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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924992/p-n-depleted-bulk-biobr-%C3%AE-fe2o3-heterojunctions-applied-for-unbiased-solar-water-splitting
#1
Hua-Yan Si, Chen-Jing Mao, Ya-Meng Xie, Xiu-Guo Sun, Jin-Jin Zhao, Na Zhou, Jian-Qiang Wang, Wen-Jie Feng, Yan-Ting Li
P-N depleted bulk BiOBr/α-Fe2O3 heterojunction (DBH) nanostructures with the growth of (001) BiOBr facets were prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. BiOBr possesses an average thickness of around 50 nm and shows preferential exposure of the (001) facets. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 5 nm, are attached on the surface of BiOBr as 20-50 nm clusters with an intimate contact interface. Such DBH nanostructures show high hydrogen evolution, and 193 mmol g(-1) of H2 is produced with DBH containing 1 wt% Pt, which is 6...
December 7, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921384/a-robust-molecular-catalyst-generated-in-situ-for-photo-and-electrochemical-water-oxidation
#2
Hussein A Younus, Nazir Ahmad, Adeel H Chughtai, Matthias Vandichel, Michael Busch, Kristof Van Hecke, Mekhman Yusubov, Shaoxian Song, Francis Verpoort
Water splitting is the key step towards artificial photosystems for solar energy conversion and storage in the form of chemical bonding. The oxidation of water is the bottle-neck of this process that hampers its practical utility and hence efficient, robust, and also easy to make catalytic systems based on cheap and earth abundant materials are of exceptional importance. Here, we present an in-situ generated cobalt catalyst [Co(II)(TCA)2(H2O)2] (TCA = 1-Mesityl-1,2,3-1H-triazole-4-carboxylate) efficiently conducting photochemical water oxidation at near-neutral conditions...
December 5, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919529/three-step-effluent-chlorination-increases-disinfection-efficiency-and-reduces-dbp-formation-and-toxicity
#3
Yu Li, Xiangru Zhang, Mengting Yang, Jiaqi Liu, Wanxin Li, Nigel J D Graham, Xiaoyan Li, Bo Yang
Chlorination is extensively applied for disinfecting sewage effluents, but it unintentionally generates disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Using seawater for toilet flushing introduces a high level of bromide into domestic sewage. Chlorination of sewage effluent rich in bromide causes the formation of brominated DBPs. The objectives of achieving a disinfection goal, reducing disinfectant consumption and operational costs, as well as diminishing adverse effects to aquatic organisms in receiving water body remain a challenge in sewage treatment...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918034/conformational-equilibrium-and-internal-dynamics-in-the-iso-propanol-water-dimer
#4
Luca Evangelisti, Qian Gou, Gang Feng, Walther Caminati, Griffin J Mead, Ian A Finneran, P Brandon Carroll, Geoffrey A Blake
The molecular complex between iso-propanol and water has been investigated by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Two distinct rotational spectra have been assigned, corresponding to two different isomers of the adduct. In both cases the water molecule acts as a proton donor to the alcoholic oxygen atom of iso-propanol in its gauche arrangement. The isomer in which the water molecule is oriented along the symmetry plane of the iso-propanol molecule (inner) is more stable than the second isomer, where the water is positioned outside the iso-propanol symmetry plane (outer)...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918033/investigating-the-behavior-of-various-cocatalysts-on-lataon2-photoanode-for-visible-light-water-splitting
#5
Wenping Si, Daniele Pergolesi, Fatima Haydous, Aline Fluri, Alexander Wokaun, Thomas Lippert
We performed a comparative study on the photoelectrochemical performance of LaTaON2 loaded with NiOx, Ni0.7Fe0.3Ox, CoOx and IrOx as cocatalysts. Ni-based oxides lead to the highest improvement on the photoelectrochemical performance, while CoOx and IrOx also enhance the performance though to a lower extent, but they simultaneously introduce more pseudocapacitive current thus resulting in an inefficient utilization of the photo-generated holes. Repetitive voltage cycling between 1.0 VRHE and 1.6 VRHE transforms the NiOx and Ni0...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918021/photo-catalyzed-surface-hydrolysis-of-iridium-iii-ions-on-semiconductors-a-facile-method-for-the-preparation-of-semiconductor-irox-composite-photoanodes-toward-oxygen-evolution-reaction
#6
Qingyong Wu, Di Xu, Ning Xue, Tengyi Liu, Min Xiang, Peng Diao
We previously reported that the hydrolysis of Ir(3+) in homogeneous solution could be triggered by irradiation with light whose energy was larger than a threshold value. In this work, we demonstrated that, by introducing Fe2O3 particles into solution, the incident light energy-restriction for the photo-catalyzed hydrolysis could be broken and the hydrolysis occurred at the Fe2O3/solution interface. The photo-generated holes on the Fe2O3 surface played a key role in oxidizing Ir(iii) to Ir(iv) species and triggered the deposition of IrOx...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916848/water-will-be-the-coal-of-the-future-the-untamed-dream-of-jules-verne-for-a-solar-fuel
#7
REVIEW
Vladimir K Ryabchuk, Vyacheslav N Kuznetsov, Alexei V Emeline, Yurii M Artem'ev, Galina V Kataeva, Satoshi Horikoshi, Nick Serpone
This article evokes the futuristic visions of two giants, one a writer, Jules Verne, who foresaw water as the coal of the future, and the other a scientist, Giacomo Ciamician, who foresaw the utilization of solar energy as an energy source with which to drive photochemical and photocatalytic reactions for the betterment of mankind. Specifically, we examine briefly the early work of the 1960s and 1970s on the photosplitting of free water and water adsorbed on solid supports, based mostly on metal oxides, from which both hydrogen and oxygen evolve in the expected stoichiometric ratio of 2 to 1...
November 29, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914582/photochemistry-of-nanoporous-carbons-perspectives-in-energy-conversion-and-environmental-remediation
#8
REVIEW
Alicia Gomis-Berenguer, Leticia F Velasco, Inmaculada Velo-Gala, Conchi O Ania
The interest in the use of nanoporous carbon materials in applications related to energy conversion and storage, either as catalysts or additives, has grown over recent decades in various disciplines. Since the early studies reporting the benefits of the use of nanoporous carbons as inert supports of semiconductors and as electron acceptors that enhance the splitting of the photogenerated excitons, many researchers have investigated the key role of carbon matrices coupled to all types of photoactive materials...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913279/a-randomised-clinical-in-situ-study-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-novel-low-abrasivity-anti-sensitivity-dentifrices-on-dentine-wear
#9
J Seong, C Hall, S Young, C Parkinson, E Macdonald, S Bodfel Jones, N X West
OBJECTIVES: To compare the abrasive wear on human dentine in an in situ model associated with use of an experimental low abrasivity anti-sensitivity dentifrice containing 1% alumina and 5% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) with an experimental ultra-low abrasivity non-alumina 5% STP dentifrice, a higher abrasivity daily-use whitening dentifrice, and water as controls. METHODS: This was a single-centre, single-blind, randomised, split-mouth, four-treatment, two-period, crossover in situ study in 29 healthy subjects...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910847/efficiency-limits-for-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#10
Katherine T Fountaine, Hans Joachim Lewerenz, Harry A Atwater
Theoretical limiting efficiencies have a critical role in determining technological viability and expectations for device prototypes, as evidenced by the photovoltaics community's focus on detailed balance. However, due to their multicomponent nature, photoelectrochemical devices do not have an equivalent analogue to detailed balance, and reported theoretical efficiency limits vary depending on the assumptions made. Here we introduce a unified framework for photoelectrochemical device performance through which all previous limiting efficiencies can be understood and contextualized...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904896/rapid-synthesis-of-ultralong-fe-oh-3-cu-oh-2-core-shell-nanowires-self-supported-on-copper-foam-as-a-highly-efficient-3d-electrode-for-water-oxidation
#11
Chun-Chao Hou, Chuan-Jun Wang, Qian-Qian Chen, Xiao-Jun Lv, Wen-Fu Fu, Yong Chen
One-dimensional core-shell nanowire materials have recently received great attention as durable catalysts for water splitting. Herein we report the facile and rapid synthesis of ultralong Fe(OH)3:Cu(OH)2 core-shell nanowires grown in situ on an open 3D electrode to function as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for water oxidation. It only requires an overpotential of ∼365 mV to reach a 10 mA cm(-2) current density in 1.0 M KOH. As far as we know, this shows the best result amongst Cu-based heterogeneous OER systems reported to date...
December 1, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904075/in-vitro-permeation-and-skin-retention-of-%C3%AE-mangostin-proniosome
#12
Gan Siaw Chin, Hiroaki Todo, Wesam Radhi Kadhum, Mariani Abdul Hamid, Kenji Sugibayashi
The current investigation evaluated the potential of proniosome as a carrier to enhance skin permeation and skin retention of a highly lipophilic compound, α-mangostin. α-Mangostin proniosomes were prepared using the coacervation phase seperation method. Upon hydration, α-mangostin loaded niosomes were characterized for size, polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency (EE) and ζ-potential. The in vitro permeation experiments with dermis-split Yucatan Micropig (YMP) skin revealed that proniosomes composed of Spans, soya lecithin and cholesterol were able to enhance the skin permeation of α-mangostin with a factor range from 1...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901129/platinum-single-atom-and-cluster-catalysis-of-the-hydrogen-evolution-reaction
#13
Niancai Cheng, Samantha Stambula, Da Wang, Mohammad Norouzi Banis, Jian Liu, Adam Riese, Biwei Xiao, Ruying Li, Tsun-Kong Sham, Li-Min Liu, Gianluigi A Botton, Xueliang Sun
Platinum-based catalysts have been considered the most effective electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction in water splitting. However, platinum utilization in these electrocatalysts is extremely low, as the active sites are only located on the surface of the catalyst particles. Downsizing catalyst nanoparticles to single atoms is highly desirable to maximize their efficiency by utilizing nearly all platinum atoms. Here we report on a practical synthesis method to produce isolated single platinum atoms and clusters using the atomic layer deposition technique...
November 30, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900829/self-templating-synthesis-of-hollow-co3-o4-microtube-arrays-for-highly-efficient-water-electrolysis
#14
Yun Pei Zhu, Tian Yi Ma, Mietek Jaroniec, Shi Zhang Qiao
In spite of recent advances in the synthesis of hollow micro/nanostructures, the fabrication of three-dimensional electrodes on the basis of these structures remains a major challenge. Herein, we develop an electrochemical sacrificial-template strategy to fabricate hollow Co3 O4 microtube arrays with hierarchical porosity. The resultant unique structures and integrated electrode configurations impart enhanced mass transfer and electron mobility, ensuring high activity and stability in catalyzing oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899075/thermal-sensitivity-of-growth-indicates-heritable-variation-in-1-year-old-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#15
Matti Janhunen, Juha Koskela, Nguyễn Hữu Ninh, Harri Vehviläinen, Heikki Koskinen, Antti Nousiainen, Ngô Phú Thỏa
BACKGROUND: Rainbow trout is an important aquaculture species, which has a worldwide distribution across various production environments. The diverse locations of trout farms involve remarkable variation in environmental factors such as water temperature, which is of major importance for the performance of fish. Thus, robust fish that could thrive under different and suboptimal thermal conditions is a desirable goal for trout breeding. Using a split-family experimental design (40 full-/half-sib groups) for a rainbow trout population derived from the Finnish national breeding program, we studied how two different rearing temperatures (14 and 20 °C) affect feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion ratio in 1-year-old fish...
November 29, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899063/a-simple-sample-preparation-for-simultaneous-determination-of-chloramphenicol-and-its-succinate-esters-in-food-products-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#16
Vasiliy Amelin, Anton Korotkov
A simple method is described for determination of chloramphenicol and its succinate esters in food products. Examination of food products using HPLC/high-resolution mass spectrometry showed the presence of not only chloramphenicol but also its succinate forms. A scheme is proposed for determining chloramphenicol and its succinate esters (calculated as chloramphenicol) in meat (beef, pork, poultry), milk, liver, kidney, eggs, fish and honey. Analytes are extracted from a 1.0 g sample with 5 ml acetonitrile. It was found that using the method of standard addition and diluting the extract with water leads to the elimination of matrix effects and also eliminates errors associated with peak splitting due to the separate elution of the differing forms of the analyte...
November 30, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897374/efficient-overall-water-splitting-electrocatalysis-using-lepidocrocite-vooh-hollow-nanospheres
#17
Huanhuan Shi, Hanfeng Liang, Fangwang Ming, Zhoucheng Wang
Herein we report the control synthesis of lepidocrocite VOOH hollow nanospheres and further their applications in electrocatalytic water splitting for the first time. By tuning the surface area of the nanospheres, the optimal performance can be achieved with low overpotentials of 270 mV for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and 164 mV for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at 10 mA cm(-2) in 1 m KOH, respectively. Furthermore, when used as both the anode and cathode for overall water splitting, a low cell voltage of 1...
November 29, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890489/spinal-muscular-atrophy-types-i-and-ii-what-are-the-differences-in%C3%A2-body-composition-and-resting-energy-expenditure
#18
Simona Bertoli, Ramona De Amicis, Chiara Mastella, Giulia Pieri, Ester Giaquinto, Alberto Battezzati, Alessandro Leone, Giovanni Baranello
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Different neuromuscular functional domains in types I and II Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMAI and SMAII) could lead to differences in body composition (BC) and resting energy expenditure (REE). Their identification could provide the key to defining appropriate strategies in clinical dietary management, but data comparing SMAI and SMAII in terms of BC and REE are not yet available. We measured total and regional fat (FM), lean (LBM), mineral (BMC) masses, body water (total, intra- and extra-cellular, TBW, ICW, ECW) and REE in a sample of SMAI and II children, matched for age and sex, and also adjusting for body size to compare these features of the two SMA phenotypes...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885086/comparison-of-primary-doses-obtained-in-three-6-mv-photon-beams-using-a-small-attenuator
#19
Christoph Trauernicht
It is a common technique in radiotherapy treatment planning systems to simplify the calculations by splitting the radiation beam into two components: namely the primary and scattered components. The contributions of the two components are evaluated separately and then summed to give the dose at the point of interest. Usually, the primary dose is obtained experimentally by extrapolating the ionization measured within the medium to zero-field size (Godden, Gamma radiation from cobalt 60 teletherapy units.Br. J...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879010/photochemical-reduction-of-co2-with-visible-light-using-a-polyoxometalate-as-photoreductant
#20
Eynat Haviv, Linda J W Shimon, Ronny Neumann
The photochemical reduction of CO2 to CO requires two electrons and two protons that, in the past, have been derived from sacrificial amine donors that are also non-innocent in the catalytic cycle. Towards the realization of a water-splitting reaction as the source of electrons and protons for CO2 reduction, we have found that a reduced acidic polyoxometalate, H5 PW(V)2 W10 O40 , is a photoactive electron and proton donor with visible light through excitation of the intervalence charge-transfer band. Upon linking the polyoxometalate to a dirhenium molecular catalyst, a cascade of transformations occurs where the polyoxometalate is electrochemically reduced at a relatively low negative potential of 1...
November 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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