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Polyphenols mitochondria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794174/polyphenol-rich-virgin-olive-oil-reduces-insulin-resistance-and-liver-inflammation-and-improves-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#1
Adriano Lama, Claudio Pirozzi, Maria Pia Mollica, Giovanna Trinchese, Francesca Di Guida, Gina Cavaliere, Antonio Calignano, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli
SCOPE: Virgin olive oil is an essential component of the Mediterranean diet. Its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are mainly linked to phenolic contents. This study aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of a polyphenol-rich virgin olive oil (HPCOO) or olive oil without polyphenols (WPOO) in rats fed high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups based on the different types of diet: 1) Standard diet (STD); 2) HFD; 3) HFD containing WPOO and 4) HFD containing HPCOO...
October 29, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746034/role-of-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidants-in-daily-nutrition-and-human-health
#2
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723473/therapeutic-properties-of-green-tea-against-environmental-insults
#3
REVIEW
Lixia Chen, Huanbiao Mo, Ling Zhao, Weimin Gao, Shu Wang, Meghan M Cromie, Chuanwen Lu, Jia-Sheng Wang, Chwan-Li Shen
Pesticides, smoke, mycotoxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and arsenic are the most common environmental toxins and toxicants to humans. These toxins and toxicants may impact on human health at the molecular (DNA, RNA, or protein), organelle (mitochondria, lysosome, or membranes), cellular (growth inhibition or cell death), tissue, organ, and systemic levels. Formation of reactive radicals, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, genotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, neurological alterations, apoptosis, and carcinogenic events are some of the mechanisms mediating the toxic effects of the environmental toxins and toxicants...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613967/polydatin-protects-cardiomyocytes-against-myocardial-infarction-injury-by-activating-sirt3
#4
Mingming Zhang, Zhijing Zhao, Min Shen, Yingmei Zhang, Jianhong Duan, Yanjie Guo, Dongwei Zhang, Jianqiang Hu, Jie Lin, Wanrong Man, Lichao Hou, Haichang Wang, Dongdong Sun
Myocardial infarction (MI), which is characterized by chamber dilation and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Polydatin (PD), a monocrystalline and polyphenolic drug isolated from a traditional Chinese herb (Polygonum cuspidatum), alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction. We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of PD in post-MI cardiac dysfunction. We constructed an MI model by left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation using wild-type (WT) and Sirt3 knockout (Sirt3(-/-)) mice...
September 7, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611176/autophagy-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-adjuvant-arthritis-rats-treatment-with-resveratrol
#5
Junqiang Zhang, Xianbin Song, Wei Cao, Jinseng Lu, Xiaoqing Wang, Gaoyuan Wang, Zhicheng Wang, Xiaoyu Chen
Resveratrol is a polyphenol derivatives which exhibits a pro-apoptotic effect in a variety of human cancers by triggering mitochondria apoptosis pathway and autophagy. However, there are scarcely reports on its apoptosis-promoting effect in abnormal proliferation fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism and apoptosis-inducing effects of resveratrol on the abnormal proliferation of FLSs in adjuvant-arthritis (AA) rats. Since using resveratrol for 12 days resulted in a significant decreasing the swelling degree of the paw, reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and enhancing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase ratio in AA rats...
September 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610044/selected-polyphenols-potentiate-the-apoptotic-efficacy-of-glycolytic-inhibitors-in-human-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cell-lines-regulation-by-protein-kinase-activities
#6
Elena de Blas, María Cristina Estañ, María Del Carmen Gómez de Frutos, Javier Ramos, María Del Carmen Boyano-Adánez, Patricio Aller
BACKGROUND: The glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) is a safe, potentially useful anti-tumour drug, but its efficacy is normally low when used alone. Recent studies indicated that 2-DG stimulates the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK defensive pathways, which limits the apoptotic efficacy in tumour cell lines. We hypothesized that co-treatment with selected polyphenols could improve 2-DG-provoked apoptosis by preventing defensive kinase activation. METHODS: Cell proliferation was measured by cell counting or the MTT assay...
2016: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606689/resveratrol-specifically-kills-cancer-cells-by-a-devastating-increase-in-the-ca2-coupling-between-the-greatly-tethered-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria
#7
Corina T Madreiter-Sokolowski, Benjamin Gottschalk, Warisara Parichatikanond, Emrah Eroglu, Christiane Klec, Markus Waldeck-Weiermair, Roland Malli, Wolfgang F Graier
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Resveratrol and its derivate piceatannol are known to induce cancer cell-specific cell death. While multiple mechanisms of actions have been described including the inhibition of ATP synthase, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS levels, the exact mechanisms of cancer specificity of these polyphenols remain unclear. This paper is designed to reveal the molecular basis of the cancer-specific initiation of cell death by resveratrol and piceatannol. METHODS: The two cancer cell lines EA...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455862/effects-of-grape-skin-extract-on-age-related-mitochondrial-dysfunction-memory-and-life-span-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#8
Heike Asseburg, Carmina Schäfer, Madeleine Müller, Stephanie Hagl, Maximilian Pohland, Dirk Berressem, Marta Borchiellini, Christina Plank, Gunter P Eckert
Dementia contributes substantially to the burden of disability experienced at old age, and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) was identified as common final pathway in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. Due to its early appearance, MD is a promising target for nutritional prevention strategies and polyphenols as potential neurohormetic inducers may be strong neuroprotective candidates. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a polyphenol-rich grape skin extract (PGE) on age-related dysfunctions of brain mitochondria, memory, life span and potential hormetic pathways in C57BL/6J mice...
September 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373419/signaling-mechanisms-underlying-the-glioprotective-effects-of-resveratrol-against-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#9
Bruna Bellaver, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Débora Guerini Souza, Marília Danielly Nunes Rodrigues, Adriano Martimbianco de Assis, Moacir Wajner, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and, neuroprotective effects. Resveratrol also plays a significant role modulating glial functionality, protecting the health of neuroglial cells against several neuropsychiatric in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Mitochondrial impairment strongly affected astrocyte functions and consequently brain homeostasis. Molecules that promote astrocyte mitochondrial protection are fundamental to maintain brain energy balance and cellular redox state, contributing to brain healthy...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339454/potent-effects-of-peracetylated-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-against-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-damage-in-human-epidermal-melanocytes-via-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#10
W Ning, S Wang, D Liu, L Fu, R Jin, A Xu
BACKGROUND: Damage to melanocytes induced by oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. A polyphenol found in green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), exhibits certain antioxidative effects in the treatment of various diseases. The major problem that limits the clinical application of this polyphenol is its low bioavailability and stability. Peracetylated EGCG (AcEGCG), a fully acetylated derivative of EGCG, is more stable and bioavailable than EGCG, but the effects of its action on human epidermal melanocytes have not been elucidated...
August 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281548/ex-vivo-treatment-with-a-polyphenol-enriched-cocoa-extract-ameliorates-myocardial-infarct-and-postischemic-mitochondrial-injury-in-normotensive-and-hypertensive-rats
#11
Luisa F González Arbeláez, Alejandro Ciocci Pardo, Juliana C Fantinelli, Claudia Caldiz, José Luis Ríos, Guillermo R Schinella, Susana M Mosca
Our objective was to determine the effects of a polyphenol-enriched cocoa extract (PCE) on myocardial postischemic alterations in normotensive (Wistar rats, W) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Isolated hearts were submitted to 110 min of perfusion or 20 min stabilization, 30 min global ischemia, and 60 min reperfusion (R). Other hearts were treated with PCE at the onset of R. Infarct size, the reduced glutathione (GSH), and the expression of phospho-Akt, P-GSK-3β, and P-eNOS were assessed. In isolated mitochondria, the Ca(2+)-mediated response of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), membrane potential (Δψm), and superoxide production were determined...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279695/kinetics-of-inhibition-of-monoamine-oxidase-using-curcumin-and-ellagic-acid
#12
Dharmendra Kumar Khatri, Archana Ramesh Juvekar
BACKGROUND: Curcumin and ellagic are the natural polyphenols having a wide range of pharmacological actions. They have been reported to have their use in various neurological disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of curcumin and ellagic acid on the activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO), the enzyme responsible for metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters which are pivotal for neuronal development and function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro effects of these selected polyphenols on MAO activities in mitochondria isolated from rat brains were examined...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276215/honokiol-targets-mitochondria-to-halt-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#13
REVIEW
Jing Pan, Yongik Lee, Yian Wang, Ming You
Cancer continues to be the leading cause of death worldwide. Plants have a long history of use in the treatment of cancer. Honokiol (HNK) is an important bioactive compound found in the bark of Magnolia tree, and has been shown to inhibit cancer growth and metastasis in many cell types in vitro and in animal models. Resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the major obstacle for cure of cancer. Combination of HNK with many traditional chemotherapeutic drugs as well as radiation sensitizes cancer cells to apoptotic death, suggesting that HNK not only directly inhibits primary cancers and metastasis, but also has potential to overcome drug resistance...
June 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27143655/curcumin-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-mitophagy-exploring-recent-data-and-indicating-future-needs
#14
REVIEW
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Fernanda Rafaela Jardim, William N Setzer, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi
Mitochondria are dynamic double-membrane bound organelles which have key roles in a variety of cellular functions such as energy producing, regulation of calcium flux, cellular stress responses including autophagy and apoptosis. A growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is the main culprit in a myriad of diseases such as neurodegenerative disease. This fact opens a new therapeutic window based on targeting mitochondrial dysfunction for treatment of these diseases. Recently an abundance of evidence shows the promising role of polyphenolic compounds on mitochondrial structure and function...
September 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129605/organic-honey-supplementation-reverses-pesticide-induced-genotoxicity-by-modulating-dna-damage-response
#15
Renata Alleva, Nicola Manzella, Simona Gaetani, Veronica Ciarapica, Massimo Bracci, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Federica Pasini, Federica Monaco, Monica Amati, Battista Borghi, Marco Tomasetti
SCOPE: Glyphosate (GLY), and organophosphorus (OP) insecticides such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) may cause DNA damage and cancer in exposed individuals through mitochondrial dysfunction. Polyphenols ubiquitously present in fruits and vegetables, have been viewed as antioxidant molecules, but also influence mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, honey containing polyphenol compounds was evaluated for its potential protective effect on pesticide-induced genotoxicity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Honey extracts from four floral organic sources were evaluated for their polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and potential protective effects on pesticide-related mitochondrial destabilization, ROSN formation and DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial and neuronal cells...
April 30, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119009/the-natural-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-gallate-protects-intervertebral-disc-cells-from-oxidative-stress
#16
Olga Krupkova, Junichi Handa, Marian Hlavna, Juergen Klasen, Caroline Ospelt, Stephen John Ferguson, Karin Wuertz-Kozak
Oxidative stress-related phenotypic changes and a decline in the number of viable cells are crucial contributors to intervertebral disc degeneration. The polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) can interfere with painful disc degeneration by reducing inflammation, catabolism, and pain. In this study, we hypothesized that EGCG furthermore protects against senescence and/or cell death, induced by oxidative stress. Sublethal and lethal oxidative stress were induced in primary human intervertebral disc cells with H2O2 (total n = 36)...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069807/pine-polyphenols-from-pinus-koraiensis-prevent-injuries-induced-by-gamma-radiation-in-mice
#17
Hui Li, Zhenyu Wang, Yier Xu, Guicai Sun
Pine polyphenols (PPs) are bioactive dietary constituents that enhance health and help prevent diseases through antioxidants. Antioxidants reduce the level of oxidative damages caused by ionizing radiation (IR). The main purpose of this paper is to study the protective effect of PPs on peripheral blood, liver and spleen injuries in mice induced by IR. ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) male mice were administered orally with PPs (200 mg/kg b.wt.) once daily for 14 consecutive days prior to 7 Gy γ-radiations...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058985/antioxidant-effects-of-resveratrol-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#18
Ning Xia, Andreas Daiber, Ulrich Förstermann, Huige Li
Antioxidant effects of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) contribute substantially to the health benefits of the compound. Resveratrol has been shown to be a scavenger of a number of free radicals. However, the direct scavenging activities of resveratrol are relatively poor. The antioxidant properties of resveratrol in vivo are more likely to be attributable to its effect as a gene regulator. Resveratrol inhibits NADPH oxidase-mediated production of reactive oxygen species by downregulating the expression and activity of the oxidase...
April 5, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989875/punicalagin-attenuates-palmitate-induced-lipotoxicity-in-hepg2-cells-by-activating-the-keap1-nrf2-antioxidant-defense-system
#19
Chunhong Yan, Wenyan Sun, Xun Wang, Jiangang Long, Xuebo Liu, Zhihui Feng, Jiankang Liu
SCOPE: Free fatty acids (FFA) could induce hepatocyte lipotoxicity, which plays an important role in the initiation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Inhibition of FFA-induced lipotoxicity is suggested as a potential treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of the current study is to explore the effect of punicalagin, a polyphenol abundant in pomegranate, on FFA-induced hepatic lipotoxicity and its potential mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: HepG2 cells were exposed to 250 μM palmitate for 24 h with or without punicalagin pretreatment...
May 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972373/cardiac-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-in-heart-failure-role-of-cardiolipin-and-sirtuins
#20
Vernon W Dolinsky, Laura K Cole, Genevieve C Sparagna, Grant M Hatch
Mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids accounts for the majority of cardiac ATP production in the heart. Fatty acid utilization by cardiac mitochondria is controlled at the level of fatty acid uptake, lipid synthesis, mobilization and mitochondrial import and oxidation. Consequently defective mitochondrial function appears to be central to the development of heart failure. Cardiolipin is a key mitochondrial phospholipid required for the activity of the electron transport chain. In heart failure, loss of cardiolipin and tetralinoleoylcardiolipin helps to fuel the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species that are a by-product of inefficient mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and III...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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