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water splitting

Felix W Leung, Hui Jia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Kaushik Natarajan, Parth Bhatt, Pankaj Yadav, Kavita Pandey, Brijesh Tripathi, Manoj Kumar
Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures have been extensively studied as photo-anodes for the conversion of sunlight into chemical fuels by water splitting. A number of factors limit the photo-activity of pristine hematite nanostructures, including poor electrical conductivity and long penetration depth of light. Previous studies have shown that use of tin (Sn) as an n-type dopant can substantially enhance the photoactivity of hematite photoanodes by modifying their morphological, optical and electrical properties...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Soumen Chandra, Karunamay Majee, Triveni Kumar Mahto, Sumanta Kumar Padhi, Sumanta Kumar Sahu
Anatase hierarchical TiO2 microsphere/carbon dots composite (HTM/CDs) was fabricated by a facile method for active visible light photocatalysis. The phase, morphology, microstructure and optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronmicroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy respectively. Under visible light illumination, the fabricated HTM/CDs composite was exhibited an enhanced photo catalytic activity compared to that of pure hierarchical TiO2 microspheres (HTM)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Zhihan Wu, Zhiqiang Wang, Fengxia Geng
Designing well-controlled hierarchical structures on micrometer and nanometer scales represents one of the most important approaches for upgrading the catalytic abilities of electrocatalysts. Although NiFe (oxy)hydroxide has been widely studied as a water oxidation catalyst due to its high catalytic capability and abundance, its structural manipulation has been greatly restricted due to its inherent crystallographic stacking feature. In this work, we report for the first time the construction of a nanotube structure of NiFe (oxy)hydroxide with an inner Ni-rich layer, which was radially aligned on a macroporous nickel foam...
February 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shuo Dou, Li Tao, Ruilun Wang, Samir El Hankari, Ru Chen, Shuangyin Wang
Renewable energy technology has been considered as a "MUST" option to lower the use of fossil fuels for industry and daily life. Designing critical and sophisticated materials is of great importance in order to realize high-performance energy technology. Typically, efficient synthesis and soft surface modification of nanomaterials are important for energy technology. Therefore, there are increasing demands on the rational design of efficient electrocatalysts or electrode materials, which are the key for scalable and practical electrochemical energy devices...
February 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Nathalie Vonrüti, Ulrich Aschauer
The perovskite oxynitride LaTiO_{2}N is a promising material for photocatalytic water splitting under visible light. One of the obstacles towards higher efficiencies of this and similar materials stems from charge-carrier recombination, which could be suppressed by the surface charges resulting from the dipolar field in polar materials. In this study, we investigate the spontaneous polarization in epitaxially strained LaTiO_{2}N thin films via density functional theory calculations. The effect of epitaxial strain on the anion order, resulting out-of-plane polarization, energy barriers for polarization reversal, and corresponding coercive fields are studied...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Changrong Zhu, An-Liang Wang, Wen Xiao, Dongliang Chao, Xiao Zhang, Nguyen Huy Tiep, Shi Chen, Jiani Kang, Xin Wang, Jun Ding, John Wang, Hua Zhang, Hong Jin Fan
Electrocatalytic performance can be enhanced by engineering a purposely designed nanoheterojunction and fine-tuning the interface electronic structure. Herein a new approach of developing atomic epitaxial in-growth in Co-Ni3 N nanowires array is devised, where a nanoconfinement effect is reinforced at the interface. The Co-Ni3 N heterostructure array is formed by thermal annealing NiCo2 O4 precursor nanowires under an optimized condition, during which the nanowire morphology is retained. The epitaxial in-growth structure of Co-Ni3 N at nanometer scale facilitates the electron transfer between the two different domains at the epitaxial interface, leading to a significant enhancement in catalytic activities for both hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (10 and 16 times higher in the respective turn-over frequency compared to Ni3 N-alone nanorods)...
February 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Anel Beganović, Krzysztof B Beć, Raphael Henn, Christian W Huck
The applicability of two elimination techniques for interferences occurring in measurements with cells of short pathlength using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated. Due to the growing interest in the field of vibrational spectroscopy in aqueous biological fluids (e.g. glucose in blood), aqueous solutions of d-(+)-glucose were prepared and split into a calibration set and an independent validation set. All samples were measured with two FT-NIR spectrometers at various spectral resolutions...
January 31, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Dongpeng Yan, Muhammad Arif, Ghulam Yasin, Muhammad Shakeel, Xiaoyu Fang, Rui Gao, Shengfu Ji
The development of durable, low cost and efficient photo/electrolysis for oxygen/hydrogen evolution reactions (OER and HER) is important to fulfill the increasing energy requirement. In this work, high-efficiency and active photo/electrochemical catalysts, CoMn-LDH@g-C3N4 hybrids, have been synthesized successfully through a facile in situ co-precipitation method at room temperature. The CoMn-LDH@g-C3N4 composite exhibits an obvious OER electrocatalytic performance with current density of 40 mA·cm-2 at overpotential of 350 mV for water oxidation, which is 2...
February 12, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Trang-Thi Hong Nguyen, Jooyoung Lee, Joonwon Bae, Byungkwon Lim
Bifunctional catalysts that are highly active toward both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are attractive for efficient electrochemical water splitting. Herein, we report a bifunctional FeCoOOH nanosheet catalyst for highly efficient electrochemical water splitting in an alkaline electrolyte. The FeCoOOH nanosheet arrays were grown directly on the surface of a porous Ni foam by using a simple hydrothermal method. Because of their binary oxyhydroxide structure and high electrical conductivity intrinsic to direct growth, these FeCoOOH nanosheets exhibited excellent activities toward both the HER and OER...
February 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Dorien Van de Wouwer, Wout Boerjan, Bartel Vanholme
Global warming and the consequent climate change is one of the major environmental challenges we are facing today. The driving force behind the rise in temperature is our fossil-based economy, which releases massive amounts of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission, we need to scale down our dependency on fossil resources, implying that we need other sources for energy and chemicals to feed our economy. Here, plants have an important role to play; by means of photosynthesis, plants capture solar energy to split water and fix carbon derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide...
February 12, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Sonal Mathur, Mahaveer P Sharma, Anjana Jajoo
In this study, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of high temperature stress (44 °C) in maize plants colonized with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Various parameters characterizing photosynthetic activity were measured in order to estimate the photosynthetic efficiency in maize plants. It was observed that density of active reaction centers of PSII, quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), linear electron transport, excitation energy trapping, performance index, net photosynthesis rate increased in AMF (+) plants at 44 °C ± 0...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Andy Dang, Christopher J Shaffer, Daniel Bim, John Lawler, Michael Lesslie, Victor Ryzhov, Frantisek Turecek
(2,2'-bipyridine)M=O+ ions (M = Cu, Ni, Co) were generated by collision-induced dissociation and near-UV photodissociation of readily available [(2,2'-bipyridine)MII(NO3)]+ ions in the gas phase and their structure was confirmed by ion-molecule reactions combined with isotope labeling. Upon storage in a quadrupole ion trap, the (2,2'-bipyridine)M=O+ ions spontaneously added water, and the formed [(2,2'-bipyridine)M=O + H2O]+ complexes eliminated OH upon further near-UV photodissociation. This reaction sequence can be accomplished at a single laser wavelength in the range of 260-340 nm to achieve stoichiometric homolytic cleavage of gaseous water...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Moamen M Soliman, Mohamed H Al Haron, Menna Samir, Sarah A Tolba, Basamat S Shaheen, Ahmed W Amer, Omar F Mohammed, Nageh K Allam
Black TiO2 is being widely investigated due to its superior optical activity and potential applications in photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Herein, the limitations of the hydrogenation process of TiO2 nanostructures are unraveled by exploiting the fundamental tradeoffs affecting the overall efficiency of the water splitting process. To control the nature and concentration of defect states, different reduction rates are applied to sub-100 nm TiO2 nanotubes, chosen primarily for their superiority over their long counterparts...
February 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Guang Liu, Rui Yao, Yong Zhao, Muheng Wang, Na Li, Yibing Li, Xin Bo, Jinping Li, Chuan Zhao
The rational modulation of composition and structure is critical for the development of robust and efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts for water splitting. In this study, an onion-like N-doped carbon nanorods hybrid (denoted as ONC) with encapsulated Ni/Fe3O4 heterostructures has been fabricated by the pyrolysis of an NiFe-based coordination polymer under a N2 atmosphere. The nanorod-like morphology is transferred from the polymer to the hybrids and generates ONC nanolayers encapsulated with core-shell Ni/Fe3O4 nanostructures...
February 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Xiang Cheng, Yajun Zhang, Hongyan Hu, Mingdong Shang, Yingpu Bi
Herein, a two-pronged approach to obtain excellent visible-light performance of SrTiO3/TiO2 photoelectrodes for water oxidation is presented. More specifically, the combination of hetero-constructing SrTiO3 nanocubes and Cr3+/Ti3+ dual-doping has been demonstrated for achieving high efficiency of charge separation and extending photoresponse of TiO2 nanotube arrays from the UV to visible light region. As expected, this unique Cr-SrTiO3-x/Cr-TiO2-x photoanode exhibited remarkably improved PEC performance for water splitting (4...
February 9, 2018: Nanoscale
S Kassi, T Stoltmann, M Casado, M Daëron, A Campargue
Doppler-free saturated-absorption Lamb dips were measured at sub-Pa pressures on rovibrational lines of H216O near 7180 cm-1, using optical feedback frequency stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The saturation of the considered lines is so high that at the early stage of the ring down, the cavity loss rate remains unaffected by the absorption. By referencing the laser source to an optical frequency comb, transition frequencies are determined down to 100 Hz precision and kHz accuracy. The developed setup allows resolving highly K-type blended doublets separated by about 10 MHz (to be compared to a HWHM Doppler width on the order of 300 MHz)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Elif Demir, Serdar Akbayrak, Ahmet M Önal, Saim Özkar
Ruthenium(0) nanoparticles supported on nanoceria (Ru0/CeO2) were prepared by reduction of Ru3+ ions on the surface of ceria using aqueous solution of NaBH4. The Ru0/CeO2 samples were characterized by advanced analytical tools and employed as electrocatalysts on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in hydrogen evolution from water. The GCE, modified by Ru0/CeO2 (1.86 wt % Ru), provides an incredible electrocatalytic activity with a high exchange current density of 0.67 mA·cm-2, low overpotential of 47 mV at j = 10 mA·cm-2, and small Tafel slope of 41 mV·dec-1...
February 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ziliang Chen, Yuan Ha, Yang Liu, Hao Wang, Hongyuan Yang, Hongbin Xu, Yanjun Li, Renbing Wu
Developing cost-effective and highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great interest for overall water splitting, but still remains challenging issue. Herein, a self-template route is employed to fabricate a unique hybrid composite constructed by encapsulating cobalt nitrides (Co5.47N) nanoparticles within three-dimensional (3D) N-doped porous carbon polyhedra (Co5.47N NP@N-PC), which can be served as highly active bifunctional electrocatalyst...
February 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hong Li, Fei Ke, Junfa Zhu
The development of a highly efficient and stable bifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting is still a challenging issue in obtaining clean and sustainable chemical fuels. Herein, a novel bifunctional catalyst consisting of 2D transition-metal phosphide nanosheets with abundant reactive sites templated by Co-centered metal-organic framework nanosheets, denoted as CoP-NS/C, has been developed through a facile one-step low-temperature phosphidation process. The as-prepared CoP-NS/C has large specific surface area and ultrathin nanosheets morphology providing rich catalytic active sites...
February 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
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