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water splitting

Tuan Anh Pham, Xueqiang Zhang, Brandon C Wood, David Prendergast, Sylwia Ptasinska, Tadashi Ogitsu
Many energy storage and conversion devices rely on processes that take place at complex interfaces, where structural and chemical properties are often difficult to probe under operating conditions. A primary example is solar water splitting using high-performance photoelectrochemical cells, where surface chemistry, including native oxide formation, affects hydrogen generation. In this perspective, we discuss some of the challenges associated with interrogating interface chemistry, and how they may be overcome by integrating high-level first-principles calculations of explicit interfaces with ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and direct spectroscopic simulations...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Joanna Parsonage, Josh L Secomb, Jeremy M Sheppard, Brendon K Ferrier, Rebecca A Dowse, Sophia Nimphius
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the isometric push-up (IPU), dynamic push-up (DPU), and force plate pop-up (FP POP) as measures of upper-body isometric and dynamic strength qualities in surfing athletes. Furthermore, the study aimed to compare pop-up performance between stronger and weaker surfers. Eighteen female (n=9) and male (n=9) surfers (age=28.1±6.4 yrs, mass=69.6±10.4 kg, height=172.5±6.7 cm) completed a battery of upper-body strength assessments, of which exhibited high between-day reliability: (IPU, (CV%=4...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jie Yin, Yuxuan Li, Fan Lv, Min Lu, Ke Sun, Wei Wang, Lei Wang, Fangyi Cheng, Yefei Li, Pinxian Xi, Shaojun Guo
The development of highly active and stable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts is crucial for improving the efficiency of water splitting and metal-air battery devices. Herein, an efficient strategy is demonstrated for making the oxygen vacancies dominated cobalt-nickel sulfide interface porous nanowires (NiS2 /CoS2 -O NWs) for boosting OER catalysis through in situ electrochemical reaction of NiS2 /CoS2 interface NWs. Because of the abundant oxygen vacancies and interface porous nanowires structure, they can catalyze the OER efficiently with a low overpotential of 235 mV at j = 10 mA cm-2 and remarkable long-term stability in 1...
December 2017: Advanced Materials
Alberto Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto Sendra, Policarp Garay, Ana Sofia P S Reboleira
The aim of this study was to unravel the relative role played by speleogenesis (i.e., the process in which a cave is formed), landscape-scale variables, and geophysical factors in the determination of species richness in caves. Biological inventories from 21 caves located in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula along with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis were used to assess the relative importance of the different explanatory variables. The caves were grouped according to the similarity in their species composition; the effect that spatial distance could have on similarity was also studied using correlation between matrices...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Shaoyang Zhang, Guangwei She, Shengyang Li, Lixuan Mu, Wensheng Shi
We report a facile and low-cost method to synthesize Si/Cu2O heterojunction nanowire arrays, without SiOx, at the Si/Cu2O interface. The reductive Si-H bonds on the surface of Si nanowires plays a key role in situ by reducing Cu(II) ions to Cu2O nanocubes and avoiding the SiOx interface layer. Different pH values would vary the electrochemical potential of reactions and as a result, different products would be formed. Utilized as a photoanode for water splitting, Si/Cu2O nanowire arrays exhibit good photoelectrochemical performance...
December 13, 2017: Nanotechnology
James Barber
The biological energy cycle of our planet is driven by photosynthesis whereby sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll and other accessory pigments. The excitation energy is then efficiently transferred to a reaction centre where charge separation occurs in a few picoseconds. In the case of photosystem II (PSII), the energy of the charge transfer state is used to split water into oxygen and reducing equivalents. This is accomplished by the relatively low energy content of four photons of visible light. PSII is a large multi-subunit membrane protein complex embedded in the lipid environment of the thylakoid membranes of plants, algae and cyanobacteria...
January 2017: Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics
Xuan Kuang, Zhiling Wang, Xu Sun, Yong Zhang, Qin Wei
We successfully developed an approach to synthesize a metal oxide- and N-codoped carbon nanosheet, NC@CoO/CuO, derived from a metal-organic framework nanofiber, Cu(ii)-Asp@Co(II) (Asp = l-aspartate). The use of NC@CoO/CuO as a high-performance catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction in water splitting has also been demonstrated.
December 12, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Saeid Mirzaei, Mehdi Mansouri, Ghasem Mohammadi-Nejad, Gaurav Sablok
Chloroplast functional genomics, in particular understanding the chloroplast transcriptional response is of immense importance mainly due to its role in oxygenic photosynthesis. As a photosynthetic unit, its efficiency and transcriptional activity is directly regulated by reactive oxygen species during abiotic and biotic stress and subsequently affects carbon assimilation, and plant biomass. In crops, understanding photosynthesis is crucial for crop domestication by identifying the traits that could be exploited for crop improvement...
December 11, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
Saad M Alshehri, Ameen N Alhabarah, Jahangeer Ahmed, Mu Naushad, Tansir Ahamad
The development of efficient, cost-effective and long-lived electro-catalyst is necessary for the realization of practically viable water-splitting systems. A trifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting (hydrogen evolution, oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reaction, HER/ORR/OER) was designed via eco-friendly and facial way. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon were prepared using chicken egg white/albumin after pyrolysis at different temperatures, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 °C...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jianwen Huang, Yinghui Sun, Yadong Zhang, Guifu Zou, Chaoyi Yan, Shan Cong, Tianyu Lei, Xiao Dai, Jun Guo, Ruifeng Lu, Yanrong Li, Jie Xiong
High-performance electrocatalysts are desired for electrochemical energy conversion, especially in the field of water splitting. Here, a new member of phosphate electrocatalysts, nickel metaphosphate (Ni2 P4 O12 ) nanocrystals, is reported, exhibiting low overpotential of 270 mV to generate the current density of 10 mA cm-2 and a superior catalytic durability of 100 h. It is worth noting that Ni2 P4 O12 electrocatalyst has remarkable oxygen evolution performance operating in basic media. Further experimental and theoretical analyses demonstrate that N dopant boosts the catalytic performance of Ni2 P4 O12 due to optimizing the surface electronic structure for better charge transfer and decreasing the adsorption energy for the oxygenic intermediates...
December 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
Shrok Allami, Zainab D Abid Ali, Ying Li, Hayder Hamody, Basher Hasan Jawad, Li Liu, Tianshu Li
A ZnO branched-nanowire (BNW) photoanode was doped with N for use in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) to generate H2 from water splitting. First, ZnO BNWs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method. Two experimental methods were used for N-doping: the time-controlled direct-current glow discharge plasma (DCGDP) and the DC magnetron plasma (DCMP) methods, to optimize N-doping of the NW structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provided the N distribution and atomic percentage in the BNWs. The XPS results confirmed that N distribution into ZnO BNWs occurred by N substitution of O sites in the ZnO structure and through well-screened molecular N2...
October 2017: Heliyon
Yang An, Benyan Xu, Yuanyuan Liu, Zeyan Wang, Peng Wang, Ying Dai, Xiaoyan Qin, Xiaoyang Zhang, Baibiao Huang
Photocatalytic overall water splitting is realized by taking advantage of the semiconductive and porous properties of MIL-125(Ti). CoPi and Pt are deposited into MIL-125(Ti) in two steps. The co-catalysts CoPi and Pt not only act as reactive sites for oxygen and hydrogen evolution, respectively, but also improve the photogenerated charge separation efficiency. The above conclusions are supported by the photoelectrical and photophysical results.
December 2017: ChemistryOpen
Lei Yan, Jiyu Xu, Fangwei Wang, Sheng Meng
Hydrogen gas production from solar water splitting provides a renewable energy cycle to address the grand global energy challenge, however, its dynamics and fundamental mechanism remain elusive. We directly explore by first principles the ultrafast electron-nuclear quantum dynamics on the timescale of ~100 femtoseconds during water photosplitting on plasmonic cluster embedded in liquid water. Water molecule splitting is assisted by rapid proton transport in liquid water in a Grotthuss-like mechanism. We identify that plasmon-induced field enhancement effect dominates water splitting, while charge transfer from gold to anti-bonding orbital of water molecule also plays an important role...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jin Jia, Tanli Xiong, Lili Zhao, Fulei Wang, Hong Liu, Renzong Hu, Jian Zhou, Weijia Zhou, Shaowei Chen
Probing competent electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) of water splitting is one of the most hopeful approach to front the energy and environmental crisis. Herein, we highlight ultrathin N-doped Mo2C nanosheets (N-Mo2C NSs) in the role of greatly efficient platinum-free-based electrocatalysts for the HER. The transformation of crystal phase and structure between MoO2 nanosheets with thickness of ~1.1 nm and N-Mo2C NSs with thickness of ~1.0 nm is detailed studied. Structural analyses make clear that the surfaces of the N-Mo2C NSs are absolutely encompassed of apical Mo atoms, hence affording an ideal catalyst prototype to expose the role of Mo atoms for the duration of HER catalysis...
December 8, 2017: ACS Nano
Shaomao Xu, Yonggang Yao, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiaoqiao Zeng, Steven D Lacey, Huiyu Song, Chaoji Chen, Yiju Li, Jiaqi Dai, Yanbin Wang, Yanan Chen, Boyang Liu, Kun Fu, Khalil Amine, Jun Lu, Liangbing Hu
The lithium-air (Li-O2 ) battery has been deemed one of the most promising next-generation energy-storage devices due to its ultrahigh energy density. However, in conventional porous carbon-air cathodes, the oxygen gas and electrolyte often compete for transport pathways, which limit battery performance. Here, a novel textile-based air cathode is developed with a triple-phase structure to improve overall battery performance. The hierarchical structure of the conductive textile network leads to decoupled pathways for oxygen gas and electrolyte: oxygen flows through the woven mesh while the electrolyte diffuses along the textile fibers...
December 8, 2017: Advanced Materials
Moritz Kuehnel, Erwin Reisner
Photocatalytic reforming of lignocellulosic biomass is an emerging approach to produce renewable H2. This process combines photo-oxidation of aqueous biomass with photocatalytic hydrogen evolution at ambient temperature and pressure. Biomass conversion is less energy demanding than water splitting and generates high-purity H2 without O2 production. Direct photoreforming of raw, unprocessed biomass has the potential to provide affordable, clean energy across the globe from locally sourced materials.
December 8, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Shane M Khan, Robert E S Bain, Karsten Lunze, Turgay Unalan, Bo Beshanski-Pedersen, Tom Slaymaker, Richard Johnston, Attila Hancioglu
BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require household survey programmes such as the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) to enhance data collection to cover new indicators. This study aims to evaluated methods for assessing water quality, water availability, emptying of sanitation facilities, menstrual hygiene management and the acceptability of water quality testing in households which are key to monitoring SDG targets 6.1 and 6.2 on drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and emerging issues...
2017: PloS One
Hai-Long Jiang, Juan-Ding Xiao, Lili Han, Jun Luo, Shu-Hong Yu
A wide range of light absorption and rapid electron-hole separation are desired for efficient photocatalysis. Herein, on the basis of a semiconductor-like metal-organic framework (MOF), the rationally designed Pt@MOF/Au catalyst with two types of metal-MOF interfaces integrates the surface plasmon resonance excitation of Au nanorods with Pt-MOF Schottky junction, which not only extends the light absorption of the MOF from UV to visible region but also greatly accelerates charge transfer. The spatial separation of Pt and Au particles by the MOF further steers the formation of charge flow and expedites the charge migration...
December 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Hao Xu, Dongsheng Dai, Songsong Li, Lei Ge, Yangqin Gao
Semiconductor-based photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water with earth-abundant and low cost co-catalysts has attracted much attention. Herein, novel Cu2(OH)2CO3 decorated 2D TiO2 nanosheets for photocatalytic water splitting were synthesized by a facile in situ synthetic method. The chemical and photophysical properties of Cu2(OH)2CO3/TiO2 nanosheets were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis...
December 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
A A Cronin, M E Gnilo, M Odagiri, S Wijesekera
Recent evidence points to the possible underestimation of the health and nutrition impact of sanitation. Community sanitation coverage may first need to reach thresholds in the order of 60% or higher, to optimize health and nutrition gains. Increasing coverage of sanitation to levels below 60% of community coverage may not result in substantial gains. For example, moving Indonesia from 60% to 100% improved sanitation coverage could significantly reduce diarrhoea in children under 5 years old (by an estimated 24% reduction in odds ratio for child diarrhoea morbidity) with gains split equally by reaching underserved communities and the unserved within communities...
December 6, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
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