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Homeostatic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343184/regulatory-role-of-ngfs-in-neurocognitive-functions
#1
Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Pareek, Muneeb A Faiq, Pavan Kumar, Khursheed Raza, Pranav Prasoon, Subrahamanyam Dantham, Sankat Mochan
Nerve growth factors (NGFs), especially the prototype NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have a diverse array of functions in the central nervous system through their peculiar set of receptors and intricate signaling. They are implicated not only in the development of the nervous system but also in regulation of neurocognitive functions like learning, memory, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Evidence even suggests their role in continued neurogenesis and experience-dependent neural network remodeling in adult brain...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334879/altered-sleep-homeostasis-correlates-with-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy
#2
Melanie Boly, Benjamin Jones, Graham Findlay, Erin Plumley, Armand Mensen, Bruce Hermann, Guilio Tononi, Rama Maganti
In animal studies, both seizures and interictal spikes induce synaptic potentiation. Recent evidence suggests that electroencephalogram slow wave activity during sleep reflects synaptic potentiation during wake, and that its homeostatic decrease during the night is associated with synaptic renormalization and its beneficial effects. Here we asked whether epileptic activity induces plastic changes that can be revealed by high-density electroencephalography recordings during sleep in 15 patients with focal epilepsy and 15 control subjects...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334601/a-tale-of-two-inputs
#3
James Ashley, Vivian Budnik
In this issue of Neuron, Newman et al. (2017) image calcium events at single synapses of unanesthetized Drosophila larvae. Synaptic plasticity and homeostatic regulation of synapses is established to be input specific. Furthermore, plasticity forms involve selective recruitment of previously active or silent synapses.
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325212/chemokine-receptor-signaling-and-the-hallmarks-of-cancer
#4
R A Lacalle, R Blanco, L Carmona-Rodríguez, A Martín-Leal, E Mira, S Mañes
The chemokines are a family of chemotactic cytokines that mediate their activity by acting on seven-transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptors. Both the ability of the chemokines and their receptors to form homo- and heterodimers and the promiscuity of the chemokine-chemokine receptor interaction endow this protein family with enormous signaling plasticity and complexity that are not fully understood at present. Chemokines were initially identified as essential regulators of homeostatic and inflammatory trafficking of innate and adaptive leucocytes from lymphoid organs to tissues...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323619/fast-spiking-gaba-circuit-dynamics-in-the-auditory-cortex-predict-recovery-of-sensory-processing-following-peripheral-nerve-damage
#5
Jennifer Resnik, Daniel B Polley
Cortical neurons remap their receptive fields and rescale sensitivity to spared peripheral inputs following sensory nerve damage. To address how these plasticity processes are coordinated over the course of functional recovery, we tracked receptive field reorganization, spontaneous activity, and response gain from individual principal neurons in the adult mouse auditory cortex over a 50-day period surrounding either moderate or massive auditory nerve damage. We related the day-by-day recovery of sound processing to dynamic changes in the strength of intracortical inhibition from parvalbumin-expressing (PV) inhibitory neurons...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320737/mir-31-mutants-reveal-continuous-glial-homeostasis-in-the-adult-drosophila-brain
#6
Lynette Caizhen Foo, Shilin Song, Stephen Michael Cohen
The study of adult neural cell production has concentrated on neurogenesis. The mechanisms controlling adult gliogenesis are still poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence for a homeostatic process that maintains the population of glial cells in the Drosophila adult brain. Flies lacking microRNA miR-31a start adult life with a normal complement of glia, but transiently lose glia due to apoptosis. miR-31a expression identifies a subset of predominantly gliogenic adult neural progenitor cells. Failure to limit expression of the predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rchy1, in these cells results in glial loss...
March 20, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298298/non-reciprocal-homeostatic-compensation-in-drosophila-potassium-channel-mutants
#7
Eugene Z Kim, Julie Vienne, Michael Rosbash, Leslie C Griffith
Homeostatic control of intrinsic excitability is important for long-term regulation of neuronal activity. In conjunction with many other forms of plasticity, intrinsic homeostasis helps neurons maintain stable activity regimes in the face of external input variability and destabilizing genetic mutations. In this study, we report a mechanism by which Drosophila melanogaster larval motor neurons stabilize hyperactivity induced by the loss of the delayed rectifying K(+) channel Shaker Cognate B (Shab), by upregulating the Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel encoded by the slowpoke (slo) gene...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298170/concussion-induces-hippocampal-circuitry-disruption-in-swine
#8
John A Wolf, Brian N Johnson, Victoria E Johnson, Mary E Putt, Kevin D Browne, Constance J Mietus, Daniel P Brown, Kathryn L Wofford, Douglas H Smith, M Sean Grady, Akiva S Cohen, D Kacy Cullen
Hippocampal-dependent deficits in learning and memory formation are a prominent feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the role of the hippocampus in cognitive dysfunction after concussion (mild TBI) is unknown. We therefore investigated functional and structural changes in the swine hippocampus following TBI using a model of head rotational acceleration that closely replicates the biomechanics and neuropathology of closed-head TBI in humans. We examined neurophysiological changes using a novel ex vivo hippocampal slice paradigm with extracellular stimulation and recording in the dentate gyrus and CA1 occurring at 7 days following non-impact inertial TBI in swine...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297674/nanoscale-structural-plasticity-of-the-active-zone-matrix-modulates-presynaptic-function
#9
Oleg O Glebov, Rachel E Jackson, Christian M Winterflood, Dylan M Owen, Ellen A Barker, Patrick Doherty, Helge Ewers, Juan Burrone
The active zone (AZ) matrix of presynaptic terminals coordinates the recruitment of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and synaptic vesicles to orchestrate neurotransmitter release. However, the spatial organization of the AZ and how it controls vesicle fusion remain poorly understood. Here, we employ super-resolution microscopy and ratiometric imaging to visualize the AZ structure on the nanoscale, revealing segregation between the AZ matrix, VGCCs, and putative release sites. Long-term blockade of neuronal activity leads to reversible AZ matrix unclustering and presynaptic actin depolymerization, allowing for enrichment of AZ machinery...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288386/sleep-regulation-of-the-distribution-of-cortical-firing-rates
#10
REVIEW
Daniel Levenstein, Brendon O Watson, John Rinzel, György Buzsáki
Sleep is thought to mediate both mnemonic and homeostatic functions. However, the mechanism by which this brain state can simultaneously implement the 'selective' plasticity needed to consolidate novel memory traces and the 'general' plasticity necessary to maintain a well-functioning neuronal system is unclear. Recent findings show that both of these functions differentially affect neurons based on their intrinsic firing rate, a ubiquitous neuronal heterogeneity. Furthermore, they are both implemented by the NREM slow oscillation, which also distinguishes neurons based on firing rate during sequential activity at the DOWN→UP transition...
March 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285823/input-specific-plasticity-and-homeostasis-at-the-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junction
#11
Zachary L Newman, Adam Hoagland, Krishan Aghi, Kurtresha Worden, Sabrina L Levy, Jun Ho Son, Luke P Lee, Ehud Y Isacoff
Synaptic connections undergo activity-dependent plasticity during development and learning, as well as homeostatic re-adjustment to ensure stability. Little is known about the relationship between these processes, particularly in vivo. We addressed this with novel quantal resolution imaging of transmission during locomotive behavior at glutamatergic synapses of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. We find that two motor input types, Ib and Is, provide distinct forms of excitatory drive during crawling and differ in key transmission properties...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279228/erratum-to-%C3%AE-amyloid-triggers-aberrant-over-scaling-of-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity
#12
James Gilbert, Shu Shu, Xin Yang, Youming Lu, Ling-Qiang Zhu, Heng-Ye Man
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275711/the-kinase-function-of-msk1-regulates-bdnf-signaling-to-creb-and-basal-synaptic-transmission-but-is-not-required-for-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-or-spatial-memory
#13
Stephanie Daumas, Christopher J Hunter, Rajen B Mistry, Lorenzo Morè, Lucia Privitera, Daniel D Cooper, Kathleen M Reyskens, Harry T Flynn, Richard G M Morris, J Simon C Arthur, Bruno G Frenguelli
The later stages of long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro and spatial memory in vivo are believed to depend upon gene transcription. Accordingly, considerable attempts have been made to identify both the mechanisms by which transcription is regulated and indeed the gene products themselves. Previous studies have shown that deletion of one regulator of transcription, the mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), causes an impairment of spatial memory. Given the ability of MSK1 to regulate gene expression via the phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) at serine 133 (S133), MSK1 is a plausible candidate as a prime regulator of transcription underpinning synaptic plasticity and learning and memory...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274846/acute-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-treatment-modulates-neuroinflammatory-processes-and-promotes-tactile-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Sandie Thomaty, Laurent Pezard, Christian Xerri, Jean-Michel Brezun
Neuroinflammation is known to play a key role in the prognosis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The involvement of microglial and mast cells in early and late stages of inflammation has been receiving increasing attention. This study was aimed at determining the influence of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, the granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), on microglia and mast cell activation, glial scar formation and functional recovery following SCI. Rats were randomly injected with saline or GM-CSF one hour after a C4-C5 medio-lateral hemisection...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270746/effects-of-repeated-ethanol-exposures-on-nmda-receptor-expression-and-locomotor-sensitization-in-mice-expressing-ethanol-resistant-nmda-receptors
#15
Carolina R den Hartog, Meghin Gilstrap, Bethany Eaton, Daniel H Lench, Patrick J Mulholland, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
Evidence from a large number of preclinical studies suggests that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse, such as psychostimulants or ethanol induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in key brain areas associated with reward and control of behavior. These changes include alterations in the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) that are important for regulating neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are inhibited by ethanol and reductions in NMDA-mediated signaling are thought to trigger homestatic responses that limit ethanol's effects on glutamatergic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258986/meiotic-recombination-gets-stressed-out-co-frequency-is-plastic-under-pressure
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer L Modliszewski, Gregory P Copenhaver
Meiotic recombination ensures the fertility of gametes and creates novel genetic combinations. Although meiotic crossover (CO) frequency is under homeostatic control, CO frequency is also plastic in nature and can respond to environmental conditions. Most investigations have focused on temperature and recombination, but other external and internal stimuli also have important roles in modulating CO frequency. Even less is understood about the molecular mechanisms that underly these phenomenon, but recent work has begun to advance our knowledge in this field...
February 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257888/polo-like-kinase-2-phosphorylation-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-regulates-activity-dependent-amyloidogenic-processing
#17
Yeunkum Lee, Ji Soo Lee, Kea Joo Lee, R Scott Turner, Hyang-Sook Hoe, Daniel T S Pak
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive deficits. Amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) produces amyloid β (Aβ), the major component of hallmark AD plaques. Synaptic activity stimulates APP cleavage, whereas APP promotes excitatory synaptic transmission, suggesting APP participates in neuronal homeostasis. However, mechanisms linking synaptic activity to APP processing are unclear. Here we show that Polo-like kinase 2 (Plk2), an activity-inducible regulator of homeostatic plasticity, directly binds and phosphorylates threonine-668 and serine-675 of APP in vitro and associates with APP in vivo...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243779/cross-education-of-muscular-strength-is-facilitated-by-homeostatic-plasticity
#18
Ashlyn K Frazer, Jacqueline Williams, Michael Spittle, Dawson J Kidgell
PURPOSE: We examined the effect of priming the ipsilateral motor cortex (M1) using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prior to a single bout of strength training on the cross-transfer of strength and corticospinal excitability and inhibition of the ipsilateral M1. METHODS: In a randomized double-blinded cross-over design, changes in strength and indices of corticospinal plasticity were analysed in 13 adults who were exposed to 20 min of ipsilateral anodal and sham tDCS (applied to the ipsilateral M1 to the training arm) followed by a single strength training session of the right Biceps Brachii only...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236848/the-fibrinolytic-system-a-new-target-for-treatment-of-depression-with-psychedelics
#19
R D Idell, G Florova, A A Komissarov, S Shetty, R B S Girard, S Idell
Current understanding of the neurobiology of depression has grown over the past few years beyond the traditional monoamine theory of depression to include chronic stress, inflammation and disrupted synaptic plasticity. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key factor that not only promotes fibrinolysis via the activation of plasminogen, but also contributes to regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis through plasmin-mediated activation of a probrain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to mature BDNF...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236778/interactions-between-synaptic-homeostatic-mechanisms-an-attempt-to-reconcile-bcm-theory-synaptic-scaling-and-changing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#20
REVIEW
Tara Keck, Mark Hübener, Tobias Bonhoeffer
Homeostatic plasticity is proposed to be mediated by synaptic changes, such as synaptic scaling and shifts in the excitation/inhibition balance. These mechanisms are thought to be separate from the Bienenstock, Cooper, Munro (BCM) learning rule, where the threshold for the induction of long-term potentiation and long-term depression slides in response to changes in activity levels. Yet, both sets of mechanisms produce a homeostatic response of a relative increase (or decrease) in strength of excitatory synapses in response to overall activity-level changes...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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