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Post synaptic density

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617216/effect-of-standing-posture-on-inhibitory-postsynaptic-potentials-in-gastrocnemius-motoneurons
#1
S Jayne Garland, Alessio Gallina, Courtney L Pollock, Tanya D Ivanova
This study examined the task-dependency of sensory inputs on motoneuron excitability by comparing the inhibitory post-synaptic potential (IPSP) evoked by stimulation of the sural nerve between a standing postural task (Free Standing) and a comparable voluntary isometric contraction performed in supine (Lying Supine). We hypothesized that there would be a smaller IPSP in standing than in supine, based on the task dependence of the ankle plantarflexor activity to the standing task. Ten healthy participants participated in a total of 15 experiments...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560440/chronic-voluntary-oral-methamphetamine-induces-deficits-in-spatial-learning-and-hippocampal-protein-kinase-mzeta-with-enhanced-astrogliosis-and-cyclooxygenase-2-levels
#2
Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557723/in-silico-identification-and-design-of-potent-peptide-inhibitors-against-pdz-3-domain-of-post-synaptic-density-protein-psd-95
#3
Tanuj Sharma, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi
Unique intrinsic properties of peptides like low toxicity, high biological activity and specificity make them attractive therapeutic agents. PDZ binding peptide inhibitors have been demonstrated for curing of Alzheimer, Parkinson, Dementia and other central nervous system ailments. In this article, we report the successful use of an integrated computational protocol to analyze the structural basis of how peptides bind to the shallow groove of the third PDZ domain (PDZ3) from the Post Synaptic Density (PSD-95) protein...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550707/a-surface-magnetic-imprinted-polymers-as-artificial-receptors-for-selective-and-efficient-capturing-of-new-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-post-synaptic-density-protein-95-uncouplers
#4
Dandan Yao, Lei Zhang, Jiaojiao Huang, Chenghong Sun, Yu Zhang, Xiaoli Gu, Chong-Zhi Wang, Fei Li, Lina Chen, Chun-Su Yuan
In this work, surface magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (SMMIPs) were synthesized and used as artificial receptors in the dispersive magnetic solid phase extraction (DMSPE) for capturing potential neuronal nitric oxide synthase-post synaptic density protein-95 (nNOS-PSD-95) uncouplers, which is known as neuroprotection against stroke. Factors that affected selective separation and adsorption of the artificial receptors, such as the amount of template, the types of functional monomer and porogen solvents, and the molar ratio of template/functional monomer/cross-linker were optimized...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503098/the-tetrapartite-synapse-a-key-concept-in-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#5
Gabriele Chelini, Harry Pantazopoulos, Peter Durning, Sabina Berretta
Growing evidence points to synaptic pathology as a core component of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Significant reductions of dendritic spine density and altered expression of their structural and molecular components have been reported in several brain regions, suggesting a deficit of synaptic plasticity. Regulation of synaptic plasticity is a complex process, one that requires not only interactions between pre- and post-synaptic terminals, but also glial cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
March 1, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483281/differential-synaptic-remodeling-by-dopamine-in-direct-and-indirect-striatal-projection-neurons-in-pitx3-mice-a-genetic-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Luz M Suarez, Samuel Alberquilla, Jose R García-Montes, Rosario Moratalla
In toxin-based models of Parkinson's disease (PD), striatal projection neurons (SPNs) exhibit dendritic atrophy and spine loss concurrent with an increase in excitability. Chronic L-DOPA-treatment that induces dyskinesia selectively restores spine density and excitability in indirect pathway SPNs (iSPNs), whereas spine loss and hyper-excitability persist in direct pathway SPNs (dSPNs). These alterations have only been characterized in toxin-based models of PD, raising the possibility that they are an artifact of exposure to the toxin, which may engage compensatory mechanisms independent of the PD-like pathology or due to the loss of dopaminergic afferents...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473168/structural-basis-for-pdz-domain-interactions-in-the-post-synaptic-density-scaffolding-protein-shank3
#7
Srinivas Kumar Ponna, Salla Ruskamo, Matti Myllykoski, Corinna Keller, Tobias M Boeckers, Petri Kursula
The Shank proteins are crucial scaffolding elements of the post-synaptic density (PSD). One of the best-characterized domains in Shank is the PDZ domain, which binds to C-terminal segments of several other PSD proteins. We carried out a detailed structural analysis of Shank3 PDZ domain-peptide complexes, in order to understand determinants of binding affinity towards different ligand proteins. Ligand peptides from four different proteins were cocrystallized with the Shank3 PDZ domain, and binding affinities were determined calorimetrically...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460436/truncating-variants-of-the-dlg4-gene-are-responsible-for-intellectual-disability-with-marfanoid-features
#8
M Sébastien, B Ange-Line, A Mirna, C Martin, S Elisabeth, G Cyril, G Anne-Marie, C Aude, C Perrine, H Delphine, F Anne, H Nada, V Antonio, T-M-T Frédéric, P Christophe, D Yannis, T-R Christel, F Laurence
Marfanoid habitus (MH) combined with intellectual disability (ID) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of overlapping disorders. We performed exome sequencing in 33 trios and 31 single probands to identify novel genes specific to MH-ID. After the search for variants in OMIM genes and non-OMIM genes with classical approaches, we searched for variants in non-disease-causing genes whose pLI was above 0.9 (ExAC Consortium data), in which truncating variants were found in at least 3 unrelated patients, in order to identity novel MH-ID genes...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454667/pten-expression-in-astrocytic-processes-after-spinal-cord-injury
#9
T V Povysheva, Y O Mukhamedshina, A A Rizvanov, Y A Chelyshev
The role of the Rho/ROCK/PTEN signaling pathway in the regulation of astrocyte function for consolidation/stabilization of the synapse has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in GFAP-positive astrocytic processes in the ventral horns (VH) of the rat spinal cord has been evaluated in the normal condition and in a delayed period (30 days) after dosed contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in caudal thoracic segments. In intact rats and at 30 days post-injury (dpi), semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that there is approximately 2 folds less synaptophysin reactivity in the motoneuron perikarya than outside the perikarya, i...
February 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444449/dendritic-spine-density-and-ephrinb2-levels-of-hippocampal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-neurons-increase-sequentially-during-formation-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory-in-the-mouse
#10
Georgia Abate, Sandra Colazingari, Alessandra Accoto, David Conversi, Arturo Bevilacqua
Memory consolidation is a dynamic process that involves a sequential remodeling of hippocampal-cortical circuits. Although synaptic events underlying memory consolidation are well assessed, fine molecular events controlling this process deserve further characterization. To this aim, we challenged male C57BL/6N mice in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm and tested their memory 24 h, 7 days or 36 days later. Mice displayed a strong fear response at all time points with an increase in dendritic spine density and protein levels of the cell adhesion factor EphrinB2 in CA1 hippocampal neurons 24 h and 7 days post conditioning (p...
February 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432803/learning-and-memory-is-modulated-by-cannabidiol-when-administered-during-trace-fear-conditioning
#11
A L Uhernik, Z T Montoya, C D Balkissoon, J P Smith
Cannabidiol (CBD) is thought to have therapeutic potential for treating psychiatric conditions that affect cognitive aspects of learning and memory, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that CBD enhances extinction of fear memory when given after conditioning. This led us to hypothesize that CBD, if administered prior to fear conditioning, might modulate cognitive learning and memory processes in additional ways that would further guide its potential use for treating PTSD...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411265/rare-risk-variants-identification-by-identity-by-descent-mapping-and-whole-exome-sequencing-implicates-neuronal-development-pathways-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#12
C Salvoro, S Bortoluzzi, A Coppe, G Valle, E Feltrin, M L Mostacciuolo, G Vazza
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are highly heritable disorders with an estimated co-heritability of 68%. Hundreds of common alleles have been implicated, but recently a role for rare, high-penetrant variants has been also suggested in both disorders. This study investigated a familial cohort of SCZ and BPD patients from a closed population sample, where the high recurrence of the disorders and the homogenous genetic background indicate a possible enrichment in rare risk alleles. A total of 230 subjects (161 cases, 22 unaffected relatives, and 47 controls) were genetically investigated through an innovative strategy that integrates identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping and whole-exome sequencing (WES)...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396406/dlgap1-knockout-mice-exhibit-alterations-of-the-postsynaptic-density-and-selective-reductions-in-sociability
#13
M P Coba, M J Ramaker, E V Ho, S L Thompson, N H Komiyama, S G N Grant, J A Knowles, S C Dulawa
The scaffold protein DLGAP1 is localized at the post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic neurons and is a component of supramolecular protein complexes organized by PSD95. Gain-of-function variants of DLGAP1 have been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), while haploinsufficient variants have been linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in human genetic studies. We tested male and female Dlgap1 wild type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice in a battery of behavioral tests: open field, dig, splash, prepulse inhibition, forced swim, nest building, social approach, and sucrose preference...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385102/preventive-effects-of-resveratrol-on-endocannabinoid-system-and-synaptic-protein-modifications-in-rat-cerebral-cortex-challenged-by-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-and-reperfusion
#14
Gianfranca Carta, Laura Poddighe, Maria Pina Serra, Marianna Boi, Tiziana Melis, Sara Lisai, Elisabetta Murru, Laura Muredda, Maria Collu, Sebastiano Banni, Marina Quartu
This study aims to evaluate the putative roles of a single acute dose of resveratrol (RVT) in preventing cerebral oxidative stress induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (BCCAO/R) and to investigate RVT's ability to preserve the neuronal structural integrity. Frontal and temporal-occipital cortices were examined in two groups of adult Wistar rats, sham-operated and submitted to BCCAO/R. In both groups, 6 h before surgery, half the rats were gavage-fed with a single dose of RVT (40 mg/per rat in 300 µL of sunflower oil as the vehicle), while the second half received the vehicle alone...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384407/effect-of-aucubin-on-neural-precursor-cell-survival-during-neuronal-differentiation
#15
Miyeoun Song, Maeum Han, Yunhee Kim Kwon
Aucubin (ACB) is an iridoid glycoside with various biological activities. Previously it is reported that ACB reduces cell survival and proliferation in many human tumors, whereas it facilitates cell survival and neuroprotection in damaged neuronal cells and disease models. However, its effects on cell survival in the non-proliferating or differentiated neurons are not known. We examined whether ACB facilitated cell survival in differentiating neural precursor cells, HiB5, compared with the proliferating HiB5 cells at various concentrations...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353084/creating-diverse-synapses-from-the-same-molecules
#16
REVIEW
Zoltan Nusser
Research over the past half a century has revealed remarkable diversity among chemical synapses of the CNS. The structural, functional and molecular diversity of synapses was mainly concluded from studying different synapses in distinct brain regions and preparations. It is not surprising that synapses made by molecularly distinct pre-synaptic and post-synaptic cells display different morphological and functional properties with distinct underlying molecular mechanisms. However, synapses made by a single presynaptic cell onto distinct types of postsynaptic cells, or distinct presynaptic inputs onto a single postsynaptic cell, also show remarkable heterogeneity...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343737/moderate-decline-in-select-synaptic-markers-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-ba9-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-at-various-cognitive-stages
#17
Odile Poirel, Sébastien Mella, Catherine Videau, Lauriane Ramet, Maria Antonietta Davoli, Etienne Herzog, Pavel Katsel, Naguib Mechawar, Vahram Haroutunian, Jacques Epelbaum, Stéphanie Daumas, Salah El Mestikawy
Synaptic loss, plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are viewed as hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated synaptic markers in neocortical Brodmann area 9 (BA9) samples from 171 subjects with and without AD at different levels of cognitive impairment. The expression levels of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1&2), glutamate uptake site (EAAT2), post-synaptic density protein of 95 kD (PSD95), vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VIAAT), somatostatin (som), synaptophysin and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) were evaluated...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335778/hippocampal-area-ca2-properties-and-contribution-to-hippocampal-function
#18
REVIEW
Vincent Robert, Sadiyah Cassim, Vivien Chevaleyre, Rebecca A Piskorowski
This review focuses on area CA2 of the hippocampus, as recent results have revealed the unique properties and surprising role of this region in encoding social, temporal and contextual aspects of memory. Originally identified and described by Lorente de No, in 1934, this region of the hippocampus has unique intra-and extra-hippocampal connectivity, sending and receiving input to septal and hypothalamic regions. Recent in vivo studies have indicated that CA2 pyramidal neurons encode spatial information during immobility and play an important role in the generation of sharp-wave ripples...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321508/thrombospondin-1-secreted-by-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-rescues-neurons-from-synaptic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#19
Dong Hyun Kim, Hoon Lim, Dahm Lee, Soo Jin Choi, Wonil Oh, Yoon Sun Yang, Jeong Su Oh, Hyun Ho Hwang, Hong Bae Jeon
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterised clinically by learning and memory impairments. Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide-induced synaptic dysfunction is a pathological process associated with early-stage AD. Here, we show that paracrine action of human umbilical cord blood-derived-mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) protects the hippocampus from synaptic-density loss in in vitro and in vivo AD models. To identify paracrine factors underlying this rescue effect, we analysed hUCB-MSCs' secretome co-cultured with Aβ42-treated mouse hippocampal neurons...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317733/in-vivo-sted-microscopy-visualizes-psd95-sub-structures-and-morphological-changes-over-several-hours-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#20
Waja Wegner, Alexander C Mott, Seth G N Grant, Heinz Steffens, Katrin I Willig
The post-synaptic density (PSD) is an electron dense region consisting of ~1000 proteins, found at the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses, which varies in size depending upon synaptic strength. PSD95 is an abundant scaffolding protein in the PSD and assembles a family of supercomplexes comprised of neurotransmitter receptors, ion channels, as well as signalling and structural proteins. We use superresolution STED (STimulated Emission Depletion) nanoscopy to determine the size and shape of PSD95 in the anaesthetised mouse visual cortex...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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