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Homeostatic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778759/to-adapt-or-not-to-adapt-consequences-of-declining-adaptive-homeostasis-and-proteostasis-with-age
#1
REVIEW
Laura C D Pomatto, Patrick Y Sun, Kelvin J A Davies
Many consequences of ageing can be broadly attributed to the inability to maintain homeostasis. Multiple markers of ageing have been identified, including loss of protein homeostasis, increased inflammation, and declining metabolism. Although much effort has been focused on characterization of the ageing phenotype, much less is understood about the underlying causes of ageing. To address this gap, we outline the age-associated consequences of dysregulation of 'Adaptive Homeostasis' and its proposed contributing role as an accelerator of the ageing phenotype...
May 17, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760681/sex-steroids-adult-neurogenesis-and-inflammation-in-cns-homeostasis-degeneration-and-repair
#2
REVIEW
Tracy A Larson
Sex steroidal hormones coordinate the development and maintenance of tissue architecture in many organs, including the central nervous systems (CNS). Within the CNS, sex steroids regulate the morphology, physiology, and behavior of a wide variety of neural cells including, but not limited to, neurons, glia, endothelial cells, and immune cells. Sex steroids spatially and temporally control distinct molecular networks, that, in turn modulate neural activity, synaptic plasticity, growth factor expression and function, nutrient exchange, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760525/two-distinct-mechanisms-for-experience-dependent-homeostasis
#3
Michelle C D Bridi, Roberto de Pasquale, Crystal L Lantz, Yu Gu, Andrew Borrell, Se-Young Choi, Kaiwen He, Trinh Tran, Su Z Hong, Andrew Dykman, Hey-Kyoung Lee, Elizabeth M Quinlan, Alfredo Kirkwood
Models of firing rate homeostasis such as synaptic scaling and the sliding synaptic plasticity modification threshold predict that decreasing neuronal activity (for example, by sensory deprivation) will enhance synaptic function. Manipulations of cortical activity during two forms of visual deprivation, dark exposure (DE) and binocular lid suture, revealed that, contrary to expectations, spontaneous firing in conjunction with loss of visual input is necessary to lower the threshold for Hebbian plasticity and increase miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755318/arc-3-utr-splicing-leads-to-dual-and-antagonistic-effects-in-fine-tuning-arc-expression-upon-bdnf-signaling
#4
Chiara Paolantoni, Simona Ricciardi, Veronica De Paolis, Chinenye Okenwa, Caterina Catalanotto, Maria T Ciotti, Antonino Cattaneo, Carlo Cogoni, Corinna Giorgi
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc) is an immediate-early gene critically involved in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Arc mRNA is rapidly induced by synaptic activation and a portion is locally translated in dendrites where it modulates synaptic strength. Being an activity-dependent effector of homeostatic balance, regulation of Arc is uniquely tuned to result in short-lived bursts of expression. Cis -Acting elements that control its transitory expression post-transcriptionally reside primarily in Arc mRNA 3' UTR...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755317/microglial-phagocytosis-and-its-regulation-a-therapeutic-target-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Elzbieta Janda, Laura Boi, Anna R Carta
The role of phagocytosis in the neuroprotective function of microglia has been appreciated for a long time, but only more recently a dysregulation of this process has been recognized in Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, microglia play several critical roles in central nervous system (CNS), such as clearance of dying neurons and pathogens as well as immunomodulation, and to fulfill these complex tasks they engage distinct phenotypes. Regulation of phenotypic plasticity and phagocytosis in microglia can be impaired by defects in molecular machinery regulating critical homeostatic mechanisms, including autophagy...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748133/retinoic-acid-inhibits-neuronal-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#6
Eric de Hoog, Mark K Lukewich, Gaynor E Spencer
Retinoic acid is the active metabolite of vitamin A and regulates several important cellular processes by activating retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR). These receptors generally act as transcription factors, though non-genomic actions of both retinoic acid and the receptors have also been reported. One such nongenomic effect includes the modulation of Ca2+ levels during homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Retinoic acid can thus affect Ca2+ signaling and can potentially control both synaptic plasticity and neuronal firing...
February 13, 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740277/hedonic-eating-and-the-delicious-circle-from-lipid-derived-mediators-to-brain-dopamine-and-back
#7
REVIEW
Roberto Coccurello, Mauro Maccarrone
Palatable food can be seductive and hedonic eating can become irresistible beyond hunger and negative consequences. This is witnessed by the subtle equilibrium between eating to provide energy intake for homeostatic functions, and reward-induced overeating. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to study neural circuits, and to identify potential factors responsible for the derangement of homeostatic eating toward hedonic eating and addiction-like feeding behavior. Here, we examined recent literature on "old" and "new" players accountable for reward-induced overeating and possible liability to eating addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738844/removal-of-area-ca3-from-hippocampal-slices-induces-postsynaptic-plasticity-at-schaffer-collateral-synapses-that-normalizes-ca1-pyramidal-cell-discharge
#8
Theodore C Dumas, Michael R Uttaro, Carolina Barriga, Tiffany Brinkley, Maryam Halavi, Susan N Wright, Michele Ferrante, Rebekah C Evans, Sarah L Hawes, Erin M Sanders
Neural networks that undergo acute insults display remarkable reorganization. This injury related plasticity is thought to permit recovery of function in the face of damage that cannot be reversed. Previously, an increase in the transmission strength at Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was observed after long-term activity reduction in organotypic hippocampal slices. Here we report that, following acute preparation of adult rat hippocampal slices and surgical removal of area CA3, input to area CA1 was reduced and Schaffer collateral synapses underwent functional strengthening...
May 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726076/synergistic-gating-of-electro-iono-photoactive-2d-chalcogenide-neuristors-coexistence-of-hebbian-and-homeostatic-synaptic-metaplasticity
#9
Rohit Abraham John, Fucai Liu, Nguyen Anh Chien, Mohit R Kulkarni, Chao Zhu, Qundong Fu, Arindam Basu, Zheng Liu, Nripan Mathews
Emulation of brain-like signal processing with thin-film devices can lay the foundation for building artificially intelligent learning circuitry in future. Encompassing higher functionalities into single artificial neural elements will allow the development of robust neuromorphic circuitry emulating biological adaptation mechanisms with drastically lesser neural elements, mitigating strict process challenges and high circuit density requirements necessary to match the computational complexity of the human brain...
May 4, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715189/co-exposure-to-endocrine-disruptors-effect-of-bisphenol-a-and-soy-extract-on-glucose-homeostasis-and-related-metabolic-disorders-in-male-mice
#10
Masoud Veissi, Sima Jafarirad, Akram Ahangarpour, Seyede Marjan Mohaghegh, Amal Saki Malehi
OBJECTIVES: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen, which is commonly used as a monomer of polycarbonate plastics food containers and epoxy resins. Little is known about the interaction effects between xeno- and phyto- estrogens on glucose homeostasis or other metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine effects of individual or combined exposure to low doses of BPA and soy extract on glucose metabolism in mice with the goal to establish its potential mechanisms. METHODS: Fifty-four male mice were randomly divided into six groups...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712871/structural-homo-and-heterosynaptic-plasticity-in-mature-and-adult-newborn-rat-hippocampal-granule-cells
#11
Tassilo Jungenitz, Marcel Beining, Tijana Radic, Thomas Deller, Hermann Cuntz, Peter Jedlicka, Stephan W Schwarzacher
Adult newborn hippocampal granule cells (abGCs) contribute to spatial learning and memory. abGCs are thought to play a specific role in pattern separation, distinct from developmentally born mature GCs (mGCs). Here we examine at which exact cell age abGCs are synaptically integrated into the adult network and which forms of synaptic plasticity are expressed in abGCs and mGCs. We used virus-mediated labeling of abGCs and mGCs to analyze changes in spine morphology as an indicator of plasticity in rats in vivo...
May 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683810/evidence-of-the-homeostatic-regulation-with-the-combination-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-and-physical-activity
#12
Adriana Baltar, Fernanda Nogueira, Déborah Marques, Maíra Carneiro, Kátia Monte-Silva
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can optimize beneficial effects induced by motor practice in patients with neurological disorders. However, possibly due to homeostatic regulation, the conditioning effects of tDCS are often imprecise and variable, limiting its therapeutic application. OBJECTIVE: to explore the magnitude and direction of the after-effects induced by physical activity (PA) on tDCS-preconditioned cortical excitability (CE). DESIGN: First, a crossover experiment was performed with 12 subjects to determine whether a single session of low-, moderate- and high-intensity PA on a treadmill modulates the motor cortical excitability measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678876/rapid-disinhibition-by-adjustment-of-pv-intrinsic-excitability-during-whisker-map-plasticity-in-mouse-s1
#13
Melanie A Gainey, Joseph W Aman, Daniel E Feldman
Rapid plasticity of layer (L) 2/3 inhibitory circuits is an early step in sensory cortical map plasticity, but its cellular basis is unclear. We show that, in mice of either sex, 1 day whisker deprivation drives rapid loss of L4-evoked feedforward inhibition and more modest loss of feedforward excitation in L2/3 pyramidal (PYR) cells, increasing E-I conductance ratio. Rapid disinhibition was due to reduced L4-evoked spiking by L2/3 parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, caused by reduced PV intrinsic excitability. This included elevated PV spike threshold, associated with an increase in low-threshold, voltage activated delayed rectifier (presumed Kv1) and A-type potassium currents...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674961/unsupervised-feature-learning-with-winner-takes-all-based-stdp
#14
Paul Ferré, Franck Mamalet, Simon J Thorpe
We present a novel strategy for unsupervised feature learning in image applications inspired by the Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity (STDP) biological learning rule. We show equivalence between rank order coding Leaky-Integrate-and-Fire neurons and ReLU artificial neurons when applied to non-temporal data. We apply this to images using rank-order coding, which allows us to perform a full network simulation with a single feed-forward pass using GPU hardware. Next we introduce a binary STDP learning rule compatible with training on batches of images...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656559/shaping-eosinophil-identity-in-the-tissue-contexts-of-development-homeostasis-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Hiam Abdala-Valencia, Mackenzie E Coden, Sergio E Chiarella, Elizabeth A Jacobsen, Bruce S Bochner, James J Lee, Sergejs Berdnikovs
Eosinophils play homeostatic roles in different tissues and are found in several organs at a homeostatic baseline, though their tissue numbers increase significantly in development and disease. The morphological, phenotypical, and functional plasticity of recruited eosinophils are influenced by the dynamic tissue microenvironment changes between homeostatic, morphogenetic, and disease states. Activity of the epithelial-mesenchymal interface, extracellular matrix, hormonal inputs, metabolic state of the environment, as well as epithelial and mesenchymal-derived innate cytokines and growth factors all have the potential to regulate the attraction, retention, in situ hematopoiesis, phenotype, and function of eosinophils...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626166/cascades-of-homeostatic-dysregulation-promote-incubation-of-cocaine-craving
#16
Junshi Wang, Masago Ishikawa, Yue Yang, Mami Otaka, James Y Kim, George R Gardner, Michael T Stefanik, Mike Milovanovic, Yanhua H Huang, Johannes W Hell, Marina E Wolf, Oliver M Schlüter, Yan Dong
In human drug users, cue-induced drug craving progressively intensifies after drug abstinence, promoting drug relapse. This time-dependent progression of drug craving is recapitulated in rodent models, in which rats exhibit progressive intensification of cue-induced drug seeking after withdrawal from drug self-administration, a phenomenon termed incubation of drug craving. While recent results suggest that functional alterations of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) contribute to incubation of drug craving, it remains poorly understood how NAc function evolves after drug withdrawal to progressively intensify drug seeking...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620520/synapse-specific-and-compartmentalized-expression-of-presynaptic-homeostatic-potentiation
#17
Xiling Li, Pragya Goel, Catherine Chen, Varun Angajala, Xun Chen, Dion K Dickman
Postsynaptic compartments can be specifically modulated during various forms of synaptic plasticity, but it is unclear whether this precision is shared at presynaptic terminals. Presynaptic Homeostatic Plasticity (PHP) stabilizes neurotransmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, where a retrograde enhancement of presynaptic neurotransmitter release compensates for diminished postsynaptic receptor functionality. To test the specificity of PHP induction and expression, we have developed a genetic manipulation to reduce postsynaptic receptor expression at one of the two muscles innervated by a single motor neuron...
April 5, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616397/adenosine-augmentation-evoked-by-an-ent1-inhibitor-improves-memory-impairment-and-neuronal-plasticity-in-the-app-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Chia-Chia Lee, Ching-Pang Chang, Chun-Jung Lin, Hsing-Lin Lai, Yu-Han Kao, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Hui-Mei Chen, Yu-Ping Liao, Emilie Faivre, Luc Buée, David Blum, Jim-Min Fang, Yijuang Chern
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive impairment and synaptic dysfunction. Adenosine is an important homeostatic modulator that controls the bioenergetic network in the brain through regulating receptor-evoked signaling pathways, bioenergetic machineries, and epigenetic-mediated gene regulation. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is a major adenosine transporter that recycles adenosine from the extracellular space. In the present study, we report that a small adenosine analogue (designated J4) that inhibited ENT1 prevented the decline in spatial memory in an AD mouse model (APP/PS1)...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593503/emergence-of-serotonergic-neurons-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-turtles
#19
Gabriela Fabbiani, María I Rehermann, Carina Aldecosea, Omar Trujillo-Cenóz, Raúl E Russo
Plasticity of neural circuits takes many forms and plays a fundamental role in regulating behavior to changing demands while maintaining stability. For example, during spinal cord development neurotransmitter identity in neurons is dynamically adjusted in response to changes in the activity of spinal networks. It is reasonable to speculate that this type of plasticity might occur also in mature spinal circuits in response to injury. Because serotonergic signaling has a central role in spinal cord functions, we hypothesized that spinal cord injury (SCI) in the fresh water turtle Trachemys scripta elegans may trigger homeostatic changes in serotonergic innervation...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580962/acute-changes-in-electrophysiological-properties-of-cortical-regular-spiking-cells-following-seizures-in-a-rat-lithium-pilocarpine-model
#20
Elena Y Smirnova, Dmitry V Amakhin, Sergey L Malkin, Anton V Chizhov, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Profound alterations in both the synaptic and intrinsic membrane properties of neurons that increase the neuronal network excitability are found in epileptic tissue. However, there are still uncertainties regarding the kind of changes in the intrinsic membrane properties occuring during epileptogenesis. Epileptogenesis is typically triggered by the initial brain-damaging insult, and status epilepticus (SE) is one of such insults. In the present study, we explored the acute changes in the intrinsic membrane properties of pyramidal cells one day after SE in a rat lithium-pilocarpine model...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience
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