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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344334/the-kif1a-homolog-unc-104-is-important-for-spontaneous-release-postsynaptic-density-maturation-and-perisynaptic-scaffold-organization
#1
Yao V Zhang, Shabab B Hannan, Jeannine V Kern, Doychin T Stanchev, Baran Koç, Thomas R Jahn, Tobias M Rasse
The kinesin-3 family member KIF1A has been shown to be important for experience dependent neuroplasticity. In Drosophila, amorphic mutations in the KIF1A homolog unc-104 disrupt the formation of mature boutons. Disease associated KIF1A mutations have been associated with motor and sensory dysfunctions as well as non-syndromic intellectual disability in humans. A hypomorphic mutation in the forkhead-associated domain of Unc-104, unc-104(bris), impairs active zone maturation resulting in an increased fraction of post-synaptic glutamate receptor fields that lack the active zone scaffolding protein Bruchpilot...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327181/soluble-oligomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-induces-calcium-dyshomeostasis-that-precedes-synapse-loss-in-the-living-mouse-brain
#2
Michal Arbel-Ornath, Eloise Hudry, Josiah R Boivin, Tadafumi Hashimoto, Shuko Takeda, Kishore V Kuchibhotla, Steven Hou, Carli R Lattarulo, Arianna M Belcher, Naomi Shakerdge, Pariss B Trujillo, Alona Muzikansky, Rebecca A Betensky, Bradley T Hyman, Brian J Bacskai
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β oligomers (oAβ) are thought to mediate neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and previous studies in AD transgenic mice suggest that calcium dysregulation may contribute to these pathological effects. Even though AD mouse models remain a valuable resource to investigate amyloid neurotoxicity, the concomitant presence of soluble Aβ species, fibrillar Aβ, and fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP) complicate the interpretation of the phenotypes. METHOD: To explore the specific contribution of soluble oligomeric Aβ (oAβ) to calcium dyshomeostasis and synaptic morphological changes, we acutely exposed the healthy mouse brain, at 3 to 6 months of age, to naturally occurring soluble oligomers and investigated their effect on calcium levels using in vivo multiphoton imaging...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323008/sub-chronic-variable-stress-induces-sex-specific-effects-on-glutamatergic-synapses-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#3
Anna Brancato, Dana Bregman, H Francisica Ahn, Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Menard, Carla Cannizzaro, Scott J Russo, Georgia E Hodes
Men and women manifest different symptoms of depression and under current diagnostic criteria, depression is twice as prevalent in woman. However, little is known of the mechanisms contributing to these important sex differences. Sub-chronic variable stress (SCVS), a rodent model of depression, induces depression-like behaviors in female mice only, modelling clinical evidence of higher susceptibility to mood disorders in women. Accumulating evidence indicates that altered neuroplasticity of excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key pathophysiological feature of susceptibility to social stress in males...
March 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319548/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-sevoflurane-neurotoxicity-in-neonatal-mice
#4
Yimeng Xia, Heng Xu, Chenfei Jia, Xiaodong Hu, Yu Kang, Xiaoxuan Yang, Qingsheng Xue, Guorong Tao, Buwei Yu
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is the most widely used inhalational anesthetic in pediatric medicine. Despite this, sevoflurane has been reported to exert potentially neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Clinical interventions and treatments for these effects are limited. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has been documented to alleviate cognitive decline in traditional applications. Therefore, we hypothesized that preadministration of Tan IIA may attenuate sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that Tan IIA is a new and promising drug capable of counteracting the effects of cognitive dysfunction produced by general anesthetics...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270570/baf53b-a-neuron-specific-nucleosome-remodeling-factor-is-induced-after-learning-and-facilitates-long-term-memory-consolidation
#5
Miran Yoo, Kwang-Yeon Choi, Jieun Kim, Mujun Kim, Jaehoon Shim, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Hye-Yeon Cho, Jungpyo Oh, Hyung-Su Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Jin-Hee Han
Although epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation have recently been implicated in memory consolidation and persistence, the role of nucleosome-remodeling is largely unexplored. Recent studies show that the functional loss of BAF53b, a post-mitotic neuron-specific subunit of the BAF nucleosome-remodeling complex, results in the deficit of consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory and cocaine-associated memory in the rodent brain. However, it is unclear whether BAF53b expression is regulated during memory formation and how BAF53b regulates fear memory in the amygdala, a key brain site for fear memory encoding and storage...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264928/inhibition-of-coactivator-associated-arginine-methyltransferase-1-modulates-dendritic-arborization-and-spine-maturation-of-cultured-hippocampal-neurons
#6
Chol Seung Lim, Daniel L Alkon
An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms in synapse formation provides insight into both learning and memory and the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a protein methyltransferase that negatively regulates synaptic gene expression and inhibits neuronal differentiation. Despite its regulatory function in neurons, little is known about CARM1's cellular location and its role in dendritic maturation and synapse formation. Here, we examined the effects of CARM1 inhibition on dendritic spine and synapse morphology in the rat hippocampus...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261056/proteomic-analysis-of-post-synaptic-density-fractions-from-shank3-mutant-mice-reveals-brain-region-specific-changes-relevant-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Dominik Reim, Ute Distler, Sonja Halbedl, Chiara Verpelli, Carlo Sala, Juergen Bockmann, Stefan Tenzer, Tobias M Boeckers, Michael J Schmeisser
Disruption of the human SHANK3 gene can cause several neuropsychiatric disease entities including Phelan-McDermid syndrome, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and intellectual disability. Although, a wide array of neurobiological studies strongly supports a major role for SHANK3 in organizing the post-synaptic protein scaffold, the molecular processes at synapses of individuals harboring SHANK3 mutations are still far from being understood. In this study, we biochemically isolated the post-synaptic density (PSD) fraction from striatum and hippocampus of adult Shank3Δ11(-/-) mutant mice and performed ion-mobility enhanced data-independent label-free LC-MS/MS to obtain the corresponding PSD proteomes (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005192)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245533/neuregulin1-fine-tunes-pre-post-and-peri-synaptic-neuromuscular-junction-development
#8
Jiajing Wang, Fei Song, Jeffrey A Loeb
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development is a multistep process mediated by coordinated interactions between the nerve terminal, target muscle, and perisynaptic Schwann cell that require constant back-and-forth communication. Retrograde and anterograde growth and differentiation factors have been postulated to participate in this communication. While neuregulin1 (NRG1) has been shown to be potent anterograde signal that activates acetylcholine receptor (AChR) transcription and clustering in vitro, its roles in NMJ development in vivo remain elusive...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241065/repeated-dexamphetamine-treatment-alters-the-dopaminergic-system-and-increases-the-phmri-response-to-methylphenidate
#9
Anouk Schrantee, Jordi L Tremoleda, Marzena Wylezinska-Arridge, Valentine Bouet, Peter Hesseling, Gideon F Meerhoff, Kora M de Bruin, Jan Koeleman, Thomas Freret, Michel Boulouard, Emilie Desfosses, Laurent Galineau, Alessandro Gozzi, François Dauphin, Willy Gsell, Jan Booij, Paul J Lucassen, Liesbeth Reneman
Dexamphetamine (AMPH) is a psychostimulant drug that is used both recreationally and as medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated exposure to AMPH can induce damage to nerve terminals of dopamine (DA) neurons. We here assessed the underlying neurobiological changes in the DA system following repeated AMPH exposure and pre-treated rats with AMPH or saline (4 times 5 mg/kg s.c., 2 hours apart), followed by a 1-week washout period. We then used pharmacological MRI (phMRI) with a methylphenidate (MPH) challenge, as a sensitive and non-invasive in-vivo measure of DAergic function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211672/proteomic-analysis-of-post-synaptic-protein-complexes-underlying-neuronal-plasticity
#10
Anthony J Baucum
Normal neuronal communication and synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses requires dynamic regulation of postsynaptic molecules. Protein expression and protein post-translational modifications regulate protein interactions that underlie this organization. In this review, we highlight data obtained over the last 20 years that have used qualitative and quantitative proteomics-based approaches to identify postsynaptic protein complexes. Herein, we describe how these proteomics studies have helped lay the foundation for understanding synaptic physiology and perturbations in synaptic signaling observed in different pathologies...
February 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153028/il-1%C3%AE-impairs-retrograde-flow-of-bdnf-signaling-by-attenuating-endosome-trafficking
#11
Anthony J Carlos, Liqi Tong, G Aleph Prieto, Carl W Cotman
BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory cytokines accumulate in the brain with age and Alzheimer's disease and can impair neuron health and cognitive function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key neurotrophin that supports neuron health, function, and synaptic plasticity. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) impairs BDNF signaling but whether it affects BDNF signaling endosome trafficking has not been studied. METHODS: This study uses an in vitro approach in primary hippocampal neurons to evaluate the effect of IL-1β on BDNF signaling endosome trafficking...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150190/estrogen-modulates-ubc9-expression-and-synaptic-redistribution-in-the-brain-of-app-ps1-mice-and-cortical-neurons
#12
Yu-Jie Lai, Lu Liu, Xiao-Tong Hu, Ling He, Guo-Jun Chen
Estrogen exerts multiple actions in the brain and is an important neuroprotective factor in a number of neuronal disorders. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Studies demonstrate that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (ubc9) has an integral role in synaptic plasticity and may contribute to the pathology of neuronal disorders. We aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen on ubc9 and in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Ubc9 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in the cortex and hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice with enhanced SUMOylation...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138429/evaluation-of-early-phase-18-f-florbetaben-pet-acquisition-in-clinical-routine-cases
#13
Sonja Daerr, Matthias Brendel, Christian Zach, Erik Mille, Dorothee Schilling, Mathias Johannes Zacherl, Katharina Bürger, Adrian Danek, Oliver Pogarell, Andreas Schildan, Marianne Patt, Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri, Peter Bartenstein, Axel Rominger
OBJECTIVES: In recent years several [(18)F]-labelled amyloid PET tracers have been developed and have obtained clinical approval. There is accumulating evidence that early (post injection) acquisitions with these tracers are equally informative as conventional blood flow and metabolism studies for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, but there have been few side-by-side studies. Therefore, we investigated the performance of early acquisitions of [(18)F]-florbetaben (FBB) PET compared to [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in a clinical setting...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114311/rhogtpase-regulators-orchestrate-distinct-stages-of-synaptic-development
#14
Samuel Martin-Vilchez, Leanna Whitmore, Hannelore Asmussen, Jessica Zareno, Rick Horwitz, Karen Newell-Litwa
Small RhoGTPases regulate changes in post-synaptic spine morphology and density that support learning and memory. They are also major targets of synaptic disorders, including Autism. Here we sought to determine whether upstream RhoGTPase regulators, including GEFs, GAPs, and GDIs, sculpt specific stages of synaptic development. The majority of examined molecules uniquely regulate either early spine precursor formation or later maturation. Specifically, an activator of actin polymerization, the Rac1 GEF β-PIX, drives spine precursor formation, whereas both FRABIN, a Cdc42 GEF, and OLIGOPHRENIN-1, a RhoA GAP, regulate spine precursor elongation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097654/melanopsin-expressing-ganglion-cells-in-human-retina-morphology-distribution-and-synaptic-connections
#15
Subha Nasir-Ahmad, Sammy C S Lee, Paul R Martin, Ulrike Grünert
Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive cells that are involved in non-image forming visual processes such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian entrainment but also contribute to visual perception. Here we used immunohistochemistry to study the morphology, density, distribution and synaptic connectivity of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in four post mortem human donor retinas. Two types of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells were distinguished based on their dendritic stratification near either the outer or the inner border of the inner plexiform layer...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#16
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078626/time-course-investigation-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-and-tight-junction-protein-changes-in-a-rat-model-of-permanent-focal-ischemia
#17
Peng Liu, Rui Zhang, Danyang Liu, Jinling Wang, Chunling Yuan, Xuemei Zhao, Yinjie Li, Xuefei Ji, Tianyan Chi, Libo Zou
Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) is an animal model that is widely used to simulate human ischemic stroke. However, the timing of the changes in the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and synaptic proteins associated with pMCAO remain incompletely understood. Therefore, to further explore the characteristics and mechanisms of blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage during cerebral ischemic stroke, we used a pMCAO rat model to define dynamic changes in BBB permeability within 120 h after ischemia in order to examine the expression levels of the TJ proteins claudin-5 and occludin and the synaptic proteins synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054037/gene-expression-alterations-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-blood-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression-during-menopause
#18
Shigeo Miyata, Masashi Kurachi, Noriko Sakurai, Yuchio Yanagawa, Yasuki Ishizaki, Masahiko Mikuni, Masato Fukuda
AIMS: The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is higher in women than in men, and this may be due to the decline in estrogen levels that occurs during the menopausal transition. We studied the biological alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is a region that is highly implicated in the neurobiology of MDD, and the blood cells (BCs) of ovariectomized (OVX) mice subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), which represents a mouse model of depression during menopause...
December 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038685/grafted-c-kit-ssea1-eye-wall-progenitor-cells-delay-retinal-degeneration-in-mice-by-regulating-neural-plasticity-and-forming-new-graft-to-host-synapses
#19
Xi Chen, Zehua Chen, Zhengya Li, Chen Zhao, Yuxiao Zeng, Ting Zou, Caiyun Fu, Xiaoli Liu, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
BACKGROUND: Despite diverse pathogenesis, the common pathological change observed in age-related macular degeneration and in most hereditary retinal degeneration (RD) diseases is photoreceptor loss. Photoreceptor replacement by cell transplantation may be a feasible treatment for RD. The major obstacles to clinical translation of stem cell-based cell therapy in RD remain the difficulty of obtaining sufficient quantities of appropriate and safe donor cells and the poor integration of grafted stem cell-derived photoreceptors into the remaining retinal circuitry...
December 30, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036092/human-rho-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-11-arhgef11-regulates-dendritic-morphogenesis
#20
Yutaka Mizuki, Manabu Takaki, Shinji Sakamoto, Sojiro Okamoto, Makiko Kishimoto, Yuko Okahisa, Masahiko Itoh, Norihito Yamada
Disturbances of synaptic connectivity during perinatal and adolescent periods have been hypothesized to be related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (ARHGEF11) is a specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) for RhoA, which is a critical regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and organization of dendritic spines and inhibitor of spine maintenance. ARHGEF11 variants are reported to be associated with a higher risk for the onset of schizophrenia in a Japanese population; however, how ARHGEF11 contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in dendritic spines is unknown...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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