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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088091/solar-to-chemical-and-solar-to-fuel-production-from-co2-by-metabolically-engineered-microorganisms
#1
REVIEW
Han Min Woo
Recent development of carbon capture utilization (CCU) for reduction of greenhouse gas emission are reviewed. In the case of CO2 utilization, I describe development of solar-to-chemical and solar-to-fuel technology that refers to the use of solar energy to convert CO2 to desired chemicals and fuels. Photoautotrophic cyanobacterial platforms have been extensively developed on this principle, producing a diverse range of alcohols, organic acids, and isoprenoids directly from CO2. Recent breakthroughs in the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria were reviewed...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087930/fungal-ecology-principles-and-mechanisms-of-colonization-and-competition-by-saprotrophic-fungi
#2
Lynne Boddy, Jennifer Hiscox
Decomposer fungi continually deplete the organic resources they inhabit, so successful colonization of new resources is a crucial part of their ecology. Colonization success can be split into (i) the ability to arrive at, gain entry into, and establish within a resource and (ii) the ability to persist within the resource until reproduction and dissemination. Fungi vary in their life history strategies, the three main drivers of which are stress (S-selected), disturbance (ruderal, or R-selected), and incidence of competitors (C-selected); however, fungi often have combinations of characteristics from different strategies...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087660/the-morphophysiological-dormancy-in-amborella-trichopoda-seeds-is-a-pleisiomorphic-trait-in-angiosperms
#3
Bruno Fogliani, Gildas Gâteblé, Matthieu Villegente, Isabelle Fabre, Nicolas Klein, Nicolas Anger, Carol C Baskin, Charlie P Scutt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent parsimony-based reconstructions suggest that seeds of early angiosperms had either morphophysiological or physiological dormancy, with the former considered as more probable. The aim of this study was to determine the class of seed dormancy present in Amborella trichopoda, the sole living representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage Amborellales, with a view to resolving fully the class of dormancy present at the base of the angiosperm clade. METHODS: Drupes of A...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075553/double-layer-graphene-outperforming-monolayer-as-catalyst-on-silicon-photocathode-for-hydrogen-production
#4
Uk Sim, Joonhee Moon, Joohee Lee, JungHyun An, Hyo-Yong Ahn, Dong Jin Kim, Insu Jo, Cheolho Jeon, Seungwu Han, Byung Hee Hong, Ki Tae Nam
Photoelectrochemical cells are used to split hydrogen and oxygen from water molecules to generate chemical fuels to satisfy our ever-increasing energy demands. However, it is a major challenge to design efficient catalysts to use in the photoelectochemical process. Recently, research has focused on carbon-based catalysts, as they are non-precious and environmentally benign. Interesting advances have also been made in controlling nanostructure interfaces and in introducing new materials as catalysts in the photoelectrochemical cell...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074948/hot-electron-driven-photocatalytic-water-splitting
#5
Bingya Hou, Lang Shen, Haotian Shi, Rehan Kapadia, Stephen B Cronin
We report measurements of photocatalytic water splitting using Au films with and without TiO2 coatings. In these structures, a thin (3-10 nm) film of TiO2 is deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of a 100 nm thick Au film. We utilize an AC lock-in technique, which enables us to detect the relatively small photocurrents (∼μA) produced by the short-lived hot electrons that are photoexcited in the metal. Under illumination, the bare Au film produces a small AC photocurrent (<1 μA) for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) due to hot electrons and hot holes, respectively, that are photoexcited in the Au film...
January 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072515/ultralight-flexible-and-semi-transparent-metal-oxide-papers-for-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#6
Minwei Zhang, Chengyi Hou, Arnab Halder, Qijin Chi
Thanks to their versatile functionality, metal oxides (MOs) constitute one of the key family materials in a variety of current demands for sensor, catalysis, energy storage and conversion, optical electronics and piezoelectric mechanics. Much effort has focused on engineering specific nanostructure and macroscopic morphology of MOs that aims to enhance their performances, but the design and controlled synthesis of ultrafine nanostructured MOs in a cost-effective and facile way remains a challenge. In this work, we have exploited the advantages of intrinsic structures of graphene oxide (GO) papers, serving as a sacrificial template, to design and synthesize two-dimensional (2D) layered and free-standing MO papers with ultrafine nanostructures...
January 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071594/first-principles-study-of-the-mechanism-of-wettability-transition-of-defective-graphene
#7
Piotr Błoński, Michal Otyepka
Hydrophobicity of graphene limits its application potential in polar media, therefore modifications of graphene wettability have been in an area of active research for many years. Recently, a reversible wettability transition of graphene has been reported (Xu et al 2014 Sci. Rep. 4 6450). The presence of undercoordinated carbon atoms in otherwise hydrophobic graphene is believed to trigger the hydrophobic to hydrophilic transition, but the underlying mechanism, especially of the reverse process, remained unclear...
January 10, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070969/sensitizers-for-aqueous-based-solar-cells
#8
Chun-Ting Li, Ryan Yeh-Yung Lin, Jiann T Lin
Aqueous dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are attractive due to sustainability and safety of using water as the solvent of the redox mediators, and possible applications of photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, higher tendency of dye-leaching by water and lower wettability of dye molecules are two major obstacles need to be tackled for future applications of aqueous DSSCs. Sensitizers designed for aqueous DSSCs are discussed based on their functions, such as modification of the molecular skeleton and the anchoring group for better stability against dye-leaching by water, and incorporation of hydrophilic entity in the dye molecule or addition of surfactant to the system to increase wettability of the dye for more facile dye regeneration...
January 10, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069225/sonochemical-assisted-hydrothermal-synthesis-of-pseudo-flower-shaped-bismuth-vanadate-bivo4-and-their-solar-driven-water-splitting-application
#9
Ibrahim Khan, Shahid Ali, Muhammad Mansha, Ahsanulhaq Qurashi
Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a well-known photocatalyst due to its lower bandgap (Eg) and visible electromagnetic light absorption capacity. Herein, we reported the pulse ultra-sonochemical assisted hydrothermal approach to synthesize S-BiVO4. For the comparison purpose, H-BiVO4 is also synthesized via conventional hydrothermal approach. The surface morphology of S-BiVO4 through scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicates condensed microarrays (MAs) having pseudo-flower shapes. The energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) spectrum also confirmed the elemental percent composition of Bi, V and O in BiVO4...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068314/modelling-heterogeneous-interfaces-for-solar-water-splitting
#10
REVIEW
Tuan Anh Pham, Yuan Ping, Giulia Galli
The generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight offers a promising approach for producing scalable and sustainable carbon-free energy. The key of a successful solar-to-fuel technology is the design of efficient, long-lasting and low-cost photoelectrochemical cells, which are responsible for absorbing sunlight and driving water splitting reactions. To this end, a detailed understanding and control of heterogeneous interfaces between photoabsorbers, electrolytes and catalysts present in photoelectrochemical cells is essential...
January 9, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068082/gold-nanoclusters-promote-electrocatalytic-water-oxidation-at-the-nanocluster-cose2-interface
#11
Shuo Zhao, Renxi Jin, Hadi Abroshan, Chenjie Zeng, Hui Zhang, Stephen D House, Eric Gottlieb, Hyung J Kim, Judith C Yang, Rongchao Jin
Electrocatalytic water splitting to produce hydrogen comprises the hydrogen and oxygen evolution half reactions (HER and OER), with the latter as the bottleneck process. Thus, enhancing the OER performance and understanding the mechanism are critically important. Herein, we report a strategy for OER enhancement by utilizing gold nanoclusters to form cluster/CoSe2 composites; the latter exhibit largely enhanced OER activity in alkaline solutions. The Au25/CoSe2 composite affords a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at small overpotential of ~0...
January 9, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067360/photoelectrochemical-water-splitting-with-a-srtio3-nb-srtio3-n-n-homojunction-structure
#12
Jiajie Cen, Qiyuan Wu, Danhua Yan, Jing Tao, Kim Kisslinger, Mingzhao Liu, Alexander Orlov
A very limited knowledge exists about the effect of non-uniform doping of epitaxially grown strontium titanate thin film electrodes on their photoelectrochemical performance in water splitting. In this work, water splitting photoanodes featuring an n(+)-n homojunction were fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition technique, where epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films were grown on Nb doped n(+)-SrTiO3 single crystalline substrates. Thermal diffusion of niobium from doped substrates into the deposited thin films formed an n(+)-n homojunction, which was profiled by angle-resolved XPS and cross-sectional STEM-EDX techniques...
January 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066155/structural-analysis-and-optical-properties-of-the-bi2-x-y-x-wo6-system
#13
S Pasternak, D Levy, Y Paz, B Pokroy
Photocatalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy has attracted considerable interest for several decades. One compound already reported as a visible-light-active photocatalyst for water splitting is BiYWO6, a member of the Bi2-x Y x WO6 family of compounds. The structural and optical properties of other members of this family have not been reported to date. In this work, we synthesized various compositions of Bi2-x Y x WO6, studied their optical properties, and report their structural parameters obtained by utilizing powder diffraction coupled with Rietveld refinement...
September 14, 2016: CrystEngComm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065549/an-experimental-investigation-of-underwater-spread-of-oil-spill-in-a-shear-flow
#14
Hongjun Zhu, Jiahui You, Honglei Zhao
The time taken for spilt oil to appear firstly at the sea surface and its location are two key issues for emergency response. The underwater spread of oil spill in a shear flow was studied experimentally in a re-circulating water channel. The high speed imaging technology was employed to record the whole transport process of oil spilt from a leak of a submarine pipe to the surface. Based on the experimental results, three underwater transport types are identified, which are single droplet pattern (model A), linear chain pattern (model B) and oil plume pattern (model C), respectively...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063427/hydrogen-bond-breaking-dynamics-in-the-water-pentamer-terahertz-vrt-spectroscopy-of-a-20-%C3%AE-m-libration
#15
William T S Cole, Raymond S Fellers, Mark R Viant, Richard J Saykally
Hydrogen bonds in solid and liquid water are formed and broken via librational vibrations, hence characterizing the details of these motions is vital to understanding these important dynamics. Here we report the measurement and assignment of 875 transitions comprising 6 subbands originating from out-of-plane librational transitions of the water pentamer-d10 near 512 cm(-1). The precisely measured (ca. 1 ppm) transitions reveal bifurcation splittings of ∼1884 MHz, a ∼4000× enhancement over ground state splittings and 100× greater than predicted by theory...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060435/intralayered-ostwald-ripening-to-ultrathin-nanomesh-catalyst-with-robust-oxygen-evolving-performance
#16
Junfeng Xie, Xiaodong Zhang, Hao Zhang, Jiajia Zhang, Shuang Li, Ruoxing Wang, Bicai Pan, Yi Xie
An etching-intralayered Ostwald ripening process is proposed, which leads to the formation of a β-Ni(OH)2 ultrathin nanomesh with abundant and uniformly distributed nanopores of 3-4 nm. The nanomesh catalyst exhibits outstanding oxygen evolution reaction performance, with high catalytic current density and superior long-term stability, making this Earth-abundant nanomesh catalyst a promising candidate for commercial water splitting.
January 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059713/time-resolved-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy-with-a-water-window-high-harmonic-source
#17
Yoann Pertot, Cédric Schmidt, Mary Matthews, Adrien Chauvet, Martin Huppert, Vit Svoboda, Aaron von Conta, Andres Tehlar, Denitsa Baykusheva, Jean-Pierre Wolf, Hans Jakob Wörner
Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TR-XAS) has so far practically been limited to large-scale facilities, to sub-picosecond temporal resolution and to the condensed phase. Here, we report the realization of TR-XAS with a temporal resolution in the low femtosecond range by developing a table-top high-harmonic source reaching up to 350 eV, thus partially covering the spectral region of 280 to 530 eV, where water is transmissive. We use this source to follow previously unexamined light-induced chemical reactions in the lowest electronic states of isolated CF4(+) and SF6(+) molecules in the gas phase...
January 5, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059504/particulate-photocatalyst-sheets-based-on-carbon-conductor-layer-for-efficient-z-scheme-pure-water-splitting-at-ambient-pressure
#18
Qian Wang, Takashi Hisatomi, Yohichi Suzuki, Zhenhua Pan, Jeongsuk Seo, Masao Katayama, Tsutomu Minegishi, Hiroshi Nishiyama, Tsuyoshi Takata, Kazuhiko Seki, Akihiko Kudo, Taro Yamada, Kazunari Domen
Development of sunlight-driven water splitting systems with high efficiency, scalability, and cost-competitiveness is a central issue for mass production of solar hydrogen as a renewable and storable energy carrier. Photocatalyst sheets comprising a particulate hydrogen evolution photocatalyst (HEP) and an oxygen evolution photocatalyst (OEP) embedded in a conductive thin film can realize efficient and scalable solar hydrogen production using Z-scheme water splitting. However, the use of expensive precious metal thin films that also promote reverse reactions is a major obstacle to developing a cost-effective process at ambient pressure...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055211/multidimensional-large-amplitude-dynamics-in-the-pyridine-water-complex
#19
Rebecca B Mackenzie, Christopher T Dewberry, Ryan D Cornelius, Christopher J Smith, Kenneth R Leopold
Aqueous pyridine plays an important role in a variety of catalytic processes aimed at harnessing solar energy. In this work, the pyridine-water interaction is studied by microwave spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Water forms a hydrogen bond to the nitrogen with the oxygen tilted slightly toward either of the ortho hydrogens of the pyridine, and a tunneling motion involving in-plane rocking of the water interconverts the resulting equivalent structures. A pair of tunneling states with severely perturbed rotational structure is identified and their energy separation, ΔE, is inferred from the perturbations and confirmed by direct measurement...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054439/compound-homojunction-heterojunction-reduces-bulk-and-interface-recombination-in-zno-photoanodes-for-water-splitting
#20
Ning Wang, Min Liu, Hairen Tan, Junhui Liang, Qixing Zhang, Changchun Wei, Ying Zhao, Edward H Sargent, Xiaodan Zhang
Photoelectrochemical water splitting has become far more efficient thanks to the novel ZnOSe/ZnO/BZO thin-film photoanodes fabricated in this work. A novel structure is developed for simultaneously suppressing the charge recombination in the ZnO bulk and at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. This structure achieves a five-fold enhancement in water-splitting performance, compared to that of pristine ZnO photoanodes, when illuminated using visible light.
January 5, 2017: Small
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