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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908240/the-gabaergic-gudden-s-dorsal-tegmental-nucleus-a-new-relay-for-serotonergic-regulation-of-sleep-wake-behavior-in-the-mouse
#1
Marine Chazalon, Sylvie Dumas, Jean-François Bernard, Iman Sahly, François Tronche, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Michel Hamon, Joëlle Adrien, Véronique Fabre, Patricia Bonnavion
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons are involved in wake promotion and exert a strong inhibitory influence on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Such effects have been ascribed, at least in part to the action of 5-HT at post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1A R) in the brainstem, a major wake/REM sleep regulatory center. However, the neuroanatomical substrate through which 5-HT1A R influence sleep remains elusive. We therefore investigated whether a brainstem structure containing a high density of 5-HT1A R mRNA, the GABAergic Gudden's dorsal tegmental nucleus (DTg), may contribute to 5-HT-mediated regulatory mechanisms of sleep-wake stages...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899695/intravascular-ketamine-increases-theta-burst-but-not-high-frequency-tetanus-induced-ltp-at-ca3-ca1-synapses-within-three-hours-and-devoid-of-an-increase-in-spine-density
#2
Allie J Widman, Amy E Stewart, Elise M Erb, Elizabeth Gardner, Lori L McMahon
In the past 20 years, ketamine has become a promising treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) due to its rapid and sustain antidepressant effects in patients. A single ketamine treatment causes improvement in depressive symptoms within hours and can last weeks, long after it is eliminated. Previous studies have demonstrated increased synaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses in hippocampus (HPC) 24 h post ketamine treatment suggesting increased activity-dependent hippocampal function may underlie the antidepressant effects of ketamine...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895670/cerebellar-synapse-properties-and-cerebellum-dependent-motor-and-non-motor-performance-in-dp71-null-mice
#3
Romain Helleringer, Delphine Le Verger, Xia Li, Charlotte Izabelle, Rémi Chaussenot, Mehdi Belmaati-Cherkaoui, Raoudha Dammak, Paulette Decottignies, Hervé Daniel, Micaela Galante, Cyrille Vaillend
A recent focus has been placed on the role that cerebellar dysfunctions could play in the genesis of cognitive deficits in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, relevant genotype-phenotype analyses are missing to define whether cerebellar defects underlie the severe cases of intellectual deficiency, which have been associated with genetic loss of the smallest product of the dmd gene, the Dp71 dystrophin. To determine for the first time whether Dp71 loss could affect cerebellar physiology and functions, we have used patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in acute cerebellar slices and a cerebellum-dependent behavioral test battery addressing cerebellum-dependent motor and non-motor functions in Dp71-null transgenic mice...
June 12, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875651/prospects-of-zinc-supplementation-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-shankopathies-such-as-phelan-mcdermid-syndrome
#4
Simone Hagmeyer, Ann Katrin Sauer, Andreas M Grabrucker
The loss of one copy of SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3) in humans highly contributes to Phelan McDermid syndrome (PMDS). In addition, SHANK3 was identified as a major autism candidate gene. Interestingly, the protein encoded by the SHANK3 gene is regulated by zinc. While zinc deficiency depletes synaptic pools of Shank3, increased zinc levels were shown to promote synaptic scaffold formation. Therefore, the hypothesis arises that patients with PMDS and Autism caused by Shankopathies, having one intact copy of SHANK3 left, may benefit from zinc supplementation, as elevated zinc may drive remaining Shank3 into the post-synaptic density (PSD) and may additional recruit Shank2, a second zinc-dependent member of the SHANK gene family...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867450/modulatory-effect-of-aerobic-physical-activity-on-synaptic-ultrastructure-in-the-old-mouse-hippocampus
#5
Patrizia Fattoretti, Manuela Malatesta, Barbara Cisterna, Chiara Milanese, Carlo Zancanaro
Aerobic physical exercise (APE) leads to improved brain functions. To better understand the beneficial effect of APE on the aging brain, a morphometric study was carried out of changes in hippocampal synapses of old (>27 months) Balb/c mice undergoing treadmill training (OTT) for 4 weeks in comparison with old sedentary (OS), middle-aged sedentary (MAS) and middle-aged treadmill training (MATT) mice. The inner molecular layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (IMLDG) and the molecular stratum of Ammon's horn1 neurons (SMCA1) were investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843688/huatuo-zaizao-pill-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-of-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-by-improving-synaptic-plasticity-and-reducing-a%C3%AE-deposition
#6
Jing-Hua Zhang, Lin-Jie Yu, Hui Yang, Zhen Hui, Su Jiang, Ling Chen, Yang Zhao, Su-Lei Wang, Yi Liu, Yun Xu
BACKGROUND: It is well known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory deficits and cognitive decline. Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and synaptic dysfunction play important roles in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Huatuo Zaizao pill (HT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that has been used clinically for many years in China, mainly for post-stroke rehabilitation and cognitive decline; however, the mechanism of cognitive function is not clear...
May 29, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793975/preferential-targeting-of-lateral-entorhinal-inputs-onto-newly-integrated-granule-cells
#7
Nicholas I Woods, Christopher E Vaaga, Christina Chatzi, Jaimie D Adelson, Matthew F Collie, Julia V Perederiy, Kenneth R Tovar, Gary L Westbrook
Mature dentate granule cells in the hippocampus receive input from the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path in precisely arranged lamina, with medial entorhinal axons innervating the middle molecular layer and lateral entorhinal cortex axons innervating the outer molecular layer. Although vastly outnumbered by mature granule cells, adult-generated newborn granule cells play a unique role in hippocampal function, which has largely been attributed to their enhanced excitability and plasticity (Schmidt-Hieber et al...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792707/nano-scale-conductive-filament-with-alternating-rectification-as-an-artificial-synapse-building-block
#8
Dan Berco, Yu Zhou, Sankara Rao Gollu, Pranav Sairam Kalaga, Abhisek Kole, Mohamed Hassan, Diing Shenp Ang
A popular approach for resistive memory (RRAM) based hardware implementation of neural networks utilizes one (or two) device that functions as an analog synapse in a crossbar structure of perpendicular pre- and post-synaptic neurons. An ideal fully automated, large scale artificial neural network, that matches a biologic counterpart (in terms of density and energy consumption), thus requires nano sized, extremely low power devices with a wide dynamic range and multi level functionality. Unfortunately the tradeoff between these traits proves to be a serious obstacle in the realization of brain inspired computing platforms yet to be overcome...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780316/resonance-analysis-as-a-tool-for-characterizing-functional-division-of-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons
#9
Melvin A Felton, Alfred B Yu, David L Boothe, Kelvin S Oie, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Evidence suggests that layer 5 pyramidal neurons can be divided into functional zones with unique afferent connectivity and membrane characteristics that allow for post-synaptic integration of feedforward and feedback inputs. To assess the existence of these zones and their interaction, we characterized the resonance properties of a biophysically-realistic compartmental model of a neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neuron. Consistent with recently published theoretical and empirical findings, our model was configured to have a "hot zone" in distal apical dendrite and apical tuft where both high- and low-threshold Ca2+ ionic conductances had densities 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than anywhere else in the apical dendrite...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760528/lrrtm4-c538y-novel-gene-mutation-is-associated-with-hereditary-macular-degeneration-with-novel-dysfunction-of-on-type-bipolar-cells
#10
Yuichi Kawamura, Akiko Suga, Takuro Fujimaki, Kazutoshi Yoshitake, Kazushige Tsunoda, Akira Murakami, Takeshi Iwata
The macula is a unique structure in higher primates, where cone and rod photoreceptors show highest density in the fovea and the surrounding area, respectively. The hereditary macular dystrophies represent a heterozygous group of rare disorders characterized by central visual loss and atrophy of the macula and surrounding retina. Here we report an atypical absence of ON-type bipolar cell response in a Japanese patient with autosomal dominant macular dystrophy (adMD). To identify a causal genetic mutation for the adMD, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on four affected and four-non affected members of the family for three generations, and identified a novel p...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753415/early-effects-of-16-o-radiation-on-neuronal-morphology-and-cognition-in-a-murine-model
#11
Hannah Carr, Tyler C Alexander, Thomas Groves, Frederico Kiffer, Jing Wang, Elvin Price, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
Astronauts exposed to high linear energy transfer radiation may experience cognitive injury. The pathogenesis of this injury is unknown but may involve glutamate receptors or modifications to dendritic structure and/or dendritic spine density and morphology. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, where it acts on ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors located at the presynaptic terminal and in the postsynaptic membrane at synapses in the hippocampus. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission, and changes in spine structure and dendrite morphology are thought to be morphological correlates of altered brain function associated with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753414/late-effects-of-1-h-irradiation-on-hippocampal-physiology
#12
Frederico Kiffer, Alexis K Howe, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Tyler Alexander, Julie E Anderson, Thomas Groves, John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
NASA's Missions to Mars and beyond will expose flight crews to potentially dangerous levels of charged-particle radiation. Of all charged nuclei, 1 H is the most abundant charged particle in both the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) spectra. There are currently no functional spacecraft shielding materials that are able to mitigate the charged-particle radiation encountered in space. Recent studies have demonstrated cognitive injuries due to high-dose 1 H exposures in rodents. Our study investigated the effects of 1 H irradiation on neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult male mice...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740323/the-selective-antagonism-of-adenosine-a-2b-receptors-reduces-the-synaptic-failure-and-neuronal-death-induced-by-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-in-rat-ca1-hippocampus-in-vitro
#13
Irene Fusco, Filippo Ugolini, Daniele Lana, Elisabetta Coppi, Ilaria Dettori, Lisa Gaviano, Daniele Nosi, Federica Cherchi, Felicita Pedata, Maria G Giovannini, Anna M Pugliese
Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in time. Immediately after the ischemic insult, primary brain damage is due to the massive increase of extracellular glutamate. Adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia in concentrations able to stimulate all its receptors, A1 , A2A , A2B , and A3 . Although adenosine exerts clear neuroprotective effects through A1 receptors during ischemia, the use of selective A1 receptor agonists is hampered by their undesirable peripheral side effects...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703139/identification-of-a-novel-dlg2-isoform-differentially-expressed-in-ifn%C3%AE-producing-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#14
Shafaqat Ali, Alexander Hoven, Regine J Dress, Heiner Schaal, Judith Alferink, Stefanie Scheu
BACKGROUND: The murine discs large homolog 2 (DLG2; post synaptic density 93 (PSD-93); Chapsyn-110) is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein family involved in receptor assembly and associated with signaling enzymes on cell membranes. In neurons, DLG2 protein isoforms derived from alternatively spliced transcripts have been described to bind to NMDA (N-methyl-aspartate) receptors and K channels and to mediate clustering of these channels in the postsynaptic membrane...
March 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699479/repeat-propofol-anesthesia-does-not-exacerbate-plaque-deposition-or-synapse-loss-in-app-ps1-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#15
Adele Woodhouse, Carmen Maria Fernandez-Martos, Rachel Alice Kathryn Atkinson, Kelsey Anne Hanson, Jessica Marie Collins, Aidan Ryan O'Mara, Nico Terblanche, Marcus Welby Skinner, James Clement Vickers, Anna Elizabeth King
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in whether anesthetic agents affect the risk or progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To mitigate many of the methodological issues encountered in human retrospective cohort studies we have used a transgenic model of AD to investigate the effect of propofol on AD pathology. METHODS: Six month-old amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic AD mice and control mice were exposed to 3 doses of propofol (200 mg/kg) or vehicle, delivered at monthly intervals...
April 25, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696604/genomic-and-imaging-biomarkers-in-schizophrenia
#16
J T Reddaway, J L Doherty, T Lancaster, D Linden, J T Walters, J Hall
Recent large-scale genomic studies have confirmed that schizophrenia is a polygenic syndrome and have implicated a number of biological pathways in its aetiology. Both common variants individually of small effect and rarer but more penetrant genetic variants have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. No simple Mendelian forms of the condition have been identified, but progress has been made in stratifying risk on the basis of the polygenic burden of common variants individually of small effect, and the contribution of rarer variants of larger effect such as Copy Number Variants (CNVs)...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689341/calcium-dependent-activator-protein-for-secretion-2-cadps2-deficiency-causes-abnormal-synapse-development-in-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-terminals
#17
Yo Shinoda, Tetsushi Sadakata, Takumi Akagi, Yuriko Sakamaki, Tsutomu Hashikawa, Yoshitake Sano, Teiichi Furuichi
Hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs) project from dentate gyrus granule cells onto the CA2-CA3 region. MF-mediated synaptic transmission plays an important role in hippocampal learning and memory. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MF synaptic development and subsequent functional organization are not fully understood. We previously reported that calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2, also known as CAPS2) regulates the secretion of dense-core vesicles (DCVs). Because CADPS2 is strongly expressed in MF terminals, we hypothesized that CADPS2 regulates the development and functional organization of MF synapses by controlling the secretion of DCVs and their contents...
June 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617216/effect-of-standing-posture-on-inhibitory-postsynaptic-potentials-in-gastrocnemius-motoneurons
#18
S Jayne Garland, Alessio Gallina, Courtney L Pollock, Tanya D Ivanova
This study examined the task-dependency of sensory inputs on motoneuron excitability by comparing the inhibitory post-synaptic potential (IPSP) evoked by stimulation of the sural nerve between a standing postural task (Free Standing) and a comparable voluntary isometric contraction performed in supine (Lying Supine). We hypothesized that there would be a smaller IPSP in standing than in supine, based on the task dependence of the ankle plantarflexor activity to the standing task. Ten healthy participants participated in a total of 15 experiments...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560440/chronic-voluntary-oral-methamphetamine-induces-deficits-in-spatial-learning-and-hippocampal-protein-kinase-mzeta-with-enhanced-astrogliosis-and-cyclooxygenase-2-levels
#19
Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557723/in-silico-identification-and-design-of-potent-peptide-inhibitors-against-pdz-3-domain-of-postsynaptic-density-protein-psd-95
#20
Tanuj Sharma, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi
Unique intrinsic properties of peptides like low toxicity, high biological activity, and specificity make them attractive therapeutic agents. PDZ-binding peptide inhibitors have been demonstrated for curing of Alzheimer, Parkinson, Dementia, and other central nervous system ailments. In this article, we report the successful use of an integrated computational protocol to analyze the structural basis of how peptides bind to the shallow groove of the third PDZ domain (PDZ-3) from the postsynaptic density (PSD-95) protein...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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