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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881953/connectomic-analysis-of-brain-networks-novel-techniques-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
J Leonie Cazemier, Francisco Clascá, Paul H E Tiesinga
Brain networks, localized or brain-wide, exist only at the cellular level, i.e., between specific pre- and post-synaptic neurons, which are connected through functionally diverse synapses located at specific points of their cell membranes. "Connectomics" is the emerging subfield of neuroanatomy explicitly aimed at elucidating the wiring of brain networks with cellular resolution and a quantified accuracy. Such data are indispensable for realistic modeling of brain circuitry and function. A connectomic analysis, therefore, needs to identify and measure the soma, dendrites, axonal path, and branching patterns together with the synapses and gap junctions of the neurons involved in any given brain circuit or network...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857684/spatial-localization-of-sources-in-the-rat-subthalamic-motor-region-using-an-inverse-current-source-density-method
#2
Kees J van Dijk, Marcus L F Janssen, Daphne G M Zwartjes, Yasin Temel, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Peter H Veltink, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Tjitske Heida
Objective: In this study we introduce the use of the current source density (CSD) method as a way to visualize the spatial organization of evoked responses in the rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) at fixed time stamps resulting from motor cortex stimulation. This method offers opportunities to visualize neuronal input and study the relation between the synaptic input and the neural output of neural populations. Approach: Motor cortex evoked local field potentials and unit activity were measured in the subthalamic region, with a 3D measurement grid consisting of 320 measurement points and high spatial resolution...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832448/developmental-exposure-to-cocaine-dynamically-dysregulates-cortical-arc-arg3-1-modulation-in-response-to-a-challenge
#3
Lucia Caffino, Giuseppe Giannotti, Francesca Mottarlini, Giorgio Racagni, Fabio Fumagalli
During adolescence, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is still developing. We have previously shown that developmental cocaine exposure alters mPFC's ability to cope with challenging events. In this manuscript, we exposed rats developmentally treated with cocaine to a novelty task and analyzed the molecular changes of mPFC. Rats were exposed to cocaine from post-natal day (PND) 28 to PND 42 and sacrificed at PND 43, immediately after the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Cocaine-treated rats spent more time exploring the novel object than saline-treated counterparts, suggesting an increased response to novelty...
November 10, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818269/cannabinoid-modulation-of-memory-consolidation-within-the-cerebellum
#4
Adam B Steinmetz, John H Freeman
Cannabinoid receptors contribute to learning and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. The cerebellum contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors and manipulations of cannabinoid receptors affect synaptic plasticity within the cerebellar cortex. In vivo studies have found that cannabinoid agonists impair learning of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in rodents and humans. However, the role of cannabinoid receptors or endocannabinoids in memory consolidation within the cerebellum has not been examined...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794462/long-term-depression-associated-signaling-is-required-for-an-in-vitro-model-of-nmda-receptor-dependent-synapse-pruning
#5
Maile A Henson, Charles J Tucker, Meilan Zhao, Serena M Dudek
Activity-dependent pruning of synaptic contacts plays a critical role in shaping neuronal circuitry in response to the environment during postnatal brain development. Although there is compelling evidence that shrinkage of dendritic spines coincides with synaptic long-term depression (LTD), and that LTD is accompanied by synapse loss, whether NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTD is a required step in the progression toward synapse pruning is still unknown. Using repeated applications of NMDA to induce LTD in dissociated rat neuronal cultures, we found that synapse density, as measured by colocalization of fluorescent markers for pre- and postsynaptic structures, was decreased irrespective of the presynaptic marker used, post-treatment recovery time, and the dendritic location of synapses...
October 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793698/evidence-for-a-role-of-glycoprotein-m6a-in-dendritic-spine-formation-and-synaptogenesis
#6
Karina Formoso, Micaela D Garcia, Alberto C Frasch, Camila Scorticati
Neuronal glycoprotein M6a belongs to the tetraspan proteolipid protein (PLP) family. Mutations in GPM6A gene have been related to mental disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and claustrophobia. M6a is expressed mainly in neuronal cells of the central nervous system and it has been extensively related to neuronal plasticity. M6a induces neuritogenesis and axon/filopodium outgrowth; however its mechanism of action is still unresolved. We recently reported that the integrity of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) 2 and 4 are critical for M6a filopodia induction...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764160/csf-biomarkers-and-its-associations-with-18f-av133-cerebral-vmat2-binding-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-preliminary-report
#7
Rui Gao, Guangjian Zhang, Xueqi Chen, Aimin Yang, Gwenn Smith, Dean F Wong, Yun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, such as α-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42), phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau), and total tau (t-tau), have long been associated with the development of Parkinson disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this investigation, we reported the assessment of CSF biomarkers and their correlations with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) bindings measured with 18F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (18F-AV133) that is being developed as a biomarker for PD...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755498/painful-cervical-facet-joint-injury-is-accompianed-by-changes-in-the-number-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synapses-in-the-superficial-dorsal-horn-that-differentially-relate-to-local-tissue-injury-severity
#8
Meagan E Ita, Nathan D Crosby, Ben A Bulka, Beth A Winkelstein
STUDY DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry labeled pre- and post-synaptic structural markers to quantify excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the spinal superficial dorsal horn at 14 days after painful facet joint injury in the rat. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain and synapse density in the spinal cord after facet injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a major contributor to disability and often becomes chronic...
October 17, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716670/bdnf-responses-in-healthy-older-persons%C3%A2-to-35-minutes-of-physical-exercise-%C3%A2-cognitive-training-and%C3%A2-mindfulness-associations-with%C3%A2-working-memory-function
#9
Krister Håkansson, Aurélie Ledreux, Kirk Daffner, Yvonne Terjestam, Patrick Bergman, Roger Carlsson, Miia Kivipelto, Bengt Winblad, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Abdul Kadir H Mohammed
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706868/synaptic-pathology-in-the-cerebellar-dentate-nucleus-in-chronic-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Monika Albert, Alonso Barrantes-Freer, Melanie Lohrberg, Jack P Antel, John W Prineas, Miklós Palkovits, Joachim R Wolff, Wolfgang Brück, Christine Stadelmann
In multiple sclerosis, cerebellar symptoms are associated with clinical impairment and an increased likelihood of progressive course. Cortical atrophy and synaptic dysfunction play a prominent role in cerebellar pathology and although the dentate nucleus is a predilection site for lesion development, structural synaptic changes in this region remain largely unexplored. Moreover, the mechanisms leading to synaptic dysfunction have not yet been investigated at an ultrastructural level in multiple sclerosis. Here we report on synaptic changes of dentate nuclei in post-mortem cerebella of 16 multiple sclerosis patients and eight controls at the histological level as well as an electron microscopy evaluation of afferent synapses of the cerebellar dentate and pontine nuclei of one multiple sclerosis patient and one control...
October 5, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699604/epigenetic-regulation-of-snap25-prevents-progressive-glutamate-excitotoxicty-in-hypoxic-ca3-neurons
#11
Suryanarayan Biswal, Debashree Das, Kalpana Barhwal, Ashish Kumar, Tapas Chandra Nag, Mahendra Kumar Thakur, Sunil Kumar Hota, Bhuvnesh Kumar
Exposure to global hypoxia and ischemia has been reported to cause neurodegeneration in the hippocampus with CA3 neurons. This neuronal damage is progressive during the initial phase of exposure but maintains a plateau on prolonged exposure. The present study on Sprague Dawley rats aimed at understanding the underlying molecular and epigenetic mechanisms that lead to hypoxic adaptation of CA3 neurons on prolonged exposure to a global hypoxia. Our results show stagnancy in neurodegeneration in CA3 region beyond 14 days of chronic exposure to hypobaria simulating an altitude of 25,000 ft...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687706/ketamine-induced-inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-contributes-to-the-augmentation-of-%C3%AE-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic-acid-ampa-receptor-signaling
#12
Eléonore Beurel, Steven F Grieco, Celeste Amadei, Kimberlee Downey, Richard S Jope
OBJECTIVES: Sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine have been found to provide rapid antidepressant actions, indicating that the cellular signaling systems targeted by ketamine are potential sites for therapeutic intervention. Ketamine acts as an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and animal studies indicate that subsequent augmentation of signaling by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors is critical for the antidepressant outcome. METHODS: In this study, we tested if the inhibitory effect of ketamine on glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) affected hippocampal cell-surface AMPA receptors using immunoblotting of membrane and synaptosomal extracts from wild-type and GSK3 knockin mice...
September 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682481/-the-role-of-bdnf-pathway-in-lambda-cyhalothrin-disrupting-the-promotion-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-on-post-synaptic-density-95-protein-expression-in-ht22-cell
#13
N Li, Q N Wang, D J Wu, C W Yang, B B Luo
Objective: To explore the effect of BDNF pathway on lambda-cyhalothrin interfering estrogen promoting the expression of PSD95 in hippocampus neurons. Methods: HT22 cell line were used to, treating with lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT, 50 μmol/L) , 17β-Estradiol (E2, 10 nmol/L) , LCT (50 μmol/L) +TrkB FC (20 μg/ml) , E2 (10 nmol/L) +TrkB FC (20 μg/ml) , LCT (50 μmol/L) +ICI182 780 (1 μmol/L) , E2 (10 nmol/L) + ICI182 780 (1 μmol/L) , LCT (50 μmol/L) +E2 (10 nmol/L) for 24 h. MTT kit was used to detect cell viability...
July 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666974/photobiomodulation-by-laser-therapy-rescued-auditory-neuropathy-induced-by-ouabain
#14
Min Young Lee, Seung-Hyun Bae, So-Young Chang, Jae-Hun Lee, Se-Hyung Kim, Jin-Chul Ahn, Phil-Sang Chung, Wesley Moy, Jae Yun Jung
Auditory neuropathy is a hearing disorder caused by impaired auditory nerve function. The lack of information about the pathophysiology of this disease limits early diagnosis and further treatment. Laser therapy is a novel approach to enhance nerve growth or induce axonal regeneration. We induced auditory neural degeneration sparing the sensory epithelium with local ouabain application in an animal model and observed the rescue effect of photobiomodulation (PBM), showing recovered auditory function and favorable histologic outcome...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660009/kai-xin-san-a-standardized-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-up-regulates-the-expressions-of-synaptic-proteins-on-hippocampus-of-chronic-mild-stress-induced-depressive-rats-and-primary-cultured-rat-hippocampal-neuron
#15
Yue Zhu, Xiuzhu Duan, Xiaoxuan Cheng, Xiaonan Cheng, Xu Li, Liu Zhang, Pei Liu, Su Shulan, Jin-Ao Duan, Tina Ting-Xia Dong, Karl Wah-Keung Tsim, Fei Huang
BACKGROUND: Kai-xin-san (KXS), composed of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and Poria, is a famous Chinese medicinal formula applied for treating stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms such as depression, forgetfulness and dizziness. Dependent on the symptom differentiation of patients, the composition ratio of KXS was varied and one ratio of 3:2:2:3 was widely applied. However, its molecular mechanism has seldom been investigated. PURPOSE: We aimed to reveal the action mechanism of KXS on anti-depression on synaptic protein regulation in both in vivo and in vitro models...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650435/decreased-levels-of-nmda-but-not-ampa-receptors-in-the-lipid-raft-fraction-of-3xtg-ad-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-relation-to-arc-arg3-1-protein-expression
#16
Jean-Pascal Morin, Sofía Díaz-Cintra, Federico Bermúdez-Rattoni, Ilse Delint-Ramírez
It was recently suggested that alteration in lipid raft composition in Alzheimer's disease may lead to perturbations in neurons signalosome, which may help explain the deficits observed in synaptic plasticity mechanisms and long-term memory impairments in AD models. As a first effort to address this issue, we evaluated lipid-raft contents of distinct NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits in the hippocampus of the 3xTg-AD model of Alzheimer's disease. Our results show that compared to controls, 10 months-old 3xTg-AD mice have diminished levels of NMDA receptors in rafts but not in post-synaptic density or total fractions...
September 17, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626839/age-dependent-alterations-to-paraventricular-nucleus-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-as-a-possible-link-between-sympathoexcitation-and-inflammation
#17
Olalekan M Ogundele, Charles C Lee, Joseph Francis
Modifications to neural circuits of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) have been implicated in sympathoexcitation and systemic cardiovascular dysfunction. However, to date, the role of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression on PVN pathophysiology is unknown. Using confocal immunofluorescence quantification and electrophysiological recordings from acute PVN slices, we investigated the mechanism through which age-dependent IGF-1R depletion contributes to the progression of inflammation and sympathoexcitation in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599618/5-fluorouracil-chemotherapy-upregulates-cytokines-and-alters-hippocampal-dendritic-complexity-in-aged-mice
#18
Thomas R Groves, Ryan Farris, Julie E Anderson, Tyler C Alexander, Frederico Kiffer, Gwendolyn Carter, Jing Wang, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) is commonly used chemotherapy drug, but it can lead to the impairment of cognitive function. The pathogenesis of this injury is unknown but may involve modifications to dendritic structure and/or alterations in dendritic spine density and morphology. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission and changes in spine structure and dendrite morphology are thought to represent a morphological correlate of altered brain functions associated with hippocampal dependent learning and memory...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562614/developmental-profiling-of-asd-related-shank3-transcripts-and-their-differential-regulation-by-valproic-acid-in-zebrafish
#19
Chun-Xue Liu, Xiao-Lan Peng, Chun-Chun Hu, Chun-Yang Li, Qiang Li, Xiu Xu
SHANK3 is a scaffolding protein that binds to various synaptic proteins at the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. SHANK3 is not only strongly implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but also plays a critical role in human Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13.3 deletion syndrome). Accumulated experimental evidence demonstrates that the zebrafish model system is useful for studying the functions of ASD-related gene during early development. However, many basic features of shank3 transcript expression in zebrafish remain poorly understood...
November 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524794/alzheimer-related-decrease-in-cyfip2-links-amyloid-production-to-tau-hyperphosphorylation-and-memory-loss
#20
Sachin Suresh Tiwari, Keiko Mizuno, Anshua Ghosh, Wajeeha Aziz, Claire Troakes, Jason Daoud, Vidushi Golash, Wendy Noble, Tibor Hortobágyi, Karl Peter Giese
Characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease are memory loss, plaques resulting from abnormal processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and presence of neurofibrillary tangles and dystrophic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated tau. Currently, it is not known what links these abnormalities together. Cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2) has been suggested to regulate mRNA translation at synapses and this may include local synthesis of APP and alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, a kinase that can phosphorylate tau...
October 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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