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Hyungseob Lim, Jae Young Kim, Edward J Evans, Amritesh Rai, Jun-Hyuk Kim, Bryan R Wygant, Charles Buddie Mullins
There has been debate on whether Ni(OH)2 is truly catalytically active for the photo/-electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction. In this report, we have synthesized a Ni(OH)2 co-catalyst on a hematite photoanode and showed that, as has been proposed in other studies, the current density varies as a function of scan rate, which arise due to a photo-induced capacitive charging effect. We have discovered that this photo-induced charging of Ni2+/3+ can be overcome by mixing cerium nitrate into the Ni precursor solution...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Young-Hoon Chung, Injoon Jang, Jue-Hyuk Jang, Hyun S Park, Hyung Chul Ham, Jong Hyun Jang, Yong-Kul Lee, Sung Jong Yoo
Electrochemical water splitting is one of the most promising systems by which to store energy produced from sustainable sources, such as solar and wind energy. Designing robust and stable electrocatalysts is urgently needed because of the relatively sluggish kinetics of the anodic reaction, i.e. the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this study, we investigate the anomalous in situ activation behaviour of carbon-supported Ni2P nanoparticles (Ni2P/C) during OER catalysis in alkaline media. The activated Ni2P/C shows an exceptionally high activity and stability under OER conditions in which the overpotential needed to achieve 10 mA cm(-2) was reduced from approximately 350 mV to approximately 300 mV after 8,000 cyclic voltammetric scans...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Theo J M Kuunders, Monique A M Jacobs, Ien A M van de Goor, Marja J H van Bon-Martens, Hans A M van Oers, Theo G W M Paulussen
BACKGROUND: Previous evaluation showed insufficient use of a national guideline for integrated local health policy by Regional Health Services (RHS) in the Netherlands. The guideline focuses on five health topics and includes five checklists to support integrated municipal health policies. This study explores the determinants of guideline use by regional Dutch health professionals. METHODS: A web survey was send to 304 RHS health professionals. The questionnaire was based on a theory- and research-based framework of determinants of public health innovations...
August 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Primož Jovanovič, Nejc Hodnik, Francisco Ruiz-Zepeda, Iztok Arcon, Barbara Jozinović, Milena Zorko, Marjan Bele, Martin Šala, Vid Simon Šelih, Samo B Hocevar, Miran Gaberscek
Iridium based particles as the most promising proton exchange membrane electrolyser electrocatalysts were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and by coupling of electrochemical flow cell (EFC) with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Additionally, a thin-film rotating disc electrode (RDE), an identical location trans-mission and scanning electron microscopy (IL-TEM and IL-SEM) as well as an X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies have been performed. Extremely sensitive online time-and potential-resolved electrochemical dissolution profiles revealed that iridium particles dissolved already well below oxygen evolution reaction (OER) potentials, presumably induced by iridium surface oxidation and reduction processes, also referred to as transient dissolution...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Can Wu, Yuhang Zhang, Duo Dong, Haiming Xie, Jinghong Li
To promote the practical application of electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems, nonprecious electrocatalysts of low cost and with highly efficient performance in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are highly desired. In this work, a cubic sodium chloride (NaCl) crystal-templated strategy is proposed for coupling Co9S8 nanoparticles to nitrogen- and sulfur-doped carbon nanosheets (Co9S8/N,S-CNS) by facile pyrolysis. The nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon nanosheets can effectively prevent the aggregation of Co9S8 nanoparticles and greatly improve the conductivity of the hybrid structure...
August 15, 2017: Nanoscale
Qingyu Yan, Hasen Fan, Hong Yu, Yufei Zhang, Yun Zheng, Zhengfei Dai, Yubo Luo, Bing Li, Yun Zong
Uniform Ni3C nanodots dispersed in ultrathin N-doped carbon nanosheets were successfully prepared by carburization of the two dimensional (2D) nickel-cyanide coordination polymer precursors. The Ni3C based nanosheets have lateral length of about 200 nm and thickness of 10 nm. When doped with Fe, the Ni3C based nanosheets exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic properties for both hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) and oxygen evolution reactions (OER). For example, 2 at% Fe (atomic percent) doped Ni3C nanosheets depict a low overpotential (292 mV) and a small Tafel slope (41...
August 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Jujiao Zhao, Xie Quan, Shuo Chen, Yanming Liu, Hongtao Yu
The synthesis of electrocatalysts consisting of selectively functionalized parts is an effective strategy to prepare non-precious electrocatalysts with excellent performance for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Herein, we synthesized core-shell structured ZIF67@ZIF8 and converted it into Co decorated porous carbons (CS-Co/Cs) consisting of the ZIF67 derived uniformly dispersed Co nanoparticles encapsulated in graphitic carbon as cores and the ZIF8 derived porous carbon as shells. Compared to individual ZIF67 derived samples (Co/Cs), the unique structure of CS-Co/Cs leads to the larger surface area and more hydrophilic surface, both of which facilitate the mass transfer, contributing to the enhanced OER performance...
August 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mingxing Chen, Jing Qi, Dingyi Guo, Haitao Lei, Wei Zhang, Rui Cao
Sponge-like Ni3N/NC was prepared through a facile approach and was examined as a catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This material can efficiently catalyze water oxidation to reach a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) with a small overpotential of 310 mV in 1.0 M KOH aqueous solution. The high efficiency can be attributed to the good electronic conductivity, large specific surface area and fast mass diffusion ability of Ni3N/NC.
August 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Li Wei, H Enis Karahan, Shengli Zhai, Hongwei Liu, Xuncai Chen, Zheng Zhou, Yaojie Lei, Zongwen Liu, Yuan Chen
Metal oxides of earth-abundant elements are promising electrocatalysts to overcome the sluggish oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reaction (OER/ORR) in many electrochemical energy-conversion devices. However, it is difficult to control their catalytic activity precisely. Here, a general three-stage synthesis strategy is described to produce a family of hybrid materials comprising amorphous bimetallic oxide nanoparticles anchored on N-doped reduced graphene oxide with simultaneous control of nanoparticle elemental composition, size, and crystallinity...
August 14, 2017: Advanced Materials
Yi Xie, Junfeng Xie, Weiwei Liu, Jianping Xin, Fengcai Lei, Li Gao, Haichao Qu, Xiaodong Zhang
Herein, enhanced light absorption and oxygen-evolving activity were simultaneously achieved by doping fluorine anions into hematite nanocrystals. With the merits of anion doping, the band structure of hematite can be effectively regulated, leading to the generation of defect level between the bandgap and remarkably increased visible light absorption. In addition, the activity for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of the hematite nanocrystals exhibits obvious enhancement after fluorine doping, making the doped hematite play as an effective self-co-catalyst for photoelectrochemical water splitting...
August 12, 2017: ChemSusChem
Seungtaeg Oh, Hakhyeon Song, Jihun Oh
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells have attracted much attention as a viable route for storing solar energy and producing value-added chemicals and fuels. However, the competition between light absorption and electrocatalysis at a restrained cocatalyst area on conventional planar-type photoelectrodes could limit their conversion efficiency. Here, we demonstrate a new monolithic photoelectrode architecture that eliminate the optical-electrochemical coupling by forming locally nanostructured cocatalysts on a photoelectrode...
August 11, 2017: Nano Letters
Geng Zhang, Ping Wang, Wang-Ting Lu, Cao-Yu Wang, Yong-Ke Li, Cong Ding, Jiangjiang Gu, Xin-Sheng Zheng, Fei-Fei Cao
The development of high-performance electrocatalyst with earth-abundant elements for water-splitting is a key factor to improve its cost efficiency. Here, a noble metal free bi-functional electrocatalyst was synthesized by a facile pyrolysis method using sucrose, urea, Co(NO3)2 and sulfur powder as raw materials. During the fabrication process, Co, S co-doped graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was firstly produced, and then this in-situ formed template further induced the generation of a Co, N, S tri-doped graphene coupled with Co nanoparticles...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kaijian Zhu, Wenjun Luo, Guoxiang Zhu, Jun Wang, Yongfa Zhu, Zhigang Zou, Wei Huang
Fe-based (oxy)hydroxides are especially attractive electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) due to their earth-abundance, low cost and non-toxicity. However, poor OER kinetics on the surface restricts the performance of FeOOH electrocatalyst. In this work, we obtain a highly efficient and stable Ni(OH)2/β-like FeOOH electrocatalyst by facile electro-activation treatment. The activated Ni(OH)2/β-like FeOOH sample indicates an overpotential of 300 mV @ 10 mA cm-2 for OER and no obvious current decay after 50 h test, which can be comparable to the most efficient Ni-based and Co-based electrocatalysts on the planar substrates...
August 9, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Shanqing Qu, Jun Huang, Jinsong Yu, Guangliang Chen, Wei Hu, Mengmeng Yin, Rui Zhang, Sijun Chu, Chaorong Li
A facile and effective strategy for fabricating a three-dimensionally (3-D) structured nanocomposite catalyst based on nonprecious metals for water splitting in alkaline electrolyzers is reported in this paper. This nanocomposite catalyst consists of the CdS quantum dots (QDs) decorated Ni3S2 nanosheet flowers deposited on the plasma-treated nickel foam (PNF). The NiO formed during the plasma treatment is shown to play an important role for pushing the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER) in alkaline media...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dawei Chen, Chung-Li Dong, Yuqin Zou, Dong Su, Yu-Cheng Huang, Li Tao, Shuo Dou, Shaohua Shen, Shuangyin Wang
Electrocatalytic water splitting is a key technique to produce hydrogen fuels, which can be considered as an efficient strategy to store renewable energy. Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) that occurs at the anode side requires a four-electron transfer under highly oxidizing conditions. OER has a large overpotential and therefore determines the overall efficiency. Certain electrocatalysts can efficiently help to improve the reaction kinetics. Owing to the high cost of precious metals such as Pt, Ru, and Ir, non-precious metal oxide catalysts have been vigorously investigated under alkaline conditions...
August 9, 2017: Nanoscale
Michaela Burke Stevens, Christina D M Trang, Lisa J Enman, Jiang Deng, Shannon W Boettcher
Fe is a critical component of record-activity Ni/Fe (oxy)hydroxide (Ni(Fe)OxHy) oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts, yet its precise role remains unclear. Here we report evidence for different types of Fe sites within Ni(Fe)OxHy - those that are rapidly incorporated into the Ni oxyhydroxide from Fe species in solution (and that are likely at edges or defects) which are responsible for the enhanced OER activity, and those substituting for bulk Ni that are occupied during co-precipitation which modulate the observed Ni voltammetry...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Wangwang Xu, Weiwei Xie, Ying Wang
Hollow heterostructured nanomaterials have received tremendous interest in new-generation electrocatalyst applications. However, the design and fabrication of such materials remain a significant challenge. In this work, we present Co3O4-x-carbon@Fe2-yCoyO3 heterostructural hollow polyhedrons that have been fabricated by facile thermal treatment followed by solution-phase growth for application as efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts. Starting from a single ZIF-67 hollow polyhedron, a novel complex structured composite material constructed from Co3O4-x nanocrystallite-embedded carbon matrix embedded with Fe2-yCoyO3 nanowires was successfully prepared...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Charlotte S Hakkers, Jordan M Kraaijenhof, Esther B van Oers-Hazelzet, Anne J M A Visser-Meily, Andy I M Hoepelman, Joop E Arends, Roos E Barth
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is an increasingly important comorbidity in an ageing HIV+ population. Despite the lack of available treatment modalities, screening for NCI is recommended. In the UMC Utrecht, yearly NCI screening is done using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool and the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS). The aim of this study was to evaluate this screening protocol in relation to clinical outcomes and management. A retrospective cohort study was performed in suppressed adult HIV+ patients...
August 7, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Feng Li, Yunfei Bu, Zijian Lv, Javeed Mahmood, Gao-Feng Han, Ishfaq Ahmad, Guntae Kim, Qin Zhong, Jong-Beom Baek
Iron (Fe)-doped porous cobalt phosphide polyhedrons are designed and synthesized as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The synthesis strategy involves one-step route for doping foreign metallic element and forming porous cobalt phosphide polyhedrons. With varying doping levels of Fe, the optimized Fe-doped porous cobalt phosphide polyhedron exhibits significantly enhanced HER and OER performances, including low onset overpotentials, large current densities, as well as small Tafel slopes and good electrochemical stability during HER and OER...
August 7, 2017: Small
Cheng Tang, Bin Wang, Hao-Fan Wang, Qiang Zhang
Rechargeable flexible solid Zn-air battery, with a high theoretical energy density of 1086 Wh kg(-1) , is among the most attractive energy technologies for future flexible and wearable electronics; nevertheless, the practical application is greatly hindered by the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction/oxygen evolution reaction (ORR/OER) kinetics on the air electrode. Precious metal-free functionalized carbon materials are widely demonstrated as the most promising candidates, while it still lacks effective synthetic methodology to controllably synthesize carbocatalysts with targeted active sites...
August 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
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