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Homeostatic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922860/structural-plasticity-of-synaptopodin-in-the-axon-initial-segment-during-visual-cortex-development
#1
Annabelle Schlüter, Domenico Del Turco, Thomas Deller, Annika Gutzmann, Christian Schultz, Maren Engelhardt
The axon initial segment (AIS) is essential for action potential generation. Recently, the AIS was identified as a site of neuronal plasticity. A subpopulation of AIS in cortical principal neurons contains stacks of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forming the cisternal organelle (CO). The function of this organelle is poorly understood, but roles in local Ca2+-trafficking and AIS plasticity are discussed. To investigate whether the presence and/or the size of COs are linked to the development and maturation of AIS of cortical neurons, we analyzed the relationship between COs and the AIS during visual cortex development under control and visual deprivation conditions...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921695/frequency-dependent-regulation-of-intrinsic-excitability-by-voltage-activated-membrane-conductances-computational-modeling-and-dynamic-clamp
#2
Attila Szűcs, Anikó Rátkai, Katalin Schlett, Ramon Huerta
As one of the most unique properties of nerve cells, their intrinsic excitability allows them to transform synaptic inputs into action potentials. This process reflects a complex interplay between the synaptic inputs and the voltage-dependent membrane currents of the postsynaptic neuron. While neurons in natural conditions mostly fire under the action of intense synaptic bombardment and receive fluctuating patterns of excitation and inhibition, conventional techniques to characterize intrinsic excitability mainly utilize static means of stimulation...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914603/synaptic-up-scaling-preserves-motor-circuit-output-after-chronic-natural-inactivity
#3
Joseph M Santin, Mauricio Vallejo, Lynn K Hartzler
Neural systems use homeostatic plasticity to maintain normal brain functions and to prevent abnormal activity.  Surprisingly, homeostatic mechanisms that regulate circuit output have mainly been demonstrated during artificial and/or pathological perturbations.  Natural, physiological scenarios that activate these stabilizing mechanisms in neural networks of mature animals remain elusive.  To establish the extent to which a naturally inactive circuit engages mechanisms of homeostatic plasticity, we utilized the respiratory motor circuit in bullfrogs that normally remains inactive for several months during the winter...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900415/perinatal-western-diet-consumption-leads-to-profound-plasticity-and-gabaergic-phenotype-changes-within-hypothalamus-and-reward-pathway-from-birth-to-sexual-maturity-in-rat
#4
Julie Paradis, Pierre Boureau, Thomas Moyon, Sophie Nicklaus, Patricia Parnet, Vincent Paillé
Perinatal maternal consumption of energy dense food increases the risk of obesity in children. This is associated with an overconsumption of palatable food that is consumed for its hedonic property. The underlying mechanism that links perinatal maternal diet and offspring preference for fat is still poorly understood. In this study, we aim at studying the influence of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding [western diet (WD)] during gestation and lactation on the reward pathways controlling feeding in the rat offspring from birth to sexual maturity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890419/arc-protein-a-flexible-hub-for-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognition
#5
REVIEW
Oleksii Nikolaienko, Sudarshan Patil, Maria Steene Eriksen, Clive R Bramham
Mammalian excitatory synapses express diverse types of synaptic plasticity. A major challenge in neuroscience is to understand how a neuron utilizes different types of plasticity to sculpt brain development, function, and behavior. Neuronal activity-induced expression of the immediate early protein, Arc, is critical for long-term potentiation and depression of synaptic transmission, homeostatic synaptic scaling, and adaptive functions such as long-term memory formation. However, the molecular basis of Arc protein function as a regulator of synaptic plasticity and cognition remains a puzzle...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882990/extended-synaptotagmin-localizes-to-presynaptic-er-and-promotes-neurotransmission-and-synaptic-growth-in-drosophila
#6
Koto Kikuma, Xiling Li, Daniel Kim, David Sutter, Dion K Dickman
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an extensive organelle in neurons with important roles at synapses including the regulation of cytosolic Ca(2+), neurotransmission, lipid metabolism, and membrane trafficking. Despite intriguing evidence for these crucial functions, how presynaptic ER influences synaptic physiology remains enigmatic. To gain insight into this question, we have generated and characterized mutations in the single Extended Synaptotagmin (Esyt) ortholog in Drosophila melanogaster Esyts are evolutionarily conserved ER proteins with Ca(2+)-sensing domains that have recently been shown to orchestrate membrane tethering and lipid exchange between the ER and plasma membrane...
September 7, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874221/the-relationship-between-tinnitus-pitch-and-parameters-of-audiometry-and-distortion-product-otoacoustic-emissions
#7
H Keppler, S Degeest, I Dhooge
OBJECTIVES: Chronic tinnitus is associated with reduced auditory input, which results in changes in the central auditory system. This study aimed to examine the relationship between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. For audiometry, the parameters represented the edge frequency of hearing loss, the frequency of maximum hearing loss and the frequency range of hearing loss. For distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the parameters were the frequency of lowest distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes and the frequency range of reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865018/making-of-a-synapse-recurrent-roles-of-drebrin-a-at-excitatory-synapses-throughout-life
#8
Chiye Aoki, Ang D Sherpa
Mature excitatory synapses are composed of more than 1500 proteins postsynaptically and hundreds more that operate presynaptically. Among them, drebrin is an F-actin-binding protein that increases noticeably during juvenile synaptogenesis. Electron microscopic analysis reveals that drebrin is highly enriched specifically on the postsynaptic side of excitatory synapses. Since dendritic spines are structures specialized for excitatory synaptic transmission, the function of drebrin was probed by analyzing the ultrastructural characteristics of dendritic spines of animals with genetic deletion of drebrin A (DAKO), the adult isoform of drebrin...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859407/systems-biology-of-phenotypic-robustness-and-plasticity
#9
H Frederik Nijhout, Farrah Sadre-Marandi, Janet Best, Michael C Reed
Gene regulatory networks, cellular biochemistry, tissue function, and whole body physiology are imbued with myriad overlapping and interacting homeostatic mechanisms that ensure that many phenotypes are robust to genetic and environmental variation. Animals also often have plastic responses to environmental variables, which means that many different phenotypes can correspond to a single genotype. Since natural selection acts on phenotypes, this raises the question of how selection can act on the genome if genotypes are decoupled from phenotypes by robustness and plasticity mechanisms...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855098/the-bioelectric-code-an-ancient-computational-medium-for-dynamic-control-of-growth-and-form
#10
REVIEW
Michael Levin, Christopher J Martyniuk
What determines large-scale anatomy? DNA does not directly specify geometrical arrangements of tissues and organs, and a process of encoding and decoding for morphogenesis is required. Moreover, many species can regenerate and remodel their structure despite drastic injury. The ability to obtain the correct target morphology from a diversity of initial conditions reveals that the morphogenetic code implements a rich system of pattern-homeostatic processes. Here, we describe an important mechanism by which cellular networks implement pattern regulation and plasticity: bioelectricity...
August 27, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837556/from-homeostasis-to-behavior-balanced-activity-in-an-exploration-of-embodied-dynamic-environmental-neural-interaction
#11
Peter John Hellyer, Claudia Clopath, Angie A Kehagia, Federico E Turkheimer, Robert Leech
In recent years, there have been many computational simulations of spontaneous neural dynamics. Here, we describe a simple model of spontaneous neural dynamics that controls an agent moving in a simple virtual environment. These dynamics generate interesting brain-environment feedback interactions that rapidly destabilize neural and behavioral dynamics demonstrating the need for homeostatic mechanisms. We investigate roles for homeostatic plasticity both locally (local inhibition adjusting to balance excitatory input) as well as more globally (regional "task negative" activity that compensates for "task positive", sensory input in another region) balancing neural activity and leading to more stable behavior (trajectories through the environment)...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834749/composition-and-control-of-a-deg-enac-channel-during-presynaptic-homeostatic-plasticity
#12
Brian O Orr, David Gorczyca, Meg A Younger, Lily Y Jan, Yuh-Nung Jan, Graeme W Davis
The homeostatic control of presynaptic neurotransmitter release stabilizes information transfer at synaptic connections in the nervous system of organisms ranging from insect to human. Presynaptic homeostatic signaling centers upon the regulated membrane insertion of an amiloride-sensitive degenerin/epithelial sodium (Deg/ENaC) channel. Elucidating the subunit composition of this channel is an essential step toward defining the underlying mechanisms of presynaptic homeostatic plasticity (PHP). Here, we demonstrate that the ppk1 gene encodes an essential subunit of this Deg/ENaC channel, functioning in motoneurons for the rapid induction and maintenance of PHP...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821922/homeostatic-plasticity-in-human-extrastriate-cortex-following-a-simulated-peripheral-scotoma
#13
Matthew A Gannon, Stephanie M Long, Nathan A Parks
Neuroimaging and patient work over the past decade have indicated that, following retinal deafferentation, the human visual cortex undergoes a large-scale and enduring reorganization of its topography such that the classical retinotopic organization of deafferented visual cortex remaps to represent non-classical regions of visual space. Such long-term visual reorganization is proposed to occur through changes in the functional balance of deafferented visual circuits that engage more lasting changes through activity-dependent neuroplasticity...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804447/activity-dependent-arc-expression-and-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-are-altered-in-neurons-from-a-mouse-model-of-angelman-syndrome
#14
Elissa D Pastuzyn, Jason D Shepherd
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results from deletions or mutations in chromosome 15, which usually includes the UBE3A gene. Ube3A protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates proteins and targets them for degradation. The immediate-early gene Arc, a master regulator of synaptic plasticity, was identified as a putative substrate of Ube3A, but there have been conflicting reports on whether Arc is a bona fide E3 ligase substrate. Using multiple approaches, we found no evidence for a physical interaction between Arc and Ube3A in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790889/the-calcineurin-binding-activity-dependent-splice-variant-dynamin1xb-is-highly-enriched-in-synapses-in-various-regions-of-the-central-nervous-system
#15
Marie-Lisa Eich, Ekta Dembla, Silke Wahl, Mayur Dembla, Karin Schwarz, Frank Schmitz
In the present study, we generated and characterized a splice site-specific monoclonal antibody that selectively detects the calcineurin-binding dynamin1 splice variant dynamin1xb. Calcineurin is a Ca(2+)-regulated phosphatase that enhances dynamin1 activity and is an important Ca(2+)-sensing mediator of homeostatic synaptic plasticity in neurons. Using this dynamin1xb-specific antibody, we found dynamin1xb highly enriched in synapses of all analyzed brain regions. In photoreceptor ribbon synapses, dynamin1xb was enriched in close vicinity to the synaptic ribbon in a manner indicative of a peri-active zone immunolabeling...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783732/correction-of-aberrant-growth-preserves-tissue-homeostasis
#16
Samara Brown, Cristiana M Pineda, Tianchi Xin, Jonathan Boucher, Kathleen C Suozzi, Sangbum Park, Catherine Matte-Martone, David G Gonzalez, Julie Rytlewski, Slobodan Beronja, Valentina Greco
Cells in healthy tissues acquire mutations with surprising frequency. Many of these mutations are associated with abnormal cellular behaviours such as differentiation defects and hyperproliferation, yet fail to produce macroscopically detectable phenotypes. It is currently unclear how the tissue remains phenotypically normal, despite the presence of these mutant cells. Here we use intravital imaging to track the fate of mouse skin epithelium burdened with varying numbers of activated Wnt/β-catenin stem cells...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782263/regulation-of-synaptic-scaling-by-action-potential-independent-miniature-neurotransmission
#17
REVIEW
Carlos Gonzalez-Islas, Pernille Bülow, Peter Wenner
Synaptic scaling represents a homeostatic adjustment in synaptic strength that was first identified as a cell-wide mechanism to achieve firing rate homeostasis after perturbations to spiking activity levels. In this review, we consider a form of synaptic scaling that is triggered by changes in action potential-independent neurotransmitter release. This plasticity appears to be both triggered and expressed locally at the dendritic site of the synapse that experiences a perturbation. A discussion of different forms of scaling triggered by different perturbations is presented...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768764/src-homology-2-domain-containing-phosphotyrosine-phosphatase-2-shp2-controls-surface-glua1-in-synaptic-homeostasis
#18
Bin Zhang, Wen Lu
Src Homology 2 Domain Containing Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase 2 (Shp2) functions in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. However, the precise mechanisms by which this multifunctional protein contributes to synaptic function remains largely unknown. Homeostatic plasticity may be viewed as a process of bi-directional synaptic scaling, up or down. Through this process neuronal circuitry stability is maintained so that changes in synaptic strength may be preserved under changing conditions. Better understanding of these processes is needed...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767646/a-model-of-human-motor-sequence-learning-explains-facilitation-and-interference-effects-based-on-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity
#19
Quan Wang, Constantin A Rothkopf, Jochen Triesch
The ability to learn sequential behaviors is a fundamental property of our brains. Yet a long stream of studies including recent experiments investigating motor sequence learning in adult human subjects have produced a number of puzzling and seemingly contradictory results. In particular, when subjects have to learn multiple action sequences, learning is sometimes impaired by proactive and retroactive interference effects. In other situations, however, learning is accelerated as reflected in facilitation and transfer effects...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751459/pten-loss-increases-the-connectivity-of-fast-synaptic-motifs-and-functional-connectivity-in-a-developing-hippocampal-network
#20
Caitlynn M Barrows, Matthew P McCabe, Hongmei Chen, John W Swann, Matthew C Weston
Changes in synaptic strength and connectivity are thought to be a major mechanism through which many gene variants cause neurological disease. Hyperactivation of the PI3K-mTOR signaling network, via loss of function of repressors such as PTEN, causes epilepsy in humans and animal models, and altered mTOR signaling may contribute to a broad range of neurological diseases. Changes in synaptic transmission have been reported in animal models of PTEN loss; however, the full extent of these changes, and their effect on network function, is still unknown...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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