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Homeostatic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542595/antifungal-tc17-cells-are-durable-and-stable-persisting-as-long-lasting-vaccine-memory-without-plasticity-towards-ifn%C3%AE-cells
#1
Som Gowda Nanjappa, Andrew J McDermott, J Scott Fites, Kevin Galles, Marcel Wüthrich, George S Deepe, Bruce S Klein
Our understanding of persistence and plasticity of IL-17A+ memory T cells is clouded by conflicting results in models analyzing T helper 17 cells. We studied memory IL-17A+ CD8+ T-cell (Tc17) homeostasis, persistence and plasticity during fungal vaccine immunity. We report that vaccine-induced memory Tc17 cells persist with high fidelity to the type 17 phenotype. Tc17 cells persisted durably for a year as functional IL-17A+ memory cells without converting to IFNγ+ (Tc1) cells, although they produced multiple type I cytokines in the absence of residual vaccine antigen...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540422/loss-and-remodeling-of-striatal-dendritic-spines-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-homeostasis-to-maladaptive-plasticity
#2
REVIEW
Rosa M Villalba, Yoland Smith
In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD, the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection leads to two major changes in the morphology of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), i.e., a profound loss of dendritic spines and the remodeling of axospinous glutamatergic synapses. Striatal spine loss is an early event tightly associated with the extent of striatal DA denervation, but not the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, suggesting that striatal spine pruning might be a form of homeostatic plasticity that compensates for the loss of striatal DA innervation and the resulting dysregulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529938/senescence-inflammatory-regulation-of-reparative-cellular-reprogramming-in-aging-and-cancer
#3
Javier A Menendez, Tomás Alarcón
The inability of adult tissues to transitorily generate cells with functional stem cell-like properties is a major obstacle to tissue self-repair. Nuclear reprogramming-like phenomena that induce a transient acquisition of epigenetic plasticity and phenotype malleability may constitute a reparative route through which human tissues respond to injury, stress, and disease. However, tissue rejuvenation should involve not only the transient epigenetic reprogramming of differentiated cells, but also the committed re-acquisition of the original or alternative committed cell fate...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515706/research-priorities-in-limb-and-task-specific-dystonias
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Pirio Richardson, Eckart Altenmüller, Katharine Alter, Ron L Alterman, Robert Chen, Steven Frucht, Shinichi Furuya, Joseph Jankovic, H A Jinnah, Teresa J Kimberley, Codrin Lungu, Joel S Perlmutter, Cecília N Prudente, Mark Hallett
Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer's cramp, runner's dystonia, or musician's dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514690/genomic-characterization-of-murine-monocytes-reveals-c-ebp%C3%AE-transcription-factor-dependence-of-ly6c-cells
#5
Alexander Mildner, Jörg Schönheit, Amir Giladi, Eyal David, David Lara-Astiaso, Erika Lorenzo-Vivas, Franziska Paul, Louise Chappell-Maor, Josef Priller, Achim Leutz, Ido Amit, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are circulating, short-lived mononuclear phagocytes, which in mice and man comprise two main subpopulations. Murine Ly6C(+) monocytes display developmental plasticity and are recruited to complement tissue-resident macrophages and dendritic cells on demand. Murine vascular Ly6C(-) monocytes patrol the endothelium, act as scavengers, and support vessel wall repair. Here we characterized population and single cell transcriptomes, as well as enhancer and promoter landscapes of the murine monocyte compartment...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507231/biological-modelling-of-a-computational-spiking-neural-network-with-neuronal-avalanches
#6
Xiumin Li, Qing Chen, Fangzheng Xue
In recent years, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that networks in the brain can self-organize into a critical state where dynamics exhibit a mixture of ordered and disordered patterns. This critical branching phenomenon is termed neuronal avalanches. It has been hypothesized that the homeostatic level balanced between stability and plasticity of this critical state may be the optimal state for performing diverse neural computational tasks. However, the critical region for high performance is narrow and sensitive for spiking neural networks (SNNs)...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505612/behavioral-performance-and-neural-systems-are-robust-to-sensory-injury-in-workers-of-the-ant-pheidole-dentata
#7
Hannah K Waxman, Mario L Muscedere, James F A Traniello
Miniaturized nervous systems have been thought to limit behavioral ability, and animals with miniaturized brains may be less flexible when challenged by injuries resulting in sensory deficits that impact the development, maintenance, and plasticity of small-scale neural networks. We experimentally examined how injuries to sensory structures critical for olfactory ability affect behavioral performance in workers of the ant Pheidole dentata, which have minute brains (0.01 mm3) and primarily rely on the perception and processing of chemical signals and cues to direct their social behavior...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488209/mir-135a-regulates-synaptic-transmission-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-amygdala
#8
Cecilia Mannironi, Antonio Biundo, Samyutha Rajendran, Francesca De Vito, Luana Saba, Silvia Caioli, Cristina Zona, Teresa Ciotti, Silvana Caristi, Emerald Perlas, Giorgia Del Vecchio, Irene Bozzoni, Arianna Rinaldi, Andrea Mele, Carlo Presutti
MicroRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs with a growing relevance in the regulation of gene expression related to brain function and plasticity. They have the potential to orchestrate complex phenomena, such as the neuronal response to homeostatic challenges. We previously demonstrated the involvement of miR-135a in the regulation of early stress response. In the present study, we examine the role of miR-135a in stress-related behavior. We show that the knockdown (KD) of miR-135a in the mouse amygdala induces an increase in anxiety-like behavior...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485711/mctp-is-an-er-resident-calcium-sensor-that-stabilizes-synaptic-transmission-and-homeostatic-plasticity
#9
Özgür Genç, Dion Kai Dickman, Wenpei Ma, Amy Tong, Richard D Fetter, Graeme W Davis
Presynaptic homeostatic plasticity (PHP) controls synaptic transmission in organisms from Drosophila to human and is hypothesized to be relevant to the cause of human disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PHP are just emerging and direct disease associations remain obscure. In a forward genetic screen for mutations that block PHP we identified mctp (Multiple C2 Domain Proteins with Two Transmembrane Regions). Here we show that MCTP localizes to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that elaborate throughout the soma, dendrites, axon and presynaptic terminal...
May 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473754/homeostatic-plasticity-mediated-by-rod-cone-gap-junction-coupling-in-retinal-degenerative-dystrophic-rcs-rats
#10
Baoke Hou, Yan Fu, Chuanhuang Weng, Weiping Liu, Congjian Zhao, Zheng Qin Yin
Rod-cone gap junctions open at night to allow rod signals to pass to cones and activate the cone-bipolar pathway. This enhances the ability to detect large, dim objects at night. This electrical synaptic switch is governed by the circadian clock and represents a novel form of homeostatic plasticity that regulates retinal excitability according to network activity. We used tracer labeling and ERG recording in the retinae of control and retinal degenerative dystrophic RCS rats. We found that in the control animals, rod-cone gap junction coupling was regulated by the circadian clock via the modulation of the phosphorylation of the melatonin synthetic enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457596/homeostatic-plasticity-shapes-cell-type-specific-wiring-in-the-retina
#11
Nai-Wen Tien, Florentina Soto, Daniel Kerschensteiner
Convergent input from different presynaptic partners shapes the responses of postsynaptic neurons. Whether developing postsynaptic neurons establish connections with each presynaptic partner independently or balance inputs to attain specific responses is unclear. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) receive convergent input from bipolar cell types with different contrast responses and temporal tuning. Here, using optogenetic activation and pharmacogenetic silencing, we found that type 6 bipolar (B6) cells dominate excitatory input to ONα-RGCs...
May 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451854/role-of-vasopressin-in-rat-models-of-salt-dependent-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Masha Prager-Khoutorsky, Katrina Y Choe, David I Levi, Charles W Bourque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary salt intake increases both plasma sodium and osmolality and therefore increases vasopressin (VP) release from the neurohypophysis. Although this effect could increase blood pressure by inducing fluid reabsorption and vasoconstriction, acute activation of arterial baroreceptors inhibits VP neurons via GABAA receptors to oppose high blood pressure. Here we review recent findings demonstrating that this protective mechanism fails during chronic high salt intake in rats...
May 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434617/stem-cell-lineage-infidelity-drives-wound-repair-and-cancer
#13
Yejing Ge, Nicholas C Gomez, Rene C Adam, Maria Nikolova, Hanseul Yang, Akanksha Verma, Catherine Pei-Ju Lu, Lisa Polak, Shaopeng Yuan, Olivier Elemento, Elaine Fuchs
Tissue stem cells contribute to tissue regeneration and wound repair through cellular programs that can be hijacked by cancer cells. Here, we investigate such a phenomenon in skin, where during homeostasis, stem cells of the epidermis and hair follicle fuel their respective tissues. We find that breakdown of stem cell lineage confinement-granting privileges associated with both fates-is not only hallmark but also functional in cancer development. We show that lineage plasticity is critical in wound repair, where it operates transiently to redirect fates...
May 4, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431369/the-temporal-paradox-of-hebbian-learning-and-homeostatic-plasticity
#14
REVIEW
Friedemann Zenke, Wulfram Gerstner, Surya Ganguli
Hebbian plasticity, a synaptic mechanism which detects and amplifies co-activity between neurons, is considered a key ingredient underlying learning and memory in the brain. However, Hebbian plasticity alone is unstable, leading to runaway neuronal activity, and therefore requires stabilization by additional compensatory processes. Traditionally, a diversity of homeostatic plasticity phenomena found in neural circuits is thought to play this role. However, recent modelling work suggests that the slow evolution of homeostatic plasticity, as observed in experiments, is insufficient to prevent instabilities originating from Hebbian plasticity...
April 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418333/nonlinear-feedback-drives-homeostatic-plasticity-in-h2o2-stress-response
#15
Youlian Goulev, Sandrine Morlot, Audrey Matifas, Bo Huang, Mikael Molin, Michel B Toledano, Gilles Charvin
Homeostatic systems that rely on genetic regulatory networks are intrinsically limited by the transcriptional response time, which may restrict a cell's ability to adapt to unanticipated environmental challenges. To bypass this limitation, cells have evolved mechanisms whereby exposure to mild stress increases their resistance to subsequent threats. However, the mechanisms responsible for such adaptive homeostasis remain largely unknown. Here, we used live-cell imaging and microfluidics to investigate the adaptive response of budding yeast to temporally controlled H2O2 stress patterns...
April 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407141/sensory-deprivation-triggers-synaptic-and-intrinsic-plasticity-in-the-hippocampus
#16
Hila Milshtein-Parush, Samuel Frere, Limor Regev, Coren Lahav, Amit Benbenishty, Shamgar Ben-Eliyahu, Inbal Goshen, Inna Slutsky
Hippocampus, a temporal lobe structure involved in learning and memory, receives information from all sensory modalities. Despite extensive research on the role of sensory experience in cortical map plasticity, little is known about whether and how sensory experience regulates functioning of the hippocampal circuits. Here, we show that 9 ± 2 days of whisker deprivation during early mouse development depresses activity of CA3 pyramidal neurons by several principal mechanisms: decrease in release probability, increase in the fraction of silent synapses, and reduction in intrinsic excitability...
April 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400058/the-snk-and-spar-signaling-pathway-changes-in-hippocampal-neurons-treated-with-amyloid-beta-peptide-in-vitro
#17
Hua Sui, Libin Zhan, Xinping Niu, Lina Liang, Xin Li
Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is believed to be a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease. Many studies have demonstrated that Aβ causes morphological and functional alterations of dendritic spines, leading to synaptic dysfunction, but the effect of Aβ on damage to synaptic functions is not fully understood. Spine-associated Rap guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (SPAR) is an important regulator of activity-dependent remodeling of synapses and is critically involved in both mature dendritic spine formation and the maintenance of spine maturity...
March 22, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391010/monocular-deprivation-of-fourier-phase-information-boosts-the-deprived-eye-s-dominance-during-interocular-competition-but-not-interocular-phase-combination
#18
Jianying Bai, Xue Dong, Sheng He, Min Bao
Ocular dominance has been extensively studied, often with the goal to understand neuroplasticity, which is a key characteristic within the critical period. Recent work on monocular deprivation, however, demonstrates residual neuroplasticity in the adult visual cortex. After deprivation of patterned inputs by monocular patching, the patched eye becomes more dominant. Since patching blocks both the Fourier amplitude and phase information of the input image, it remains unclear whether deprivation of the Fourier phase information alone is able to reshape eye dominance...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389697/antioxidant-capacity-lipid-peroxidation-and-lipid-composition-changes-during-long-term-and-short-term-thermal-acclimation-in-daphnia
#19
Bret L Coggins, John W Collins, Kailea J Holbrook, Lev Y Yampolsky
Examples of phenotypic plasticity-the ability of organisms of identical genotypes to produce different phenotypes in response to the environment-are abundant, but often lack data on the causative physiology and biochemistry. Phenotypes associated with increased protection against or reduced damage from harmful environments may, in fact, be downstream effects of hidden adaptive responses that remain elusive to experimental measurement or be obscured by homeostatic or over-compensatory effects. The freshwater zooplankton crustacean Daphnia drastically increases its heat tolerance as the result of acclimation to high temperatures, an effect often assumed to be based on plastic responses allowing better protection against oxidative stress...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343184/regulatory-role-of-ngfs-in-neurocognitive-functions
#20
Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Pareek, Muneeb A Faiq, Pavan Kumar, Khursheed Raza, Pranav Prasoon, Subrahamanyam Dantham, Sankat Mochan
Nerve growth factors (NGFs), especially the prototype NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have a diverse array of functions in the central nervous system through their peculiar set of receptors and intricate signaling. They are implicated not only in the development of the nervous system but also in regulation of neurocognitive functions like learning, memory, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Evidence even suggests their role in continued neurogenesis and experience-dependent neural network remodeling in adult brain...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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