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Amanda J Sales, Vinícius A Hiroaki-Sato, Sâmia R L Joca
Systemic or hippocampal administration of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors induces antidepressant-like effects in animals, implicating increased hippocampal levels of NO in the neurobiology of depression. However, the role played by different NO synthase in this process has not been clearly defined. As stress is able to induce neuroinflammatory mechanisms and trigger the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the brain, as well as upregulate neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible differential contribution of hippocampal iNOS and nNOS in the modulation of the consequences of stress elicited by the forced swimming test...
October 24, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Asuka Sakuraya, Akihito Shimazu, Kotaro Imamura, Katsuyuki Namba, Norito Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Job crafting, an employee-initiated job design/redesign, has become important for employees' well-being such as work engagement. This study examined the effectiveness of a newly developed job crafting intervention program on work engagement (as primary outcome), as well as job crafting and psychological distress (as secondary outcomes), using a pretest-posttest study design among Japanese employees. METHODS: Participants were managers of a private company and a private psychiatric hospital in Japan...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychology
Karen D Hidalgo, Grégore I Mielke, Diana C Parra, Felipe Lobelo, Eduardo J Simões, Grace O Gomes, Alex A Florindo, Mário Bracco, Lenildo Moura, Ross C Brownson, Michael Pratt, Luiz R Ramos, Pedro C Hallal
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to examine the lifestyle behaviors and health promoting practices of physicians, nurses, and community health workers in Brazil. METHODS: A random sample of primary health care units in Brazil was selected, and a pretested questionnaire was administered via phone interviews, in 2011, to 182 physicians, 347 nurses, and 269 community health workers, totaling 798 health professionals. The total initial sample included 1600 eligible health professionals...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Amy E Barth, Amy Elleman
Purpose: We examined the effectiveness of a multistrategy inference intervention designed to increase inference making and reading comprehension for middle-grade struggling readers. Method: A total of 66 middle-grade struggling readers were randomized to treatment (n = 33) and comparison (n = 33) conditions. Students in the treatment group received explicit instruction in 4 inference strategies (i.e., clarification using text clues; activating and using prior knowledge; understanding character perspectives and author's purpose; answering inferential questions)...
October 24, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Marina Cujzek, Andrea Vranic
This research aimed at investigating the utility of a computerized version of a cognitively stimulating activity as a video game intervention for elderly. The study focused on the effect of a 6-week extensive practice intervention on aspects of cognitive functioning (vigilance, working memory (WM), inhibition, reasoning) of old-old participants (N = 29), randomly assigned to trained or active control group. The difference between groups was in the content of the extended video game practice - cognitively complex card game for trained and computerized version of a simple dice-game of chance for control participants...
October 24, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Halise Coskun, Cicek Senture, Ayfer Ustunsoz
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of written and verbal discharge training given to patients who underwent cardiac surgery. DESIGN AND METHODS: It was conducted on 180 patients between November 2011 and June 2012. The patients were divided into two groups. The first 90 patients were given verbal discharge training, whereas the others were provided with both written and verbal trainings. Using pretest and posttest questionnaires, knowledge levels of the patients were evaluated before training and 1 month after discharge...
October 24, 2016: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Adewumi Adediran, Modu Baba Kagu, Tamunomieibi Wakama, Aliyu Ahmadu Babadoko, Dapus Obadiah Damulak, Sunday Ocheni, Marcus Inyama Asuquo
Background. Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is an inherited condition whose clinical manifestations arise from the tendency of haemoglobin to polymerize and deform red blood cells into characteristic sickle shape. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers a cure. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness, knowledge, and acceptance of this beneficial procedure in Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 tertiary hospitals in Nigeria in 2015. Approval was obtained from each institution's research and ethics committee...
2016: Bone Marrow Research
Jose Carlos P Ferreira, Francesca R Grati, Komal Bajaj, Francesca Malvestiti, Maria Beatrice Grimi, Anna Trotta, Rosaria Liuti, Silvia Milani, Lara Branca, Jacob Hartman, Federico Maggi, Giuseppe Simoni, Susan J Gross
OBJECTIVES: No previous studies have reported the frequencies of individual chromosomal anomalies in normal-appearing fetuses stratified by maternal age (MA) and gestational age (GA). We therefore sought to (1) characterize the frequency of all fetal karyotype anomalies in sonographically normal appearing fetuses without pretest risk factors, and (2) assess MA and GA impact on the proportion of anomalies targeted by screening and consequent impact on residual risk following a negative result...
October 21, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Bo Li, Dustin Curts, Yiannis Iordanous, Alain Proulx, Sapna Sharan
To assess and evaluate the current level of ophthalmology knowledge and teaching curriculum in undergraduate year 3 (MS-3) at Western University. The Undergraduate Medical Education Curriculum at Western University has instituted additional ophthalmology lecture series to all MS-3 students. A test on basic ophthalmic knowledge was administered to MS-3 students immediately before and after lecture series to evaluate the level of knowledge at baseline and after ophthalmology didactic teaching. An evaluation survey was also given to MS-3 students to assess students' self-perceived level of competency, exposure, and interests in ophthalmology...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Lisa K Fazio, Casey A Kennedy, Robert S Siegler
We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played Catch the Monster with Fractions, a game in which they estimated fraction locations on a number line and received feedback on the accuracy of their estimates. The intervention lasted less than 15 minutes...
2016: PloS One
Dania Rishiq, Aparna Rao, Tess Koerner, Harvey Abrams
Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine whether hearing aids in combination with computer-based auditory training improve audiovisual (AV) performance compared with the use of hearing aids alone. Method: Twenty-four participants were randomized into an experimental group (hearing aids plus ReadMyQuips [RMQ] training) and a control group (hearing aids only). The Multimodal Lexical Sentence Test for Adults (Kirk et al., 2012) was used to measure auditory-only (AO) and AV speech perception performance at three signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs)...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Adrienne M Laury, Sarah N Bowe, Joshua Lospinoso
Importance: To date, an otolaryngology-specific morbidity and mortality (M&M) conference has never been reported or evaluated. Objective: To propose a novel otolaryngology-specific M&M format and to assess its success using a validated assessment tool. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preintervention and postintervention cohort study spanning 14 months (September 2014 to November 2015), with 32 faculty, residents, and medical students attending the department of otolaryngology M&M conference, conducted at the the San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Kurt K Hubbard, Diane Blyler
Research involving working memory has indicated that stress and anxiety compete for attentional resources when a person engages in attention-dependent cognitive processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of perceived stress and state anxiety on working memory and academic performance among health science students and to explore whether the reduction of stress and anxiety was achieved through progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training. A convenience sample of 128 graduate students participated in this study...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Émile Rocha Santana, Maria Lúcia Vaz Masson, Tânia Maria Araújo
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of surface hydration on teachers' voice quality. STUDY DESIGN: This is an examiner-blinded, pretest and posttest intervention study with a single group of subjects. METHOD: Subjects were 27 teachers from a public-sector state school in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Pre- and post-intervention voice recordings were obtained. Voice samples collected underwent computerized acoustic analysis (VoxMetria) and perceptual analysis via the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Sally P Weinrich, Jill E Bormann, Dale Glaser, Sally Hardin, Mary Barger, Cabiria Lizarraga, Juan Del Rio, Carolyn B Allard
Women and families are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. Negative attitudes of nurses toward homeless women are a major barrier to homeless women seeking health care. This cross-sectional, mixed-methods pilot study, conducted primarily by nurses, tested the Mantram Repetition Program for the first time with 29 homeless women. The Mantram Repetition Program is a spiritually based skills training that teaches mantram (sacred word) repetition as a cost-effective, personalized, portable, and focused strategy for reducing stress and improving well-being...
November 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
F Nikseresht, M Rassouli, F Torabi, F Farzinfard, S Mansouri, M Ilkhani
This study measured the effect of spiritual care on mental health in mothers of children with cancer. The present quasi-experimental study was with one group pretest posttest design. The findings show that implementation of spiritual care in mothers of children with cancer can improve their mental health.
November 2016: Holistic Nursing Practice
K T Desai, F Patel, P B Patel, S Nayak, N B Patel, R K Bansal
BACKGROUND: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. METHODS: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300). A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Ana Luiza Flores Saenger, Celia Pereira Caldas, Luciana Branco Motta
Screening with a simplified instrument is effective for identifying elderly at risk of functional decline, for more comprehensive subsequent evaluation. However, use of a measurement tool in a different sociocultural context from the original requires prior adaptation. The current article aims to describe the initial stages of a cross-cultural adaptation of PRISMA-7, a questionnaire developed to identify community-dwelling elderly at risk of functional decline. Evaluation of conceptual and item equivalences showed pertinence to the Brazilian context...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Abebe Bimerew, Muluken Teshome, Getachew Mullu Kassa
BACKGROUND: Early initiation of breastfeeding is a simple and cost effective intervention to advance the health of mothers and newborn babies. A large number of neonatal deaths could be prevented if infants were breastfed. However, there is poor practice related to breastfeeding initiation within the first one hour of birth, and the factors affecting it are not well understood. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of timely breastfeeding initiation and associated factors in Dembecha district, North West Ethiopia...
2016: International Breastfeeding Journal
Lara Hart, Rashmi Nedadur, Jaime Reardon, Natalie Sirizzotti, Caroline Poonai, Kathy N Speechley, Jay Loftus, Michael Miller, Marina Salvadori, Amanda Spadafora, Naveen Poonai
OBJECTIVES: Fever is a common reason for an emergency department visit and misconceptions abound. We assessed the effectiveness of an interactive Web-based module (WBM), read-only Web site (ROW), and written and verbal information (standard of care [SOC]) to educate caregivers about fever in their children. METHODS: Caregivers in the emergency department were randomized to a WBM, ROW, or SOC. Primary outcome was the gain score on a novel questionnaire testing knowledge surrounding measurement and management of fever...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
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