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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548972/assessment-of-adult-malnutrition-and-prognosis-with-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-phase-angle-and-impedance-ratio
#1
Henry C Lukaski, Ursula G Kyle, Jens Kondrup
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malnutrition affects prognosis in many groups of patients. Although screening tools are available to identify adults at risk for poor nutritional status, a need exists to improve the assessment of malnutrition by identifying the loss of functional tissues that can lead to frailty, compromised physical function, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly among hospitalized and ill patients and older adults. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) offers a practical approach to identify malnutrition and prognosis by assessing whole-body cell membrane quality and depicting fluid distribution for an individual...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548831/folate-biofortification-in-hydroponically-cultivated-spinach-by-the-addition-of-phenylalanine
#2
Sho Watanabe, Yuta Ohtani, Yohei Tatsukami, Wataru Aoki, Takashi Amemiya, Yasunori Sukekiyo, Seiichi Kubokawa, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Folate is an important vitamin mainly ingested from vegetables, and folate deficiency causes various health problems. Recently, several studies demonstrated folate biofortification in plants or food crops by metabolic engineering through genetic modifications. However, genetically modified foods may have adverse effects, and their production and sales are under strict regulation. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve folate biofortification in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) without genetic modification...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537445/ultraviolet-induced-surface-grafting-of-octafluoropentyl-methacrylate-on-polyether-ether-ketone-for-inducing-antibiofilm-properties
#3
Parisa Amdjadi, Hanieh Nojehdehian, Farhood Najafi, Amir Ghasemi, Massoud Seifi, Erfan Dashtimoghadam, Farahnaz Fahimipour, Lobat Tayebi
Since octafluoropentyl methacrylate is an antifouling polymer, surface modification of polyether ether ketone with octafluoropentyl methacrylate is a practical approach to obtaining anti-biofilm biocompatible devices. In the current study, the surface treatment of polyether ether ketone by the use of ultraviolet irradiation, so as to graft (octafluoropentyl methacrylate) polymer chains, was initially implemented and then investigated. The Fourier-transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra corroborated the appearance of new signals associated with the fluoroacrylate group...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532649/condom-availability-in-schools-a-practical-approach-to-the-prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-infection-hiv-and-unintended-pregnancy
#4
(no author information available yet)
Adolescents and young adults are highly impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy in the United States and globally. Consistent and correct use of male latex condoms is associated with protection against both STIs and pregnancy. Providing adolescents and young adults with access to free condoms in schools may increase the use of condoms by improving condom availability, eliminating cost, and decreasing embarrassment associated with purchasing condoms. Studies demonstrate that condom availability in schools is associated with the increased use of condoms and improved overall sexual health...
June 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531414/practical-approach-to-nutritional-support-in-nursing-home
#5
Damjan Zelenik, Tatjana Peršuh, Taja Jordan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513648/radical-carbene-coupling-reaction-mn-catalyzed-synthesis-of-indoles-from-aromatic-amines-and-diazo-compounds
#6
Huihuang Li, Yanwei Zhao, Liang Ma, Meihua Ma, Jun Jiang, Xiaobing Wan
An unprecedented coupling reaction between aromatic amines and diazo compounds was well developed, which afforded a bridge connecting between radical chemistry and metal carbene chemistry. This Mn-catalyzed tandem reaction also provided a fundamentally different and practical approach to the indole skeleton under mild conditions.
May 17, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502700/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd-and-competency-to-stand-trial-cst-suggestions-for-a-best-practices-approach-to-forensic-evaluation
#7
REVIEW
Jerrod M Brown, Jeffrey Haun, Patricia A Zapf, Natalie Novick Brown
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), an umbrella term for neurodevelopmental conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, is overrepresented in the U.S. juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. The brain damage in FASD manifests in a combination of cognitive and adaptive impairments that potentially reduce ability to function adequately during the criminal justice process, including capacity to stand trial (CST). Despite the high risk of arrest and conviction in this population, relatively little research guides CST assessment for defendants who have or may have FASD...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494756/solving-the-master-equation-for-indels
#8
EDITORIAL
Ian H Holmes
BACKGROUND: Despite the long-anticipated possibility of putting sequence alignment on the same footing as statistical phylogenetics, theorists have struggled to develop time-dependent evolutionary models for indels that are as tractable as the analogous models for substitution events. MAIN TEXT: This paper discusses progress in the area of insertion-deletion models, in view of recent work by Ezawa (BMC Bioinformatics 17:304, 2016); (BMC Bioinformatics 17:397, 2016); (BMC Bioinformatics 17:457, 2016) on the calculation of time-dependent gap length distributions in pairwise alignments, and current approaches for extending these approaches from ancestor-descendant pairs to phylogenetic trees...
May 12, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493798/nontraumatic-lesions-of-the-scalp-practical-approach-to-imaging-diagnosis-neurologic-head-and-neck-imaging
#9
Rafael Morcillo Carratalá, María Elena Capilla Cabezuelo, Isabel Herrera Herrera, Purificación Calvo Azabarte, Sonia Dieguez Tapias, Raquel Moreno de la Presa, Fátima Ximena Aragón Tejada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489980/practical-approach-to-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#10
Vijayakrishna K Gadi, Nancy E Davidson
Triple negative is a term applied to breast cancers that do not meaningfully express the estrogen or progesterone hormone receptors or overexpress the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase. At present, the only proven method for systemic management of triple-negative breast cancer for both early-stage and metastatic settings is cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of management strategies that are best supported by available data. We also review recent advances most likely to affect treatment of triple-negative breast cancer in the coming years with particular emphasis on targeted agents, biologics, and immunotherapy...
May 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466284/a-microfluidic-diode-for-sorting-and-immobilization-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Lijie Yang, Tao Hong, Yin Zhang, Jose Guillermo Sanchez Arriola, Brian L Nelms, Richard Mu, Deyu Li
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a powerful model organism extensively used in studies of human aging and diseases. Despite the numerous advantages of C. elegans as a model system, two biological characteristics may introduce complexity and variability to most studies: 1. it exhibits different biological features, composition and behaviors at different developmental stages; 2. it has very high mobility. Therefore, synchronization and immobilization of worm populations are often required. Conventionally, these processes are implemented through manual and chemical methods, which can be laborious, time-consuming and of low-throughput...
June 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459241/multiple-approaches-to-the-in-situ-generation-of-anhydrous-tetraalkylammonium-fluoride-salts-for-snar-fluorination-reactions
#12
Megan A Cismesia, Sarah J Ryan, Douglas C Bland, Melanie S Sanford
This article focuses on the development of practical approaches to the in situ generation of anhydrous fluoride salts for applications in nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reactions. We report herein that a variety of combinations of inexpensive nucleophiles (e.g., tetraalkylammonium cyanide and phenoxide salts) and fluorine-containing electrophiles (e.g., acid fluoride, fluoroformate, benzenesulfonyl fluoride, and aryl fluorosulfonate derivatives) are effective for this transformation. Ultimately, we demonstrate that the combination of tetramethylammonium 2,6-dimethylphenoxide and sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) serves as a particularly practical route to anhydrous tetramethylammonium fluoride...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449689/on-classifying-the-field-of-medical-ethics
#13
EDITORIAL
Kristine Bærøe, Jonathan Ives, Martine de Vries, Jan Schildmann
In 2014, the editorial board of BMC Medical Ethics came together to devise sections for the journal that would (a) give structure to the journal (b) help ensure that authors' research is matched to the most appropriate editors and (c) help readers to find the research most relevant to them. The editorial board decided to take a practical approach to devising sections that dealt with the challenges of content management. After that, we started thinking more theoretically about how one could go about classifying the field of medical ethics...
April 27, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441379/finally-a-practical-approach-to-value-based-medicine
#14
Lodovico Balducci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439398/a-practical-approach-to-the-pharmacological-management-of-hypertension-in-older-people
#15
REVIEW
Nikesh Parekh, Amy Page, Khalid Ali, Kevin Davies, Chakravarthi Rajkumar
Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in adults over the age of 65. The first part of this paper is an overview, summarizing the current guidelines on the pharmacological management of hypertension in older adults in Europe and the USA, and evidence from key trials that contributed to the guidelines. In the second part of the paper, we will discuss the major challenges of managing hypertension in the context of multimorbidity, including frailty, orthostatic hypotension (OH), falls and cognitive impairment that are associated with ageing...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437951/hot-spot-relaxation-time-current-dependence-in-niobium-nitride-waveguide-integrated-superconducting-nanowire-single-photon-detectors
#16
Simone Ferrari, Vadim Kovalyuk, Wladislaw Hartmann, Andreas Vetter, Oliver Kahl, Changhyoup Lee, Alexander Korneev, Carsten Rockstuhl, Gregory Gol'tsman, Wolfram Pernice
We investigate how the bias current affects the hot-spot relaxation dynamics in niobium nitride. We use for this purpose a near-infrared pump-probe technique on a waveguide-integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detector driven in the two-photon regime. We observe a strong increase in the picosecond relaxation time for higher bias currents. A minimum relaxation time of (22 ± 1) ps is obtained when applying a bias current of 50% of the switching current at 1.7 K bath temperature. We also propose a practical approach to accurately estimate the photon detection regimes based on the reconstruction of the measured detector tomography at different bias currents and for different illumination conditions...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417445/chemopreventive-efficacy-of-curcumin-loaded-plga-microparticles-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-her-2-positive-breast-cancer
#17
Alex E Grill, Komal Shahani, Brenda Koniar, Jayanth Panyam
Curcumin has shown promising inhibitory activity against HER-2-positive tumor cells in vitro but suffers from poor oral bioavailability in vivo. Our lab has previously developed a polymeric microparticle formulation for sustained delivery of curcumin for chemoprevention. The goal of this study was to examine the anticancer efficacy of curcumin-loaded polymeric microparticles in a transgenic mouse model of HER-2 cancer, Balb-neuT. Microparticles were injected monthly, and mice were examined for tumor appearance and growth...
April 17, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410661/vascular-contributions-to-cognitive-impairment-in-late-life
#18
REVIEW
Helena C Chui, Liliana Ramirez Gomez
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the second leading cause of cognitive impairment in late life. Structural neuroimaging offers the most sensitive and specific biomarkers for hemorrhages and infarcts, but there are significant limitations in its ability to detect microvascular disease, microinfarcts, dynamic changes in the blood-brain barrier, and preclinical cerebrovascular disease. Autopsy studies disclose the common co-occurrence of vascular and neurodegenerative conditions, suggesting that in late life, a multifactorial approach to cognitive impairment may be more appropriate than traditional dichotomous classifications...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409063/a-practical-approach-to-detection-and-treatment-of-depression-in-parkinson-disease-and-dementia
#19
REVIEW
Zahra Goodarzi, Zahinoor Ismail
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the available evidence for the detection and management of depression in Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: Depression is a common comorbidity in those with PD or dementia, and leads to increased morbidity. There are several available and accurate tools for the detection of depression in PD (e.g., Geriatric Depression Scale) and dementia (e.g., Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia). Treatment of depression depends on patient preference, severity of depression, comorbidities, and available resources...
April 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398754/reversing-the-cytotoxicity-of-bile-acids-by-supramolecular-encapsulation
#20
Ying-Ming Zhang, Xun Xu, Qilin Yu, Yao-Hua Liu, Yu-Hui Zhang, Li-Xia Chen, Yu Liu
Supramolecular encapsulation has been developed into a powerful tool in clearance of toxic substances and hazardous waste from living body and external environments. Herein we tested the special efficacy of tyramine-modified β-cyclodextrin (1) in inhibiting and reversing of the inherent cytotoxicity of deoxycholic acid (DCA). The decarboxylation from tyrosine to tyramine in 1 is crucial to the mutual electrostatic communication, ultimately leading to great enhancement in binding affinity and molecular selectivity toward bile acids...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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