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Homeostatic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884958/activity-dependent-redistribution-of-kv2-1-ion-channels-on-rat-spinal-motoneurons
#1
Shannon H Romer, Adam S Deardorff, Robert E W Fyffe
Homeostatic plasticity occurs through diverse cellular and synaptic mechanisms, and extensive investigations over the preceding decade have established Kv2.1 ion channels as key homeostatic regulatory elements in several central neuronal systems. As in these cellular systems, Kv2.1 channels in spinal motoneurons (MNs) localize within large somatic membrane clusters. However, their role in regulating motoneuron activity is not fully established in vivo. We have previously demonstrated marked Kv2.1 channel redistribution in MNs following in vitro glutamate application and in vivo peripheral nerve injury (Romer et al...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884699/cell-adhesion-molecules-and-sleep
#2
REVIEW
Emma Kate O'Callaghan, Maria Neus Ballester Roig, Valérie Mongrain
Cell adhesion molecules (CAM) play essential roles in the central nervous system, where some families are involved in synaptic development and function. These synaptic adhesion molecules (SAMs) are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, and the formation of neuronal networks. Recent findings from studies examining the consequences of sleep loss suggest that these molecules are candidates to act in sleep regulation. This review highlights the experimental data that lead to the identification of SAMs as potential sleep regulators, and discusses results supporting that specific SAMs are involved in different aspects of sleep regulation...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868467/k-channel-reorganization-and-homeostatic-plasticity-during-postembryonic-development-biophysical-and-genetic-analyses-in-acutely-dissociated-drosophila-central-neurons
#3
Taixiang Saur, I-Feng Peng, Peng Jiang, Neng Gong, Wei-Dong Yao, Tian-Le Xu, Chun-Fang Wu
Intrinsic electric activities of neurons play important roles in establishing and refining neural circuits during development. However, how the underlying ionic currents undergo postembryonic reorganizations remains largely unknown. Using acutely dissociated neurons from larval, pupal, and adult Drosophila brains, we show drastic re-assemblies and compensatory regulations of voltage-gated (IKv) and Ca(2+)-activated (IK(Ca)) K(+ )currents during postembryonic development. Larval and adult neurons displayed prominent fast-inactivating IKv, mediated by the Shaker (Sh) channel to a large extent, while in the same neurons IK(Ca) was far smaller in amplitude...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866797/the-impact-of-structural-heterogeneity-on-excitation-inhibition-balance-in-cortical-networks
#4
Itamar D Landau, Robert Egger, Vincent J Dercksen, Marcel Oberlaender, Haim Sompolinsky
Models of cortical dynamics often assume a homogeneous connectivity structure. However, we show that heterogeneous input connectivity can prevent the dynamic balance between excitation and inhibition, a hallmark of cortical dynamics, and yield unrealistically sparse and temporally regular firing. Anatomically based estimates of the connectivity of layer 4 (L4) rat barrel cortex and numerical simulations of this circuit indicate that the local network possesses substantial heterogeneity in input connectivity, sufficient to disrupt excitation-inhibition balance...
November 5, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863245/epigenetic-memory-underlies-cell-autonomous-heterogeneous-behavior-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#5
Vionnie W C Yu, Rushdia Z Yusuf, Toshihiko Oki, Juwell Wu, Borja Saez, Xin Wang, Colleen Cook, Ninib Baryawno, Michael J Ziller, Eunjung Lee, Hongcang Gu, Alexander Meissner, Charles P Lin, Peter V Kharchenko, David T Scadden
Stem cells determine homeostasis and repair of many tissues and are increasingly recognized as functionally heterogeneous. To define the extent of-and molecular basis for-heterogeneity, we overlaid functional, transcriptional, and epigenetic attributes of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) at a clonal level using endogenous fluorescent tagging. Endogenous HSC had clone-specific functional attributes over time in vivo. The intra-clonal behaviors were highly stereotypic, conserved under the stress of transplantation, inflammation, and genotoxic injury, and associated with distinctive transcriptional, DNA methylation, and chromatin accessibility patterns...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836500/ex-vivo-loading-of-trussed-implants-for-spine-fusion-induces-heterogeneous-strains-consistent-with-homeostatic-bone-mechanobiology
#6
Jason P Caffrey, Esther Cory, Van W Wong, Koichi Masuda, Albert C Chen, Jessee P Hunt, Timothy M Ganey, Robert L Sah
A truss structure was recently introduced as an interbody fusion cage. As a truss system, some of the connected elements may be in a state of compression and others in tension. This study aimed to quantify both the mean and variance of strut strains in such an implant when loaded in a simulated fusion condition with vertebral body or contoured plastic loading platens ex vivo. Cages were each instrumented with 78 fiducial spheres, loaded between platens (vertebral body or contoured plastic), imaged using high resolution micro-CT, and analyzed for deformation and strain of each of the 221 struts...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826229/structural-and-functional-plasticity-at-the-axon-initial-segment
#7
REVIEW
Rei Yamada, Hiroshi Kuba
The axon initial segment (AIS) is positioned between the axonal and somato-dendritic compartments and plays a pivotal role in triggering action potentials (APs) and determining neuronal output. It is now widely accepted that structural properties of the AIS, such as length and/or location relative to the soma, change in an activity-dependent manner. This structural plasticity of the AIS is known to be crucial for homeostatic control of neuronal excitability. However, it is obvious that the impact of the AIS on neuronal excitability is critically dependent on the biophysical properties of the AIS, which are primarily determined by the composition and characteristics of ion channels in this domain...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812835/anti-correlations-in-the-degree-distribution-increase-stimulus-detection-performance-in-noisy-spiking-neural-networks
#8
Marijn B Martens, Arthur R Houweling, Paul H E Tiesinga
Neuronal circuits in the rodent barrel cortex are characterized by stable low firing rates. However, recent experiments show that short spike trains elicited by electrical stimulation in single neurons can induce behavioral responses. Hence, the underlying neural networks provide stability against internal fluctuations in the firing rate, while simultaneously making the circuits sensitive to small external perturbations. Here we studied whether stability and sensitivity are affected by the connectivity structure in recurrently connected spiking networks...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764671/nascent-proteome-remodeling-following-homeostatic-scaling-at-hippocampal-synapses
#9
Christoph T Schanzenbächer, Sivakumar Sambandan, Julian D Langer, Erin M Schuman
Homeostatic scaling adjusts the strength of synaptic connections up or down in response to large changes in input. To identify the landscape of proteomic changes that contribute to opposing forms of homeostatic plasticity, we examined the plasticity-induced changes in the newly synthesized proteome. Cultured rat hippocampal neurons underwent homeostatic up-scaling or down-scaling. We used BONCAT (bio-orthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging) to metabolically label, capture, and identify newly synthesized proteins, detecting and analyzing 5,940 newly synthesized proteins using mass spectrometry and label-free quantitation...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762316/long-term-homeostatic-properties-complementary-to-hebbian-rules-in-cupc-based-multifunctional-memristor
#10
Laiyuan Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Jinyi Lin, Jie Yang, Linghai Xie, Mingdong Yi, Wen Li, Haifeng Ling, Changjin Ou, Wei Huang
Most simulations of neuroplasticity in memristors, which are potentially used to develop artificial synapses, are confined to the basic biological Hebbian rules. However, the simplex rules potentially can induce excessive excitation/inhibition, even collapse of neural activities, because they neglect the properties of long-term homeostasis involved in the frameworks of realistic neural networks. Here, we develop organic CuPc-based memristors of which excitatory and inhibitory conductivities can implement both Hebbian rules and homeostatic plasticity, complementary to Hebbian patterns and conductive to the long-term homeostasis...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734337/sleep-dependent-structural-synaptic-plasticity-of-inhibitory-synapses-in-the-dendrites-of-hypocretin-orexin-neurons
#11
Idan Elbaz, David Zada, Adi Tovin, Tslil Braun, Tali Lerer-Goldshtein, Gordon Wang, Philippe Mourrain, Lior Appelbaum
Sleep is tightly regulated by the circadian clock and homeostatic mechanisms. Although the sleep/wake cycle is known to be associated with structural and physiological synaptic changes that benefit the brain, the function of sleep is still debated. The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons regulate various functions including feeding, reward, sleep, and wake. Continuous imaging of single neuronal circuits in live animals is vital to understanding the role of sleep in regulating synaptic dynamics, and the transparency of the zebrafish model enables time-lapse imaging of single synapses during both day and night...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721084/homeostatic-plasticity-of-excitability-in-crustacean-central-pattern-generator-networks
#12
David J Schulz, Brian J Lane
Plasticity of excitability can come in two general forms: changes in excitability that alter neuronal output (e.g. long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability) or excitability changes that stabilize neuronal output (homeostatic plasticity). Here we discuss the latter form of plasticity in the context of the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, and a second central pattern generator circuit, the cardiac ganglion. We discuss this plasticity at three levels: rapid homeostatic changes in membrane conductance, longer-term effects of neuromodulation on excitability, and the impacts of activity-dependent feedback on steady-state channel mRNA levels...
October 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721083/regulation-of-motoneuron-excitability-and-the-setting-of-homeostatic-limits
#13
Carlo Ng Giachello, Richard A Baines
Stability of neural circuits is reliant on homeostatic mechanisms that return neuron activity towards pre-determined and physiologically appropriate levels. Without these mechanisms, changes due to synaptic plasticity, ageing and disease may push neural circuits towards instability. Whilst widely documented, understanding of how and when neurons determine an appropriate activity level, the so-called set-point, remains unknown. Genetically tractable model systems have greatly contributed to our understanding of neuronal homeostasis and continue to offer attractive models to explore these additional questions...
October 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719672/human-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-as-a-potential-target-of-alternate-plasticizers-an-in-silico-study
#14
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Muhammad Yasir, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Tanveer A Dar, Adel M Abuzenadah, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Mohd A Beg
BACKGROUND: Currently, alternate plasticizers are used to replace phthalate plasticizers in children's toys, medical equipments and food packaging, due to the adverse effects of phthalate compounds on human health and laws prohibiting their use. Current information regarding the safety and potential adverse effects of alternate plasticizers is limited and recent studies have found alternate plasticizers to display similar characteristics to those observed in phthalate plasticizers. This study was undertaken to evaluate and predict the potential endocrine disrupting activity of the three most commonly used alternate plasticizers: di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate (DEHT), tris(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TOTM), and diisononyl hexahydrophthalate (DINCH) against human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) using in silico approaches...
September 30, 2016: BMC Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714683/ng2-glia-more-than-progenitor-cells
#15
Jaime Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Leda Dimou
NG2-glia are a mysterious and ubiquitous glial population with a highly branched morphology. Initial studies suggested that their unique function is the generation and maintenance of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), important for proper myelination and therefore for axonal support and fast conduction velocity. Over the last years this simplistic notion has been dramatically changed: the wide and homogeneous distribution of NG2-glia within all areas of the developing CNS that is maintained during the whole lifespan, their potential to also differentiate into other cell types in a spatiotemporal manner, their active capability of maintaining their population and their dynamic behavior in altered conditions have raised the question: are NG2-glia simple progenitor cells or do they play further major roles in the normal function of the CNS? In this chapter, we will discuss some important features of NG2-glia like their homeostatic distribution in the CNS and their potential to differentiate into diverse cell types...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703108/-the-function-of-rem-sleep-implications-from-transgenic-mouse-models
#16
Mitsuaki Kashiwagi, Yu Hayashi
Our sleep is composed of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. REM sleep is the major source of dreams, whereas synchronous cortical oscillations, called slow waves, are observed during NREM sleep. Both stages are unique to certain vertebrate species, and therefore, REM and NREM sleep are thought to be involved in higher-order brain functions. While several studies have revealed the importance of NREM sleep in growth hormone secretion, memory consolidation and brain metabolite clearance, the functions of REM sleep are currently almost totally unknown...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673380/cytokines-and-intestinal-inflammation
#17
Giorgos Bamias, Fabio Cominelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664421/upregulation-of-neurovascular-communication-through-filamin-abrogation-promotes-ectopic-periventricular-neurogenesis
#18
Shauna L Houlihan, Alison A Lanctot, Yan Guo, Yuanyi Feng
Neuronal fate-restricted intermediate progenitors (IPs) are derived from the multipotent radial glia (RGs) and serve as the direct precursors for cerebral cortical neurons, but factors that control their neurogenic plasticity remain elusive. Here we report that IPs' neuron production is enhanced by abrogating filamin function, leading to the generation of periventricular neurons independent of normal neocortical neurogenesis and neuronal migration. Loss of Flna in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) led RGs to undergo changes resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) along with exuberant angiogenesis that together changed the microenvironment and increased neurogenesis of IPs...
September 24, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637565/homeostatic-plasticity-of-subcellular-neuronal-structures-from-inputs-to-outputs
#19
Winnie Wefelmeyer, Christopher J Puhl, Juan Burrone
Neurons in the brain are highly plastic, allowing an organism to learn and adapt to its environment. However, this ongoing plasticity is also inherently unstable, potentially leading to aberrant levels of circuit activity. Homeostatic forms of plasticity are thought to provide a means of controlling neuronal activity by avoiding extremes and allowing network stability. Recent work has shown that many of these homeostatic modifications change the structure of subcellular neuronal compartments, ranging from changes to synaptic inputs at both excitatory and inhibitory compartments to modulation of neuronal output through changes at the axon initial segment (AIS) and presynaptic terminals...
October 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634341/electrophysiological-approaches-to-unravel-the-neurobiological-basis-of-appetite-and-satiety-use-of-the-multielectrode-array-as-a-screening-strategy
#20
Hamdy Shaban, Rory O'Connor, Saak V Ovsepian, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens
Hypothalamic neural circuits are recognised as primary sites of the neuromodulator effect of homeostatic food intake, whereas changes in ventral tegmental area (VTA), hippocampus and amygdala have been implicated in the hedonic, cognitive and emotional aspects of eating. Here, we discuss synaptic transmission and plasticity within brain circuits governing appetite and food intake behaviour, focusing on the metabolic hormones ghrelin and leptin. We discuss functional changes within these circuitries and critically assess the applicability of electrophysiological measurements using in vitro multielectrode array (MEA) systems to identify novel appetite modulators...
September 12, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
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