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water splitting

Thamer Alghamdi, Christoph Viebahn, Christoph Justinger, Thomas Lorf
The risk of ischemia of segment IV after split liver resection is high. This anatomical study was done to identify the arterial blood supply and the intrahepatic distribution of liver segment IV. The anatomy of segment IV was studied in 29 livers from adult cadavers. To identify the arterial blood supply of segment IV, water and ink were injected into the various branches of the hepatic artery and the outflow through segment IV and discoloration of the liver parenchyma were observed. In 23 of the 29 livers (79...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Liping Zhang, Ping Cui, Hongbin Yang, Jiazang Chen, Fangxing Xiao, Yuanyuan Guo, Ye Liu, Weina Zhang, Fengwei Huo, Bin Liu
Ti-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are demonstrated as promising photosensitizers for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Photocurrents of TiO2 nano wire photoelectrodes can be improved under visible light through sensitization with aminated Ti-based MOFs. As a host, other sensitizers or catalysts such as Au nanoparticles can be incorporated into the MOF layer thus further improving the PEC water splitting efficiency.
January 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Lei Li, Pengfei Li, Ning Lu, Jun Dai, Xiao Cheng Zeng
2D material with tunable direct bandgap in the intermediate region (i.e., ≈2-3 eV) is key to the achievement of high efficiency in visible-light optical devices. Herein, a simulation evidence of structure transition of monolayer ZnSe from the experimental pseudohexagonal structure to the tetragonal structure (t-ZnSe) under lateral pressure is shown, suggesting a possible fabrication route to achieve the t-ZnSe monolayer. The as-produced t-ZnSe monolayer exhibits highly tunable bandgap under the biaxial strains, allowing strain engineering of t-ZnSe's bandgap over a wide range of 2-3 eV...
December 2015: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Xin Ren, Abhijeet Sangle, Siyuan Zhang, Shuai Yuan, Yin Zhao, Liyi Shi, Robert L Z Hoye, Seungho Cho, Dongdong Li, Judith L MacManus-Driscoll
We demonstrate selective growth of ZnO branched nanostructures: from nanorod clusters (with branches parallel to parent rods) to nanotrees (with branches perpendicular to parent rods). The growth of these structures was realized using a three-step approach: electrodeposition of nanorods (NRs), followed by the sputtering of ZnO seed layers, followed by the growth of branched arms using hydrothermal growth. The density, size and direction of the branches were tailored by tuning the deposition parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of control of branch direction...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
Fengjiao Chen, Qishan Zhu, Yeyun Wang, Wei Cui, Xiaodong Su, Yanguang Li
Increasing attention has now been focused on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution as a promising route to transform solar energy into chemical fuels. Silicon is one of the most studied PEC electrode materials, but its performance is still limited by its inherent PEC instability and electrochemical inertness toward water splitting. To achieve significant PEC activities, silicon-based photoelectrodes usually have to be coupled with proper cocatalysts, and thus formed semiconductor/cocatalyst interface represents a critical structural parameter in the rational design of efficient PEC devices...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Deborah Brazzolotto, Marcello Gennari, Nicolas Queyriaux, Trevor R Simmons, Jacques Pécaut, Serhiy Demeshko, Franc Meyer, Maylis Orio, Vincent Artero, Carole Duboc
Hydrogen production through water splitting is one of the most promising solutions for the storage of renewable energy. [NiFe] hydrogenases are organometallic enzymes containing nickel and iron centres that catalyse hydrogen evolution with performances that rival those of platinum. These enzymes provide inspiration for the design of new molecular catalysts that do not require precious metals. However, all heterodinuclear NiFe models reported so far do not reproduce the Ni-centred reactivity found at the active site of [NiFe] hydrogenases...
November 2016: Nature Chemistry
Fabien Aubret, Florent Bignon, Philippe J R Kok, Gaëlle Blanvillain
Egg-clustering and communal nesting behaviours provide advantages to offspring. Advantages range from anti-predatory benefits, maintenance of moisture and temperature levels within the nest, preventing the eggs from rolling, to enabling hatching synchrony through embryo communication. It was recently suggested that embryo communication may extend beyond development fine-tuning, and potentially convey information about the quality of the natal environment as well as provide an indication of forthcoming competition amongst siblings, conspecifics or even heterospecifics...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chenyi Cai, Min Kuang, Xiling Chen, Hao Wu, Hongtao Ge, Gengfeng Zheng
The development of efficient and robust electrocatalyst has been the central of the solar water splitting-based hydrogen fuel acquisition. In this work, we reported the use of cow milk, with addition of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and melamine, for the synthesis of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon microspheres. Due to the large surface and enhanced charge transport behavior, the obtained samples enabled low overpotentials and a small Tafel slope toward oxygen evolution reaction, which were close or comparable to the best OER catalysts of carbon materials reported previously...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Honglin Li, Ke Yu, Zheng Tang, Zi-Qiang Zhu
Electrochemically splitting water for hydrogen evolution has attracted a lot attention and developed as a promising approach to produce hydrogen energy. Searching for high-activity and economical electrocatalysts to replace Pt-based catalysts remains a great challenge. In this paper, we reported a concise and effective strategy to fabricate the novel MoWS2 composite for using as the electrocatalyst through hydrothermal method for the first time. The final obtained MoWS2 composite demonstrated a well-defined hierarchical structure and that the densely stacked nanopetals act as the active sites to participate the corresponding hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) processes...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
H Y Tian, P Yu, C Y Yuan, W Zhang, Y X Qiu, D H Li, X J Liang, X Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the durability of resin-based root-surface coating material and all-in-one self-etching adhesive on root surface in vitro. METHODS: Human extracted premolars or molars with intact roots were selected. The cementum was removed using a periodontal scaler to expose root dentin. The root surface was coated with an acid-resistant nail varnish, leaving a window of 3 mm×3 mm on the exposed dentin.The window was covered with either PRG Barrier Coat (PRG) or Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3)...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Tobias F Berto, Kai E Sanwald, J Paige Byers, Nigel D Browning, Oliver Yair Gutiérrez Tinoco, Johannes A Lercher
Photocatalytic overall water splitting requires co-catalysts, which efficiently promote the generation of H2, but do not catalyze its reverse oxidation. We demonstrate, that CO chemisorbed on metal co-catalysts (Rh, Pt, Pd) suppresses the back reaction, while maintaining the rate of H2 evolution. On Rh/GaN:ZnO, the highest H2 production rates were obtained with 4 - 40 mbar CO, the back reaction remaining suppressed below 7 mbar O2. The O2 and H2 evolution rates compete with CO oxidation and the back reaction...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Shibing Chu, Emanuele Coccia, Matteo Barborini, Leonardo Guidoni
Electron correlation plays a crucial role in the energetics of reactions catalyzed by transition metal complexes, such as water splitting. In the present work we exploit the performance of various methods to describe the thermodynamics of a simple but representative model of water splitting reaction, based on a single cobalt ion as catalyst. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations show a significant dependance on the the adopted functional and not negligible differences with respect to CSSD(T) findings are found along the reaction cycle...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Zhaohui Xiao, Xiaobing Huang, Lei Xu, Dafeng Yan, Jia Huo, Shuangyin Wang
The development of efficient, stable and cost-effective electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the key for water splitting. Carbon-based nanomaterials have found significant applications as metal-free OER electrocatalysts. In this study, for the first time, edge-selectively phosphorus-doped graphene (G-P) was synthesised for OER electrocatalysts. The G-P catalyst reached a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at a small overpotential of 330 mV for the OER with a Tafel slope as low as 62 mV dec(-1), which is superior to most of the carbon-based electrocatalysts reported to date...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Nongnuch Artrith, Wutthigrai Sailuam, Sukit Limpijumnong, Alexie M Kolpak
Water electrolysis is a key technology for the replacement of fossil fuels by environmentally friendly alternatives, but state-of-the-art water oxidation catalysts rely on rare elements such as Pt groups and other noble metals. In this article, we employ first-principles calculations to explore the potential of modified barium titanate (BaTiO3), an inexpensive perovskite oxide that can be synthesized from earth-abundant precursors, for the design of efficient water oxidation electrocatalysts. Our calculations identify Fe and Ni doping as a means to improve the electrical conductivity and to reduce the overpotential required for water oxidation over BaTiO3...
October 17, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yang Yang, Di Xu, Qingyong Wu, Peng Diao
Solar powered hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is one of the key reactions in solar-to-chemical energy conversion. It is desirable to develop photocathodic materials that exhibit high activity toward photoelectrochemical (PEC) HER at more positive potentials because a higher potential means a lower overpotential for HER. In this work, the Cu2O/CuO bilayered composites were prepared by a facile method that involved an electrodeposition and a subsequent thermal oxidation. The resulting Cu2O/CuO bilayered composites exhibited a surprisingly high activity and good stability toward PEC HER, expecially at high potentials in alkaline solution...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Santosh Kumar, Daizy Bharti, Pablo Quintela-Alonso, Mann Kyoon Shin, Antonietta La Terza
The morphology and morphogenesis of two stylonychid ciliates, Stylonychia ammermanniGupta et al., 2001 and Tetmemena bifaria (Stokes, 1887) Berger, 2001, isolated from soil samples of Lombardia region, Northern Italy, and water samples from Cheonggancheon stream, South Korea, were investigated. The Italian population of S. ammermanni was found to be very similar in morphology to the Indian type population and the junior synonym S. harbinensisShi and Ammermann, 2004 since most of the morphometric data overlapped...
September 23, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Asif Iqbal, Md Sazzad Hossain, Kirk H Bevan
In this work, we present a theoretical study of surface state occupation statistics at semiconductor-liquid interfaces, as it pertains to the evolution of H2 and O2 through water splitting. Our approach combines semiclassical charge transport and electrostatics at the semiconductor-liquid junction, with a master rate equation describing surface state mediated electron/hole transfer. As a model system we have studied the TiO2-water junction in the absence of illumination, where it is shown that surface states might not always equilibrate with the semiconductor...
October 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
M A Landrum, N A Cox, D E Cosby, M E Berrang, S M Russell
New regulations and performance standards for Campylobacter have been implemented by the USDA - Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment with a low pH processing aid (CMS(1) PoultrypHresh), a formulated low pH processing aid, to reduce numbers of Campylobacter which could help companies meet regulatory requirements. Two experiments (3 replicates each) were conducted. Experiment 1, in each of 3 replicates, skin-on split chicken breasts (n = 15) were obtained from a local grocery and divided into groups of 5...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
John Kenny, SarahJane Cullen, Giles D Warrington
PURPOSE: Ice-mile swimming presents significant physiological challenges and potential safety issues but little data are available. We report on deep body temperature (BT), respiratory rate (RR) and swim performance in two swimmers completing an 'ice-mile' swim of one mile (1600m) in water temperature at less than 5°C. METHODS: Two male cold-water habituated swimmers completed a one-mile lake swim in water at 3.9°C. For comparative purposes, they completed an indoor one-mile swim in water at 28...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Maria B Mesch, Kilian Bärwinkel, Yaşar Krysiak, Charlotte Martineau, Francis Taulelle, Reinhard B Neder, Ute Kolb, Jürgen Senker
Poly(triazine imide) with incorporated lithium chloride has recently attracted substantial attention due to its photocatalytic activity for water splitting. However, an apparent H/Li disorder prevents the delineation of structure-property relationships, for example, with respect to band-gap tuning. Herein, we show that through a combination of one- and two-dimensional, multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, chemical modelling, automated electron diffraction tomography, and an analysis based on X-ray pair distribution functions, it is finally possible to resolve the H/Li substructure...
October 13, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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