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Polyphenols mitochondria

Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Armin A Sokolowski, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 16, 2018: Genes
José Teixeira, Cláudia M Deus, Fernanda Borges, Paulo J Oliveira
Mitochondrial function and regulation of redox balance is fundamental in controlling cellular life and death pathways. Antioxidants have been used to counteract disruption of redox networks, normally associated with progressive loss of cell homeostasis and disease pathophysiology, although therapeutic success is limited mainly due to pharmacokinetic drawbacks. Attempts to improve mitochondrial function in a range of diseases spurred active drug discovery efforts. Currently, the most effective strategy to deliver drugs to mitochondria is the covalent link of lipophilic cations to the bioactive compound...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jaroslava Folbergrová, Pavel Ješina, Hana Kubová, Jakub Otáhal
The presence of oxidative stress in immature brain has been demonstrated during the acute phase of status epilepticus (SE). The knowledge regarding the long periods of survival after SE is not unequivocal, lacking direct evidence. To examine the presence and time profile of oxidative stress, its functional effect on mitochondria and the influence of an antioxidant treatment in immature rats during epileptogenesis, status epilepticus (SE) was induced in immature 12-day-old rats by Li-pilocarpine and at selected periods of the epileptogenesis; rat pups were subjected to examinations...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Fang Dai, Qi Wang, Gui-Juan Fan, Yu-Ting Du, Bo Zhou
This study was aimed at understanding why dietary polyphenols with a catechol skeleton tend to exhibit cancer chemopreventive activity by using a catechol-type stilbene (3,4-DHS) as a model molecule. Only a short-term cooperation of 3,4-DHS and exogenous Cu(II) exhibited a strong preferential ability to kill HepG2 cells over normal L02 cells. Mechanism studies reveal that this 3,4-DHS/Cu(II) system could produce extracellularly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and o-quinone through two sequential proton loss electron transfer followed by diffusion of ROS into cells, leading to higher intracellular accumulation of ROS, preferential disruption of redox homeostasis and more effective mitochondria-dependent apoptosis as well as necrosis of HepG2 cells than L-02 cells...
June 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Nazanin Namazi Sarvestani, Houri Sepehri, Ladan Delphi, Mahdi Moridi Farimani
Background: Cancer persists as one of the world’s most pressing maladies. Notable points about chemotherapy are drug side effects which are almost universally encountered. Emerging knowledge focusing on mechanisms of toxicity due to chemotherapy has led to characterization of novel methods, including the exploitation of natural compounds, in combination therapies. Flavonoids are natural polyphenolic compounds that play protective roles against tumor cell development. The focus of this study was apoptotic effects of two flavonoids, eupatorin and salvigenin, in combination with doxorubicin on a cellular model of colon cancer...
January 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Daniela Russo, Rocchina Miglionico, Monica Carmosino, Faustino Bisaccia, Paula B Andrade, Patrícia Valentão, Luigi Milella, Maria Francesca Armentano
Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) is a savannah tree that has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa as a medicinal remedy for numerous ailments. The purpose of this study was to increase the scientific knowledge about this plant by evaluating the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the methanol extracts of the leaves and bark (MLE and MBE, respectively), as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity and biological activities of these extracts. Reported results show that MLE is rich in flavonoids (132...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gongxun Tan, Rachael A Uson-Lopez, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Takeshi Saito, Masaaki Kurasaki
Polyphenols have many beneficial effects and an effective disease therapeutic auxiliary drug. Previously, myricetin, a polyphenol, had been reported to possess various biological effects on human physiology. However, mechanism of myricetin on apoptosis induced in PC12 cells is still unclear. PC12 cells were treated with myricetin in two concentration levels comprising 0.1 and 1 μM under serum-free condition. As a result, morphological changes were observed using trypan blue assay. DNA fragmentation was determined by DNA ladder assay to evaluate DNA damage levels...
December 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ergül Mutlu Altundağ, Ayşe Mine Yılmaz, Semra Koçtürk, Yavuz Taga, A Suha Yalçın
Chronic myeloid leukemia is a major hematopoietic malignancy characterized by expansion of myeloid cells. In this study, we have investigated whether quercetin, curcumin and their combination induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of K562 cells. We have observed that quercetin and curcumin combination induced apoptosis accompanied by increased ROS and decreased GSH levels as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our mRNA and protein expression results suggested that cytochrome c was released from mitochondria causing PARP and caspase-9 cleavages, the hallmarks of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway...
November 21, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Erika Terzuoli, Ginevra Nannelli, Maria Frosini, Antonio Giachetti, Marina Ziche, Sandra Donnini
Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a polyphenol of olive oil, downregulates epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression and inhibits cell proliferation in colon cancer (CC) cells, with mechanisms similar to that activated by the EGFR inhibitor, cetuximab. Here, we studied whether HT treatment would enhance the cetuximab inhibitory effects on cell growth in CC cells. HT-cetuximab combination showed greater efficacy in reducing cell growth in HT-29 and WiDr cells at concentrations 10 times lower than when used as single agents...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Shanmugapriya, Yeng Chen, Jagat R Kanwar, Sreenivasan Sasidharan
This study was conducted to investigate the anticancer effects and mechanism of Calophyllum inophyllum fruit extract against MCF-7 cells. C. inophyllum fruit extract was found to have markedly cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 for 24 h of 23.59 µg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that C. inophyllum fruit extract mediated cell cycle at G0 /G1 and G2 /M phases, and MCF-7 cells entered the early phase of apoptosis. The expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 was decreased whereas the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, cytochrome C and p53 were increased after treatment...
November 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
Sanjay Kumar, James Stokes, Udai P Singh, Karyn Scissum-Gunn, Rajesh Singh, Upender Manne, Manoj K Mishra
Nitric oxide, a signaling molecule, inhibits mitochondrial respiration by binding with cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in elevated production of reactive superoxide species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen) in the mitochondria and increased susceptibility to cell death. Generation of mitochondrial superoxide species can be suppressed by natural compounds such as resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol found in the skin of red fruits. In various cancer cells, resveratrol shows anti-oxidant and cancer preventive properties...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Guoyuan Qi, Yashi Mi, Rong Fan, Beita Zhao, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu
Circadian rhythms are autonomous anticipatory oscillators that control a large array of physiological and metabolic processes. Compelling evidence points toward an interplay between circadian rhythms and cellular redox metabolism. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms is associated with neurodegenerative diseases and accelerated aging. Tea polyphenols (TP) is one of the most used antioxidants and exerts beneficial effect on neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether circadian clock mechanisms are involved in the protection effect of TP against neural redox imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y cells...
October 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xiaojing Liu, Zhihong Chen
Mitochondria are critically involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent lung diseases, such as lung fibrosis, asbestos, chronic airway diseases and lung cancer. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes mitochondrial proteins and is more sensitive to oxidants than nuclear DNA. Damage to mtDNA causes mitochondrial dysfunction, including electron transport chain impairment and mitochondrial membrane potential loss. Furthermore, damaged mtDNA also acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that drives inflammatory and immune responses...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Armin A Sokolowski, Wolfgang F Graier
The naturally occurring polyphenol, resveratrol (RSV), is known for a broad range of actions. These include a positive impact on lifespan and health, but also pro-apoptotic anti-cancer properties. Interestingly, cell culture experiments have revealed a strong impact of RSV on mitochondrial function. The compound was demonstrated to affect mitochondrial respiration, structure and mass of mitochondria as well as mitochondrial membrane potential and, ultimately, mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Notably, the mitochondrial effects of RSV show a very strict and remarkable concentration dependency: At low concentrations, RSV (<50 μM) fosters cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)- and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-linked pathways and enhances mitochondrial network formation...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
Aleksey V Zholobenko, Ange Mouithys-Mickalad, Zdenek Dostal, Didier Serteyn, Martin Modriansky
Quercetin and dehydrosilybin are polyphenols which are known to behave like uncouplers of respiration in isolated mitochondria. Here we investigated whether the effect is conserved in whole cells. Following short term incubation, neither compound uncouples mitochondrial respiration in whole H9c2 cells below 50μM. However, following hypoxia, or long term incubation, leak (state IV with oligomycin) oxygen consumption is increased by quercetin. Both compounds partially protected complex I respiration, but not complex II in H9c2 cells following hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
Wang Liao, Wei Xiang, Fei-Fei Wang, Rui Wang, Yan Ding
Curcumin, a polyphenol compound, possesses potent pharmacological properties in preventing cancers, which make it as a potential anti-cancer mediator. However, it is still unknown that whether Curcumin induced melanoma A375 cell was associated with oxidative stress. Here, we firstly found a fascinating result that Curcumin could reduce the proliferation and induced apoptosis of human melanoma A375 cells. Meanwhile, IC50 of Curcumin on A375 cells is 80μM at 48h. In addition, Curcumin caused oxidative stress through inducing further ROS burst, decreasing GSH, and wrecking mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), which were reversed by ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Abhinav Dhingra, Rahul Jayas, Pegah Afshar, Matthew Guberman, Graham Maddaford, Johnathan Gerstein, Brooke Lieberman, Hilary Nepon, Victoria Margulets, Rimpy Dhingra, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum
The Bcl-2 protein Bnip3 is crucial for provoking oxidative injury to mitochondria following anthracycline treatment or ischemia-reperfusion injury. Herein, we investigate the effects of the polyphenolic compound ellagic acid (EA) on Bnip3 mediated mitochondrial injury and necrotic cell death in cardiac myocytes. In contrast to vehicle treated cardiomyocytes, Bnip3 was highly enriched in mitochondrial fractions of cardiac myocytes treated with the anthracycline doxorubicin or in cells subjected to hypoxia (HPX)...
August 25, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Hui-Hui Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yan-Na Cheng, Fu-Lian Gong, Zhan-Qi Cao, Lu-Gang Yu, Xiu-Li Guo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has poor prognosis due to the advanced disease stages by the time it is diagnosed, high recurrence rates and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin (a safe anti-diabetic drug) and curcumin (a turmeric polyphenol extracted from rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn.) on proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of HCC in vitro and in vivo. It was found that co-treatment of metformin and curcumin could not only induce tumor cells into apoptosis through activating the mitochondria pathways, but also suppress the invasion, metastasis of HCC cells and angiogenesis of HUVECs...
January 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Jae-Woo Park, Woo-Gyun Choi, Phil-Jun Lee, Su-Wol Chung, Byung-Sam Kim, Hun-Taeg Chung, Sungchan Cho, Jong-Heon Kim, Byoung-Heon Kang, Hyoungsu Kim, Hong-Pyo Kim, Sung-Hoon Back
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a well-known polyphenol that is present in grapes, peanuts, pine seeds, and several other plants. Resveratrol exerts deleterious effects on various types of human cancer cells. Here, we analyzed the cell death-inducing mechanisms of resveratrol-006 (Res-006), a novel resveratrol derivative in human liver cancer cells in vitro. Res-006 was more effectively suppressed the viability of HepG2 human hepatoma cells than resveratrol (the IC50 values were 67.2 and 354...
November 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Ana Rivera-Barahona, Esmeralda Alonso-Barroso, Belén Pérez, Michael P Murphy, Eva Richard, Lourdes R Desviat
Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of propionic acidemia (PA), a life threatening disease caused by the deficiency of propionyl CoA-carboxylase, in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, odd-number chain fatty acids and cholesterol. Patients develop multisystemic complications including seizures, extrapyramidal symptoms, basal ganglia deterioration, pancreatitis and cardiomyopathy. The accumulation of toxic metabolites results in mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage, all of which have been documented in patients' samples and in a hypomorphic mouse model...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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