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Homeostatic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081197/morphine-withdrawal-modifies-prion-protein-expression-in-rat-hippocampus
#2
Vincenzo Mattei, Stefano Martellucci, Francesca Santilli, Valeria Manganelli, Tina Garofalo, Niccolò Candelise, Alessandra Caruso, Maurizio Sorice, Sergio Scaccianoce, Roberta Misasi
The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain structure susceptible to damage during aging and chronic stress. Repeated exposure to opioids may alter the brain so that it functions normally when the drugs are present, thus, a prolonged withdrawal might lead to homeostatic changes headed for the restoration of the physiological state. Abuse of morphine may lead to Reacting Oxygen Species-induced neurodegeneration and apoptosis. It has been proposed that during morphine withdrawal, stress responses might be responsible, at least in part, for long-term changes of hippocampal plasticity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039205/miro1-dependent-mitochondrial-positioning-drives-the-rescaling-of-presynaptic-ca2-signals-during-homeostatic-plasticity
#3
Victoria Vaccaro, Michael J Devine, Nathalie F Higgs, Josef T Kittler
Mitochondrial trafficking is influenced by neuronal activity, but it remains unclear how mitochondrial positioning influences neuronal transmission and plasticity. Here, we use live cell imaging with the genetically encoded presynaptically targeted Ca(2+) indicator, SyGCaMP5, to address whether presynaptic Ca(2+) responses are altered by mitochondria in synaptic terminals. We find that presynaptic Ca(2+) signals, as well as neurotransmitter release, are significantly decreased in terminals containing mitochondria...
December 30, 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034786/bidirectional-modulation-of-taste-aversion-extinction-by-insular-cortex-ltp-and-ltd
#4
Luis F Rodríguez-Durán, Araceli Martínez-Moreno, Martha L Escobar
The history of activity of a given neuron has been proposed to bidirectionally influence its future response to synaptic inputs. In particular, induction of synaptic plasticity expressions such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) modifies the performance of several behavioral tasks. Our previous studies in the insular cortex (IC), a neocortical region that has been related to acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC pathway before CTA training enhances the retention of this task...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028196/adenosine-shifts-plasticity-regimes-between-associative-and-homeostatic-by-modulating-heterosynaptic-changes
#5
Nicholas M Bannon, Marina Chistiakova, Jen-Yung Chen, Maxim Bazhenov, Maxim Volgushev
: Endogenous extracellular adenosine level fluctuates in an activity-dependent manner and with sleep-wake cycle, modulating synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity. Hebbian-type long-term plasticity introduces intrinsic positive feedback on synaptic weight changes, making them prone to runaway dynamics. We previously demonstrated that co-occurring, weight-dependent heterosynaptic plasticity can robustly prevent runaway dynamics. Here we show that at neocortical synapses in slices from rat visual cortex, adenosine modulates the weight-dependence of heterosynaptic plasticity: blockade of adenosine A1 receptors abolished weight-dependence, while increased adenosine level strengthened it...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026976/spermidine-boosts-autophagy-to-protect-from-synapse-aging
#6
Anuradha Bhukel, Frank Madeo, Stephan Sigrist
All animals form memories to adapt their behavior in a context-dependent manner. With increasing age, however, forming new memories becomes less efficient. While synaptic plasticity promotes memory formation, the etiology of age-induced memory formation remained enigmatic. Previous work showed that simple feeding of polyamine spermidine protects from age-induced memory impairment in Drosophila. Most recent work now shows that spermidine operates directly at synapses, allowing for an autophagy-dependent homeostatic regulation of presynaptic specializations...
December 27, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998991/fife-organizes-synaptic-vesicles-and-calcium-channels-for-high-probability-neurotransmitter-release
#7
Joseph J Bruckner, Hong Zhan, Scott J Gratz, Monica Rao, Fiona Ukken, Gregory Zilberg, Kate M O'Connor-Giles
The strength of synaptic connections varies significantly and is a key determinant of communication within neural circuits. Mechanistic insight into presynaptic factors that establish and modulate neurotransmitter release properties is crucial to understanding synapse strength, circuit function, and neural plasticity. We previously identified Drosophila Piccolo-RIM-related Fife, which regulates neurotransmission and motor behavior through an unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that Fife localizes and interacts with RIM at the active zone cytomatrix to promote neurotransmitter release...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986293/neurolsd1-splicing-generated-epigenetic-enhancer-of-neuroplasticity
#8
REVIEW
Francesco Rusconi, Barbara Grillo, Emanuela Toffolo, Andrea Mattevi, Elena Battaglioli
The acquisition and maintenance of the specific neuronal functions underlying learning, memory, and emotion require transduction of environmental stimuli into remodeling of neuronal circuitry. This process occurs via induction of plasticity-related transcriptional programs. The epigenetic enzyme lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1), also known as lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A), and its neurospecific splicing variant neuroLSD1 have been implicated in this process through an antagonistic mechanism. Specifically, LSD1/neuroLSD1 are involved in the negative and positive regulation of activity-evoked transcription of immediate early genes (IEGs) impacting memory formation and emotional behavior...
January 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974197/id3-maintains-foxp3-expression-in-regulatory-t-cells-by-controlling-a-transcriptional-network-of-e47-spi-b-and-socs3
#9
Katharina S Rauch, Miriam Hils, Ekaterina Lupar, Susana Minguet, Mikael Sigvardsson, Martin E Rottenberg, Ana Izcue, Christian Schachtrup, Kristina Schachtrup
The transcription factor Foxp3 dominantly controls regulatory T (Treg) cell function, and only its continuous expression guarantees the maintenance of full Treg cell-suppressive capacity. However, transcriptional regulators maintaining Foxp3 transcription are incompletely described. Here, we report that high E47 transcription factor activity in Treg cells resulted in unstable Foxp3 expression. Under homeostatic conditions, Treg cells expressed high levels of the E47 antagonist Id3, thus restricting E47 activity and maintaining Foxp3 expression...
December 13, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955702/%C3%AE-amyloid-triggers-aberrant-over-scaling-of-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity
#10
James Gilbert, Shu Shu, Xin Yang, Youming Lu, Ling-Qiang Zhu, Heng-Ye Man
The over-production of β-amyloid (Aβ) has been strongly correlated to neuronal dysfunction and altered synaptic plasticity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, it has been proposed that disrupted synaptic transmission and neuronal network instability underlie memory failure that is evident in the early phases of AD. Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) serves to restrain neuronal activity within a physiological range. Therefore a disruption of this mechanism may lead to destabilization in synaptic and neural circuit function...
December 13, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931886/neurobiological-after-effects-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#11
REVIEW
G Cirillo, G Di Pino, F Capone, F Ranieri, L Florio, V Todisco, G Tedeschi, K Funke, V Di Lazzaro
BACKGROUND: In recent years, many studies have evaluated the effects of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques for the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Positive results led to approval of NIBS for some of these conditions by the Food and Drug Administration in the USA. The therapeutic effects of NIBS have been related to bi-directional changes in cortical excitability with the direction of change depending on the choice of stimulation protocol. Although after-effects are mostly short lived, complex neurobiological mechanisms related to changes in synaptic excitability bear the potential to further induce therapy-relevant lasting changes...
November 17, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927960/why-does-sleep-slow-wave-activity-increase-after-extended-wake-assessing-the-effects-of-increased-cortical-firing-during-wake-and-sleep
#12
Alexander V Rodriguez, Chadd M Funk, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, Yuval Nir, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
: During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, cortical neurons alternate between ON periods of firing and OFF periods of silence. This bi-stability, which is largely synchronous across neurons, is reflected in the EEG as slow waves. Slow-wave activity (SWA) increases with wake duration and declines homeostatically during sleep, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One possibility is neuronal "fatigue": high, sustained firing in wake would force neurons to recover with more frequent and longer OFF periods during sleep...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927957/the-proteome-of-bloc-1-genetic-defects-identifies-the-arp2-3-actin-polymerization-complex-to-function-downstream-of-the-schizophrenia-susceptibility-factor-dysbindin-at-the-synapse
#13
Avanti Gokhale, Cortnie Hartwig, Amanda H Freeman, Ravi Das, Stephanie A Zlatic, Rachel Vistein, Amelia Burch, Guillemette Carrot, Arielle F Lewis, Sheldon Nelms, Dion K Dickman, Manojkumar A Puthenveedu, Daniel N Cox, Victor Faundez
: Proteome modifications downstream of monogenic or polygenic disorders have the potential to uncover novel molecular mechanisms participating in pathogenesis and/or extragenic modification of phenotypic expression. We tested this idea by determining the proteome sensitive to genetic defects in a locus encoding dysbindin, a protein required for synapse biology and implicated in schizophrenia risk. We applied quantitative mass spectrometry to identify proteins expressed in neuronal cells the abundance of which was altered after downregulation of the schizophrenia susceptibility factor dysbindin (Bloc1s8) or two other dysbindin-interacting polypeptides, which assemble into the octameric biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927623/metabolic-and-functional-characterization-of-effects-of-developmental-temperature-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Mads F Schou, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Anders Pedersen, Goran B Karlsson, Volker Loeschcke, Anders Malmendal
The ability of ectotherms to respond to changes in their thermal environment through plastic mechanisms is central to their adaptive capability. However, we still lack knowledge on physiological and functional responses by which ectotherms acclimate to temperatures during development, and in particular, how physiological stress at extreme temperatures may counteract beneficial acclimation responses at benign temperatures. We exposed Drosophila melanogaster to ten developmental temperatures covering their entire permissible temperature range...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884958/activity-dependent-redistribution-of-kv2-1-ion-channels-on-rat-spinal-motoneurons
#15
Shannon H Romer, Adam S Deardorff, Robert E W Fyffe
Homeostatic plasticity occurs through diverse cellular and synaptic mechanisms, and extensive investigations over the preceding decade have established Kv2.1 ion channels as key homeostatic regulatory elements in several central neuronal systems. As in these cellular systems, Kv2.1 channels in spinal motoneurons (MNs) localize within large somatic membrane clusters. However, their role in regulating motoneuron activity is not fully established in vivo. We have previously demonstrated marked Kv2.1 channel redistribution in MNs following in vitro glutamate application and in vivo peripheral nerve injury (Romer et al...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884699/cell-adhesion-molecules-and-sleep
#16
REVIEW
Emma Kate O'Callaghan, Maria Neus Ballester Roig, Valérie Mongrain
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play essential roles in the central nervous system, where some families are involved in synaptic development and function. These synaptic adhesion molecules (SAMs) are involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, and the formation of neuronal networks. Recent findings from studies examining the consequences of sleep loss suggest that these molecules are candidates to act in sleep regulation. This review highlights the experimental data that lead to the identification of SAMs as potential sleep regulators, and discusses results supporting that specific SAMs are involved in different aspects of sleep regulation...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868467/k-channel-reorganization-and-homeostatic-plasticity-during-postembryonic-development-biophysical-and-genetic-analyses-in-acutely-dissociated-drosophila-central-neurons
#17
Taixiang Saur, I-Feng Peng, Peng Jiang, Neng Gong, Wei-Dong Yao, Tian-Le Xu, Chun-Fang Wu
Intrinsic electric activities of neurons play important roles in establishing and refining neural circuits during development. However, how the underlying ionic currents undergo postembryonic reorganizations remains largely unknown. Using acutely dissociated neurons from larval, pupal, and adult Drosophila brains, we show drastic re-assemblies and compensatory regulations of voltage-gated (IKv) and Ca(2+)-activated (IK(Ca)) K(+ )currents during postembryonic development. Larval and adult neurons displayed prominent fast-inactivating IKv, mediated by the Shaker (Sh) channel to a large extent, while in the same neurons IK(Ca) was far smaller in amplitude...
September 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866797/the-impact-of-structural-heterogeneity-on-excitation-inhibition-balance-in-cortical-networks
#18
Itamar D Landau, Robert Egger, Vincent J Dercksen, Marcel Oberlaender, Haim Sompolinsky
Models of cortical dynamics often assume a homogeneous connectivity structure. However, we show that heterogeneous input connectivity can prevent the dynamic balance between excitation and inhibition, a hallmark of cortical dynamics, and yield unrealistically sparse and temporally regular firing. Anatomically based estimates of the connectivity of layer 4 (L4) rat barrel cortex and numerical simulations of this circuit indicate that the local network possesses substantial heterogeneity in input connectivity, sufficient to disrupt excitation-inhibition balance...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863245/epigenetic-memory-underlies-cell-autonomous-heterogeneous-behavior-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#19
Vionnie W C Yu, Rushdia Z Yusuf, Toshihiko Oki, Juwell Wu, Borja Saez, Xin Wang, Colleen Cook, Ninib Baryawno, Michael J Ziller, Eunjung Lee, Hongcang Gu, Alexander Meissner, Charles P Lin, Peter V Kharchenko, David T Scadden
Stem cells determine homeostasis and repair of many tissues and are increasingly recognized as functionally heterogeneous. To define the extent of-and molecular basis for-heterogeneity, we overlaid functional, transcriptional, and epigenetic attributes of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) at a clonal level using endogenous fluorescent tagging. Endogenous HSC had clone-specific functional attributes over time in vivo. The intra-clonal behaviors were highly stereotypic, conserved under the stress of transplantation, inflammation, and genotoxic injury, and associated with distinctive transcriptional, DNA methylation, and chromatin accessibility patterns...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836500/ex-vivo-loading-of-trussed-implants-for-spine-fusion-induces-heterogeneous-strains-consistent-with-homeostatic-bone-mechanobiology
#20
Jason P Caffrey, Esther Cory, Van W Wong, Koichi Masuda, Albert C Chen, Jessee P Hunt, Timothy M Ganey, Robert L Sah
A truss structure was recently introduced as an interbody fusion cage. As a truss system, some of the connected elements may be in a state of compression and others in tension. This study aimed to quantify both the mean and variance of strut strains in such an implant when loaded in a simulated fusion condition with vertebral body or contoured plastic loading platens ex vivo. Cages were each instrumented with 78 fiducial spheres, loaded between platens (vertebral body or contoured plastic), imaged using high resolution micro-CT, and analyzed for deformation and strain of each of the 221 struts...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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