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Homeostatic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700936/alternative-splicing-of-p-q-type-ca-2-channels-shapes-presynaptic-plasticity
#1
Agnes Thalhammer, Andrea Contestabile, Yaroslav S Ermolyuk, Teclise Ng, Kirill E Volynski, Tuck Wah Soong, Yukiko Goda, Lorenzo A Cingolani
Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is prominent in the mammalian brain, where it is thought to expand proteome diversity. For example, alternative splicing of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) α1 subunits can generate thousands of isoforms with differential properties and expression patterns. However, the impact of this molecular diversity on brain function, particularly on synaptic transmission, which crucially depends on VGCCs, is unclear. Here, we investigate how two major splice isoforms of P/Q-type VGCCs (Cav2...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686870/intestinal-enteroendocrine-lineage-cells-possess-homeostatic-and-injury-inducible-stem-cell-activity
#2
Kelley S Yan, Olivier Gevaert, Grace X Y Zheng, Benedict Anchang, Christopher S Probert, Kathryn A Larkin, Paige S Davies, Zhuan-Fen Cheng, John S Kaddis, Arnold Han, Kelly Roelf, Ruben I Calderon, Esther Cynn, Xiaoyi Hu, Komal Mandleywala, Julie Wilhelmy, Sue M Grimes, David C Corney, Stéphane C Boutet, Jessica M Terry, Phillip Belgrader, Solongo B Ziraldo, Tarjei S Mikkelsen, Fengchao Wang, Richard J von Furstenberg, Nicholas R Smith, Parthasarathy Chandrakesan, Randal May, Mary Ann S Chrissy, Rajan Jain, Christine A Cartwright, Joyce C Niland, Young-Kwon Hong, Jill Carrington, David T Breault, Jonathan Epstein, Courtney W Houchen, John P Lynch, Martin G Martin, Sylvia K Plevritis, Christina Curtis, Hanlee P Ji, Linheng Li, Susan J Henning, Melissa H Wong, Calvin J Kuo
Several cell populations have been reported to possess intestinal stem cell (ISC) activity during homeostasis and injury-induced regeneration. Here, we explored inter-relationships between putative mouse ISC populations by comparative RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). The transcriptomes of multiple cycling ISC populations closely resembled Lgr5(+) ISCs, the most well-defined ISC pool, but Bmi1-GFP(+) cells were distinct and enriched for enteroendocrine (EE) markers, including Prox1. Prox1-GFP(+) cells exhibited sustained clonogenic growth in vitro, and lineage-tracing of Prox1(+) cells revealed long-lived clones during homeostasis and after radiation-induced injury in vivo...
July 6, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658618/a-presynaptic-glutamate-receptor-subunit-confers-robustness-to-neurotransmission-and-homeostatic-potentiation
#3
Beril Kiragasi, Joyce Wondolowski, Yan Li, Dion K Dickman
Homeostatic signaling systems are thought to interface with other forms of plasticity to ensure flexible yet stable levels of neurotransmission. The role of neurotransmitter receptors in this process, beyond mediating neurotransmission itself, is not known. Through a forward genetic screen, we have identified the Drosophila kainate-type ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit DKaiR1D to be required for the retrograde, homeostatic potentiation of synaptic strength. DKaiR1D is necessary in presynaptic motor neurons, localized near active zones, and confers robustness to the calcium sensitivity of baseline synaptic transmission...
June 27, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642683/object-phobia-and-altered-rhoa-signaling-in-amygdala-of-mice-lacking-rich2
#4
Tasnuva Sarowar, Stefanie Grabrucker, Tobias M Boeckers, Andreas M Grabrucker
RICH2 knockout (RICH2 KO) mice exhibit neophobia in the novel object test. To gain further insight into their anxiety-related phenotype, we subjected these mice to additional behavioral tests to elucidate whether the behavioral abnormality in these mice is a consequence of reduced exploratory motivation, and whether the neophobia is linked specifically to objects or also present for other modalities. RICH2 KO mice engage in normal exploration in a novel environment, suggesting that the anxiety-related phenotype is not due to reduced exploratory drive...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639593/synaptic-roles-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-its-implications-in-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Aparna Banerjee Dixit, Jyotirmoy Banerjee, Manjari Tripathi, Chitra Sarkar, P Sarat Chandra
There is an urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying epilepsy to find novel prognostic/diagnostic biomarkers to prevent epilepsy patients at risk. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is involved in multiple neuronal functions and plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating intracellular signalling cascades at synapses. CDK5 deregulation is shown to be associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The association between chronic loss of CDK5 and seizures has been reported in animal models of epilepsy...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632905/the-malleable-brain-plasticity-of-neural-circuits-and-behavior-a-review-from-students-to-students
#6
REVIEW
Natascha Schaefer, Carola Rotermund, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Mychael V Lourenco, Pooja Joshi, Regina U Hegemann, Sumit Jamwal, Nilufar Ali, Ezra Michelet García Romero, Sorabh Sharma, Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra K Sinha, Hannah Loke, Vishal Jain, Katarzyna Lepeta, Ahmad Salamian, Mahima Sharma, Mojtaba Golpich, Katarzyna Nawrotek, Ramesh K Paidi, Sheila M Shahidzadeh, Tetsade Piermartiri, Elham Amini, Veronica Pastor, Yvette Wilson, Philip A Adeniyi, Ashok K Datusalia, Benham Vafadari, Vedangana Saini, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Neetu Kushwah, Paula Fontanet, Anthony J Turner
One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630298/hypocretin-orexin-is-critical-in-sustaining-theta-gamma-rich-waking-behaviors-that-drive-sleep-need
#7
Anne Vassalli, Paul Franken
Hcrt gene inactivation in mice leads to behavioral state instability, abnormal transitions to paradoxical sleep, and cataplexy, hallmarks of narcolepsy. Sleep homeostasis is, however, considered unimpaired in patients and narcoleptic mice. We find that whereas Hcrt(ko/ko) mice respond to 6-h sleep deprivation (SD) with a slow-wave sleep (SWS) EEG δ (1.0 to 4.0 Hz) power rebound like WT littermates, spontaneous waking fails to induce a δ power reflecting prior waking duration. This correlates with impaired θ (6...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621662/chronic-lithium-treatment-elicits-its-antimanic-effects-via-bdnf-trkb-dependent-synaptic-downscaling
#8
Erinn S Gideons, Pei-Yi Lin, Melissa Mahgoub, Ege T Kavalali, Lisa M Monteggia
Lithium is widely used as a treatment for Bipolar Disorder although the molecular mechanisms that underlie its therapeutic effects are under debate. In this study, we show brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for the antimanic-like effects of lithium but not the antidepressant-like effects in mice. We performed whole cell patch clamp recordings of hippocampal neurons to determine the impact of lithium on synaptic transmission that may underlie the behavioral effects. Lithium produced a significant decrease in α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) amplitudes due to postsynaptic homeostatic plasticity that was dependent on BDNF and its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)...
June 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621434/eea1-restores-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-in-hippocampal-neurons-from-rett-syndrome-mice
#9
Xin Xu, Lucas Pozzo-Miller
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Deletion of Mecp2 in mice results in an imbalance of synaptic excitation and inhibition in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which affects "Hebbian" long-term synaptic plasticity. Since the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance is maintained by homeostatic mechanisms, we examined the role of MeCP2 in homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) at excitatory synapses...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616064/plasticity-in-gene-transcription-explains-the-differential-performance-of-two-invasive-fish-species
#10
Kyle W Wellband, Daniel D Heath
Phenotypic plasticity buffers organisms from environmental change and is hypothesized to aid the initial establishment of nonindigenous species in novel environments and postestablishment range expansion. The genetic mechanisms that underpin phenotypically plastic traits are generally poorly characterized; however, there is strong evidence that modulation of gene transcription is an important component of these responses. Here, we use RNA sequencing to examine the transcriptional basis of temperature tolerance for round and tubenose goby, two nonindigenous fish species that differ dramatically in the extent of their Great Lakes invasions despite similar invasion dates...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611571/exosomes-and-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-are-linked-to-each-other-and-to-huntington-s-parkinson-s-and-other-neurodegenerative-diseases-by-database-enabled-analyses-of-comprehensively-curated-datasets
#11
James K T Wang, Peter Langfelder, Steve Horvath, Michael J Palazzolo
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and autosomal dominant neurodegeneration caused by CAG expansion in the huntingtin gene (HTT), but the pathophysiological mechanism of mutant HTT (mHTT) remains unclear. To study HD using systems biological methodologies on all published data, we undertook the first comprehensive curation of two key PubMed HD datasets: perturbation genes that impact mHTT-driven endpoints and therefore are putatively linked causally to pathogenic mechanisms, and the protein interactome of HTT that reflects its biology...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592691/all-for-one-but-not-one-for-all-excitatory-synaptic-scaling-and-intrinsic-excitability-are-coregulated-by-camkiv-while-inhibitory-synaptic-scaling-is-under-independent-control
#12
Annelise Joseph, Gina G Turrigiano
Neocortical circuits utilize a family of homeostatic plasticity mechanisms to stabilize firing, including excitatory and inhibitory synaptic scaling and homeostatic intrinsic plasticity (Turrigiano and Nelson, 2004). All three mechanisms can be induced in tandem in cultured rat neocortical pyramidal neurons by chronic manipulations of firing, but it is unknown whether they are co-induced by the same activity-sensors and signaling pathways, or whether they are under independent control. CaMKIV is a key sensory/effector in excitatory synaptic scaling that senses perturbations in firing through changes in calcium influx, and translates this into compensatory changes in excitatory quantal amplitude (Goold and Nicoll, 2010; Ibata et al...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580666/connexins-and-pannexins-at-the-junction-of-neuro-glial-homeostasis-disease
#13
REVIEW
Andrew S Lapato, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
In the central nervous system (CNS), connexin (Cx)s and pannexin (Panx)s are an integral component of homeostatic neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity. Neuronal Cx gap junctions form electrical synapses across biochemically similar GABAergic networks, allowing rapid and extensive inhibition in response to principle neuron excitation. Glial Cx gap junctions link astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the pan-glial network that is responsible for removing excitotoxic ions and metabolites. In addition, glial gap junctions help constrain excessive excitatory activity in neurons and facilitate astrocyte Ca(2+) slow wave propagation...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577024/voluntary-movement-reverses-the-effect-of-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-on-corticomotor-excitability
#14
Esra Erkoc Ataoglu, Hale Batur Caglayan, Bülent Cengiz
Motor cortex activity level is a critical part of the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on corticomotor excitability. Based on homeostatic plasticity, the state of the stimulated cortical area influences the direction of neuroplastic changes induced by stimuli. Owing to homeostatic plasticity, cathodal tDCS (c-tDCS) would likely have a pronounced inhibitory effect on corticomotor excitability during a motor task, compared with the resting state. To test this hypothesis, we detected motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude changes before and during c-tDCS with voluntary movement...
June 2, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576943/polysialic-acid-regulates-sympathetic-outflow-by-facilitating-information-transfer-within-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#15
Phillip Bokiniec, Shila Shahbazian, Stuart J McDougall, Britt A Berning, Delfine Cheng, Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Peter Gr Burke, Simon McMullan, Martina Mühlenhoff, Herbert Hildebrandt, Filip Braet, Mark Connor, Nicolle H Packer, Ann K Goodchild
Expression of the large, extracellular glycan, polysialic acid (polySia) is restricted, in the adult, to brain regions exhibiting high levels of plasticity or remodelling, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). The NTS, located in the dorsal brainstem, receives constant viscerosensory afferent traffic as well as input from central regions controlling sympathetic nerve activity, respiration, gastrointestinal functions, hormonal release and behaviour. Our aims were to determine the ultrastructural location of polySia in the NTS and the functional effects of enzymatic removal of polySia, both in vitro and in vivo PolySia immunoreactivity was found throughout the adult rat NTS...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571720/astrocytes-in-memory-function-pioneering-findings-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Adar Adamsky, Inbal Goshen
Astrocytes have been generally believed to perform mainly homeostatic and supportive functions for neurons in the central nervous system. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests previously unrecognized and surprising functions for astrocytes, including regulation of synaptic formation, transmission and plasticity, all of which are considered as the infrastructure for information processing and memory formation and stabilization. This review discusses the involvement of astrocytes in memory functions and the possible mechanisms that may underlie it...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542595/antifungal-tc17-cells-are-durable-and-stable-persisting-as-long-lasting-vaccine-memory-without-plasticity-towards-ifn%C3%AE-cells
#17
Som Gowda Nanjappa, Andrew J McDermott, J Scott Fites, Kevin Galles, Marcel Wüthrich, George S Deepe, Bruce S Klein
Our understanding of persistence and plasticity of IL-17A+ memory T cells is clouded by conflicting results in models analyzing T helper 17 cells. We studied memory IL-17A+ CD8+ T-cell (Tc17) homeostasis, persistence and plasticity during fungal vaccine immunity. We report that vaccine-induced memory Tc17 cells persist with high fidelity to the type 17 phenotype. Tc17 cells persisted durably for a year as functional IL-17A+ memory cells without converting to IFNγ+ (Tc1) cells, although they produced multiple type I cytokines in the absence of residual vaccine antigen...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540422/loss-and-remodeling-of-striatal-dendritic-spines-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-homeostasis-to-maladaptive-plasticity
#18
REVIEW
Rosa M Villalba, Yoland Smith
In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD, the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection leads to two major changes in the morphology of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), i.e., a profound loss of dendritic spines and the remodeling of axospinous glutamatergic synapses. Striatal spine loss is an early event tightly associated with the extent of striatal DA denervation, but not the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, suggesting that striatal spine pruning might be a form of homeostatic plasticity that compensates for the loss of striatal DA innervation and the resulting dysregulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529938/senescence-inflammatory-regulation-of-reparative-cellular-reprogramming-in-aging-and-cancer
#19
Javier A Menendez, Tomás Alarcón
The inability of adult tissues to transitorily generate cells with functional stem cell-like properties is a major obstacle to tissue self-repair. Nuclear reprogramming-like phenomena that induce a transient acquisition of epigenetic plasticity and phenotype malleability may constitute a reparative route through which human tissues respond to injury, stress, and disease. However, tissue rejuvenation should involve not only the transient epigenetic reprogramming of differentiated cells, but also the committed re-acquisition of the original or alternative committed cell fate...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515706/research-priorities-in-limb-and-task-specific-dystonias
#20
REVIEW
Sarah Pirio Richardson, Eckart Altenmüller, Katharine Alter, Ron L Alterman, Robert Chen, Steven Frucht, Shinichi Furuya, Joseph Jankovic, H A Jinnah, Teresa J Kimberley, Codrin Lungu, Joel S Perlmutter, Cecília N Prudente, Mark Hallett
Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer's cramp, runner's dystonia, or musician's dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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