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water splitting

Chaoran Jiang, Savio J A Moniz, Aiqin Wang, Tao Zhang, Junwang Tang
It is widely accepted within the community that to achieve a sustainable society with an energy mix primarily based on solar energy we need an efficient strategy to convert and store sunlight into chemical fuels. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) device would therefore play a key role in offering the possibility of carbon-neutral solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. The past five years have seen a surge in the development of promising semiconductor materials. In addition, low-cost earth-abundant co-catalysts are ubiquitous in their employment in water splitting cells due to the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER)...
June 23, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Siyu Yao, Xiao Zhang, Wu Zhou, Rui Gao, Wenqian Xu, Yifan Ye, Lili Lin, Xiaodong Wen, Ping Liu, Bingbing Chen, Ethan Crumlin, Jinghua Guo, Zhijun Zuo, Weizhen Li, Jinglin Xie, Li Lu, Christopher J Kiely, Lin Gu, Chuan Shi, José A Rodriguez, Ding Ma
The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (CO+H2O=H2+CO2) is an essential process for hydrogen generation and CO removal in various energy-related chemical operations. This equilibrium-limited reaction is favored at a low working temperature. Potential application in fuel cells also requires a WGS catalyst to be highly active, stable and energy-efficient and match the working temperature of on-site hydrogen generation and consumption units. We synthesized Au layered clusters on an α-MoC substrate to create an interfacial catalyst system for the ultra-low-temperature WGS reaction...
June 22, 2017: Science
Minghong Wu, Yuxi Wang, Yang Xu, Jie Ming, Min Zhou, Rui Xu, Qun Fu, Yong Lei
Nanowall has been regarded as a promising architecture for highly efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to various superiorities, such as open geometry, highly reactive facets, independent contact with current collector etc. Here, vertically aligned Bi2MoO6 nanosheet array, which is also called nanowall, is first achieved directly on the ITO glass by a facile solvothermal approach. The structural features not only offer multiple superiorities for PEC processes, and also provide the bridge for in-depth insights of intrinsic features of Bi2MoO6 photoanodes...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bo Chen, Haifeng Jiang, Xiang Liu, Xuejiao Hu
Transport of ionic solutions through graphene oxide (GO) membranes is a complicated issue because the complex and tortuous structure inside make it very hard to clarify. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigated the mechanism of water transport and ions movement across the multilayer graphene oxide. The significant flow rate is considerably influenced by the structural parameters of GO membranes. Due to the size effect on shrunken real flow area, there is disagreement between classical continuum model and nano-scaled flow...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Natav Yatom, Yuval Elbaz, Shelly Navon, Maytal Caspary Toroker
Hematite's (α-Fe2O3) major limitation to efficiently splitting water using sunlight is the low rate of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Thus, identifying the OER rate limiting step is a cornerstone to enhancing the current under low applied potential. Different measurement techniques showed similar absorption difference spectra during a change in applied potential on the hematite anode below and above the onset of the OER in the dark and under light. This absorption change was shown to result from surface modification during the OER, but the specific surface species could not be resolved...
June 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yuelin Peng, Gokul V Govindaraju, Dong Ki Lee, Kyoung-Shin Choi, Trisha L Andrew
We report an unassisted solar water splitting system powered by a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-containing semi-transparent organic solar cell. Two major merits of this fullerene-free solar cell enable its integration with a BiVO4 photoanode. First is the high open circuit voltage and high fill factor displayed by this single junction solar cell, which yields sufficient power to effect water splitting when serially-connected to an appropriate electrode/catalyst. Second, the wavelength-resolved photoaction spectrum of the DPP-based solar cell has minimal overlap with that of the BiVO4 photoanode, thus ensuring that light collection across these two components can be optimized...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Juliana Souza Ribeiro, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de Oliveira, Nicole Brand Ederli
The genus Anableps is composed of species Anableps anableps, Anableps dowi, and Anableps microlepis. These fishes are tropical and usually live on the surface of brackish water, being popularly known as four-eyed-fishes due to the presence of prominent eyes and a pupil split horizontally. A. anableps and A. microlepis are considered as sister species that live in sympatry in South America. A. dowi, however, is restricted to the Pacific Ocean (Central America) and is considered the most primitive species of this genus...
June 17, 2017: Parasitology Research
Jian Xiao, Yan Zhang, Zheye Zhang, Qi-Ying Lv, Feng Jing, Kai Chi, Shuai Wang
To devise and facilely synthesize an efficient noble metal-free electrocatalyst for accelerating the sluggish kinetics in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are still a big challenge for electrolytic water splitting. Herein, we present a simple one-step approach for constructing self-supported biocarbon fiber cloth decorated with molybdenum carbide nanoparticles (BCF/Mo2C) electrodes by a direct annealing treatment of the Mo oxyanions loaded cotton T-shirt. The Mo2C nanoparticles not only serve as the catalytic active sites toward the HER but also enhance the hydrophilicity and conductivity of resultant electrodes...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shoulin Gu, Xiaoxue Zhou, Fengang Zheng, Liang Fang, Wen Dong, Mingrong Shen
A porous carbon layer was inserted between a BiFeO3 film and a Pt catalyst for efficient solar water splitting. A photocathodic current density of -235.4 μA cm(-2) at 0 V versus RHE and an onset potential of 1.19 V versus RHE were obtained under 100 mW cm(-2) Xe-lamp illumination.
June 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Jie Dai, Yinlong Zhu, Yubo Chen, Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao
Electrochemical energy storage and conversion technologies, such as water-splitting devices, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and regenerative fuel cells, are promising alternatives to traditional nonrenewable energy systems. Given the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the above renewable-energy technologies, the development of efficient OER electrocatalysts with high performance is of great importance. Here, we demonstrate a layer-structured oxide Na0.86Co0.95Fe0.05O2 (NCF0.05) as a novel electrocatalyst for efficient water oxidation in alkaline media...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Manuel Graf, Gerson Mette, Dominik Leuenberger, Yeliz Gurdal, Marcella Iannuzzi, Wolf-Dietrich Zabka, Stephan Schnidrig, Benjamin Probst, Jürg Hutter, Roger Alberto, Jürg Osterwalder
Metal complexes of the tetradentate bipyridine based macrocycle pyrphyrin (Pyr) have recently shown promise as water reduction catalysts in homogeneous photochemical water splitting reactions. In this study, the adsorption and metalation of pyrphyrin on stoichiometric TiO2(110) is investigated in ultrahigh vacuum by means of scanning tunneling microscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and density functional theory. In a joint experimental and computational effort, the local adsorption geometry at low coverage, the long-range molecular ordering at higher coverage and the electronic structure have been determined for both the bare ligand and the cobalt-metalated Pyr molecule on TiO2...
June 15, 2017: Nanoscale
Keshab Karmakar, Ayan Sarkar, Kalyan Mandal, Gobinda Gopal Khan
The effective utilization of abundant visible solar light for photoelectrochemical water splitting is a green approach for energy harvesting to reduce the enormous rise of carbon content in atmosphere. Here, a novel efficient strategy for designing of p-n type nano-heterojunction photoanode is demonstrated for empowering the water splitting efficiency by growing low band-gap p-CuFeO2 nanolayer on n-ZnO nanorods by an easy and scalable electrochemical route. The photoconversion efficiency of p-n CuFeO2/ZnO photoanode is found to be ~450% higher than that of the pristine ZnO Nanorods electrode under visible solar light illumination (λ > 420 nm, intensity 10 mWcm-2)...
June 14, 2017: Nanotechnology
Xin Liang, Bingxia Zheng, Ligang Chen, Juntao Zhang, Zhongbin Zhuang, Biao-Hua Chen
Bimetallic phosphides have attracted research interests for the synergistic effect and superior electrocatalytic activities for electrocatalytic water splitting. Herein, a MOF-derived phosphorization approach was developed to produce Ni2P-CoP bimetallic phosphides as bifunctional electrocatalysts for both hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER). Ni2P-CoP shows superior electrocatalytic activities to both pure Ni2P and CoP towards HER and OER, revealing a strong synergistic effect. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) elemental mapping analysis show that in the sample Ni2P-CoP, the Ni2P and CoP nanoparticles with average particle size 10-20 nm were mixed closely in nanoscales, creating numerous Ni2P/CoP interfaces...
June 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Torben Daeneke, Nripen Dahr, Paul Atkin, Rhiannon M Clark, Christopher J Harrison, Robert Brkljača, Naresh Pillai, Bao Yue Zhang, Ali Zavabeti, Samuel J Ippolito, Kyle J Berean, Jian Zhen Ou, Michael S Strano, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
Sulfur-rich molybdenum sulfides are an emerging class of inorganic coordination polymers that are predominantly utilized for their superior catalytic properties. Here we investigate surface water dependent properties of sulfur-rich MoSx (x = 3(2)/3) and its interaction with water vapor. We report that MoSx is a highly hygroscopic semiconductor, which can reversibly bind up to 0.9 H2O molecule per Mo. The presence of surface water is found to have a profound influence on the semiconductor's properties, modulating the material's photoluminescence by over 1 order of magnitude, in transition from dry to moist ambient...
June 14, 2017: ACS Nano
Yurui Xue, Zicheng Zuo, Yongjun Li, Huibiao Liu, Yuliang Li
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and overall water splitting are major energy and chemical conversion efforts. Progress in electrocatalytic reactions have shown that the future is limitless in many fields. However, it is urgent to develop efficient electrocatalysts. Here, the first graphdiyne-supported efficient and bifunctional electrocatalyst is reported using 3D graphdiyne foam as scaffolds, and NiCo2 S4 nanowires as building blocks (NiCo2 S4 NW/GDF). NiCo2 S4 NW/GDF exhibits outstanding catalytic activity and stability toward both OER and HER, as well as overall water splitting in alkaline media...
June 14, 2017: Small
Haili Tong, Yi Jiang, Qian Zhang, Jialing Li, Wenchao Jiang, Donghui Zhang, Na Li, Lixin Xia
The rational design of active photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is crucial for future applications in sustainable energy conversion. A combination of catalysts with photoelectrodes is generally required to improve surface kinetics and suppress surface recombination. In this study, we present an iridium complex (Ir-PO3H2) modified WO3 photoanode (WO3+Ir-PO3H2) for PEC water oxidation. When the Ir-based molecular catalyst (Ir-PO3H2) is anchored to a WO3 electrode, the photoanode shows a significant improvement both in photocurrent and faradaic efficiency compared to bare WO3...
June 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
Swhetha S M Bhat, Ho Won Jang
In recent years bismuth based nanomaterials are drawing considerable interest as potential candidates for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their narrow band gap, nontoxicity and low cost. The unique electronic structure with well dispersed valance band comprising of Bi 6s and O 2p orbital in the bismuth based materials offers suitable band gap to harvest visible light. This review presents the significant advancements in exploiting bismuth based materials for solar water splitting. An overview of different strategies employed and new ideas adopted to improve the PEC performance are discussed for these materials...
June 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
Shivaji Sisinthy, Dwaipayan Chakraborty, Harikrishna Adicherla, Sathyanarayana Reddy Gundlapally
Phylogenetic analyses were performed for members of the family Chromatiaceae, signature nucleotides deduced and the genus Alishewanella transferred to Chromatiaceae. Phylogenetic analyses were executed for the genera Alishewanella, Arsukibacterium and Rheinheimera and the genus Rheinheimera is proposed to be split, with the creation of the Pararheinheimera gen. nov. Furthermore, the species Rheinheimera longhuensis, is transferred to the genus Alishewanella as Alishewanella longhuensis comb. nov. Besides, the genera Alishewanella and Rheinheimera are also emended...
June 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ran Wang, Gang Li, Andong Zhang, Wen Wang, Guanwei Cui, Jianfeng Zhao, Zhiqiang Shi, Bo Tang
We design and synthesize four pyran-embedded perylene diimide (PDI) compounds through a straightforward methodology. UV-driven photocatalytic water splitting using the compounds as photocatalysts demonstrates that the highest photocatalytic H2 evolution rate under UV light is 0.90 mmol g(-1) h(-1), which paves the way towards organic photoresponsive materials.
June 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Wen-Xiao Zhao, Ning Cui, Hai-Qiang Jiang, Xu-Ming Ji, Xiao-Chun Han, Bing-Bing Han, Tong Wang, Shi-Jun Wang
Radix Astragali (RA) with slight sweet and warm property is a significant "qi tonifying" herb; it is indicated for the syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency (DSSD). The purpose of this research was to explore effects of RA and its split components on gene expression profiles related to water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome for identifying components representing property and flavor of RA. The results indicated that RA and its split components, especially polysaccharides component, significantly increased the body weight and the urine volume and decreased the water load index of model rats...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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