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water splitting

Yiou Wang, Hajime Suzuki, Jijia Xie, Osamu Tomita, David James Martin, Masanobu Higashi, Dan Kong, Ryu Abe, Junwang Tang
Visible light-driven water splitting using cheap and robust photocatalysts is one of the most exciting ways to produce clean and renewable energy for future generations. Cutting edge research within the field focuses on so-called "Z-scheme" systems, which are inspired by the photosystem II-photosystem I (PSII/PSI) coupling from natural photosynthesis. A Z-scheme system comprises two photocatalysts and generates two sets of charge carriers, splitting water into its constituent parts, hydrogen and oxygen, at separate locations...
April 20, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Lene Bay, Kasper N Kragh, Steffen R Eickhardt, Steen S Poulsen, Lise Mette R Gjerdrum, Khaled Ghathian, Henrik Calum, Magnus S Ågren, Thomas Bjarnsholt
Objective: The bacterial composition and distribution were evaluated in acute standardized epidermal wounds and uninjured skin by a molecular in situ technology benchmarked to conventional culturing. This was done to reveal whether bacterial biofilm is present in acute wounds. Approach: On the buttock of 26 healthy volunteers, 28 suction blisters were made and de-roofed. Four wounds were biopsied immediately after wounding, whereas the remaining 24 wounds were treated daily with sterile deionized water and covered with a moisture-retaining dressing...
April 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
Xin Xiao, Leiming Tao, Man Li, Xiaowei Lv, Dekang Huang, Xingxing Jiang, Haiping Pan, Mingkui Wang, Yan Shen
It is highly desirable to develop efficient and low-cost catalysts to minimize the overpotential of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) for large-scale hydrogen production from electrochemical water splitting. Doping a foreign element into the host catalysts has been proposed as an effective approach to optimize the electronic characteristics of catalysts and thus improve their electrocatalytic performance. Herein we, for the first time, report vanadium-doped CoP on self-supported conductive carbon cloth (V-CoP/CC) as a robust HER electrocatalyst, which achieves ultra-low overpotentials of 71, 123 and 47 mV to afford a current density of 10 mA cm-2 in 1 M KOH, 1 M PBS and 0...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Niall Kirkaldy, Greig Chisholm, Jia-Jia Chen, Leroy Cronin
Hydrogen is seen as a sustainable fuel of the future, yet the vast majority of global hydrogen production comes from the reformation of fossil fuels. Electrolytic water splitting using proton exchange membrane electrolysers (PEMEs) provides a pathway to sustainable hydrogen production through coupling to renewable energy sources, but can suffer from gas crossover at low current densities and high operating pressures, causing explosive gas mixtures and decreasing cell lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the application of a highly stable, organic electron-coupled proton buffer (ECPB) which allows the decoupling of hydrogen and oxygen production during water splitting...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Fang-Shuai Zhang, Jia-Wei Wang, Jun Luo, Rui-Rui Liu, Zhi-Ming Zhang, Chun-Ting He, Tong-Bu Lu
The development of highly efficient, low-cost and stable electrocatalysts for overall water splitting is highly desirable for the storage of intermittent solar energy and wind energy sources. Herein, we show for the first time that nickel can be extracted from NiFe-layered double hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) to generate an Ni2 P@FePO x heterostructure. The Ni2 P@FePO x heterostructure was converted to an Ni2 P@NiFe hydroxide heterostructure (P-NiFe) during water splitting, which displays high electrocatalytic performance for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in 1...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Qing-Lu Liu, Zong-Yan Zhao, Jian-Hong Yi
For photocatalytic applications, the response of a material to the solar spectrum and its redox capabilities are two important factors determined by the band gap and band edge position of the electronic structure of the material. The crystal structure and composition of the photocatalyst are fundamental for determining the above factors. In this article, we examine the functional material Ta-O-N as an example of how to discuss relationships among these factors in detail with the use of theoretical calculations...
April 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yi-Lin Lu, Shengjie Dong, Wei Zhou, Shuhua Dai, Baozeng Zhou, Hui Zhao, Ping Wu
Utilizing density functional theory, we investigate the structural stabilities, electronic structures, and optical properties of monolayer violet phosphorene, i.e., Hittorfene, under an external vertical electric field and upon in-layer biaxial strain control. We find that compared with monolayer black phosphorene, monolayer violet phosphorene has a significantly larger direct band gap of 2.50 eV, and it is sensitive to an external vertical electric field, under which it undergoes an intriguing direct-indirect and insulator-metal transition...
April 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Georges Siddiqi, Zhenya Luo, Yujun Xie, Zhenhua Pan, Qianhong Zhu, Jason A Rohr, Judy J Cha, Shu Hu
Accomplishing acid-stable water oxidation is a critical matter for achieving both long-lasting water splitting devices and other fuel-forming electro- and photo-catalytic processes. Since water oxidation releases protons into the local electrolytic environment, it becomes increasingly acidic during device operation, which leads to corrosion of the photo-active component and hence loss in device performance and lifetime. In this work, we show that thin films of manganese modified titania, (Ti,Mn)Ox , topped with an iridium catalyst, can be used in a coating stabilization scheme for acid-stable water oxidation...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Quan Quan, Shunji Xie, Bo Weng, Ye Wang, Yi-Jun Xu
Charge separation/transfer is generally believed to be the most key factor affecting the efficiency of photocatalysis, which however will be counteracted if not taking the active site engineering into account for a specific photoredox reaction. Here, a 3D heterostructure composite is designed consisting of MoS2 nanoplatelets decorated on reduced graphene oxide-wrapped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs@RGO/MoS2 ). Such a cascade configuration renders a directional migration of charge carriers and controlled immobilization of active sites, thereby showing much higher photoactivity for water splitting to H2 than binary TNTAs@RGO and TNTAs/MoS2 ...
April 18, 2018: Small
Andrea G Capodaglio, Anna Bojanowska-Czajka, Marek Trojanowicz
Carbamazepine and diclofenac are two examples of drugs with widespread geographical and environmental media proliferation that are poorly removed by traditional wastewater treatment processes. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been proposed as alternative methods to remove these compounds in solution. AOPs are based on a wide class of powerful technologies, including UV radiation, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, Fenton process, catalytic wet peroxide oxidation, heterogeneous photocatalysis, electrochemical oxidation and their combinations, sonolysis, and microwaves applicable to both water and wastewater...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lan-Lan Wu, Qi-Shun Wang, Jian Li, Yan Long, Yu Liu, Shu-Yan Song, Hong-Jie Zhang
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with tunable compositions and morphologies are recognized as efficient self-sacrificial templates to achieve function-oriented nanostructured materials. Moreover, it is urgently needed to develop highly efficient noble metal-free oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts to accelerate the development of overall water splitting green energy conversion systems. Herein, a facile and cost-efficient strategy to synthesize Co9 S8 nanoparticles-embedded N/S-codoped carbon nanofibers (Co9 S8 /NSCNFs) as highly active OER catalyst is developed...
April 17, 2018: Small
Zhiwei Wang, Xianglin Li, Han Ling, Chiew Kei Tan, Loo Pin Yeo, Andrew Clive Grimsdale, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok
A 3D fluorine-doped SnO2 (FTO)/FTO-nanocrystal (NC)/TiO2 inverse opal (IO) structure is designed and fabricated as a new "host and guest" type of composite photoanode for efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. In this novel photoanode design, the highly conductive and porous FTO/FTO-NC IO acts as the "host" skeleton, which provides direct pathways for faster electron transport, while the conformally coated TiO2 layer acts as the "guest" absorber layer. The unique composite IO structure is fabricated through self-assembly of colloidal spheres template, a hydrothermal method and atomic layer deposition (ALD)...
April 17, 2018: Small
Weishen Yang, Kaiyue Zhu, Xuefeng Zhu
Developing high-efficiency and affordable electrocatalysts for the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) remains a crucial bottleneck on the way to the practical applications of rechargeable energy storage technologies and water splitting for producing clean fuel (H2). In recent years, NiFe based materials have demonstrated to be excellent electrocatalysts for OER. Understanding the characteristics that affect OER activity and determining the OER mechanism are of vital importance for the development of OER electrocatalysts...
April 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Kai Junge Puring, Dennis Zywitzki, Dereje H Taffa, Detlef Rogalla, Manuela Winter, Michael Wark, Anjana Devi
A series of six cobalt ketoiminates, of which one was previously reported but not explored as a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) precursor, namely, bis(4-(isopropylamino)pent-3-en-2-onato)cobalt(II) ([Co( i pki)2 ], 1), bis(4-(2-methoxyethylamino)pent-3-en-2-onato)cobalt(II) ([Co(meki)2 ], 2), bis(4-(2-ethoxyethylamino)pent-3-en-2-onato)cobalt(II) ([Co(eeki)2 ], 3), bis(4-(3-methoxy-propylamino)pent-3-en-2-onato)cobalt(II) ([Co(mpki)2 ], 4), bis(4-(3-ethoxypropylamino)pent-3-en-2-onato)cobalt(II) ([Co(epki)2 ], 5), and bis(4-(3-isopropoxypropylamino)pent-3-en-2-onato)cobalt(II) ([Co( i ppki)2 ], 6) were synthesized and thoroughly characterized...
April 17, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Yi-Hsuan Chiu, Ting-Hsuan Lai, Chun-Yi Chen, Ping-Yen Hsieh, Kazunari Ozasa, Mitsuo Niinomi, Kiyoshi Okada, Tso-Fu Mark Chang, Nobuhiro Matsushita, Masato Sone, Yung-Jung Hsu
Poor kinetics of hole transportation at the electrode/electrolyte interface is regarded as a primary cause for the mediocre performance of n-type TiO2 photoelectrodes. By adopting nanotubes as the electrode backbone, light absorption and carrier collection can be spatially decoupled, allowing n-type TiO2, with its short hole diffusion length, to maximize the use of the available photoexcited charge carriers during operation in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Here, we presented a delicate electrochemical anodization process for the preparation of quaternary Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr-O mixed-oxides (denoted as TNTZO) nanotube arrays and demonstrated their utility in PEC water splitting...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alagappan Annamalai, Robin Sandström, Eduardo Gracia-Espino, Nicolas Boulanger, Jean-Francois Boily, Inge Muehlbacher, Andrey Shchukarev, Thomas Wagberg
In order to exploit the full potential of hematite (α-Fe2O3) as an efficient photoanode for water oxidation, the redox processes occurring at the Fe2O3/electrolyte interface needs to be studied in greater detail. Ex-situ doping is an excellent technique to introduce dopants onto the photoanode surface and to modify the photoanode/electrolyte interface. In this context, we selected antimony (Sb5+) as ex-situ dopant for its effective electron donor and reduced recombination effects and concurrently utilize the possibility to tune surface charge and wettability...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bryan M Hunter, Jay R Winkler, Harry B Gray
Efficient catalysis of the oxygen-evolution half-reaction (OER) is a pivotal requirement for the development of practical solar-driven water splitting devices. Heterogeneous OER electrocatalysts containing first-row transition metal oxides and hydroxides have attracted considerable recent interest, owing in part to the high abundance and low cost of starting materials. Among the best performing OER electrocatalysts are mixed Fe/Ni layered double hydroxides (LDH). A review of the available experimental data leads to the conclusion that iron is the active site for [NiFe]-LDH-catalyzed alkaline water oxidation...
April 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
L Galbis-Martínez, M L Fernández-Cruz, L Alte, A Valdehita, I Rucandio, J M Navas
The current wide use of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) is leading to the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to water bodies. Aquatic organisms, including fish, are exposed to low concentrations of NPs for long periods of time being necessary to develop laboratory toxicity tests reflecting realistic conditions. Additionally, today there is a demand of in vitro assays respecting the 3Rs principle. Thus, the main aim of this work was to stablish an in vitro tool for the assessment of long-term NPs ecotoxicity. Considering the key role of liver in detoxification, a rainbow trout liver cell line, RTL-W1, was used...
April 13, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Daniele Narzi, Matteo Capone, Daniele Bovi, Leonardo Guidoni
Water oxidation in the early steps of natural photosynthesis is fulfilled by Photosystem II, a protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membrane inside chloroplasts. The water oxidation reaction occurs in the catalytic core of Photosystem II, consisting of a Mn4Ca metal cluster where, after the accumulation of four oxidizing equivalents through five steps (S0-S4) of the Kok-Joliot's cycle, two water molecules are split into electrons, protons and molecular oxygen. In the recent years, combining experimental and theoretical approaches, new insights has been achieved on the structural and electronic properties of the different steps of the catalytic cycle...
April 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Teera Butburee, Yang Bai, Huanjun Wang, Hongjun Chen, Zhiliang Wang, Gang Liu, Jin Zou, Pongtanawat Khemthong, Gao Qing Max Lu, Lianzhou Wang
Porous single crystals are promising candidates for solar fuel production owing to their long range charge diffusion length, structural coherence, and sufficient reactive sites. Here, a simple template-free method of growing a selectively branched, 2D anatase TiO2 porous single crystalline nanostructure (PSN) on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate is demonstrated. An innovative ion exchange-induced pore-forming process is designed to successfully create high porosity in the single-crystalline nanostructure with retention of excellent charge mobility and no detriment to crystal structure...
April 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
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