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Dehua Xiong, Qingqing Zhang, Wei Li, Junjie Li, Xiuli Fu, M F Cerqueira, Pedro Alpuim, Lifeng Liu
Ultrafine molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) nanocrystals are grown on a porous cobalt (Co) foam current collector by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using molybdenum hexacarbonyl and hydrogen sulfide as precursors. When used to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), the optimal Co@MoS2 electrode, even with a MoS2 loading as small as 0.06 mg cm(-2), exhibits a large cathodic shift of ca. 200 mV in the onset potential (the potential at which the current density is 5 mA cm(-2)), a low overpotential of only 270 mV to attain an anodic current density of 10 mA cm(-2), much smaller charge transfer resistance and substantially improved long-term stability at both low and high current densities, with respect to the bare Co foam electrode, showing substantial promise for use as an efficient, low-cost and durable anode in water electrolyzers...
February 23, 2017: Nanoscale
Monique M van Oers, Kelly S Bateman, Grant D Stentiford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Wei Zhang, Wenzhen Lai, Rui Cao
Globally increasing energy demands and environmental concerns related to the use of fossil fuels have stimulated extensive research to identify new energy systems and economies that are sustainable, clean, low cost, and environmentally benign. Hydrogen generation from solar-driven water splitting is a promising strategy to store solar energy in chemical bonds. The subsequent combustion of hydrogen in fuel cells produces electric energy, and the only exhaust is water. These two reactions compose an ideal process to provide clean and sustainable energy...
February 22, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Yao Zheng, Yan Jiao, Yihan Zhu, Qiran Cai, Anthony Vasileff, Lu Hua Li, Yu Han, Ying Chen, Shi Zhang Qiao
Organometallic complexes with metal-nitrogen/carbon (M-N/C) coordination are the most important alternatives to precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR and OER) in energy conversion devices. Here, we designed and developed a range of molecule-level graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) coordinated transition metals (M-C3N4) as a new generation of M-N/C catalysts for these oxygen electrode reactions. As a proof-of-concept example, we conducted theoretical evaluation and experimental validation on a cobalt-C3N4 catalyst with a desired molecular configuration, which possesses comparable electrocatalytic activity to that of precious metal benchmarks for the ORR and OER in alkaline media...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
B Pattengale, J Huang
Monoclinic-scheelite BiVO4 has been widely studied as a promising oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst in artificial photosynthesis. Though significant progress to improve or augment its catalysis performance has been made, fundamental understanding of its relatively poor performance as a bare material is lacking. In this paper, we report the correlation of the surface structure and trap states with charge separation efficiency and OER performance of bare BiVO4 photoanodes via varying the sample thickness...
February 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sengeni Anantharaj, Jeevarathinam Kennedy, Subrata Kundu
Molecular hydrogen (H2) generation through water splitting with minimum energy loss has become practically possible due to the recent evolution of high performance electrocatalysts. In this study, we had fabricated, evaluated and presented such a high performance catalyst which is the Ni3Se4 nanoassemblies that can efficiently catalyze water splitting in neutral and alkaline media. A hierarchical nanoassemblies of Ni3Se4 was fabricated by functionalizing the surface cleaned Ni foam using NaHSe solution as Se source with the assistance of microwave irradiation (300 W) for 3 min followed by 5 h of aging at room temperature (RT)...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Soumen Dutta, Chaiti Ray, Yuichi Negishi, Tarasankar Pal
Cost-effective, highly active water oxidation catalysts are becoming increasingly demanding in the field of energy conversion and storage. Herein, simple modified hydrothermally (MHT) synthesized zinc and cobalt based hydroxyl double salt i.e., Zn4-xCoxSO4(OH)6• 0.5 H2O (ZCS) has been exfoliated for the first time as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline medium. Morphology investigation suggests the evolution of unique hexagonal nanoplates of ZCS material. As OER catalyst, it requires only 370 and 450 mV overpotential to achieve 10 and 100 mA cm-2 current density respectively...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yi Cheng, Shuo Dou, Jean-Pierre Veder, Shuangyin Wang, Martin Saunders, San Ping Jiang
Rechargeable Zn-air battery is limited by the sluggish kinetics and poor durability of the oxygen catalysts. In this paper, a new bifunctional oxygen catalyst has been developed through embedding the ultrafine NiFeO nanoparticles (NPs) in a porous amorphous MnOx layer, in which the NiFeO-core contributes to the high activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and the amorphous MnOx-shell functions as active phase for oxygen evolution reaction (OER), promoted by the synergistic effect between the NiFeO core and MnOx shell...
February 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yun Pei Zhu, Chunxian Guo, Yao Zheng, Shi-Zhang Qiao
Developing cost-effective and high-performance electrocatalysts for renewable energy conversion and storage is motivated by increasing concerns regarding global energy security and creating sustainable technologies dependent on inexpensive and abundant resources. Recent achievements in the design and synthesis of efficient non-precious-metal and even non-metal electrocatalysts make the replacement of noble metal counterparts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with earth-abundant elements, for example, C, N, Fe, Mn, and Co, a realistic possibility...
February 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jian Wang, Francesco Ciucci
The addition of transition metals, even in a trace amount, into heteroatom-doped carbon (M-N/C) is intensively investigated to further enhance oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. However, the influence of metal decoration on the electrolysis of the reverse reaction of ORR, that is, oxygen evolution reaction (OER), is seldom reported. Moreover, further improving the bifunctional activity and corrosion tolerance for carbon-based materials remains a big challenge, especially in OER potential regions. Here, bimetal-decorated, pyridinic N-dominated large-size carbon tubes (MM'-N/C) are proposed for the first time as highly efficient and durable ORR and OER catalysts...
February 15, 2017: Small
Jie Yin, Yuxuan Li, Fan Lv, Qiaohui Fan, Yong-Qing Zhao, Qiaolan Zhang, Wei Wang, Fangyi Cheng, Pinxian Xi, Shaojun Guo
The development of highly efficient bifunctional catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is crucial for improving the efficiency of the Zn-air battery. Herein, we report porous NiO/CoN interface nanowire arrays (PINWs) with both oxygen vacancies and a strongly interconnected nanointerface between NiO and CoN domains for promoting the electrocatalytic performance and stability for OER and ORR. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations demonstrate that the decrease of the coordination number for cobalt, the enhanced oxygen vacancies on the NiO/CoN nanointerface, and strongly coupled nanointerface between NiO and CoN domains are responsible for the good bifunctional electrocatalytic performance of NiO/CoN PINWs...
February 16, 2017: ACS Nano
Lindley Maryoung, Yangbo Yue, Ashley Young, Chad A Newton, Cindy Barba, Nicolai S C van Oers, Richard C Wang, Christine Kim Garcia
Germline coding mutations in different telomere-related genes have been linked to autosomal-dominant familial pulmonary fibrosis. Individuals with these inherited mutations demonstrate incomplete penetrance of clinical phenotypes affecting the lung, blood, liver, skin, and other organs. Here, we describe the somatic acquisition of promoter mutations in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in blood leukocytes of approximately 5% of individuals with inherited loss-of-function coding mutations in TERT or poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN), another gene linked to telomerase function...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Li Wei, Kunli Goh, Özgür Birer, H Enis Karahan, Jian Chang, Shengli Zhai, Xuncai Chen, Yuan Chen
Electrochemical splitting of water to produce oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) through a cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and an anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a promising green approach for sustainable energy supply. Here we demonstrated a porous nickel-copper phosphide (NiCuP) nano-foam as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for highly efficient total water splitting. Prepared from a bubble-templated electrodeposition method and subsequent low-temperature phosphidization, NiCuP has a hierarchical pore structure with a large electrochemical active surface area...
February 13, 2017: Nanoscale
Ding-Yuan Kuo, Jason K Kawasaki, Jocienne N Nelson, Jan Kloppenburg, Geoffroy Hautier, Kyle M Shen, Darrell G Schlom, Jin Suntivich
A catalyst functions by stabilizing reaction intermediates, usually through surface adsorption. In the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), surface oxygen adsorption plays an indispensable role in the electrocatalysis. The relationship between the adsorption energetics and OER kinetics, however, has not yet been experimentally measured. Herein we report an experimental relationship between the adsorption of surface oxygen and the kinetics of the OER on IrO2(110) epitaxially grown on a TiO2(110) single crystal. The high quality of the IrO2 film grown using molecular-beam epitaxy affords the ability to extract the surface oxygen adsorption and its impact on the OER...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ashwathi A Iyer, Elif Ertekin
Recently there has been interest in the use of ferroelectricity to modify a material's surface chemistry and enhance its catalytic properties. When a metal oxide catalyst is supported by a switchable ferroelectric underlayer, modifications to the free surface electronic structure can induce changes to the free energy profile of a gas-surface catalytic reaction that either promote or suppress the reaction. The modification of surface properties results from a combination of interface chemistry, surface reconstructions involving adsorbates, and complex interactions between the two, although these interactions are often not characterized in detail...
February 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lysanne Snijders, Kees van Oers, Marc Naguib
Signals play a key role in the ecology and evolution of animal populations, influencing processes such as sexual selection and conflict resolution. In many species, sexually selected signals have a dual function: attracting mates and repelling rivals. Yet, to what extent males and females under natural conditions differentially respond to such signals remains poorly understood, due to a lack of field studies that simultaneously track both sexes. Using a novel spatial tracking system, we tested whether or not the spatial behavior of male and female great tits (Parus major) changes in relation to the vocal response of a territorial male neighbor to an intruder...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Michael T Y Paul, Brenden B Yee, David R Bruce, Byron D Gates
Fuel cell systems are of interest for a wide range of applications, in part for their utility in power generation from non-fossil fuel sources. However, the generation of these alternative fuels, through electrochemical means, is a relatively inefficient process due to gas passivation of the electrode surfaces. Uniform micro-structured nickel surfaces were prepared by photolithographic techniques as a systematic approach to correlate surface morphologies to their performance in the electrochemically driven oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media...
February 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cyriac Massue, Verena Pfeifer, Xing Huang, Johannes Noack, Andrey Tarasov, Sebastien Cap, Robert Schlögl
The synthesis of a highly active and yet stable electrocatalyst for the anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) remains a major challenge for acidic water splitting on an industrial scale. Addressing this challenge, we obtained an outstanding high-performance OER-electrocatalyst by loading Ir on conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)-nanoparticles via a microwave (MW)-supported hydrothermal route. The obtained Ir-phase was identified as an XRD-amorphous, highly hydrated Ir(III/IV)-oxohydroxide. In order to identify chemical and structural features responsible for the high activity and exceptional stability under acidic OER-conditions at loadings as low as 20 μg(Ir) cm-2, we used stepwise thermal treatment to gradually alter the XRD-amorphous Ir-phase via dehydroxylation and crystallization of IrO2...
February 5, 2017: ChemSusChem
Cyriac Massue, Xing Huang, Andrey Tarasov, Chinmoy Ranjan, Sebastien Cap, Robert Schlögl
Water splitting for hydrogen production in acidic media has been limited by the poor stability of the anodic electrocatalyst devoted to the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). To help circumvent this problem we have synthesized a class of novel Ir-oxohydroxides via rapid microwave-supported hydrothermal synthesis, which bridge the gap between electrodeposited amorphous IrOx-films and crystalline IrO2-electrocatalysts prepared via calcination routes. For electrode loadings two orders of magnitude below current standards, the synthesized compounds present an unrivalled combination of high activity and stability under commercially relevant OER-conditions in comparison to reported benchmarks, without any need for pre-treatment...
February 5, 2017: ChemSusChem
Hilde P E M Spitters, Cathrine J Lau, Petru Sandu, Marcel Quanjel, Diana Dulf, Charlotte Glümer, Hans A M van Oers, Ien A M van de Goor
BACKGROUND: Facilitating and enhancing interaction between stakeholders involved in the policymaking process to stimulate collaboration and use of evidence, is important to foster the development of effective Health Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA) policies. Performing an analysis of real-world policymaking processes will help reveal the complexity of a network of stakeholders. Therefore, the main objectives were to unravel the stakeholder network in the policy process by conducting three systems analyses, and to increase insight into the similarities and differences in the policy processes of these European country cases...
February 3, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
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