-activation-reactions-oxygen-reduction-and-hydrogen-and-oxygen-evolution-reactions-catalyzed-by-porphyrin-and-corrole-based-systems
#6
Wei Zhang, Wenzhen Lai, Rui Cao
Globally increasing energy demands and environmental concerns related to the use of fossil fuels have stimulated extensive research to identify new energy systems and economies that are sustainable, clean, low cost, and environmentally benign. Hydrogen generation from solar-driven water splitting is a promising strategy to store solar energy in chemical bonds. The subsequent combustion of hydrogen in fuel cells produces electric energy, and the only exhaust is water. These two reactions compose an ideal process to provide clean and sustainable energy...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221972/control-points-to-reduce-movement-of-central-nervous-system-tissue-during-beef-slaughter
#7
J L Aalhus, R D Thacker, I L Larsen, J C Roberts, M A Price, M Juárez
Consumption of central nervous system tissue (CNST) from cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is thought to cause the human neurological disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. To identify points of cross-contamination of beef carcasses with CNST, 55 young beef cattle were slaughtered and processed through a federally inspected multispecies abattoir. The objectives of this study were to evaluate CNST spread following the placement of a plug in the penetration site of the skull after captive bolt stunning, to evaluate cross-contamination of carcasses before and after splitting, to compare the effects of hot water pasteurization (84°C for 10 s) versus cold water wash (10°C for 30 s) for reducing CNST on the carcass, and to examine other possible sources of cross-contamination in the abattoir...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217772/dielectrowetting-manipulation-for-digital-microfluidics-creating-transporting-splitting-and-merging-of-droplets
#8
Hongyao Geng, Jian Feng, Lisa Marie Stabryla, Sung Kwon Cho
Generating, splitting, transporting, and merging droplets are fundamental and critical unit operations for digital (droplet-based) microfluidics. State-of-the-art digital microfluidics performs such operations commonly using electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) in the typical configuration of two parallel channel plates. This paper presents such operations using dielectrowetting (derived from liquid dielectrophoresis), not EWOD, with an array of interdigitated electrodes. The major and unique feature is that the present droplet manipulations are effective for conductive (water with/without surfactant) and non-conductive (propylene carbonate) fluids...
February 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216452/water-and-lipid-diffusion-mri-using-chemical-shift-displacement-based-separation-of-lipid-tissue-split
#9
Naoki Ohno, Hirohito Kan, Tosiaki Miyati, Toshitaka Aoki, Shota Ishida, Toshifumi Gabata
PURPOSE: To obtain water and lipid diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) simultaneously, we devised a novel method utilizing chemical shift displacement-based separation of lipid tissue (SPLIT) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-shot diffusion echo-planar imaging without fat suppression was used and the imaging parameters were optimized to separate water and lipid DWIs by chemical shift displacement of the lipid signals along the phase-encoding direction. Using the optimized conditions, transverse DWIs at the maximum diameter of the right calf were scanned with multiple b-values in five healthy subjects...
February 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215087/microwave-initiated-facile-formation-of-ni3se4-nanoassemblies-for-enhanced-and-stable-water-splitting-in-neutral-and-alkaline-media
#10
Sengeni Anantharaj, Jeevarathinam Kennedy, Subrata Kundu
Molecular hydrogen (H2) generation through water splitting with minimum energy loss has become practically possible due to the recent evolution of high performance electrocatalysts. In this study, we had fabricated, evaluated and presented such a high performance catalyst which is the Ni3Se4 nanoassemblies that can efficiently catalyze water splitting in neutral and alkaline media. A hierarchical nanoassemblies of Ni3Se4 was fabricated by functionalizing the surface cleaned Ni foam using NaHSe solution as Se source with the assistance of microwave irradiation (300 W) for 3 min followed by 5 h of aging at room temperature (RT)...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215081/photocatalytic-co2-reduction-by-carbon-coated-indium-oxide-nanobelts
#11
Yun-Xiang Pan, Ya You, Sen Xin, Yutao Li, Gengtao Fu, Zhiming Cui, Yu-Long Men, Fei-Fei Cao, Shu-Hong Yu, John B Goodenough
Indium-oxide (In2O3) nanobelts coated by a 5-nm-thick car-bon layer provide an enhanced photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO and CH4, yielding CO and CH4 evolution rates of 126.6 and 27.9 mol h-1, respectively, with water as reductant and Pt as co-catalyst. Experiments and theoretical calcula-tions indicate that the carbon coat promotes the absorption of visible light, improves the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, increases the chemisorption of CO2, makes more protons from water splitting participate in CO2 reduction, and thereby faciliates the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO and CH4...
February 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215069/effects-of-sulfur-doping-and-humidity-on-co2-capture-of-graphite-split-pore-a-theoretical-study
#12
Xiaofang Li, Qingzhong Xue, Xiao Chang, Lei Zhu, Cuicui Ling, Haixia Zheng
Using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo calculations, we studied the effects of sulfur doping and humidity on the performance of graphite split-pore as adsorbents for CO2 capture. It is demonstrate that S doping can greatly enhance the pure CO2 uptake of graphite split-pore. For example, S-graphite split-pore with 33.12% sulfur shows a 39.85% rise in pure CO2 uptake (51.001 mmol/mol) compared with pristine graphite split-pore at 300 K and 1 bar. More importantly, it is found that S-graphite split-pore can still keep much higher CO2 uptake of than that of pristine graphite split-pore in the presence of water...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210431/vertical-root-fracture-resistance-of-simulated-immature-permanent-teeth-filled-with-mta-using-different-vehicles
#13
Hacer Aksel, Sevinc Askerbeyli-Örs, Derya Deniz-Sungur
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to evaluate the resistance vertical root fracture (VRF) of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) filled-immature permanent roots by using three different vehicles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were selected and the root length was standardized to the length of 9 mm. For simulation of immature tooth apices, peeso reamers were introduced into the root canals and the prepared roots were assigned into three experimental groups according the used vehicle (distilled water-DW, prophylene glycol-PG, chlorhexidine-CHX) and control group (n=10)...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199209/photosystem-ii-and-terminal-respiratory-oxidases-molecular-machines-operating-in-opposite-directions
#14
Sergey A Siletsky, Vitaliy B Borisov, Mahir D Mamedov
In the thylakoid membrane of green plants, cyanobacteria and algae, photosystem II (PSII) uses light energy to split water and generate molecular oxygen. In the opposite process of the biochemical transformation of dioxygen, in heterotrophs, the terminal respiratory oxidases (TRO) are at the end of the respiratory chain in mitochondria and in plasma membrane of many aerobic bacteria reducing dioxygen back to water. Despite the different sources of free energy (light or oxidation of the substrates), energy conversion by these enzymes is based on the spatial organization of enzymatic reactions in which the conversion of water to dioxygen (and vice versa) involves the transfer of protons and electrons in opposite directions across the membrane, which is accompanied by generation of proton-motive force...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198974/effect-of-two-desensitizing-agents-on-dentin-permeability-in-vitro
#15
Hiroshi Ishihata, Masafumi Kanehira, Werner J Finger, Hidekazu Takahashi, Makoto Tomita, Keiichi Sasaki
Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of two desensitizing agents and water on hydraulic conductance in human dentin. Material and Methods: GLUMA Desensitizer PowerGel (GLU) contains glutaraldehyde (GA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and Teethmate Desensitizer (TD) is a powder comprising tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) that is mixed with water. Deionized water was used as a negative control (CTR)...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197563/the-secret-behind-the-success-of-doping-nickel-oxyhydroxide-with-iron
#16
Vicky Fidelsky, Maytal Caspary Toroker
Discovering better catalysts for water splitting is the holy grail of the renewable energy field. One of the most successful water oxidation catalysts is nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), which is chemically active only as a result of doping with Fe. In order to shed light on how Fe improves efficiency, we perform Density Functional Theory +U (DFT+U) calculations of water oxidation reaction intermediates of Fe substitutional doped NiOOH. The results are analyzed while considering the presence of vacancies that we use as probes to test the effect of adding charge to the surface...
February 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194910/hollow-iron-vanadium-composite-spheres-a-highly-efficient-iron-based-water-oxidation-electrocatalyst-without-the-need-for-nickel-or-cobalt
#17
Ke Fan, Yongfei Ji, Haiyuan Zou, Jinfeng Zhang, Bicheng Zhu, Hong Chen, Quentin Daniel, Yi Luo, Jiaguo Yu, Licheng Sun
Noble-metal-free bimetal-based electrocatalysts have shown high efficiency for water oxidation. Ni and/or Co in these electrocatalysts are essential to provide a conductive, high-surface area and a chemically stable host. However, the necessity of Ni or Co limits the scope of low-cost electrocatalysts. Herein, we report a hierarchical hollow FeV composite, which is Ni- and Co-free and highly efficient for electrocatalytic water oxidation with low overpotential 390 mV (10 mA cm(-2) catalytic current density), low Tafel slope of 36...
February 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194820/self-assembly-of-hierarchical-ni-mo-polydopamine-microflower-and-its-conversion-to-ni-mo2c-composite-for-water-splitting
#18
Lianshan Sun, Chunli Wang, Qujiang Sun, Yong Cheng, Limin Wang
On the purpose to find efficient non-noble metal catalysts for water splitting, hierarchical Ni-Mo-polydopamine microflowers are synthesized through a facile aqueous phase reaction at room temperature. Herein, NiMoO4 nanowires are utilized as Ni and Mo source, meantime, they can complex with dopamine to form hierarchical structure and affect the scale of the final product. And the energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) measurement of Ni-Mo2C/C microflowers (MF) show a high content of Mo2C and Ni (>90 wt%)...
February 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194461/a-3d-microblade-structure-for-precise-and-parallel-droplet-splitting-on-digital-microfluidic-chips
#19
Cheng Dong, Yanwei Jia, Jie Gao, Tianlan Chen, Pui-In Mak, Mang-I Vai, Rui P Martins
Existing digital microfluidic (DMF) chips exploit the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) force to perform droplet splitting. However, the current splitting methods are not flexible and the volume of the droplets suffers from a large variation. Herein, we propose a DMF chip featuring a 3D microblade structure to enhance the droplet-splitting performance. By exploiting the EWOD force for shaping and manipulating the mother droplet, we obtain an average dividing error of <2% in the volume of the daughter droplets for a number of fluids such as deionized water, DNA solutions and DNA-protein mixtures...
February 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192390/an-efficient-and-ph-universal-ruthenium-based-catalyst-for-the-hydrogen-evolution-reaction
#20
Javeed Mahmood, Feng Li, Sun-Min Jung, Mahmut Sait Okyay, Ishfaq Ahmad, Seok-Jin Kim, Noejung Park, Hu Young Jeong, Jong-Beom Baek
The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a crucial step in electrochemical water splitting and demands an efficient, durable and cheap catalyst if it is to succeed in real applications. For an energy-efficient HER, a catalyst must be able to trigger proton reduction with minimal overpotential and have fast kinetics. The most efficient catalysts in acidic media are platinum-based, as the strength of the Pt-H bond is associated with the fastest reaction rate for the HER. The use of platinum, however, raises issues linked to cost and stability in non-acidic media...
February 13, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
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